Scotland was promised a referendum on devolution by the Labour Party in the build up to the 1997 election. This manifesto promise was carried out in 1997 just four months after the general election and a process of devolution was started for Scotland which lead to a Scottish Parliament based in Edinburgh coming into being in 1999.
Category Course of History
Political recruitment remains a contentious issue in American politics. To be a true democratic nation, some argue that American politics should better reflect American society as a whole which the executive, legislative and judicial structures of American politics do not. “It is clear that Congress is not, and never has been, a true cross-section of the American people.
On the surface both Great Britain and America fulfil all the basic requirements of democracy, they have universal suffrage, and both governments are regularly held accountable to the people. However, when it comes to judging which is the most democratic, you have to look at how each system works. When looking at the governmental systems up close it is easy to see them both as being less than full democratic.
In Washington D.C., pressure groups have three main points of access from where they can try to influence the decisions of the Federal government: Congress, the bureaucracy and officials within the Executive and, to a limited extent, the judiciary. Pressure groups can appear as witnesses at the investigative hearings held by committees of Congress.
Britain is a representative democracy. This is where citizens within a country elect representatives to make decisions for them. Every 5 years in Britain the people have the chance to vote into power those they wish to represent us in Parliament. These MP's meet in the House of Commons to discuss matters and pass acts which then become British law.
Direct democracy is based on the right of every citizen over a certain age to attend political meetings, vote on the issue being discussed at that meeting and accepting the majority decision should such a vote lead to a law being passed which you as an individual did not support. Part of direct democracy is the right of every one to hold political office if they choose to do so.
Political ideas are found in every section of British Politics. The most common political ideas in British politics are: government democracy accountability authority consensus politics conservatism liberalism radicalism socialism Government This is the formal institutional structure and processes of a society by which policies are developed and implemented in the form of law, binding on all.
The Church in Nazi Germany was subjected to as much pressure as any other organisation in Germany. Any perceived threat to Hitler could not be tolerated - and the churches of Germany potentially presented the Nazis with numerous threats. In 1933, the Catholic Church had viewed the Nazis as a barrier to the spread of communism from Russia.
Martin Niemeoller was a leading Protestant pastor who was an outspoken critic of the Nazi Party and all it stood for. Martin Niemeoller lived a dangerous life and in many senses he was lucky to survive World War Two as many others were executed for much lesser charges. Niemeoller was born in Lippstadt on January 14 th 1892.
Results of the Four Year Plan The Second Four Year Plan was introduced in 1936 and the results of it showed that in many areas it failed to achieve its targets. The plan was meant to make Nazi Germany self-sufficient in all industrial goods so that the country was free from pressure asserted by overseas nations if they chose to curb Germany's expansionist policy that Hitler wanted to start as soon as was possible.
The impact of Luther, and, therefore the German Reformation, continued to grow from 1530 to 1545. A precarious peace was maintained by the Schmalkaldic League between these years. The north German princes remained suspicious about any papal attempt that might lead to a settlement with the princes; especially if the settlement was based on a meeting of the Church Council based in the Papacy.
The Nazi Party's second four year plan started in 1936 and continued to 1939. The organisation of the second Four-Year Plan was put in the hands of Hermann Goering. There is little doubt that Goering found it difficult to organise the plan, which was geared towards driving Nazi Germany to an economy that was fully based around the preparation for war.
The separation of power is an integral part of American Politics but is less clear in British Politics primarily as one, the American model, is guaranteed in their Constitution while the British Constitution is uncodifed and therefore roles have merged between parts of government. Government functions through three bodies: The Legislature which makes laws The Executive which puts laws into effect and plans policy The Judiciary, which decides on cases that, arise out of the laws.
Many historians see Giovanni Battista Morgagni as the father of pathology. In 1761 Morgagni wrote 'De Sedibus et Causis Morborum' - 'On the Sites and Causes of Diseases'. The work was published in Italy and it is seen as starting the foundations that resulted in the clinical study of pathological anatomy.
William Harvey made the momentous medical discovery that the flow of blood must be continuous and that its flow must be in one direction only. This discovery sealed his place in the history of medicine. William Harvey was born in 1578 in Folkestone, Kent. Harvey studied at Caius College, Cambridge before he enrolled at the University of Padua in 1598.
Year Microbe discovered Discoverer 1880-82 Typhoid Carl Joseph Eberth from Germany 1883 Cholera Team lead by Robert Koch in Germany 1884 Tetanus Arthur Nicholaier from Germany 1886 Pneumonia Albert Fraenkel from Germany 1894 Plague Shibasaburo Kitasato from Japan and Emile Yersin working at the Pasteur Institute in Indo-China.
The British electoral system is based on the “ F irst- P ast- T he- P ost” (FPTP) system. In recent years, reforms have occurred in places such as Northern Ireland where a form of proportional representation has been used in elections and in the devolution elections surrounding Scotland and Wales. However, for the most part, Britain has used the tried and tested FPTP system.
The role of individuals cannot be underestimated when studying the outcome of the Counter-Reformation. The likes of Ignatius Loyola founding the Jesuits is well documented as are the 'big' issues such as the Council of Trent, the Index, the Inquisition etc. However, the role of the individual can easily be overlooked.
Louis Pasteur was born in 1822 in Dole, France. Louis Pasteur's name is forever cemented in the history of medicine. He, along with Alexander Fleming, Edward Jenner, Robert Koch and Joseph Lister, is of great importance when studying medical history. Pasteur's discovery - that of germs - may seem reasonably tame by the standards of 2002, but his discovery was to transform medicine and see his name forever immortalised on a day-to-day basis in pasteurised milk - named in his honour.
Marie Curie is one of the major figures in the history of medicine. Curie was a physicist and chemist who found international fame for her work on radioactivity. Such was the importance of her work, Marie Curie was the first person to be awarded two Nobel Prizes. However, her work with radioactivity also certainly played a part in her death.
The third session of the Council of Trent started in 1562. The pope was Pius IV. By 1562 the Jesuits had become far more powerful in the Council and this was at a time in Europe when there was general chaos. Ferdinand, the brother of Charles V, still hoped for reconciliation with the Protestants;Charles IX of France supported this in an effort to stave off religious problems in France; Spanish bishops wanted the authority of the bishops to be declared superior to that of the pope and in this they were supported by Philip II of Spain.