The Churchill Mark 1 tank first saw active service in World War Two at Dieppe in 1942. The Churchill was the fourth development in a series of infantry support tanks and despite its bloody start to combat at Dieppe, it proved to have a reliable design. In 1942, the Churchill had the heaviest armour of any British tank in service.
Category Course of History
Allies: Great Britain + Commonwealth 60,000 France 360,000 United States Minimal USSR 7,700,000 Belgium 90,000 Holland 190,000 Norway Minimal Poland 5,300,000 Greece 80,000 Yugoslavia 1,300,000 Czechoslovakia 330,000 China (from 1937 on) 10,000,000 Total 25,410,000 Axis powers : Germany 3,810,000 Austria 80,000 Italy 85,000 Rumania 465,000 Hungary 280,000 Bulgaria 7,000 Finland Minimal Japan 360,000 Total 5,087,000 Total civilian casualties Allies + Axis = 30,497,000 Total civilian + military casualties (Allies + Axis) = 55,014,000 Related Posts Military casualties of World War Two Allied forces: Great Britain + Commonwealth 452,000 France 250,000 USA 295,000 USSR 13,600,000 Belgium 10,000 Holland 10,000 Norway 10,000 Poland 120,000 Greece 20,000 Yugoslavia 300,000…
Roland Freisler was the most senior and infamous judge at Hitler's People's Court. Freisler gained a reputation for humiliating those on trial in his court and it seemed that Freisler had no boundaries when it came to accomplishing this objective. Roland Freisler was born on October 30 th 1893 in Celle.
In May 1941, Rudolf Hess, Hitler's Deputy, fled Nazi Germany. The sudden appearance of Hess in Scotland baffled many. Hitler immediately announced that Hess had gone mad and had betrayed him when he was informed of his deputy leader's flight and immediate imprisonment. A skilled pilot, Hess flew a Me-110 to Scotland.
Hermann Goering was born in 1893 and died in 1946. Goering was one of the most senior politicians in Nazi Germany and a close confidante of Hitler. Wary of rivals, Goering did not have a harmonious relationship with the likes of Himmler, Hess and Goebbels who he saw as wanting to steal his power. Goering he was born in Bavaria.
Bernhard Rust was put in charge of the Nazi education system once Adolf Hitler became chancellor in January 1933. Rust was an early member of the Nazi Party having joined it in 1922 and as a qualified teacher Hitler put him in charge of an educational programme that would produce the future Nazi leaders.
Impeachment became a household word in America during the process in the late 1990's which may have removed President Clinton from office. Ultimately impeachment was not taken to its final conclusion with regards to President Clinton - but the mere initiation of the process was enough to cause President Clinton huge international embarrassment.
Reinhard Heydrich was born in March 1904 and died in 1942. Heydrich was to become one of the most feared men in Nazi Germany helping Himmler cement the dictatorship started in March 1933 with the Enabling Act. Heydrich is one of the men most associated with the Holocaust. It is thought that Hitler looked on Heydrich as his natural successor.
Congress has a major input into politics in America. Congress is the legislative arm of American politics whereas the president is the executive arm. The Supreme Court provides a judicial input. Congress is dominated by both the Republican and Democrat parties and pressure groups try their best to gain support in the Capitol via lobbying.
The Supreme Court in America adjudicates on acts passed through the political system by Congress and President. The Supreme Court's task is to declare whether an act is constitutional or unconstitutional. The Supreme Court cannot initiate a bill/act - it can only adjudicate. Presidents appoint Supreme Court judges and the Court was to play a part in the outcome of the 2000 Election.
In order for America to be a democracy the judiciary, i.e. the Supreme Court, needs to be independent and a-political. If not then what is good for the people and for America may be ignored in favour of judgements that favour a particular political Party or viewpoint. In the 18 th Century when the Founding Fathers were first writing the Constitution, they must have intended for the Supreme Court to be a-political, in order for it to fit into their new democracy, however, it is debatable whether or not a Supreme Court that is appointed by the President, can ever truly be independent from political influences.
Art, along with architecture, music and films, was heavily shaped by Nazi ideology once Hitler gained power on January 30 th 1933. Hitler considered himself to be very knowledgeable with regards to art and effectively decided that there were two forms of art - un-German degenerate art of the likes of Pablo Picasso and classical realistic art that represented all that was good about Nazi Germany and Germans.
Literature, along with art and music, suffered greatly in Nazi Germany. As with other aspects of culture, a very simple rule existed for literature: it was either acceptable to the Nazi state or it was not. As a result a number of internationally recognised authors left Nazi Germany for their own safety while the state gave prominence to authors who wrote about what the government expected them to: the glorification of war, the glorification of the Aryan ideal, the glorification of Adolf Hitler, the glorification of Nazi Germany etc.
Films played a major part in propaganda in Nazi Germany. The film industry was controlled by the Nazis and ranged from anti-Semitic films such as “The Eternal Jew”, to propaganda films to 'enlighten' youths about the Hitler Youth movement (“Hitlerjunge Quex”) to coverage of the 1936 Berlin Olympics by Leni Riefenstahl.
The position of the president dominates American Politics. The president is head of America's executive;Congress heads America's legislative and the Supreme Court, America's judiciary. These three parts of the government, make up the federal structure of politics in America. Usually the only two elected members of the Executive are the president and the vice-president.
The League of German Girls (Bund Deutsche Mädel or BDM) was part of the Hitler Youth movement in Nazi Germany. The League of German Girls was for girls aged between 14 and 18 and followed on from the Young Girls League that was for girls aged between 10 and 14 years. The whole idea of having a solely girls organisation within Nazi Germany started in the 1920's.
National Political Training Institutes were one of three new types of school/college introduced into Nazi Germany. National Political Training Institutes, along with Adolf Hitler Schools and Order Castles, were introduced to teach the next generation of elite leaders in Germany - be they political or military.
When Hitler came to power in January 1933, he saw trade unions as exercising more power over the workers than he could. Therefore, trade unions were seen as a challenge to be dispensed with. Hitler knew that he needed the workers to be on his side but he could not allow trade unions to exert the potential power they had.
In America, the judiciary, along with pressure groups, is part of the political process and judges make decisions that can concern all Americans especially when assessing the constitutionality of a prospective government act. The ethics of the judicial system makes pressure group activity within it very difficult.
In addition to the national party structure in American politics, there are fifty other state party set-ups. Some argue that in America there are 100 state parties : 50 Democrat and 50 Republican. Each one jealously guards its independence from the national set-up though what the national committees are trying to do - exert their power at a state level - the state parties try to do at county/ward level.
The Edelweiss Pirates were groups of youths who opposed Nazi rule. The Edelweiss Pirates were primarily opposed to the way the Hitler Youth movement had taken over the lives of youths in Hitler's Germany. It is difficult to give an exact date as to when the Edelweiss Pirates first started but in 1936 membership of the Hitler Youth movement was made compulsory and historians tend to use this date as the start of the 'Pirates'.