The First Battle of Bull Run was fought on July 21 st 1861. Bull Run was the first major battle of the American Civil War and the area also saw the Second Battle of Bull Run in 1862. Union forces referred to the battle as Bull Run whereas the Confederacy called the battle the Battle of Manassas. The American Civil War broke out in April 1861 with the attack on Fort Sumter.
Category Course of History
The Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine was the name given to a policy announced by US President Harry Truman on March 12 th , 1947. The Truman Doctrine was a very simple warning clearly made to the USSR - though the country was not mentioned by name - that the USA would intervene to support any nation that was being threatened by a takeover by an armed minority.
America and Great Britain shared differing views on how the 1956 Suez Crisis should be handled, as a letter written in September by President Dwight Eisenhower to Prime Minister Anthony Eden made very clear. “We have a grave problem confronting us in Nasser's reckless adventure with the canal, and I do not differ from you in your estimate of his intentions and purposes.
The V Bomber Force was the nickname given to Britain's three bombers during the Cold War that were capable of delivering nuclear bombs and formed part of Britain's nuclear deterrent. The V Bomber Force was made up of the Vickers Valiant, the Avro Vulcan and the Handley Page Victor. The development of three bombers during the Cold War by the British was done to give the government increased freedom from US foreign policy.
The Hungarian Uprising of 1956 Hungary in 1956 seemed to sum up all that the Cold War stood for. The people of Hungary and the rest of Eastern Europe were ruled over with a rod of iron by Communist Russia and anybody who challenged the rule of Stalin and Russia paid the price. The death of Stalin in 1953 did not weaken the grip Moscow had on the people of Eastern Europe and Hungary, by challenging the rule of Moscow, paid such a price in 1956.
John Cairncross was labelled the 'Fifth Man' by the media in a reference to the known 'Cambridge Four'. Cairncross was accused of being a spy for the USSR along with Anthony Blunt, Guy Burgess, Donald McLean and Kim Philby. During the Cold War both sides used spies with a degree of frequency and it was said that Cairncross agreed to spy for the USSR while he was at Trinity College, Cambridge.
The United Nations has been involved in various problems in the Middle East since 1947. Whereas the Korean War and the Congo issue were settled in the sense that there was no further outbreak of hostilities, the United Nations has not managed to do the same in the Middle East. Wars have broken out in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973 and severe problems exist to this day.
Palestine is the name (first referred to by the Ancient Greeks) of an area in the Middle East situated between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. Palestine was absorbed into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 and remained under the rule of the Turks until World War One. Towards the end of this war, the Turks were defeated by the British forces led by General Allenby.
Harold 'Kim' Philby was, along with Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt and Donald Maclean, part of the 'Cambridge Four' - Cambridge University graduates who spied for the USSR. Philby became a high-ranking officer in British Intelligence and during this time he did a great deal to undermine the work of loyal British intelligence agents.
Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt was born in 1918 and died in 1970. Nasser was a pivotal figure in the recent history of the Middle East and played a highly prominent role in the 1956 Suez Crisis. Nasser has been described as the first leader of an Arab nation who challenged what was perceived as the western dominance of the Middle East.
Haganah was a secret organisation created in 1936. Haganah was created as a protection force for Jews who emigrated to Palestine; it's original purpose was to defend Jewish communities from attacks by Arabs. Haganah became the military arm of the Jewish Agency but it was not part of the two most famous Jewish terrorist organisations that existed at that time - the Stern Gang and Irgun Zvai Leumi - both of whose activities were condemned by Haganah.
Anwar al-Sadat played a significant part in recent Middle East politics until his death in 1981. Sadat had to follow in the footsteps of Gamal Nasser - a man all but idolised by the Egyptian people. Sadat took Egypt through the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to the start of a diplomatic way to end the crisis within the Middle East - the so-called Sadat Initiative.
Wernher von Braun was born in 1912. Braun is most associated with the V2 rocket programme in World War Two and in later years Braun was also associated with the American space programme which culminated in the Apollo 11 Moon landing in 1969. Werner von Braun was educated at Berlin's Charlottenburg Institute of Technology where he studied engineering.
The Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 “It is accordingly understood between the French and British governments: That France and Great Britain are prepared to recognize and protect an independent Arab states or a confederation of Arab states (a) and (b) marked on the annexed map, under the suzerainty of an Arab chief.
America also put a great deal of effort into rocket research. By the spring of 1945, the US Navy alone had 1,200 factories that worked on rocket production. However, America's acquisition of Wernher von Braun and his input into America's post-war rocket development, has tended to overshadow the work done by America during the war.
The civil war re-started soon after the war against the Japanese was over. Mao had carefully cultivated support in the areas he controlled, whereas, the Guomintang, lead by Chiang Kai-shek, had a different view on how China should be ruled. Chiang did not believe in democracy. He supported the view that society was best served by one supreme leader supported by the military.
Mao Zedong was born in 1893 and he died in 1976. Mao Zedong is considered to be the father of Communist China and along side Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek played a fundamental part in China's recent history. Mao Mao was born in Chaochan in Hunan province. He came from a peasant family. As with all peasants living in Nineteenth Century China, his upbringing was hard and he experienced no luxuries.
The country most associated with rocket development during World War Two is Nazi Germany. Such was the impact made by German scientists such as von Braun, that their developments spear-headed post-war missile developments both in weapons and in space exploration. The work done at Pennemünde has gone down in history.
Jawaharlal Nehru, along with Ghandi and Jinnah, was to play a very important part in India's history in the Twentieth Century. Nehru was born in 1889 and died in 1964. Nehru was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. When he returned to India in 1912, he practised as a barrister. This was hardly an unexpected move as his father was the famous journalist and lawyer Motilal Nehru.
The Democrats have been holding their primaries and caucuses since January 2004. The expected favourite was the former governor of Vermont, Howard Dean. The other runners included John Edwards, John Kerry, Dick Gephardt and Al Sharpton. The first real test of the party's intentions came in the causus at Iowa.
John Nott was Britain's Defence Minister when the Falklands War broke out in April 1982. Nott, along with Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington, was criticised for the invasion but kept his position despite hostility shown towards him the media. This hostility towards John Nott was based around the belief that it was Nott himself with his proposed naval cuts that had seemingly encouraged Argentina to think that Britain was no longer concerned about her overseas possessions.