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How does justice work?
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How does justice work?

The Criminal Justice System (CJS) cannot work without the support of the community. In particular, victims and witnesses play a vital part in the justice process. If crimes aren't reported, offenders can't be brought to justice. Support and advice is available to victims and witnesses whether or not they report crime, but if they do come forward their information could make a big difference in bringing a criminal to justice.

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Beliefs

What are the beliefs and values most commonly found in American politics? It is important to know these beliefs and values if one is to understand the political psyche that exists in America and which have percolated into the executive, legislative and judicial systems that makes up America's political structure.
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Party Organisation

National versus state versus local party organisation continues to be an issue in American Politics. Up to the 1990's it was accepted that the three forms of party that are stated in the title, existed as three separate entities and that they only came together during a presidential election campaign - once every four years.
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Kindertransport

Kindertransport was the title given to the efforts made by the British government prior to the outbreak of World War Two to bring out of Nazi Germany and occupied Austria and Czechoslovakia Jewish children. Kindertransport was an attempt to remove these children from an increasingly perilous situation whereby war looked almost inevitable.
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Women at Work in Nazi Germany

The Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler in particular spun the belief that a woman's place was in the home. The Nazi ideal was that a woman would raise children and look after her husband after he had completed a day at work. “”If one says a man's world is the state, his struggle, his readiness to devote his powers to the service of the community, one might be tempted to say that the world of the woman is a smaller world.
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President versus Prime Minister

The president of America is frequently referred to as the world's most powerful person. However, the federal structure of America has put restraints on the power of the president that do not occur in Great Britain, lead by a Prime Minister. The powers of Congress and the Supreme Court are used as a balance to the power a president might accrue in his time in office.
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British Citizenship

Politics and personal rights has been a major issue in British politics for a number of years. To expand our rights, in 1997, the Labour Government promised a Freedom of Information Act similar to the one in America. Many were disappointed with what they saw as a watered down version once one was introduced.
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Eva Braun

Eva Braun was for years the mistress of Adolf Hitler and for 40 hours his wife. Eva Braun first met Hitler in 1929 when she worked as an assistant to Hitler's personal photographer, Heinrich Hoffman. Eva Braun was born in Munich on February 6 th 1912. Her father was a school teacher and her mother worked as a seamstress before having children.
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Citizenship

Citizenship is a concept whereby a citizen is an individual who is fully recognised by a state as being a member of that state. Citizenship, which is a legal concept, grants individuals who have some sort of legal status within a state, certain rights, and they are expected to perform certain duties: 'the citizen should be understood in the first instance not as a type of person…but as a position in the set of formal relationships defined by democratic sovereignty' Donald (1996) The balance between these rights and duties varies from state to state and from time to time.
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Judicial Independence

Judicial independence “is basic to the (British) Constitution.” (G M Lewis) and is therefore an important part of the structure of British Politics. Democratic rights within British society depend on decisions taken within courts. These courts have to remain independent of outside pressure and interference i.
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Hippocrates

Hippocrates made such an impression on medical history that his name is still very much associated with medicine today. All newly qualified doctors take what is called the 'Hippocratic Oath' and some see Hippocrates as the father of modern medicine even though he did most of his work some 430 years before the birth of Christ.
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The Blomberg-Fritsch Crisis of 1938

The Blomberg-Fritsch Crisis of 1938 showed just how ruthless Hitler could be when it came to his expectation that everyone working for him should be totally obedient. Werner von Blomberg and Werner von Fritsch were two very senior officers in the army - and both were compelled into resigning from their posts by Hitler for failing to accept his full authority over the military.
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The Nazis and the German Economy

Germany's economy was in a mess when Hitler was elected Chancellor in January 1933. Hitler and Nazi propaganda had played on the population's fear of no hope. Unemployment peaked at 6 million during the final days of the Weimar Republic - near enough 33% of the nation's working population. Now Hitler decreed that all should work in Nazi Germany and he constantly played on the economic miracle Nazi Germany achieved.
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Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Semmelweis was a Hungarian obstetrician who disproved the belief that post-operations deaths were caused by 'poison air' in a hospital ward. The work done by Semmelweis all but removed puerperal fever from the maternity units he worked in. His colleagues and superiors derided his work while he was alive but antiseptic surgery drastically reduced post-operation fatalities.
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Wilhelm Roentgen

Wilhelm Roentgen or Röntgen made medical history by discovering what are now called x-rays. The discovery earned Röntgen much fame and it resulted in him being award a Nobel Prize. Wilhelm Röntgen was born on March 27 th 1845. He was born at Lennep in Rhenish Prussia. However when he was young, the family moved to the Netherlands (his mother was from Amsterdam) and he received his education at a boarding school in Utrecht.
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Antibiotics

Antibiotics transformed medicine. The discovery of antibiotics began by accident. On the morning of September 3rd, 1928, Professor Alexander Fleming was having a clear up of his cluttered laboratory. Fleming was sorting through a number of glass plates which had previously been coated with staphyloccus bacteria as part of research Fleming was doing.
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Interest Slavery

‘Interest slavery' was a term adopted by Gottfried Feder, an early convert to National Socialism. Feder believed that 'interest slavery' put Weimar Germany at a major disadvantage and that only by breaking it could Germany prosper once again. Feder believed that Weimar's politicians were unwilling to break the 'interest slavery' that he believed blighted Germany and that only a man like Hitler would be willing to do so.
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Franz Mesmer

Historians view Franz Mesmer as the father of alternate medicine. Mesmer give his name to mesmerism, seen as an alternate approach to conventional medical practice. Franz Mesmer was born in 1734 in a village near Lake Constance. He was educated in Vienna where he qualified in medicine. While in Vienna, Mesmer wrote a thesis entitled 'De Planetarum Influxu'.
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Waffen-SS

By 1935, the Leibstandarte regiment had been joined by the Germania and Deutschland regiments. They operated under the Verfugungstruppe, which was a unit of divisional strength. Hitler had made it clear that the Verfugungstruppe was “a standing armed unit exclusively at my disposal.” It was to take its place in the army's order of battle.
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Alternate Vote

The Alternative Vote voting system has been mooted as a replacement for First-Past-The-Post as used in national UK elections (except Northern Ireland). In May 2011, a referendum was held on the Alternative Vote system and it was overwhelmingly rejected by those who voted. But what would the Alternative Vote system have introduced that made it fleetingly a seeming replacement for FPTP, a system that has always been used for national UK elections?
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The Electoral Commission of 2001

The Electoral Commission of 2001 looked into the lowest voter turnout at the June 2001 election. In this election only 59.4% of those entitled to vote did so. The 1997 election figure was 71.4%. Many feel that British politics suffers accordingly when people appear to show such apathy and the whole principle of democracy comes under threat.
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