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The Curious Case of Multiple Raja Bhojas of India

The Curious Case of Multiple Raja Bhojas of India

Sometimes, a man acquires a legendary aura due to the benevolence of his heart or due to the greatness of his deeds. But often legends accumulate the collective qualities of various heroes and give them a solitary name and face. In the history of mankind, this singularity has often been witnessed across lands and geographies, and this is likely the case with the multiple Raja Bhoj of India, legend

Legendary Kings

We all know about King Arthur , his Excalibur and how he bravely defended his land. The character of Arthur was probably drawn from many local leaders and heroes who at various points in English history successfully won battles and looked after the well-being of their respective people. Simultaneously in my country, India, the legends of ‘King Vikramaditya’, an ideal king is known to people from time immemorial.

Great King, Chandra Vikramaditya, (Mahadkhanniazi / CC BY-SA 4.0 )

As per common folklore, King Vikramaditya was an epitome of a perfect ruler. He was magnanimous, conscientious, brave, valiant and handsome. He was and still is, present in the consciousness of people, so much that several important kings of the Indian sub-continent in history, have adopted this name to their titles signifying a validity of greatness to their rules. Some even say that this character is loosely based on the Gupta Emperor Chandragupta II (reign 380 – 415 AD), who is often referred to as Chandragupta Vikramaditya, although others place the character’s roots much earlier.

Coin of the Gupta king Chandragupta II. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

In contrast to this, what about when the opposite happens? That is, when a legend develops based on the real-life of a king of ancient times? We are here today to discuss exactly this phenomenon.

The King and the Oil Presser Folk Story

In the streets of India, there is an expression often heard which goes like this: ‘Kaha Raja Bhoj Kaha Gangu Teli’ (‘Gangu’ is a name and ‘teli’ means an oil presser). This sentence roughly translates to ‘See where Raja Bhoj is and where is Gangu Teli,’ implying that you cannot compare a king with an oil presser. This popular aphorism is often invoked when pretentious people are needed to be shown their correct places.

But how did this originate and become part of everyday Indian culture? Well, as far as this folklore goes, Gangu Teli was an ordinary oil-presser, who once by the sudden turn of fate, had the chance of helping the very great Raja Bhoj, which in turn made him so arrogant that he had to be reminded of his original position. Probably, Gangu Teli assumed himself greater than a monarch, and in spite of being economically ordinary, exacerbated his pretensions to such an extent to his fellow folk, that people started mocking, eventually invoking his very name.

But we are not discussing here the history and originality of this character called Gangu Teli. He might or might not have existed, it is very hard to know now in the absence of any solid shreds of evidence. Gangu was and is a very common name in India. But the great Raja Bhoj did exist in ancient times, and there were multiples of them, now gloriously emblazoned in the annals of Indian history . Let us discuss them chronologically.

Shiva and Parvati, Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty of Kannauj, Uttar Pradesh, India, 9th to early 10th century, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. (Daderot / CC0)

Gurjara Pratihara Empire

One of the glorious dynasties of Indian history was the Gurjara Pratihara Empire. They ruled at a time (c. 8 th to 11 th century AD) when three major powers were controlling the vast majority of the Indian sub-continent – Rashtrakutas, Palas and the Gurjara Pratiharas themselves. Indian history is replete with tales of this tripartite struggle. These three powers vied for greater territories and continuously squabbled amongst themselves. The origin of the Gurjara Pratiharas was obscure but they ruled a vast part of West, Central and North India (and bits of East India too). The Gurjara Pratihara is notable in Indian history due to their successful battles against the Islamic Arab army.

Gurjara Pratihara Empire in 900 AD. (Thomas Lessman / CC BY-SA 3.0 )

One of the greatest rulers of this dynasty was Mihira Bhoja. He probably came to the throne in c. 836 AD. Mihira Bhoja came to power at a difficult time when their empire was crumbling due to the defeats suffered by his father. But he built it again and under him, the Gurjara Pratihara Empire stretched a vast area from the Himalayan foothills to the Narmada River (North-South) and from Sindh in the West to the lower Ganges River valley in the East. In fact, the dynasty reached one of its peak periods under Mihira Bhoja. He is also known as Bhoja I.

It is now conjectured that after the period of Bhoja I and then his son Mahendrapala I, the dynasty disintegrated, and this is one of the main reasons for the Arabic Islamic power getting a foothold in the Indian sub-continent subsequently after their times. The Gurjara Pratiharas, especially Mihira Bhoja maintained a large army and gave the Arab troops very little chance to raid and plunder. As a matter of fact, the Gurjara Pratiharas are noted in history for their successful warfare against Islamic armies.

King Mihira Bhoja has gone down in history as one of the greatest empire builders of India. His fortitude in warfare and bravery in conquests saw the empire reaching its golden epoch. Raja Mihira Bhoja was a Hindu and a devotee of Lord Vishnu, one of the Trinities of Hinduism.

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Teli ka Mandir is a Hindu Temple built by Mihira Bhoja. (Gyanendrasinghchauha / CC BY 3.0 )

Paramara Dynasty

The next significant Bhoja who is noticeable in history was the king who ruled Malwa in Central India in the 11 th century AD. This Bhoja belonged to the Paramara Dynasty, a Rajput Dynasty which ruled Central India from roughly 9 th to 14 th centuries AD. Though this Bhoja also fought many successful wars, he is chiefly known in history as a great patron of arts, literature, science and philosophy.

This Raja Bhoj was supposedly behind the formation and naming of the city of Bhopal, capital of the Central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, which was supposedly called Bhojpal and then became Bhopal with the passing of time. While this fact is debatable, it is certainly true that Bhoja founded the city of Bhojpur in Raisen District of Madhya Pradesh. This city also has the beautiful but incomplete Bhojeswar Temple, built by him. This beautiful temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and was not completed due to some unknown reasons.

Shiva Temple, Bhojpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. (Bernard Gagnon / CC BY-SA 3.0 )

This Raja Bhoj probably came to the throne in the year 1010 AD. He was a polymath himself whose rule was marked by intellectual developments and cultural outpourings. He was also a poet who encouraged other poets of his time and rewarded them profusely. He also bestowed enough support to numerous scholars, and other polymaths and men of learnings in his kingdom. In fact, his capital which is the modern city of Dhar, became the intellectual epicenter of the sub-continent during his reign.

This Raja Bhoja of Dhar though was also a valiant warrior like his namesake in the paragraphs above, he became more famous as a philosopher and benevolent king whose reign witnessed a golden age of indigenous art and culture. In fact, he has been described as a paragon of a virtuous king who was more interested in developing the lifestyle and culture of his people rather than just mere conquests of other territories. But, he had that penchant too.

Raja Bhojadeva, a king from Paramara dynasty and author of Sringara Prakasa. (Bernard Gagnon / CC BY-SA 3.0 )

By religion, although he was a devotee of Lord Shiva, another of the Hindu Trinities, he had also built a temple to the Goddess of Learning, Devi Saraswati, along with a center for Sanskrit studies in his capital city. All these endeavors speak volumes of his quest for excellence in education and learning. Thus, we see that this Raja Bhoja was a true connoisseur of art, architecture, literature, science and religion, together with being a valiant warrior.

Painting of the Goddess Saraswati by Raja Ravi Varma .

Shilahara Dynasty

The above were the two most distinguished Raja Bhojas of India. Next we come to Raja Bhoja II of the Shilahara Dynasty of modern-day Kolhapur city in Maharashtra state, who assumed power probably in the year 1175 AD. Not much is known about him and he was probably a minor king who tried for glory without much success. We also had a descendant of Mihira Bhoja, Raja Bhoja II who ruled shortly in the 10 th century. Then, we also had a descendant of Raja Bhoja of Dhar, Bhoja II who ruled probably in the 13 th century.

Conclusion

These are the Rajas Bhojas who come to our immediate consciousness from the history of the Indian sub-continent. There might or might not have been other Raja Bhojas too - who knows! However, this beckons us now to the question of the identity of that Raja Bhoj who is generally associated with the oil presser called Gangu Teli. Who among the above Bhojas came in contact with an ordinary oil presser and made him immortal? Was it Mihira Bhoja or was it Raja Bhoja of Dhar or some other Raja Bhoja? The truth remains unknown, as with the origins of many myths.

Let us just say that the glories of Raja Bhoja have endured, and endured well for posterity to invoke his legacy whenever they have to compare a pretentious stooge with a real man of substance and riches.

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The Curious Case of Multiple Raja Bhojas of India - History

Princess Usha Raje Holkar, current titular head of Holkar dynasty of erstwhile princely state of Indore.

It was a late Autumn evening in 2015 when I was attending a high-profile book launch event at an art gallery in south Bombay where I came across a soft spoken, very elegant and dignified lady. She was of medium height, her mannerisms and etiquette very classy, with a tinge of sassiness. An old school charm from the British Raj. I was introduced to her and her husband by a common friend. The lady was none other than Her Highness and the present titular head of the royal family and erstwhile princely state of Indore, Maharani Usha Raje Holkar who became Malhotra post her marriage to Shri Satish Chandra Malhotra. As there are rarely very few present photos of Maharani Saheb in circulation in media and web, I would had failed to recognize her if she was not introduced to me as I had no idea how she looked in present. Though we interacted for few precious minutes, she came across as a very warm and gracious person. I was also introduced to Shri Satish C Malhotra who was delighted to hear about my research on princely states. In an age of digital and social media, where you can come across the lives of other erstwhile princely states and their current descendants, Maharani of Indore Usha Raje Holkar Malhotra and her immediate family is known to be fiercely private and very few people are privy to know her from near. Hence for me, that meeting is a precious memory as I believe in respecting the privacy of any individual.


The author with Maharani Usha Raje Holkar Malhotra, standing at extreme left in 2015.

But I was curious as an individual, as a human, as a researcher to know why Maharani Saheb is so unusually private, which can be equaled to the hibernation taken by stalwarts like Greta Garbo or Suchitra Sen, who insisted and maintained their stand on keeping their personal lives, notoriously private from public limelight. But what compelled Maharani Saheb to be fiercely private might have some similarity with the situations of Greta Garbo and Suchitra Sen where shocking circumstances led them to lead such a withdrawn life later.

I decided to dig further. What’s interesting is that Indore was a 19 Gun Salute Maratha princely state during the British Raj under Central India Agency, headed by Holkar dynasty. Actually, there were 3 big Maratha princely states in central and centrally west India, Baroda, Gwalior and Indore. The boundary of Indore started where Gwalior’s ended. Though Gwalior and Indore had a long history of rivalry, but it’s not our topic of discussion here. Indore was the leader of Malwa Plateau with her old capital Maheshwar along the banks of river Narmada and a glorious past headed by Maharani Ahilyabai Holkar whose charitable and religious activities to restore many Hindu prominent temples and structures in entire India was legendary.

International news coverage of the birth of Princess Usha Raje in 1933. In the photo, she is in the lap of her mother Sanyogitaraje.

Coming back to the life of Princess Usha Raje Holkar, Usha Raje had a relatively unusual and lonely childhood if we compare her childhood with other children from royal families who were her contemporaries as in most royal families, prince and princesses are over crowded with multiple siblings and half siblings from step mothers. Usha was born on 20 th October, 1933 in the American Hospital of Paris, France. She was the first and only child of Maharaja of Indore Yeshwant Rao Holkar II and his first wife, Maharani Sanyogitabai Holkar. Unfortunately, Princess Usha Raje lost her mother, the young Sanyogitaraje when she was just 24 years of age in a mysterious death in Switzerland in 1937.

Parents Maharani Sanyogitaraje Holkar and Maharaja of Indore Yeshwantrao Holkar in Paris, 1930s.

PARENTS – YESHWANTRAO AND SANYOGITA’S MARRIAGE

Princess Usha’s father Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar was the only son of Maharaja of Indore Tukojirao Holkar III and his first wife Maharani of Indore Chandravatibai Saheb Holkar. Yeshwantrao was born in 1908 in Indore, educated in England at Cheams School and Oxford University from where he completed his Masters in History. Yeshwantrao succeeded his father as a teenager under aged Maharaja in 1926 when Maharaja Tukojirao Holkar had to abdicate his throne due to the infamous scandalous case of his time, the Bawla murder case, which also happens to be the first most sensational high-profile criminal case of modern urban India.

Maharaja of Indore Yeshwantrao Holkar.

Ironically, Tukojirao’s father, Maharaja Shivajirao Holkar too had to abdicate his throne in favor of his son in 1903 due to misadministration. However, Maharaja Yeshwantrao after succeeding the throne in 1926, got full powers to rule as the Maharaja of Indore from the British Govt in 1930. He remained the Maharaja of Indore till Indore merged with Indian Dominion after independence of India in 1947.

International media coverage of the Yeshwantrao's installation on Gadi of Indore in 1926.

Yeshwantrao Holkar will remain immemorial in the annals of Indore’s history as not only her best ruler, but the most flamboyant, debonair, glamorous globe trotter Maharaja, the history of Indore had ever seen. He had residences outside India, in France, England and multiple residences in United States of America. He had friends from all over the world, from different walks of life, who were successful in their own fields. His taste for modern art whether in commissioning paintings, photographs, interior decorations, houses, rail saloons, his legendary car collections spoke of his vivid imagination and playful attitude with bespoke luxury. His association with German architect Eckart Muthesius produced some of the most futuristic interior designs of its time in the art deco era and of course, the famous Manikbagh Palace in Indore. All these were due to the peaceful serene and beautiful stability in his life in the form of his 1 st wife, Maharani of Indore Sanyogitaraje Holkar and this stability was unshaken till 1937. She was literally his backbone to be alive. But prior to all these in life, Yeshwantrao had a favorite hobby, he was fond of birds and had a large aviary which brought him nearer to the destiny of his future wife Sanyogitaraje.


Maharaja Yeshwantrao Holkar and Maharani Sanyogitaraje.

Now let’s push back time further when Prince Yeshwantrao was just 11 years old. As he was the crowned prince of Indore, he was allotted a separate palace on the outskirts of Indore where he had constructed a large aviary in a wing of his palace, where birds from different parts of the world in all color and sizes were present. Now this is where exactly the love story of Yeshwantrao and Sanyogita starts. A beautiful depiction of the beginnings of this love story had been once printed in Brisbane edition of THE TELEGRAPH, dated 18 th June, 1926,

“ It was here amongst his favourite birds that the boy Prince won his wife. He was feeding the birds of Paradise, a collection of about 20, of which he is particularly fond, when a little girl came up and playfully opening the door of the aviary let all the birds out. The Prince was very much agitated and flying into a rage began to chide the girl. The little girl was greatly distressed, and while big tears were rolling down her soft cheeks, she in order to pacify the Prince, whistled, and waved to the birds, some of which, bewildered by their newly-acquired liberty, flew back. The Prince was now highly pleased, and, saying that the birds liked the girl, he kissed her. The Maharani (mother of Yeshwantrao), who never suffered the Prince out of her sight for long, saw this drama, from a distance, and emerging upon the young couple — the Prince was 11 and the little girl about eight — joined their hands, saying they would be husband and wife. Two years ago, the Prince married this little girl, who is the daughter of the Prince of Kagal, a hereditary Minister of the State of Kolhapur.”

Maharano Sanyogitaraje's portraiture done by Man Ray, the famous photographer.

Sanyogitaraje Ghatge was born in 1913, as the daughter of Chief of Kagal, Junior branch, an aristocratic family from the erstwhile Maratha princely state of Kolhapur. She married Yeshwantrao in 1924 at the age of 11 years and became the Maharani of Indore in 1926, two years after her marriage. Now she shared a very delicate and tender relationship with her husband, as his first crush, love and soul mate. As Maharaja Yeshwantrao had witnessed her mother Chandravatibai’s pain when his father Maharaja Tukojirao was devoting his time towards his favourite dancing girl, Mumtaz Begum or his abdication of Indore throne or Tukojirao’s 3 rd marriage to American Maharani Sharmisthhabai, somewhere the conjugal loneliness of his mother led him to gel and shower all his affections towards Sanyogitaraje. Yeshwantrao and Sanyogitaraje’s 13 years of conjugal journey was nothing short of love and magic as they were the hippest and happening ‘IT’ couple from Indian royalty globetrotting the world, and were much in demand among the elite circles of Europe, Britain and America.


Maharaja of Indore Yeshwantrao Holkar and Maharani Sanyogitaraje Holkar seen with Hollywood star Gary Cooper in 1936.

Young and peppy, Yeshwantrao and Sanyogitaraje captured the essence of cultural changes between 2 World Wars perfectly created their own signature style, a fusion of East and West in that Art Deco era. The global impression about Indian royal families were that most of the women were always covered from head to toe in Purdah, leads a very restricted life, have less exposure to education, almost nil personal freedom and not at par as the progressive ladies of London, Paris or New York. Now in that era of Art Deco, women from Indian royal families have already started making their mark outside India, in elite societies of France, London or New York. A Maratha princess who went on to become a Bengali Maharani due to marriage, Indira Raje Gaekwar had already upped the glamor quotient of Indian royal ladies in the West.

International poster couple from Indian royalty in the art deco era was Yeshwantrao and Sanyogitaraje, 1931.

Now Maharani of Indore Sanyogita Raje, a young girl, with slim and slender beauty on her side, created her own place in that short span of life. As Sanyogita was the only wife, herself being a Maharani, had the entire world, riches and luxury at her feet. She was the first Maharani who openly endorsed wearing swimsuits when she was in France very publicly.


Maharani Sanyogitaraje and Yeshwantrao relaxing on a beach in France in 1935.

The best time of Sanyogita’s life was from 1930 to 1937. Her husband was given full powers to rule as Maharaja of Indore in 1930. Sanyogita moulded herself, her taste in fashion, etiquette and lifestyle as per the likes and dislikes of her husband, the Oxford educated Maharaja who himself was a stylish westernized Ruler. Sanyogita had wardrobe filled with couture from best designers of Paris, London, or New York. She was a big lover of Schiaparelli gowns, bespoke jewelry from Chaumet, Van Cleef and Arpels, Cartier.

International media coverage about the glamorous side of Sanyogitaraje in 1934.

Photograph of Maharaja of Indore Yeshwantrao Holkar with his first wife Maharani Sanyogitaraje Holkar, 1930 taken by Manray.

Well, Man Ray immortalized her sense of fashion and style in his portraiture photographs. It is said that the rooms in her palaces were all air conditioned, and had such beautiful interiors that when she was in Paris, heavily pregnant with her first and only child, she disliked the Parisienne interiors and chose to return back to her palace in Indore which were more beautiful than Parisienne architecture.

Last public photograph of Maharani Sanyogitaraje seated in the center, seen in Cairo Gymkhana in 1937.

Her only child, Usha Raje was born in Paris in 1933. Her movements were widely reported by the global press and paparazzies. Once in 1936, when she visited USA, she went to Hollywood, made friends with film stars like Constance Bennett, Gilbert Rolland, Gail Patrick. When she was returning back to Asia via Pacific Ocean, she stopped over in Hawaii for 3 months and also invited and hosted these Hollywood stars over there. And these stars did join her and accepted the invitation. In 1937, Sanyogita Raje visited Egypt to witness a tennis match at Cairo Gymkhana.


Maharani of Indore Sanyogitaraje Holkar with her daughter Princess Usha Raje Holkar in California in USA, 1936.

Suddenly this beautiful and happy life Sanyogitaraje came to an end in 1937. She came to Engadin in Switzerland for a cure in June 1937. But was suddenly taken ill. At that time, Yeshwantrao Holkar was in Paris but gave permission for an urgent surgery by Dr Ruppauer, a world-famous surgeon in Kreis Hospital, Samadan, Switzerland. It was said that she was operated for a ruptured appendicitis but what went wrong on the operation table during the surgery, is still a mystery. Something went wrong and she died on the operation table. Her husband was not by her side. That unfortunate day was sometime in the middle of July, 1937. She left the world, living behind her 4 years old baby daughter Princess Usha Raje, and a husband who was madly in love with her, for whom the entire world revolved around her. A very young bright life of just 24 years became silent forever……

International press coverage about the sudden death of Maharani Sanyogitaraje in 1937 in Switzerland.


Contents

Krishna Deva Raya was the son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka, [10] [11] an army commander under Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, who later took control of the empire to prevent the disintegration of the empire and established the Tuluva dynasty in Vijayanagara Empire. According to historian M. H Rāma Sharma, he could possibly belong to the Bunt community. [12] He was married to Srirangapatna's princess Tirumala Devi and Coorg princess Chinna Devi. He was father to Tirumalumba (from Tirumala Devi), Vengalamba (from Chinna Devi) and Tirumala Raya (from Tirumala Devi). His daughters were married to Prince Aliya Rama Raya of Vijayanagara and his brother Prince Tirumala Deva Raya.

His main enemies were the Bahamani Sultans (who, though divided into five small kingdoms, remained a constant threat), the Gajapatis of Odisha, who had been involved in constant conflict since the rule of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya and the Portuguese, a rising maritime power which controlled much of the sea trade. [13]

Success in Deccan

The annual affair of the raid and plunder of Vijayanagar towns and villages by the Deccan sultans came to an end during the Raya's rule. In 1509, Krishnadevaraya's armies clashed with the Sultan Samshuddin Zafar Khan of Bijapur at Diwani and the Sultan Mahmud was severely injured and defeated. [14] Yusuf Adil Shah was killed and the Raichur Doab was annexed. Taking advantage of the victory, the Raya reunited Bidar, Gulbarga, and Bijapur into Vijayanagar and earned the title "establisher of the Yavana kingdom" when he released Sultan Mahmud and made him de facto ruler. [15] The Sultan of Golconda Sultan Quli Qutb Shah was defeated by Timmarusu, who was the prime minister of Sri Krishnadevaraya. [16]

War with Kalinga

The Gajapatis of Odisha ruled a vast land comprising Andhra region, Odisha. Krishna Deva Raya's success at Ummatur provided the necessary impetus to carry his campaign into Coastal Andhra region which was in control of the Gajapati Raja Prataparudra Deva. The Vijayanagar army laid siege to the Udayagiri fort in 1512. [17] The campaign lasted for a year before the Gajapati army disintegrated due to starvation. [18] Krishna Deva Raya offered prayers at Tirupati thereafter along with his wives Tirumala Devi and Chinnama Devi. [19] The Gajapati army was then met at Kondaveedu, where the armies of Vijayanagara, after establishing a siege for a few months, began to retreat due to heavy casualties. [20] Then, Timmarusu, upon discovering a secret entrance to the unguarded eastern gate of the fort, launched a night attack that culminated with the capture of the fort and the imprisonment of Prince Virabhadra, the son of Gajapati Emperor Prataparudra Deva. [21] Vasireddy Mallikharjuna Nayak took over as governor of Kondaveedu thereafter. [22]

Krishnadevaraya planned for an invasion of Kalinga, but the Gajapati Emperor, Prataparudra, was made privy to this plan. Prataparudra formulated his own plan to defeat Krishandevaraya and the Vijayanagara Empire. The confrontation was to happen at the fort of Kalinganagar. But the wily Timmarusu secured the information of Prataparudra's plan by bribing a Telugu deserter, who was formerly under the service of Prataparudra. When the Vijayanagara Empire did invade, Prataprudra was driven to Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapati empire. [23] Prataparudra eventually surrendered to Vijayanagara Empire, and he gave his daughter, Princess Jaganmohini, in marriage to Sri Krishnadevaraya. [24] Krishandevaraya returned all the lands that the Vijayanagara Empire captured to the North of the Krishna River this made the Krishna river boundary between the Vijayanagar and the Gajapati Kingdoms. [25]

Krishnadevaraya established friendly relations with the Portuguese, who set up the Portuguese Dominion of India in Goa in 1510. [26] The Emperor obtained guns and Arabian horses from the Portuguese merchants. [27] [28] He also utilized Portuguese expertise in improving water supply to Vijayanagara City. [29]

Final conflict and death

The complicated alliances of the empire and the five Deccan sultanates meant that he was continually at war. In one of these campaigns, he defeated Golconda and captured its commander Madurul-Mulk, crushed Bijapur and its Sultan Ismail Adil Shah, [30] and restored Bahmani sultanate to the son of Muhammad Shah II. [31] [ page needed ]

The highlight of his conquests occurred on 19 May 1520 where he secured the fortress of Raichur from Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur after a difficult siege during which 16,000 Vijayanagara soldiers were killed. The exploits of the military commander, Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayudu of the Pemmasani Nayaks, during the Battle of Raichur were distinguished and lauded by Krishnadevaraya. [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] It is said that 700,000-foot soldiers, 32,600 cavalry, and 550 elephants were used in the Battle of Raichur. [37] Finally, in his last battle, he razed to the ground the fortress of Gulburga, the early capital of the Bahmani sultanate. His empire extended over the whole of South India.

In 1524, Krishnadevaraya made his son Tirumala Raya the Yuvaraja (crown prince). The prince did not survive for long: he was poisoned to death. [38] Suspecting the involvement of Timmarusu, Krishna Deva Raya had his trusted commander and adviser blinded. [39] At the same time, Krishnadevaraya was preparing for an attack on Belgaum, which was in the Adil Shah's possession. Around this time, Krishnadevaraya took seriously ill. He died soon after in 1529. [ citation needed ] Before his death, he nominated his brother, Achyuta Deva Raya as his successor. [ citation needed ]

During his reign he kept a strict control over his ministers, and any minister who committed misdeeds was dealt with severely. [40] He abolished some of the obnoxious taxes such as the marriage fee. [40] To increase revenues, he brought new lands under cultivation by ordering deforestation of some areas. [40] A large-scale work to obtain water for irrigation around Vijayanagar was also undertaken by him. [41] [42] Foreign travelers, such as Paes, Nunez and Barbosa, who visited Vijayanagar spoke highly of the efficiency of administration and prosperity of the people during his reign. [40]

The administration of the empire was carried along the lines indicated in his Amuktamalyada. He was of the opinion that the King should always rule with an eye towards Dharma. His concern for the welfare of the people is amply proved by his extensive annual tours all over the empire, during which he studied everything personally and tried to redress the grievances of the people and to punish the evil doers. With regard to the promotion of the economic progress of his people, Krishnadevaraya says: "the extent of the kingdom is the means for the acquisition of wealth. [43] Therefore even if the land is limited in extent, excavate tanks and canals and increase the prosperity of the poor by leasing him the land for low ari and koru, so that you may obtain wealth as well as religious merit." [43]

The rule of Krishna Deva Raya was an age of prolific literature in many languages, although it is also known as a golden age of Kannada literature. Many Telugu, Kannada, Sanskrit, and Tamil poets enjoyed the patronage of the emperor. Emperor Krishna Deva Raya was fluent in many languages. There remains a debate whether he was a Kannadiga or Telugu [44] or Tuluva by lineage. [45]

The poet Mukku Timma praised him as a great general and stated: "O Krishnaraya, you Man-Lion. You destroyed the Turks from far away with just your great name's power. Oh Lord of the elephant king, just from seeing you the multitude of elephants ran away in horror. [9]

Kannada literature

He patronised Kannada poets Mallanarya, who wrote Veera-saivamruta, Bhava-chinta-ratna and Satyendra Chola-kathe, Chatu Vittal-anatha who wrote Bhaga-vatha, Timmanna Kavi who wrote a eulogy of his king in Krishna Raya Bharata. [46] [47] Vyasatirtha, the great Dvaita saint from Mysore belonging to the Madhwa order was his Rajaguru. [48] Krishna Deva Rayana Dinachari in Kannada is a recently discovered work. [49] The record highlights the contemporary society during Krishna Deva Raya's time in his personal diary. However, it is not yet clear if the record was written by the king himself.

Telugu literature

The rule of Krishna Deva Raya is known as golden age of Telugu literature. Eight Telugu poets were regarded as eight pillars of his literary assembly and known as Ashtadiggajas. Krishna Dev Raya himself composed an epic Telugu poem Amuktamalyada.

During the reign of Krishnadevaraya Telugu culture and literature flourished and reached their heyday. The great emperor was himself a celebrated poet having composed Amuktamalyada. In his court, eight Telugu poets were regarded as the eight pillars of the literary assembly. In the olden days, it was believed that eight elephants were holding the earth in eight different directions. The title Ashtadiggajas celebrates this belief and hence the court was also called Bhuvana Vijayam (Conquest of the World). The period of the Empire is known as "Prabandha Period," because of the quality of the prabandha literature produced during this time.

Among these eight poets, Allasani Peddana is considered to be the greatest and is given the title of Andhra Kavita Pitamaha (the father of Telugu poetry). Svarocisha Sambhava or Manucharita is his popular prabandha work and was dedicated to Krishnadevaraya. Nandi Thimmana wrote Parijathapaharanam. Madayyagari Mallana wrote Rajasekhara Charitramu. Dhurjati wrote Kalahasti Mahatyamu and Ayyalaraju Ramabhadrudu wrote Sakalakatha Sangraha and Ramaabhyudayamu. Pingali Surana wrote Raghava Pandaviyamu, Kalapurnodayam, Prabhavate Pradyamana. Raghavapandaveeyamu is a dual work with double meaning built into the text, describing both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Kalapurnodayam(means full bloom of art) has been treated as the first original poetic novel in Telugu literature. Battumurthy alias Ramarajabhushanudu wrote Kavyalankarasangrahamu, Vasucharitra, Narasabhupaliyam and Harischandranalopakhyanamu. Among these works the last one is a dual work which tells simultaneously the story of King Harishchandra and Nala and Damayanti. Tenali Ramakrishna first wrote Udbhataradhya Charitramu, a Shaivite work. However, he converted to Vaishnavism later and wrote Vaishnava devotional texts Panduranga Mahatmyamu, and Ghatikachala Mahatmyamu. Tenali Rama remains one of the most popular folk figures in India today, a quick-witted courtier ready even to outwit the all-powerful emperor.

Other well-known poets were Sankusala Nrisimha Kavi, who wrote KavikarnaRasayana, Chintalapudi Ellaya, who wrote Radhamadhavavilasa and Vishnumayavilasa, Molla, a poet wrote a version of Ramayana, Kamsali Rudraya wrote Nirankusopakhyana, and Addanki Gangadhara wrote Basavapurana. Manumanchi Bhatta wrote a scientific work called Hayalakshana Sastra.

Tamil literature

Krishna Deva Raya patronised the Tamil poet Haridasa, and Tamil literature soon began to flourish as the years passed by. [50]

Sanskrit literature

In Sanskrit, Vyasatirtha wrote Bhedo-jjivana, Tat-parya-chandrika, Nyaya-mrita (a work directed against Advaita philosophy) and Tarka-tandava. Krishna Deva Raya himself an accomplished scholar wrote Madalasa Charita, Satyavadu Parinaya and Rasamanjari and Jambavati Kalyana. [51] [52] [53]

Krishna Deva Raya respected all sects of Hinduism and lavished on the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, numerous objects of priceless value, ranging from diamond studded crowns to golden swords. For this he is honored with installing his statues along with his two wives at the temple complex.These statues are still visible at the temple at the exit. He also contributed in building parts of Srisailam temple complex.

Krishna Deva Raya was formally initiated into the Vaishnava Sampradaya by Tathacharya. He was also his Rajguru.When Krishnadevaraya became the ruler Tathacharya was his guru. He patronised poets and scholars in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit.


The Identity of Maryam Zamani, A Hindu?

I read in some news websites that Sujan Rai, a Hindu historian, in his 'Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh' stated that the Amber princess was the mother of Jahangir and her name had been suppressed by the Muslim historians because she was a Hindu. This does not seems to be authentic. In that were the case the Mughal historians should have erased from their books the identity of mothers of Khusrau and Shah Jahan too, as they were Hindu Rajput princesses.

Popular belief is that Hira Kunwari, the daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber was the mother of Jahangir and she was given the title of Maryam Zamani, though, Jahangir himself refers her only as one of his father's wives. None of the Mughal historians reveals the identity of Maryam Zamani. Here is what Abul Fazl says about Akbar's first Hindu wife: "Raja Bharmal from the sincerity of his disposition made the arrangements for the marriage in the most admirable manner and brought his fortunate daughter to this station and placed her among the ladies of the harem". I suggest you to read this post to know more about the Amber princess, Jodh Bai and Maryam Zamani. Jahangirnama tells us that that Maryam Zamani died in 1623.

A Short Account of Akbar and Hinduism: We know that Akbar was not a religious bigot. He appointed many Rajputs to high positions at the court. From his youth, he had a special preference for Hindus. Later he renounced Islam too. Akbar celebrated the Hom (a kind of fire-worship), from his affection towards the Hindu princesses of his Harem. He afterwards started the practice of worshiping the sun he used to wear a rakhi (on the wrist) and the Hindu mark on his forehead. Badauni says about Akbar, "Akbar, from his youth had been in company with Hindus, and thus he learnt to look upon a cow, which in their opinion is one of the reasons why the world still exists, as something holy. Besides, the Emperor was subject to the influence of the numerous Hindu princesses of the Harem, who had gained so great an ascendancy over him, as to make him forswear beef, garlic, onions and the wearing of a beard. He prohibited the slaughter of cows and abolished Jizya. His Hindu wives had also influenced him greatly against the eating of beef, garlic, onions and also wearing a beard. He had also introduced many Hindu customs and heresies in the court in order to please Hindus, and abstained from everything which were disgusting to them. Pigs and dogs were kept in the Harem, and to inspect them daily was considered a religious exercise. Hindus, who believe in incarnations, said that the boar belonged to the ten forms which God had once assumed. The saying of some wise men that a dog had ten virtues, and that a man, if he possess one of them, was a saint, was also quoted as a proof. Names like Ahmad, Muḥammad and Mustafa became offensive to him, who thereby wished to please the Hindus outside, and the princesses inside the Harem, till after some time those courtiers, who had such names, changed them and such names as Yar Muhammad and Muḥammad Khan were altered to Rahmat". Akbar translated many Sanskrit works such as Ramayana, Mahabharata, Atharva Veda and Harivamsa into Persian.

In these circumstances, how can a Rajput princess build a mosque? [A Mosque at Lahore was built by Maryam Zamani in the reign of Jahangir, it is known as the Begum Shahi Mosque]. A tomb was discovered at Agra supposed to be of 'Maryam Zamani'. Unfortunately there is no inscription on the tomb.

It was Akbar's policy to form matrimonial alliance with Hindu princesses and to allow them to continue in their religion, with a view to securing the confidence of his Hindu subjects. As Frederic Fanthome says, to give Mohammedan names to those ladies would not be consistent with the said policy, for that would lend color to the supposition that they had been proselytized to Mohammedanism. Under these circumstances it is not likely that Akbar gave the Mohammedan name of Maryam Zamani to the daughter of Raja Bharmal.

Jahangir and Hinduism: Jahangir too never kept a beard. We can read in the Jahangirnama that, Jahangir honoured some of his Hindu wives with great Muslim titles: He talks about his first wife, Manbhawati Bai, the daughter of Raja Bhagwan Das, that "After Khusrau's birth I gave her the title of Shah Begum". He also mentions Karamsi, the daughter of Keshav Das Rathore, and the daughter of Rawal Bhim Singh of Jaisalmer, "In the time when I was prince I had taken his (Rawal Bhim Singh's) daughter in marriage, and called her by the title of Malika-Jahan (queen of the world)". He calls Mani Bai better known as Jodh Bai, the mother of Khurram (Shah Jahan), as Jagat Gosaine. It should be remembered that Musalman ladies were also given great titles. Some of these are: Hamida Banu Begum [Mariam Makani], Mihr-un-nissa [Nur Mahal and Nur Jahan]and Arjumand Banu Begum [Mumtaz Mahal and perhaps Taj Mahal].

Below are some lines from Akbarnama narrating the beauty and lineage of the Hindu princesses:

"At this time it was represented to His Majesty that Raja Bhagwan Das, who held high office, and who had lofty lineage and abilities, had a daughter whose purity adorned her high extraction, and was endowed with beauty and graces and that it was the wish of her family that she should be united to the prince"

"the daughter of Raja Bhagwan Das gave birth to a daughter in the house of Prince Sultan Salim, and there were various rejoicings"

"One of the occurrences was the birth of Sultan Khusrau. the auspicious pearl displayed itself in the city of Lahore, in the bedchamber of Prince Sultan Salim, from the chaste womb of the daughter of Raja Bhagwan Das"

"a daughter was born in Lahore to Prince Salim by the daughter of Dariya Malbhas. His Majesty gave her the name of Daulat Nisa"

"a daughter was born to Prince Salim by the daughter of Kesho Rathore. His Majesty called her Bihar Banu. On the same night a daughter was born to the Prince by the Motaraja's daughter. His Majesty gave her the name of Begum Sultan"

"the daughter of the Motaraja gave birth to a son in the harem of Prince Sultan Salim in Lahore. He received the name of Sultan Khurram (afterwards Shah Jahan)"

"One of the occurrences was the marriage of Prince Sultan Daniel. There was a feast of joy, and that nosegay of fortune was united to the daughter of Rai Mal the son of Rai Maldeo"

In the same manner the chroniclers allude the marriages of Akbar, and his sons Murad and Daniel, with Muslim princesses. They have not recorded the names of the princesses, whether she is a Hindu or Muslim.

"Naqib Khan (the renowned Sanskrit translator at Akbar's court) represented that Qazi Isa, his uncle had made his daughter a present to His Majesty. and..he visited the house of Naqib Khan and received that chaste lady according to ancestral rites"

"Excellent events which occurred during the siege of Mankot was that the fortunate-starred daughter of Mirza Abdullah Khan Mughal who was distinguished for his lineage, entered into the bond of matrimony with the unique jewel of the Caliphate"

"about this time the daughter of Said Khan Gakhar entered the service of that nursling of the Caliphate (Salim)"

"In the beginning of this auspicious year a daughter was born to Prince Sultan Salim. The daughter of Said Khan obtained this great blessing"

There is not the least possibility that Jahangir's mother's name was not recorded in Mughal records because she was a Hindu. It should be remembered that Akbar's chroniclers do not even mention the mothers of Akbar's other children too. Abul Fazl mentions the death of Daniel's mother, that in 1596, 'the great lady of the family of chastity, the mother of Prince Sultan Daniel died'. Abul Fazl thus records the death of Mahi Begum, one of Akbar's daughters, "One of the occurrences was the departure of Mahi Begum to the spiritual world. That nursling of the rose-garden of the Caliphate was the grand-child of Rawal Harraj the ruler of Jaisalmer (Nathi Bai)". In Price's version of Jahangirnama [fabricated copy], we can read the list of Akbar's children (except Jahangir) and their mothers.

No doubt, the 'mysterious' Wali Nimat Begum entitled 'Maryam Zamani', Jahangir's mother, was a powerful lady in the Mughal court, and according to European travelers, was very active in trading operations in the Red Sea. (In 1613, the Portuguese seized the largest of the Surat vessels named Rahimi, which belonged to her. This fact alone confirms that she was not a Portuguese woman as claimed by some authors). She had the knowledge of Persian language. She built the Begum Shahi Mosque at Lahore and a Baoli at Bayana. In my opinion she was a Musalman lady.


1. Who is the founder of Haryanka Dynasty?

A. Ajatashatru
B. Harshvardhan
C. Bimbisara
D. Ghananand

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Initially, the capital was Rajagriha. Later, it was shifted to Pataliputra, near the present-day Patna in India. The founder of this dynasty was Bimbisara himself. According to the Buddhist text, the Mahavamsa, Bimbisara was anointed king by his father at the age of fifteen.

2. The revolutionary like Ashfaqullah Khan, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Ram Prasad Bismil, Roshan Singh and Rajendra Lahiri were all associated with :

A. The Kakori Conspiracy case (1925)
B. 1857 Revolt
C. Chauri Chaura Case
D. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Kakori Conspiracy (or Kakori train robbery or Kakori Case) was a train robbery that took place between Kakori and, near Lucknow, on 9 August 1925 during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Indian Government. The robbery was organised by Hindustan Republican Association (HRA).

3. The Moplah Rebellion in 1921 in Malabar was Muslim Peasants Rabellion against :

A. Muslim Land Holders
B. The British Government Authority
C. The non-tribal outsiders
D. Hindu Land Holders

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Hindu Land Holders. The Malabar rebellion (also known as the Moplah rebellion and Māppila Lahaḷa in Malayalam) was an armed uprising in 1921 against British authority in the Malabar region of Southern India by Mappilas and the culmination of a series of Mappila revolts that recurred throughout the 19th century and early 20th century.

4. The Rowlatt Act was passed in :

A. 1905
B. 1913
C. 1919
D. 1925

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919 , popularly known as the Rowlatt Act or Black Act, was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on 10 March 1919, indefinitely extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during the First World War.

5. Mahatma Gandhi launched Kheda Satyagrah on Gujrat in 1918 to support the cause of :

A. Mill Owners
B. Land Lords
C. The peasants
D. Kol Rebellion

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Kheda Satyagraha of 1918, in the Kheda district of Gujarat, India during the period of the British Raj, was a Satyagraha movement organized by Mohandas Gandhi. It was a major revolt in the Indian independence movement. It was the third Satyagraha movement after Champaran Satyagraha and Ahmedabad mill strike. Gandhi organised this movement to support peasants of the Kheda district. People of Kheda were unable to pay the high taxes levied by the British due to crop failure and a plague epidemic.

6. Two of the great Mughals wrote their own memories. They were
A. Babar and Humayun
B. Humayun and Jahangir
C. Babar and Jahangir
D. Jahangir and Shahjahan

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Babar and Jahangir were two of the great Mughals wrote their own memories.

7. What was the major cause of discontent among soldiers before the revolt of 1857?
A. The Religious Cause
B. Question of promotion and pay
C. Political Cause
D. None of these

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Question of promotion and pay was the major cause of discontent among soldiers before the revolt of 1857.

8. Lala Lajpat Rai was also known as :
A. Sher-e-Bengal
B. Sher-e-Maharastra
C. Sher-e-Kashmir
D. Sher-e-Punjab

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Lala Lajpat Rai was born on 28 January 1865 in Dhudike (now Moga district) of Punjab. He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari meaning The Lion of Punjab also known as Sher-E- Punjab in Punjabi for his contribution to the freedom movement.

9. To which king belongs the Lion capital at Sarnath?
A. Chandragupta
B. Ashoka
C. Kanishka
D. Harshavardhan

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Lion Capital of Ashoka is a sculpture of four Asiatic lions standing back to back, on an elaborate base that includes other animals. A graphic representation of it was adopted as the official Emblem of India in 1950. It was originally placed on the top of the Ashoka pillar at the important Buddhist site of Sarnath by the Emperor Ashoka, in about 250 BCE. The pillar, sometimes called the Aśoka Column, is still in its original location, but the Lion Capital is now in the Sarnath Museum, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

10. The use of spinning wheel (,) became common during the
A. 9th Century AD
B. 10th Century AD
C. 12th Century AD
D. 14th Century AD

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The use of spinning wheel (Charkha) became common during the 14th Century AD.

11. Banga Darshan – a monthly magazine – was started in 1872 from Behrampur by:
A. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
B. Umakant desai
C. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Bangadarshan was a Bengali literary magazine, founded by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1872, and resuscitated in 1901 under the editorship of Rabindranath Tagore. The magazine had a defining influence on the emergence of a Bengali identity and the genesis of nationalism in Bengal.

12. Who said about the British Government these words – “You do not realize how strong the government is if the congress challenges the government the government would finish it in five minutes?
A. Jawahar Lal Nehru
B. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
C. Basant Kumar Biswas
D. Annie Besant

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Gopal Krishna Gokhale said about the British Government these words – “You do not realize how strong the government is if the congress challenges the government the government would finish it in five minutes”.

13. Sri Aurobindo Ghosh was born in the year :

A. 1872
B. 1982
C. 1884
D. 1892

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Aurobindo Ghose was born in India on 15th August 1872. At a young age, he was sent to England to be educated at St Paul’s. Sri Aurobindo was an excellent student and won a scholarship to read classics at King’s College Cambridge.

14. Doctrine of Passive Resistance was published in the daily Vande Mataram in:
A. April 1907
B. April 1906
C. April 1905
D. April 1904

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Doctrine of Passive Resistance was published in the daily Vande Mataram in April 1907 by Sri Aurobindo Ghosh.

15. The language of discourses of Gautama Buddha was
A. Bhojpuri
B. Magadhi
C. Pali
D. Sanskrit

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The language discourses of Gautam Buddha was Pali.

16. There were widespread risings against the British in the 1820s. Which one of the following did not revolt in the 1820s?
A. Santhals
B. Ahoms
C. Pagal Panthis
D. Ramosi

Answer: Option A
Explanation : There were widespread risings against the British in the 1820s. Santhals did not revolt in the 1820s.

17. Which revolutionary said – “freedom is objective of our life and the Hindu religion would led us to the attainment of this objective?”
A. Vinoba Bhave
B. Narayan Guru
C. Dayanand Sarshwati
D. Aurobindo Ghosh

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Aurobindo Ghosh said – “freedom is objective of our life and the Hindu religion would led us to the attainment of this objective”.

18. Who was the commander of 1857 revolt in Rohilkhand?
A. Ahmadullah
B. Begum Hazrat Mahal
C. Jung Bahadur Rana
D. Tatya Tope

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Ahmadullah Shah (1787 – 5 June 1858) famous as Maulavi of Faizabad, was a leader of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Maulavi Ahmadullah Shah was known as the Lighthouse of Rebellion in Awadh region.

19. Who said “Curzon’s partition of Bengal gave unwitting initiative to events of such magnitude which returned many years later to port with the cargo of freedom”?
A. Syed Hasan Imam
B. Dr. S.Gopal
C. M.
D. Bharat Kumar

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Dr. S.Gopal said “Curzon’s partition of Bengal gave unwitting initiative to events of such magnitude which returned many years later to port with the cargo of freedom”.

20. The Hindu Dharma Sangrakshini Sabha was formed in :
A. 1872
B. 1883
C. 1886
D. 1893

Answer: Option D
Explanation : 1893.

21. The East India Association was set up in :

A. 1866
B. 1857
C. 1836
D. 1885

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The East India Association was founded by Dadabhai Naoroji in 1866, in collaboration with Indians and retired British officials in London. It superseded the London Indian Society and was a platform for discussing matters and ideas about India, and to provide representation for Indians to the Government.

22. Who established the Hindu Dharma Sangrakshini Sabha in the year 1893 by :

A. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
B. Raja Ram Mohan Rai
C. Dyanand Sarshawati
D. Damodar and Balkrishana Chapekar

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Two Brothers- Damodar and Balkrishna Chapekar began the process of revolutionary activities in India. They formed the ‘Hindu Dharma Sangrakshini Sabha’ in 1893 and started celebrating the birthday of Shivaji and Ganesh Utsavs.

23. Bande Matram was a series of articles published in the year 1907 by :

A. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
B. Sri Aurobindo Ghosh
C. Domadar Chapekar
D. Balkrishana Chapekar

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Vande Matram was a series of articles published in the year 1907 by Sri Auronbindo Ghosh.

24. Who called Subhash Chandra Bose as Desh Nayak ?

A. Lala Lajpat Rai
B. Rabindranath Tagore
C. Mahatma Gandhi
D. Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Rabindranath Tagore called Subhash Chandra Bose as Desh Nayak.

25. Who founded Anushulin Samiti in 1907 in Dhaka?

A. Shambhuchand Mukherjee
B. Kali Mohan Das
C. Barindra Ghosh and Bhupendra Nath Dutt
D. Jogesh Chandra Dutt E. Pulin Behari Das

Answer: Option E
Explanation : Dhaka Anushilan Samiti was a branch of the Anushilan Samiti founded in the city of Dhaka in November 1905. Initially a group of eighty under the leadership of Pulin Behari Das, it “spread like wildfire” throughout the province of East Bengal. More than 500 branches were opened, linked by a “close and detailed organization” to Palin’s headquarters at Dhaka. It absorbed smaller groups in the province and soon overshadowed its parent organization in Calcutta. Source : wikipedia.org

26. Who was admired as tempestuous Hindu in 1893 in the World Parliament of Religious in Chicago ?

A. Swami Dyanand Sarshawati
B. Rabindra Nath Tagore
C. Gautam Budha
D. Swami Vivekanand

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Swami Vivekananda represented India and Hinduism at the Parliament of the World’s Religions (1893). This was the first World’s Parliament of Religions and it was held from 11 to 27 September 1893.

27. Who were associated with Indian league established in 1875 in Calcutta (now Kolkata) ?

A. Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Arvindo Ghosh
B. Kali Mohan Das and Arvindo Ghosh
C. Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Sambhu Charan Mukherjee
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Sambhu Charan Mukherjee were associated with Indian league established in 1875 in Calcutta.

28. The prominent leaders of Indian Association which was established in Bengal in July 26, 1876 were :

A. Anand Mohan Bose and Surendranath Banerjee
B. Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Kali Mohan Das
C. Kali Mohan Das and Shambhuchand Mukherjee
D. Shambhuchand Mukherjee and Jogesh Chandra Dutt

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Reform Association faction on July 26, 1876 established a Bharat Sabha with Bengali leaders like Surendranath Banerjee, Sivanath Sastri, Ananda Mohan Bose etc. and held its first annual conference in Calcutta. Initially under Sen it was pro-Crown.

29. Sarojini Naidu was elected Congress President at :
A. Haripura 1938
B. Bombay 1934
C. Madras Session 1927
D. Kanpur Session 1925

Answer: Option D
Explanation : In 1925, Naidu presided over the annual session of Indian National Congress at Cawnpore (now Kanpur). In 1929, she presided over East African Indian Congress in South Africa. She was awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal by the British government for her work during the plague epidemic in India.

30. In 1918 who founded Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association ?

A. Annie Besant
B. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
C. Mahatma Gandhi
D. Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Answer: Option C
Explanation : In the year 1918 father of the nation Mahatma Gandhi along with Anasuya Sarabhai and Shankerlal Banker founded the Ahmadabad textile labour association.

31. The third person who presented himself for individual Satyagrah launched by Mahatma Gandhi in October 1940 was:

A. Brahma Datt
B. Acharya Vinoba Bhave
C. Jawahar Lal Nehru
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The first Satyagrahi selected was Acharya Vinoba Bhave, who was sent to Jail when he spoke against the war. Second Satyagrahi was Jawahar Lal Nehru. Third was Brahma Datt, one of the inmates of the Gandhi’s Ashram.

32. Who called Government India Act 1935 a Charter of Slavery ?

A. Mahatma Gandhi
B. Subhash Chandra Bose
C. Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel
D. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru called Government India Act 1935 a Charter of Slavery.

33. The Indian National Congress passed Quit India Resolution at :

A. Wardha Session 1942.
B. Bombay Session 1934
C. Tripuri Session 1939
D. Ramgarh Session 1940

Answer: Option A
Explanation : On 8 August 1942 at the All-India Congress Committee session in Bombay, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi launched the ‘Quit India’ movement. The next day, Gandhi, Nehru and many other leaders of the Indian National Congress were arrested by the British Government.

34. In 1942, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent :

A. Wavell Mission to India
B. Cripps Mission to India
C. Mount Mission to India
D. August Offer

Answer: Option B
Explanation : On 11 March 1942, Prime Minister Winston Churchill announced that Sir Stafford Cripps, a member of the British Cabinet, would be sent to India from 22 March to 11 April to work out a formula for India’s participation in the war and partial transfer of power acceptable to all three, the Hindu and Muslim parties in India as well as the British forces. His negotiating mandate was the “Draft Declaration”, a document on which the War Cabinet had agreed after along discussion laying out a middle ground acceptable to the British, including self-government after the war.

35. When Japan handed over Andaman Nicobar islands to Subhash Chandra Bose in Nov. 1943, he named these islands as :

A. Shaheed Island and Samaj Island respectively
B. Samaj Island and Swaraj Island respectively
C. Swaraj Island and Shaheed Island respectively
D. Shaheed Island and Swaraj Island respectively

Answer: Option D
Explanation : When Japan handed over Andaman Nicobar islands to Subhash Chandra Bose in Nov. 1943, he named these islands as Shaheed Island and Swaraj Island respectively.

36. Subhash Chandra Bose became the Supreme Commander of Indian National Army in :
A. 1932
B. 1935
C. 1943
D. 1945

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Subhash Chandra Bose became the Supreme Commander of Indian National Army in 1943. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23rd January in 1897. He was an Indian nationalist who form the Indian National Army to fight against British Government.

37. Wavell Plan- essentially dealing with Indian demand of self-rule and reconstitution of Viceroy’s Council was put forth by Lord Wavell in:

A. 1935
B. 1942
C. 1945
D. 1943

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Wavell Plan- essentially dealing with Indian demand of self-rule and reconstitution of Viceroy’s Council was put forth by Lord Wavell in 1945.

38. The demand officially made by the Congress for a Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution of India was accepted in principal by the British government in what is known as :

A. Cripps Mission 1942
B. Government of India 1935
C. Independent India 1947
D. August Offer of 1940

Answer: Option D
Explanation : August Offer of 1940. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy. It became an official demand of the Indian National Congress in 1935, C. Rajagopalachari voiced the demand for a Constituent Assembly on 15 November 1939 based on adult franchise, and was accepted by the British in August 1940.

39. Lord Mountbatten put forth the plan proposing the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan :

A. On May 3 1947
B. On June 3 1947
C. On July 3 1947
D. On August 3 1947

Answer: Option B
Explanation : On June 3, 1947, immediately after his return to India, Lord mountbatten announced his plan for solving the ‘present impasse’. Before the plan was publicized, Lord Mountbattan had obtained the consent of the Congress and Sikh leaders and also of Mr. M.A. Jinnah.

40. When quit India Resolution was passed in 1942, the Viceroy of India was :

A. Lord Linlithgow
B. Lord Wavell
C. Lord Willingdon
D. Lord Mountbatten

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Lord Linlithgow took his office on 18 April 1936 and leave on October 1, 1943. Cripps Mission visited India and Quit India resolution was passed in his tenure.

41. By which act of British India, was the Governor General empowered to issue ordinance ?

A. Indian Councils Act 1861
B. Charter Act of 1853
C. Government of India Act 1858
D. Indian Council Act 1892

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Indian Councils Act 1861. An Act to make better Provision for the Constitution of the Council of the Governor General of India, and for the Local Government of the several Presidencies and Provinces of India, and for the temporary Government of India in the event of a Vacancy in the Office of Governor General.

42. In 1915-16 the Home Rule League movement was launched under the leadership of :

A. Mohammad Ali Jinnah and G. S. Khaparde
B. G. S. Khaparde and Sir S. Subramania Iyer
C. Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak
D. Sir S. Subramania Iyer and Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Annie Besant started the Home Rule League in September, 1916, and Tilak started it in April 1916. Tilak’s movement was confined to Maharashtra and Karnataka. And Annie Besant movement spread to other parts of India.

43. In 1932, Poona Pact was signed between:

A. Gandhiji and Jawahar Lal Nehru
B. Gandhiji and Dr.
C. R. Ambedkar
D. Gandhiji and Md. Ali Jinnah

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Poona Pact refers to an agreement between B. R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi on the reservation of electoral seats for the depressed classes in the legislature of British India government. It was made on 24 September 1932 at Yerwada Central Jail in Poona, India and was signed by Mahatma Gandhi, B.R Ambedkar and some other leaders as a means to end the fast that Gandhi was undertaking in jail as a protest against the decision by British prime minister Ramsay MacDonald to give separate electorates to depressed classes for the election of members of provincial legislative assemblies in British India. They finally agreed upon 148 electoral seats.

44. Indian Dyarchy was started by :

A. Indian Council Act 1861
B. Minto-Morley Reforms 1909
C. Indian Council Act 1992
D. Montague-Chelmsford Reforms 1919

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The Government of India act 1919 was passed on the basis of recommendations of Lord Chelmsford and Samuel Montagu to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India. This act covered 10 years from 1919 to 1929.

45. Which movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi on March 12, 1930?

A. Khilafat movement
B. Noncooperation Co-operation
C. Civil Disobedience Movement
D. Quit India Movement

Answer: Option C
Explanation : On March 12, 1930, Indian independence leader Mohandas Gandhi begins a defiant march to the sea in protest of the British monopoly on salt, his boldest act of civil disobedience yet against British rule in India.

46. Who presided over the Karachi session of Indian National Congress in 1931 ?

A. Sarojani Naydu
B. Mahatma Gandhi
C. Subhash Chandra Bose
D. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The Karachi session was presided by Sardar Patel. The congress adopted a resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy which represented the Party’s Social, Economic and Political programme. It was later known as Karachi Resolution.

47. The congress nationalist party was formed to act as a powerful pressure group within the congress by:

A. Madan Mohan Malviya and Bal Gangadhar Tilak
B. Madan Mohan Malviya and M.S. Aney
C. Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak
D. Annie Bessant and Md. Ali Jinha

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The congress nationalist party was formed to act as a powerful pressure group within the congress by Madan Mohan Malviya and M.S. Aney.

48. Rani Gaidinliu was a rebel leader against the Britishers from:

A. Manipur
B. Uttar Pardesh
C. Madhya Pradesh
D. Maharashtra

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Rani Gaidinliu (26 January 1915 – 17 February 1993) was a Rongmei Naga spiritual and political leader who led a revolt against British rule in India. The movement later turned into a political movement seeking to drive out the British from Manipur and the surrounding Naga areas.

49. An interim cabinet headed by Jawaharlal Nehru was formed by the congress in :

A. August 1940
B. August 1943
C. September 1946
D. September 1942

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The interim government of India was formed on September 2, 1946 from the newly elected Constituent Assembly.

50. The revolutionary who was associated with the Indian Independence League was :

A. Rash Behari Bose
B. Bhagat Singh
C. Rajguru
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Rash Behari Bose was an Indian revolutionary noted for his planning of the Delhi-Lahore conspiracy of 1912 to assassinate the then Viceroy Lord Hardinge, and his involvement in the Ghadr Conspiracy of 1915.

51. In which session of the Indian National congress did the historic union of congress and Muslim League take place?

A. Tripuri Session in 1939
B. Lahore session in 1940
C. Meerut Session in 1946
D. Lucknow session in 1916

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Lucknow Pact, (December 1916), agreement made by the Indian National Congress headed by Maratha leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the All-India Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah it was adopted by the Congress at its Lucknow session on December 29 and by the league on Dec. 31, 1916.

52. The Muslim League demanded a separate homeland for Indian Muslims for the first time at its :

A. Lahore session in 1940.
B. Lucknow session in 1916
C. Meerut Session 1946
D. Tripuri Session in 1939

Answer: Option A
Explanation : It was on this day in 1940 that the Muslim League, in its annual session held at Lahore, put forward the demand for a separate homeland for the Muslims of British India. Several Muslim League leaders spoke on the resolution before it was approved on March 24.

53. Indian War of independence 1857 was written by :

A. Lala Lajpat Rai
B. Jawahar Lal Neharu
C. Damodar Chapekar
D. Savarkar

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The Indian War of Independence is an Indian nationalist history of the 1857 revolt by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar that was first published in 1909.

54. Which revolutionary was sentenced to death on August 17, 1909?

A. Rash Bihari Bose
B. Bhagat Singh
C. Chandra Sekhar Ajad
D. Madanlal Dhingra

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Madanlal Dhingra claimed that he had murdered Curzon-Wyllie as a patriotic act and in revenge for the inhumane killings of Indians by the British Government in India. He was found guilty and sentenced to death. He was executed at Pentonville Prison on 17 August 1909.

55. Under the Government of India act 1935 it was decided to establish a federation consisting of :

A. Governor’s provinces
B. Princely states
C. Governor’s provinces and princely states
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Under the Government of India act 1935 it was decided to establish a federation consisting of Governor’s provinces and princely states.

56. Who called Government of India Act 1935 as thoroughly rotten, fundamentally bad and totally unacceptable?

A. Subhash Chandra Bose
B. Mohammad Ali Jinnah
C. Mahatma Gandhi
D. Balkrishana Chapekar

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Mohammad Ali Jinnah commented it as “thoroughly rotten, fundamentally bad and totally unacceptable“. Jinnah’s point of view was based upon the feeling that it would substantially increase Hindu majority at the center.

57. Who founded Tattvabodhini sabha in 1839 ?

A. Dayanand Sarswati
B. Maharishi Devendranath Tagore
C. Raja Ram Mohan Roy
D. Jogesh Chandra Dutt

Answer: Option B
Explanation : On 6 October 1839 Debendranath Tagore established Tattvaranjini Sabha which was shortly thereafter renamed the Tattwabodhini (Truth-seekers) Sabha. Initially confined to immediate members of the Tagore family, in 2 years it mustered over 500 members.

58. The eminent Bengali novelist and composer of national song Vande Mataram who aroused a new consciousness in the 19th century Bengal Society was :

A. Rabindranath Tagore
B. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
C. Sarat Chandra Chatterjee
D. None of the above

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay was born on June 27, 1838, in Naihati in West Bengal to an orthodox Bengali Brahmin family. He wrote the national song ‘Vande Mataram’, which was a part of his novel Anandamath (1882). It is a political novel depicting a Sanyasi army fighting the British soldiers.

59. Vivekanand established Ramakrishna Mission :

A. In 1892
B. In 1897
C. In 1937
D. In 1939

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Ramakrishna Mission was established by 1897 by his ardent disciple Swami Vivekananda with the twin objectives of working for one’s own liberation as well as working for the welfare of the world at large.

60. For the cause of national liberation Swami Dayananda stressed on :

A. Swabhasha and Swarajya
B. Swadharma
C. Swadeshi
D. All of the above

Answer: Option D
Explanation : For the cause of national liberation Swami Dayananda stressed on Swadeshi, Swadharma, Swabhasha and Swarajya.

61. Who brought out a paper with the title of the ‘loyal Muhammadanans of India’ ?
A. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan.
B. Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan
C. Abbas Tyabji
D. Rafi Ahmed Kidwai

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan brought out a paper with the title of the ‘loyal Muhammadanans of India’.

62. Individual Satyagrah was started on:

A. October 17 1935
B. October 17 1939
C. October 17 1940
D. October 17 1942

Answer: Option C
Explanation : On October 17, 1940, the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi had chosen Acharya Vinoba Bhave as the first satyagrahi (proponent of satyagraha) to start personal satyagraha (movement which meant holding to the truth) and Jawaharlal Nehru as the second.

63. In order to secure co-operation of Indians the British government in the midst of worsening wartime international situation sent Cripps Mission to India:

A. In 1940
B. In 1942
C. In 1945
D. In 1946

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Cripps mission was an attempt in late March 1942 by the British government to secure full Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II. The mission was headed by Sir Stafford Cripps, a senior left-wing politician and government minister in the War Cabinet of Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

64. In accordance with provisions of the Government of India Act 1935 elections to the Provincial Legislatures were held in :
A. February 1925
B. February 1932
C. February 1935
D. February 1937

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935. Elections were held in eleven provinces – Madras, Central Provinces, Bihar, Orissa, United Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Assam, NWFP, Bengal, Punjab and Sindh. The final results of the elections were declared in February 1937.

65. The First Round Table Conference was held on:
A. November 12 1930
B. December 12 1930
C. November 12 1937
D. October 12 1930

Answer: Option A
Explanation : First Round Table Conference was held between November 1930 and January 1931. It was officially inaugurated on November 12, 1930 at House of Lords at London by the British King (George V) and was chaired by then British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald.

66. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar organized a Bhishkrit Hitkari Sabha, (The Depressed Classes Institute) in :
A. 1924
B. 1920
C. 1916
D. 1911

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Dr. B. R. Ambedkar organized a Bhishkrit Hitkari Sabha, (The Depressed Classes Institute) in 1924.

67. Who founded Satya Shodhak Samaj in 1873 ?

A. Shri Bharat Kumar
B. Purushottam Das Tandon
C. Bankim Chandra Chattopashyay
D. Jyotiba Phule

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Satyashodhak Samaj (Truth-seekers’ Society) is a social reform society founded by Jyotirao Phule in Pune, India, on 24 September 1873.

68. The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on :
A. July 5 1931
B. June 5 1931
C. March 5 1931
D. January 5 1931

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin, the then Viceroy of India, on 5 March 1931 before the second Round Table Conference in London.

69. In July 1933 the Congress decided to launch:
A. An Individual Civil Disobedience
B. Satyagrah
C. Bharat Chhoro Aandolan
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Gandhi arrived from London on 28 December 1931 and on that day, Congress Working Committee decided to resume the Civil Disobedience Movement. Within a week, on 4 January 1932, Gandhi was arrested. Officially, the Civil Disobedience movement was suspended in May 1933 and it was finally withdrawn in May 1934.

70. The first President of Indian National congress was :

A. Sir Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee.
B. Annie Besant
C. Dadabhai Naoroji
D. George Yule

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee (29 December 1844 – 21 July 1906) was an Indian barrister and was the first president of Indian National Congress.

71. Who conveyed to the Indians – “I am with you wholeheartedly and in terms of culture I am one of you”?

A. Annie Besant
B. Badruddin Tyabji
C. George Yule
D. Sir William Wedderburn

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Annie Besant conveyed to the Indians – “I am with you wholeheartedly and in terms of culture I am one of you”.

72. Who said “Every blow on my body will prove a nail in the coffin of the British Empire”?

A. Lala Lajpat Rai
B. Kunwar Singh
C. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
D. Chandra Sekhar Azaad

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Lala Lajpat Rai said “Every blow on my body will prove a nail in the coffin of the British Empire”.

73. In March 1923 Chittranjan Das along with Motilal Nehru formed :
A. The Gaddar Party
B. The Forward Block
C. The Swaraj Party
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Swaraj Party as established as the Congress-Khilafat Swaraj Party. It was a political party formed in India in January 1923 after the Gaya annual conference in December 1922 of the National Congress, that sought greater self-government and political freedom for the Indian people from the British Raj. It was inspired by the concept of Swaraj. In Hindi and many other languages of India, swaraj means “independence” or “self-rule.” The two most important leaders were Chittaranjan Das, who was its president and Motilal Nehru, who was its secretary.

74. After the suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement, who were called pro-changers in the Congress?
A. Motilal Nehru and Anne Besant
B. Anne Besant and Chittranjan Das
C. Motilal Nehru and Chittranjan Das
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The sudden withdrawal of the Non Cooperation Movement left congress with no other such programmes. There was an impatient section of the leaders in Congress whose expectations were wrapped up in the coming up elections in India in 1923, so that they enter into the legislatures and bring “change”. These elections had to be conducted as per the provisions of the Government of India Act 1919.

75. Aurobindo Ghose, Barindra Kumar Ghose, B.P. Mitra, Abinash Bhattacharya and Bhupendranath Dutta were associated with the revolutionary organization :

A. Anushilan Samiti (in Bengal).
B. Satya Shodhak Samaj
C. Bengal Society
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Aurobindo Ghose, Barindra Kumar Ghose, B.P. Mitra, Abinash Bhattacharya and Bhupendranath Dutta were associated with the revolutionary organization Anushilan Samiti (in Bengal).

76. Subhash Chandra Bose formed Forward Block in :
A. The Year 1935
B. The Year 1939
C. The Year 1937
D. The Year 1942

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The All India Forward Block (AIFB) is a left-wing nationalist political party in India. It emerged as a faction within the Indian National Congress in 1939, led by Subhas Chandra Bose. The party re-established as an independent political party after the independence of India.

77. The main centre of Gadar Movement of 1915 was :
A. United States of America.
B. Japan
C. Australia
D. Singapore

Answer: Option A
Explanation : In 1914, Kasi Ram Joshi a member of the party from Haryana, returned to India from America. On 15 March 1915 he was hanged by the colonial government. The Ghadar party commanded a loyal following the province of Punjab, but many of its most prominent activists were forced into exile to Canada and the United States.

78. Who called the 1857 revolt as ‘Student Farmer-Middle class Revolt’?
A. Sumit Sarkar
B. Barun De
C. B A Saletore
D. Dr. Amba Prasad

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Dr. Amba Prasad called the 1857 revolt as ‘Student Farmer-Middle class Revolt’.

79. Justice C. Y. Chintamani called Government of India Act 1935?
A. Lazy Duck
B. Lame Duck
C. Lazy Federation
D. Lame Federation

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Justice C. Y. Chintamani called Government of India Act 1935 a Lame Federation.

80. Mahatma Gandhi considered preconditions as necessary for a satyagrahi to fulfill namely :
A. Follow truth and cultivate fearlessness.
B. Prefect Chastity
C. Adopts poverty
D. All of these

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Mahatma Gandhi considered preconditions as necessary for a satyagrahi to fulfill namely Prefect Chastity, adopts poverty, follow truth and cultivate fearlessness.

81. The Kakori Conspiracy took place in :
A. 1925
B. 1922
C. 1920
D. 1915

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Kakori Conspiracy (or Kakori train robbery or Kakori Case) was a train robbery that took place between Kakori and, near Lucknow, on 9 August 1925 during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Indian Government. The robbery was organised by Hindustan Republican Association (HRA).

82. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in Amritsar took place on :
A. March 13 1919
B. April 13 1919
C. May 13 1919
D. June 13 1919

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Punjabis, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab.

83. Whom did Mahatma Gandhi consider his political guru?
A. Shri Bharat Kumar
B. Purushottam Das Tandon
C. Sir William Wedderburn
D. Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Gopal Krishna Gokhale CIE pronunciation (9 May 1866 – 19 February 1915) was an Indian political leader and a social reformer during the Indian Independence Movement.

84. The organization of Khudai Khidmatgar was established:
A. Under the leadership of Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan.
B. Under the leadership of Abul Kalam Azad
C. Under the leadership of M.
D. Under the leadership of Syed Hasan Imam

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan started the Khudai Khidmatgar movement (Servants of God). Khudai Khidmatgar movement was a non-violent freedom struggle against the British Empire by the Pashtuns or Pathans of the North-West Frontier Province led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan.

85. Bal Gangadhar Tilak introduced the slogan Swaraj is my birth right in :
A. 1896
B. 1904
C. 1906
D. 1910

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Bal Gangadhar Tilak introduced the slogan Swaraj is my birth right in 1906. He adopted a new slogan coined by his associate Kaka Baptista: “Swaraj (self-rule) is my birthright and I shall have it.” Following the Partition of Bengal, which was a strategy set out by Lord Curzon to weaken the nationalist movement, Tilak encouraged the Swadeshi movement and the Boycott movement.

86. Who founded Abhinav Bharat ?
A. V.
B.Savarkar
C. Arbindo Ghosh
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Abhinav Bharat was named after the Abhinav Bharat Society, an organisation founded by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in 1904.

87. The two names which were associates with the publication of the paper ‘Yugantar’ are:
A. Barindra kumar Ghose and Arbindo Ghosh
B. Bhupendranath Dutta and Arbindo Ghosh
C. Barindra kumar Ghose and Bhupendranath Dutta
D. Sawarkar

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The two names which were associates with the publication of the paper ‘Yugantar’ are Barindra kumar Ghose and Bhupendranath Dutta.

88. Delhi was formally declared the future capital of the British India in :
A. 1906
B. 1909
C. 1912
D. 1911

Answer: Option D
Explanation : King George V crowned in England in 1911. A durbar was held in Delhi to celebrate this occasion in India and Delhi was declared the capital of imperial India in that durbar. The foundation stone of the city was laid by George V, Emperor of India during the Delhi Durbar of 1911.

89. The year which is associated with the Gadar movement is:
A. 1911
B. 1913
C. 1917
D. 1922

Answer: Option B
Explanation : In 1913, Pacific Coast Hindustan Association was founded by Lala Hardayal with Sohan Singh Bhakna as its president, which was called Ghadar Party. The members of this party were the immigrant Sikhs of US and Canada. The first issue of The Ghadar, was published from San Francisco on November 1, 1913.

90. The Queen Victoria assumed the title of the Empress of India in 1876 by :
A. British parliament
B. Indian Sabha
C. Singaporian Parliament
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Royal Titles Bill was brought before Parliament in 1876. Queen Victoria opened Parliament in person, the first time since the death of Prince Albert, to announce the change in royal title.

91. Who said – “Our Life and religion are useless without the attainment of Swaraj”?
A. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
B. Veer Kunwar
C. Lala Lajpat Rai
D. Bhagat Singh

Answer: Option A
Explanation : In 1906, Bal Gangadhar Tilak introduced two slogans ‘Swaraj is my birth right’ and ‘Our life and religion are useless without the attainment of Swaraj’.

92. The newspapers ‘The Punjabi and The pupil’ were published by :
A. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
B. Lala Lajpat Rai
C. Bhagat Singh
D. Lala Hardyal

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The newspapers ‘The Punjabi and The pupil’ were published by Lala Lajpat Rai.

93. The National College in Calcutta had been established on :
A. September 14 1906
B. July 14 1906
C. March 14 1906
D. August 14 1906

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Bengal National College started with Sri Aurobindo as its first Principal on 14th August 1906.

94. In 1906 Dadabhai Naoroji had passed a resolution approving the issues of swadeshi and national education in:
A. The Calcutta Session of the Indian National congress
B. The Lucknow Session of the Indian National congress
C. The Meerut Session of the Indian National congress
D. The Lahore Session of the Indian National congress

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The resolution of Swadeshi was adopted in 1906 Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. This session was headed by Dada Bhai Naoroji. However, it was 1906 session at Calcutta in which four resolutions on self-government, boycott movement, Swadeshi and national education were passed by the Congress.

95. Who played an important role in the Gadar Movement in 1915?
A. Lala Hardayal
B. Lala Lajpat Rai
C. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
D. None of above

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Original name of Ghadar Party was Pacific Coast Hindustan Association. The founding president of Ghadar Party was Sohan Singh Bhakna and Lala Hardayal was the co-founder of this party.

96. In 1821 Raja Ram Mohan Roy started the Bengal quarterly:
A. Samvad Kaumudi
B. Bengali renaissance
C. Bengal Gazette
D. The Brahmonical

Answer: Option A
Explanation : In 1821 Raja Ram Mohan Roy started the Bengal quarterly Samvad Kaumudi.

97. The first man after the revolt of 1857 who wanted to overthrow the British regime by means of an armed rebellion and establish self-government in India was:
A. Bhakt Khan
B. Nana Sahib
C. Vasudeo Balwant Phadke
D. Jung Bhadur Rana

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The first man after the revolt of 1857 who wanted to overthrow the British regime by means of an armed rebellion and establish self-government in India was Vasudeo Balwant Phadke.

98. Who established East India Association in London 1866?
A. Subhash Chandra Bose
B. Dadabhai Naoroji
C. V. O. Chidambaram Pillai
D. Hemu Kalani

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The East India Association was founded by Dadabhai Naoroji in 1866, in collaboration with Indians and retired British officials in London.

99. In 1893 Mahatma Gandhi went to South Africa in connection with the trial of a merchant:
A. Hemu Kalani
B. Sachindra Bakshi
C. Manmath Nath Gupta
D. Abdulla Seth

Answer: Option D
Explanation : It was a long journey from India to South Africa. Gandhi reached the port of Natal towards the end of May, 1893. The first thing he noticed was that the Indians there were treated with little respect. Within a week of his arrival in Durban, he visited the court with Abdulla Seth of Dada, Abdulla &Co.

100. Which foreigner arrived in India on Nov. 16, 1893?

A. Khan Abdul Gaffar
B. W A Hume
C. Annie Besant
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Annie Besant arrived in India on Nov. 16, 1893.

101. Barindra Kumar Ghose and Bhupendranath Dutta started:
A. Jugantar
B. Som Prakash
C. Vichar Lahiri
D. Sandhya

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Barindra Kumar Ghosh or Barindra Ghosh, or, popularly, Barin Ghosh (5 January 1880 – 18 April 1959) was an Indian revolutionary and journalist. He was one of the founding members of Jugantar, a revolutionary outfit in Bengal. Barindra Ghosh was a younger brother of Sri Aurobindo.

102. Lord Curzon announced the partition of Bengal on :
A. 16 October 1911
B. 16 October 1896
C. 16 October 1907
D. 16 October 1905

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Curzon. The partition took place on 16 October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas.

103. Whose statement is this –“The Indians should no longer be satisfied with mere mendicancy neither should they beg the English for concessions”?

A. V N Mandalik
B. Lala Lajpat Rai
C. Bipin Chandra Pal
D. Abdul Kalam Azad

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Lala Lajpat Rai statement is this –“The Indians should no longer be satisfied with mere mendicancy neither should they beg the English for concessions”.

104. Which Indian revolutionary was called by the Britishers as ‘The Father of Indian Disaffection and biggest traitor’?
A. Lala Lajpat Rai
B. Lala Hardyal
C. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
D. M G Ranade

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Bal Gangadhar Tilak (23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, lawyer and an independence activist. He was the first leader of the Indian Independence Movement. The British colonial authorities called him “The father of the Indian unrest.”

105. Who was the founder of a society known as ‘Abhinav Bharat’ ?
A. J K Hikki
B. B B Upadhyay
C. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
D. None of the above

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Abhinav Bharat Society (Young India Society) was a secret society founded by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and his brother Ganesh Damodar Savarkar in 1903.

106. Maulana qasim Nanautavi, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, Sheikhul Hind Maulana- Mahmud-ul Hasan were the prominent figures who represented?
A. Deoband Movement
B. Santhal Movement
C. Indigo Movement
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Darul Uloom Deoband learning centre was established on 21 May 1866 by Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi. The Deobandi Islamic movement originated in the Darul Uloom.

107. In the history of Indian National Movement Santhal Rebellion took place between :

A. 1845-47
B. 1849-50
C. 1855-56
D. 1866-67

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Santhal rebellion 1855-56. The Santhal rebellion predates 1857. It was a rebellion of Santhal people led by 4 Murmu Brothers named Sindhu, Kanhu , Chand and Bhairav, in modern Jharkhand (then Bengal Presidency) against the oppressive Zamindari system. The initially launched Guerilla warfare in the Jungles of Jharkhand.

108. The famine which killed nearly 8 lakh people during British rule as per the report furnished by the Femine Commissioon of 1660 had struck :
A. Eastern India
B. Northern India
C. Southern India
D. Western India

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The famine which killed nearly 8 lakh people during British rule as per the report furnished by the Femine Commissioon of 1660 had struck Western India.

109. Who called the revolt of 1857 as a war between barbarism and civilization?
A. V A Smith
B. T. R. Holmes
C. J K Hikki
D. Sir Ahmed Khan

Answer: Option B
Explanation : T. R. Holmes popularized the view that the Revolt of 1857 was a conflict between civilization and barbarism or a struggle between Oriental and Occidental civilization and culture.

110. Who is the author of the book ‘The Great Rebellion’?

A. Robert Knight
B. T N Das
C. Ashok Mehta
D. K M Pannikar

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Author of the Great Rebellion is Ashok Mehta. The great rebellion was the story set in the year of 1857 when Indian freedom fighters fought for independence.

111. Who said, “this (the revolt 1857) was an eruption of social volcano, where many spent forces found vent. After the eruption, the whole social topography had changed the scars if rebellion remained deep and shining?”
A. J K Hikki
B. Ashok Mehta
C. K M Pannikar
D. None of the above

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Ashok Mehta said, “this (the revolt 1857) was an eruption of social volcano, where many spent forces found vent. After the eruption, the whole social topography had changed the scars if rebellion remained deep and shining”.

112. Sisir Kumar Ghosh, Shambhuchand Mukherhee, Kali Mohan Das and Jogesh Chandra Dutt were editors of:
A. Amrit Bazar Patrika
B. Hindu
C. Sudharak
D. Yugantar

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Sisir Kumar Ghosh, Shambhuchand Mukherjee, Kali Mohan Das and Jogesh Chandra Dutt were editors of – Amrit Bazar Patrika.

113. Which of the British Acts provided for the establishment of All India Federation at the centre ?
A. The Government of India Act 1935.
B. The Government of India Act 1919.
C. Indian Independence act 1947
D. The Registration act 1908

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Government of India Act, 1935 provided for the establishment of Federal Court to interpret the Act and adjudicate disputes relating to the federal matters. It provided that the Federal Courts should consist of one Chief justice and not more than six judges.

114. The Cabinet mission arrived in Delhi on:
A. August 24 1946
B. May 24 1946
C. March 24 1946
D. April 24 1946

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Cabinet Mission of 1946 came to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India’s unity and granting it independence. He came of March 24, 1946.

115. The British government declared Communist Party of India illegal in:

A. 1924
B. 1934
C. 1930
D. 1939

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The British government, did not favour the activities of the Communists in India and on 23rd July, 1934 it imposed a ban on the functioning of the party.

116. Under which British Act was the provision to establish a Federation of India concession of Governor’s provinces and Princely states made?
A. Government of India Act 1918
B. Government of India Act 1925
C. Government of India Act 1930
D. Government of India Act 1935

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Government of India Act 1935 provision for the establishment of a “Federation of India”, to be made up of both British India and some or all of the “princely states”.

117. When was Poona Pact between Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar signed?
A. In 1920
B. In 1925
C. In 1928
D. In 1932

Answer: Option D
Explanation : An agreement between Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi was signed 84 years ago on September 24, 1932. The agreement was signed by Pt Madan Mohan Malviya and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and some Dalit leaders at Yerwada Central Jail in Pune, to break Mahathma Gandhi’s fast unto death.

118. The British Prime Minister Atlee announced the withdrawal of the Britishers in the House of Commons from India on
A. February 20 1942
B. February 20 1947
C. March 20 1947
D. March 20 1942

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Prime Minister of Britain Clement Atlee declared on February 20, 1947 in the House of Commons that the British would quit India after transferring power into the responsible hand not later than June 1948.

119. Who said, “India is for Indians?”
A. Syed Hasan Imam
B. Mahatma Gandhi
C. Dr. S.Gopal
D. Dayanand Saraswati

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Swami Dayanand Saraswati gave the political slogan that India is for Indians. Dayanand said – World is a battlefield where every individual has to work out his salvation by right deeds.

120. Who said,” One Country One God, One Caste, one Mind brothers all of us Without Difference, without Doubt ?”
A. V.
B. Savarkar
C. Syed Hasan Imam
D. Lala Lajpat Rai

Answer: Option A
Explanation : V. D. Savarkar said,” One Country One God, One Caste, one Mind brothers all of us Without Difference, without Doubt “.

121. United India House organizes Unity among Indians in the United states of America in
A. 1906
B. 1908
C. 1910
D. 1917

Answer: Option C
Explanation : United India House organizes Unity among Indians in the United states of America in 1910.

122. The Indian People play people’s role in the people’s war was the slogan of:
A. The Forward Block
B. Indian National Congress
C. Communist Party of India
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Communist Party of India had been formed in 1925. The key slogan of their party was to make the Indian People play a people’s role in the people’s war.

123. Who in the year 1907 unfurled the first national flag at the International socialist conference in Stuttgart (Germany)?
A. Madame Bhikaji Cama
B. Subash Chandra Bose
C. Jawahar Lal Nehru
D. Sardar Patel

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Bhikaji Cama, also known as Madame Cama, was the first woman who successfully unfurled the first version of the tricolour Indian flag. She still remains to be one of the most prominent woman personalities to participate in the Indian Nationalist Movement. Born into very well-off Parsi family in Bombay (now Mumbai) Bhikaji received her early education there.

124. In 1942 who appealed the Britishers to leave India in God’s hands?
A. Jawahar Lal Nehru
B. Mohhamad Ali Jinnah
C. Sardar patel
D. Mahatma Gandhi

Answer: Option D
Explanation : In May 1942, Mahatma Gandhi called on Britain to “leave India to God. If this is too much then leave her to anarchy.” In July 1942, the Congress Working Committee met at Wardha. The resolution demanded, “The British Rule in India must end immediately.”

125. Individual Satyagrah – symbolic and non-violent in nature was started on:
A. October 17 1942
B. October 17 1940
C. October 17 1939
D. October 17 1938

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Individual satyagraha movement started on 17th October, 1940 and continued upto December.

126. In 1906 to protest discrimination against Indians in S. Africa Mahatma Gandhi started
A. Satyagraha at Durban
B. Satyagraha at Cape Town
C. Satyagraha at Port Elizabeth
D. Satyagraha at Johannesburg

Answer: Option D
Explanation : A meeting in Johannesburg on 11 September 1906 marked the start of the resistance campaign, which ultimately became known as satyagraha (meaning ‘truth-force’), with its practitioners called satyagrahi.

127. Which slogan was given by the Congress in opposition to British Government involving India in Second World War in 1939 without consulting the people of India ?
A. Karo ya Maro
B. Nahi Karenge Nahi Ladenge
C. Na koi bhai na koi pai.
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Na koi bhai, na koi pai slogan was given by the Congress in opposition to British Government involving India in Second World War in 1939 without consulting the people of India.

128. Subhash Chandra Bose was elected the president of the Indian national congress :
A. Ramgarh Session 1940
B. Bombay Session 1934
C. Tripuri session 1939
D. Wardha Session 1942

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Subhash Chandra Bose and Congress Tripuri Session 1939. The British Government was keen on Bose taking interest in the Axis Powers and the developing Gandhi Bose strife. In December 1938, Bose had a meeting with two representatives of the German Nazi Party.

129. Bal Gangadhar Tilak began his drive for new awakening among the Indians by publishing two newspapers in 1881
A. The Maratha and Kesari
B. The Maratha and Samwad
C. The Samwad and Kesari
D. The Maratha and Kumudi

Answer: Option A
Explanation : In 1881, he began his drive for new awakening by among the Indians publishing two newspapers i.e., the Maratha (English) and Kesari (Marathi).

130. In the elections held in 1937 under the provisions of the Government of India Act of 1935 Congress Ministries were formed in :
A. Eleven States
B. Nine States
C. Five States
D. Ten States

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935. Elections were held in eleven provinces – Madras, Central Provinces, Bihar, Orissa, United Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Assam, NWFP, Bengal, Punjab and Sindh.

131. Whom did the Britishers call the father of Indian disaffection and the biggest traitor?
A. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
B. Lala Hardayal
C. Lala Lajpat Rai
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Bal Gangadhar Tilak (23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, lawyer and an independence activist. He was the first leader of the Indian Independence Movement. The British colonial authorities called him “The father of the Indian unrest.” He was also conferred with the title of “Lokmanya”, which means “accepted by the people (as their leader)”.

132. Who established in 1893 the society for the removal of Obstacles to the Hindu Religion?
A. Dayanand Sarshawati
B. Raja Ram Mohan Rai
C. The Chapekar brothers
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : They organized an association called “Chapekar Club” for physical and military training which they also called as “the society for the removal of obstacles to the Hindu Religion”. Their activities took the form of attacking leading social reformers in the dark, putting tar on the Queen’s statue near the Esplanade in Bombay and burning the examination pandal. They became active members of the Ganapati melas the lustily sang songs praising Shivaji for “his daring deeds and exhorting the audience to risk their life on the battlefield in a national war to shed upon the earth the lifeblood of the enemies who destroyed Hindu religion”.

133. Raja Rammohan Roy founded Brahma samaj on
A. 20 August1838
B. 20 August1828
C. 20 August1848
D. 20 August1858

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The First Session of Ram Mohan Roy’s Brahmo Samaj is held in Kolkata. On 20th August 1828, the first session of Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s Brahmo Samaj was held in Kolkata. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a popular social and educational reformer in India who paved the way for progress in India under British rule.

134. Gandhiji launched the Non-cooperation movement in:
A. The year 1910
B. The year 1915
C. The year 1917
D. The year 1920

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The non-cooperation movement was launched on 1 August 1920 and withdrawn in February 1922 after the Chauri Chaura incident.

135. Swami Sahajanand Saraswati was the first president of
A. All India Hindu Mahasabha
B. All India Unity Mahasabha
C. All India Kisan Mahasabha
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : All India Kisan Sabha(AIKS) is the peasant or farmers’ wing of the Communist Party of India. The Kisan Sabha movement started in Bihar under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, who had formed in 1929 the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS) to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights. Gradually the peasant movement intensified and spread across the rest of India. All these radical developments on the peasant front culminated in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936, with Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first president.

136. From where did the quit India Movement begin?

A. Calcutta
B. Mysore
C. Bombay
D. Pune

Answer: Option C
Explanation : On 8 August 1942 at the All-India Congress Committee session in Bombay, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi launched the ‘Quit India’ movement. The next day, Gandhi, Nehru and many other leaders of the Indian National Congress were arrested by the British Government.

137. Abhinav Bharat organized in 1904 was :
A. Hindu Mahashabha
B. A secret society of revolutionary activists
C. All India Kisan Mahasabha
D. None of these

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Abhinav Bharat was named after the Abhinav Bharat Society, an organisation founded by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in 1904. The original organization believed in armed revolution, and was responsible for the assassinations of some officers of the ruling British government before being disbanded in 1952.

138. The major Muslim organizations which opposed the partition of India were
A. The Jamiat-Ulema-hind
B. Khudai Khidmatgar
C. Majlis-e-Ahrar –Hind
D. All of these

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The major Muslim organizations which opposed the partition of India were The Jamiat-Ulema-hind, Khudai Khidmatgar and Majlis-e-Ahrar –Hind.

139. Who was the selected as first satyagrahi by Mahatma Gandhi to begin individual satyagraha in 1940?
A. Vinoba Bhave
B. Jawahar Lal Nehru
C. Brahma Datt
D. Annie Besant

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Congress was in a confused state again after the August Offer. The radicals and leftists wanted to launch a mass Civil Disobedience Movement, but here Gandhi insisted on Individual Satyagraha. The first Satyagrahi selected was Acharya Vinoba Bhave, who was sent to Jail when he spoke against the war.

140. Who was the mastermind of bomb attack on Lord Hardinge at chandani chowk in Delhi in 1912?
A. Amir Chand
B. Avadh Behari
C. Rasbihari Bose
D. Basant Kumar Biswas

Answer: Option C
Explanation : On the crisp morning of 23 December 1912, Delhi was decked up to welcome the then Viceroy Lord Hardinge on the occasion of the capital’s transfer from Calcutta to Delhi. At a building in Chandni Chowk, a petite woman could be seen waiting with the crowd to see the Viceroy, and then a bomb exploded. Basant Biswas, a young boy of 16 years, had dressed up as a woman and thrown a crude bomb at the elephant carrying the Viceroy. Hardinge escaped with injuries. Rash Behari was the mastermind behind the attack and helped make the bomb. After the blast, Bose went back to his government job at the Forest Research Institute and even organised an honorary reception for Hardinge a few months later.

141. Partition of Bengal was revoked in 1911 during the Viceroyalty of
A. Lord Hardinge
B. Lord Minto
C. Lord Chelmsford
D. Lord Reading

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy of India (1910- 1916), is remembered for the annulment of the Partition of Bengal in 1911.

142. Quit India movement began on:
A. August 9 1940
B. August 9 1941
C. August 8 1942
D. August 9 1944

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Quit India Movement, or the August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Gandhiji on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.

143. Under which document was the separate electorate granted for muslims ?
A. Charter Act of 1813
B. The Permanent Settlement
C. Mahalwari System Reforms
D. Morley Minto Reforms

Answer: Option D
Explanation : A momentous introduction in the reforms were the separate electorates where seats were reserved for Muslims and in which only Muslims would be polled. The implication that Muslims and their interests could only be protected by Muslims would influence Indian politics in the ensuing decades. The Muslim League had been founded in 1906 by an elite aiming to promote Muslim interests, prevent Hindu dominance over Muslims through a parliamentary system and to advance the Muslim perspective in the deliberations regarding constitutional reforms after October 1907.

144. Lucknow pact of 1916 was between:
A. Indian Muslim League and Mahatma Gandhi
B. Indian Muslim League and Indian National congress
C. Indian National congress and Lord Hardinge
D. Lord Hardinge and Mahatma Gandhi

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Lucknow Pact was an agreement that reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the parties held in Lucknow in December 1916. Through the pact, the two parties agreed to allow overrepresentation to religious minorities in the provincial legislatures.

145. During the tenure of which Governor general was the resolution of total independence passed?
A. Lord Irwin
B. Lord Minto
C. Lord Chelmsford
D. Lord Reading

Answer: Option A
Explanation : In the Lahore session of 1929 , the congress passed a Poorna Swarajya Resolution for complete independence. During this time, Lord Irwin was Governor general.

146. The main centre of Wahabi Movement during the freedom movement was
A. Lucknow
B. Mysore
C. Patna
D. Delhi

Answer: Option C
Explanation : This movement, centred around Patna was an Islamic revivalist movement, whose stress was to condemn any change into the original Islam and return to its true spirit. The movement was led by Syed Ahmed Barelvi.

147. Swami Dayanand established the head quarters of Arya Samaj in:
A. Calcutta
B. Lahore
C. Mumbai
D. Chennai

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The first Arya Samaj unit was formally set up by him at Bombay in 1875 and later the headquarters of the Samaj were established at Lahore.

148. In 1912 Mohammad Ali started the paper
A. The Native Opinion
B. The New India
C. Al-Balagh
D. The Comrade

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The Comrade was a weekly English-language newspaper that was published and edited by Maulana Mohammad Ali between 1911 and 1914.

149. The Indian National congress decided to launch an individual civil disobedience in place of Mass civil Disobedience in:
A. 1942
B. 1935
C. 1933
D. 1928

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Indian National congress decided to launch an individual civil disobedience in place of Mass civil Disobedience in July 1933.

150. Which Act provided for the establishment of an All India federation at the centre consisting of the provinces of British India and the princely states?
A. The Government of India Act 1935
B. Government of India Act 1918
C. Government of India Act 1925
D. Government of India Act 1930

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Government of India Act 1935, This act ended the system of dyarchy introduced by GOI Act 1919 and provided for establishment of a Federation of India to be made up of provinces of British India and some or all of the Princely states. However, the federation never came into being as the required number of princely states did not join it.

151. When did Mahatma Gandhi go on fast unto death for the first time?
A. 1921
B. 1917
C. 1918
D. 1915

Answer: Option C
Explanation : In 1918, Gandhiji fought for the rights of the textile mill workers of Ahmedabad. Here for the first time he introduced a method of arbitration – fasting.

152. What is called the magna carta of Western Education system in Indian?
A. Dispatch of Charles wood secretary of state 1854
B. Slavery Bill for Education
C. Wonder of Education refoms
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Wood’s Dispatch / Despatch is known as Magna Carta (Magna Charta) of Indian Education. Wood’s Dispatch was an act of 1854 implemented by the British rulers during pre-independent India. The despatch was presented by Sir Charles Wood to the directors of the British East India Company.

153. Who led the revolt of 1857 in Lucknow?
A. Bahadur Shah Jafar
B. Jung Bahadur Rana
C. Begum Hazrat Mahal
D. Tatya Tope

Answer: Option C
Explanation : During the Indian Mutiny, from 1857 to 1858, Begum Hazrat Mahal’s band of supporters, led by Raja Jailal Singh, rebelled against the forces of the British later, they seized control of Lucknow and she declared her son, Birjis Qadra, as the ruler (Wali) of Oudh.

154. Who said “one religion one caste and one God for mankind?”
A. Dayanand Sarshwati
B. Swami Sachidanand Sarshwati
C. Swami Ramanand Sarshwati
D. Narayan Guru

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Sri Narayana Guru preached the doctrine of ‘One caste, One religion, One God.’ Its worth note that one of his athiest disciples, Sahadaran Ayyapan, changed into ‘no religion, no caste and no God for mankind.

155. On what ground did the second split in the congress take place in 1918?
A. Charter act of India
B. Montague Chelmsford Declaration
C. Morley Minto Reforms
D. None of these

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Congress in a special session (August 1918) criticized the August Declaration as “disappointing and unsatisfactory” and suggested important modifications. The Moderates, led by Surendra Nath Banerjee, supported the Declaration in a separate conference (November 1918).

156. Which revolutionary wrote books Colour of Swadeshi and Revolutionary Life?
A. Bhagat Singh
B. Sukhdev
C. Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil
D. Raj Guru

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil wrote books Colour of Swadeshi and Revolutionary Life.

157. Which revolutionary was associated with the foundation of the Punjab Navjivan Bharat Sabha in 1926?
A. Rash Behari Bose
B. Amir Chand
C. Basant Kumar Biswas
D. Bhagat Singh

Answer: Option D
Explanation : It was founded by Bhagat Singh in March 1926 and was a more public face of the Hindustan Republican Association. The NBS comprised members from the Hindu, Muslim and Sikh communities and organised lectures, public meetings and protests.

158. The novel ‘Neel Darpan’ depicting the harassment and oppression of Indigo farmers by the Britishers was written by:
A. M M Malviya
B. Bipin Chandra Pal
C. Tara Shankar Bandhopadhyay
D. Sisir Kumar Ghosh

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The novel ‘Neel Darpan’ depicting the harassment and oppression of Indigo farmers by the Britishers was written by Tara Shankar Bandhopadhyay.

159. Who led the revolt in 1857 in Bihar and defeated the British Army near Aara?
A. Bahadur Shah Jafar
B. Kunwar Singh
C. Tatya Tope
D. Mangal Pandey

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Kunwar Singh led the Indian Rebellion of 1857 in Bihar. He was nearly eighty and in failing health when he was called upon to take up arms. He gave a good fight and harried British forces for nearly a year and remained invincible until the end. He was an expert in the art of guerilla warfare.

160. Who wrote famous thesis entitled ‘South India in 1857: war of Independence’:
A. J K Hikki
B. K M Pannikar
C. M G Ranade
D. Savarkar

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The Indian War of Independence is an Indian nationalist history of the 1857 revolt by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar that was first published in 1909.

161. Who has written about the revolt of 1857- ‘this was an eruption of social volcano’ where many spent forces found vent. After the vent the whole social topography has changed. The scars of rebellion remained deep and shining?”
A. Brahma Datt
B. V.
C. Savarkar
D. Ashok Mehta

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Ashok Mehta has written about the revolt of 1857- ‘this was an eruption of social volcano’ where many spent forces found vent. After the vent the whole social topography has changed. The scars of rebellion remained deep and shining”.

162. Which Act may be regarded as the beginning of representative system in modern India?
A. The Indian councils Act 1861
B. Government of India Act 1918
C. Government of India Act 1925
D. Government of India Act 1935

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Indian councils Act 1861 may be regarded as the beginning of representative system in modern India.

163. By which Act may be the British parliament did Queen Victoria assume the title of ‘the Empress of India’ to emphasize British sovereignty over the whole of British provinces in India and Indian states?
A. The Royal Titles Act 1866
B. The Royal Titles Act 1870
C. The Royal Titles Act 1876
D. The Royal Titles Act 1886

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Royal Titles Act 1876 (39 & 40 Vict., c. 10) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which officially recognized Queen Victoria as “Empress of India.”

164. The Vernacular press Act as a safety valve against vernacular newspapers was passed by Lord Lytton on
A. April 14 1878
B. March 14 1878
C. March 14 1876
D. March 14 1870

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The act was proposed by Lord Lytton, then Viceroy of India, and was unanimously passed by the Viceroy’s Council on 14 March 1878.

165. Who was the first to call the revolt of 1857 as an organized war for national Independence?
A. Ashok Mehta
B. Dr. S Gopal
C. Syed Hasan Imam
D. Savarkar

Answer: Option D
Explanation : V. D. Savarkar was the first to call the revolt of 1857 as an organized war for national Independence.

166. The first Round Table conference was held on:
A. December 12 1930
B. August 12 1930
C. April 12 1930
D. November 12 1930

Answer: Option D
Explanation : First Round Table Conference was first among the three such conferences organized between 1930 and 1932 by British government towards constitutional reforms in India. These conferences were conducted as per 1930 report of Simon Commission. First Round Table Conference was held between November 1930 and January 1931. It was officially inaugurated on November 12, 1930 at House of Lords at London by the British King (George V) and was chaired by then British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald.

167. The Gandhi-Irvin pact under which Mahatma Gandhi agreed to suspend the civil Disobedience Movement was signed on
A. March 5 1931
B. April 8 1931
C. May 8 1931
D. August 8 1931

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Gandhi-Irwin Pact, agreement signed on March 5, 1931, between Mohandas K. Gandhi, leader of the Indian nationalist movement, and Lord Irwin (later Lord Halifax), British viceroy (1926–31) of India.

168. With the objective of raising the moral and material status of the untouchables Dr. B.R. Ambedkar organized:
A. The Harijan Hitkari sabha
B. The Bahishkrit Hitkari sabha
C. The Harijan Uthan sabha
D. The Bahishkrit Utthan sabha

Answer: Option B
Explanation : With the objective of raising the moral and material status of the untouchables Dr. B.R. Ambedkar organized The Bahishkrit Hitkari sabha in July 1924.

169. Which report became the basis for enacting the Government of India Act 1935?

A. Reading’s report
B. Montague Chelmsford Declaration
C. Morley Minto Reforms
D. Simon Commission’s report

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The Government of India Act 1935 derived material from four key sources viz. Report of the Simon Commission, discussions at the Third Round Table Conference, the White Paper of 1933 and the reports of the Joint select committees.

170. The committee headed by Motilal Nehru constituted to draw up a blue print for the future constitution of India published
A. Nehru Report
B. Constitution report
C. Government of India Report
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Nehru Report of 28-30 August, 1928 was a memorandum outlining a proposed new dominion status constitution for India. It was prepared by a committee of the All Parties Conference chaired by Motilal Nehru with his son Jawaharlal Nehru acting as secretary. There were nine other members in this committee.

171. In order to study the position of education Indian constitutional commission was constituted in 1929 under the chairmanship of
A. Phillip Uartog
B. Phillip Reading
C. Uartog Reading
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : In order to study the position of education Indian constitutional commission was constituted in 1929 under the chairmanship of Phillip Uartog.

172. Who said – “patriotism is religion and religion is love for India?”
A. Bhagat Singh
B. Bipin Chandra Pal
C. Ashok Mehta
D. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Answer: Option D
Explanation : It was uttered by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay or Bankim Chandra Chatterjee. He was the first to initiate the slogan “Vande Mataram”.

173. The congress policy of prayer and petition ultimately came to an end under the guidance of
A. B G Tilak
B. Lala Lajpat Rai
C. Bipin Chandra Pal
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Bal Gangadhar Tilak described the method of three P’s – Prayer, petition and protest as political mendicancy.

174. “In this instance we could not play off the Mohammedans against the Hindus.” To which one of the following events did this remark of Aitchison relate?
A. Bang Bhang
B. Santhal Movement
C. Kishan Andolan
D. Revolt of 1857

Answer: Option D
Explanation : “In this instance we could not play off the Mohammedans against the Hindus.” This remark of Aitchison relate to Revolt of 1857.

175. While delivering the presidential address’ The Congress president who advocated the introduction of Roman Script for Hindi language was
A. Surendranath Banerjee
B. Dadabhai Naoroji
C. Subhash Chandra Bose
D. Sankaran Nair

Answer: Option C
Explanation : In the Haripura session of 1938, the Congress President Subhash Chandra Bose advocated the introduction of Roman script for Hindi language.

176. Who founded Atmiya Sabha in 1815?
A. Brahma Datt
B. Dayanand Saraswati
C. Raja Rammohan Roy
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Atmiya Sabha was a philosophical discussion circle in India. The association was started by Ram Mohan Roy in 1815 in Kolkata (then Calcutta). They used to conduct debate and discussion sessions on philosophical topics, and also used to promote free and collective thinking and social reform.

177. Who wrote in 1900 to the Secretary of state for India-‘It is my firm belief that the congress is staggering towards its downfall and it is my great desire that during my stay in India I should help in its peaceful demise?”
A. Lord Curzon
B. Lord Hardinge
C. Lord Chelmsford
D. Lord Minto

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Lord Curzon wrote in 1900 to the Secretary of state for India-‘It is my firm belief that the congress is staggering towards its downfall and it is my great desire that during my stay in India I should help in its peaceful demise.”

178. Bal Gangadhar Tilak popularly known as Lokamanya Tilak was born in 1856 at
A. Ratnagiri
B. Pune
C. Mumbai
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Tilak was born in a Marathi Chitpavan Brahmin family in Ratnagiri as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, in the headquarters of the eponymous district of present-day Maharashtra (then British India) on 23 July 1856.

179. An English weekly called ‘New India’ was started by
A. K M Pannikar
B. Devendra Nath Tagore
C. Annie Besant
D. Mahatma Gandhi

Answer: Option C
Explanation : New India was an early 20th century daily newspaper published in India by the Annie Besant, to highlight issues related to the Indian freedom struggle.

180. Bang Darshan was the main newspaper of
A. Sisir Kumar Ghosh
B. Birendra Nath Chatterjee
C. Pini Chandra Pal
D. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Bangadarshan was a Bengali literary magazine, founded by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1872, and resuscitated in 1901 under the editorship of Rabindranath Tagore. The magazine had a defining influence on the emergence of a Bengali identity and the genesis of nationalism in Bengal.

181. Montague – Chelmsford report was prepared on the basis of
A. The Government of India act 1913
B. The Government of India act 1919
C. The Government of India act 1935
D. None of these

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The reforms were outlined in the Montagu-Chelmsford Report prepared in 1918 and formed the basis of the Government of India Act 1919.These are related to constitutional reforms.

182. The Governor General who came to be known as father of communal electorate in India was
A. Lord Chelmsford
B. Lord Hardinge
C. Lord Lainthgo
D. Lord Minto

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Lord Minto was known as Father of communal electorate.

183. In order to restrict the freedom of the press, the British government passed “The Indian official secrets Act” in
A. 1907
B. 1904
C. 1903
D. 1896

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Indian official secrets Act in 1904.

184. The most outstanding representative of Militant Nationalist School of thought was
A. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
B. Bhagat Singh
C. Bismil
D. Lala Lajpat Rai

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The most outstanding representative of militant school was Bal Gangadhar Tilak later popularly known as Lokamanya Tilak.

185. The first economic thinker of India who showed through his writings that the basic cause of India’s poverty lay in the British exploitation and drain of wealth was
A. Badruddin Tyabji
B. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee
C. Dadabhai Naoroji
D. N.G. Chandavarkar

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Dadabhai Naoroji was the first economic thinker of India. In his writings on economics, he showed that the basic cause of India’s poverty lay in the British exploitation of India and the drain of its wealth. Dadabhai was honored by being thrice elected president of the Indian National Congress.

186. About the formation of which organization A.O. Hume said “A safety valve for the escape of great and growing forces generated by our own action urgently needed.”
A. Bhinav Bharat
B. Young Indian Organization
C. Young India
D. Indian National Congress

Answer: Option D
Explanation : In Indian National Congress organization, A.O. Hume said “A safety valve for the escape of great and growing forces generated by our own action urgently needed.”

187. The demand for Swarajya or self- government within the British empire was made from the Congress platform by
A. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
B. Dadabhai Naoroji
C. Both Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Dadabhai Naoroji
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The demand for Swarajya or self- government within the British empire was made from the Congress platform by Gopal Krishna Gokhale in 1905 and Dadabhai Naoroji in 1906.

188. Mahatma Gandhi’s first great experiment in Satyagrah came in 1917 in
A. Ahemdabad
B. Champaran
C. Kheda
D. Dandi

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Champaran Satyagraha of 1917 was the first Satyagraha movement inspired by Gandhi and a major revolt in the Indian Independence Movement. It was a farmer’s uprising that took place in Champaran district of Bihar, India during the British colonial period.

189. Rehnumai Mazdayasan Sabha started in 1851 by Naoroji Furdonji, Dadabahi Naroji, S.S. Bengalee and other was a
A. Parsi Economical Reform Association
B. Parsi education Reform Association
C. Parsi culture Reform Association
D. Parsi religious Reform Association

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Rehnumai Mazdayasan Sabha started in 1851 by Naoroji Furdonji Dadabahi Naroji, S.S. Bengalee and other was a Parsi religious Reform Association.

190. Mahatma Gandhi gave the title of Sardar to Vallabhbhai Patel for his great organizational skill in:
A. Kheda Satyagraha
B. Champaran Satyagraha
C. The Bardoli Satyagraha
D. None of these

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Mahatma Gandhi gave the title of Sardar to Vallabhbhai Patel for his great organizational skill in The Bardoli Satyagraha.

191. The pioneer of Indian communism was
A. M.N. Roy
B. G.N Ganguly
C. P.C Chandra
D. None of these

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Manabendra Nath Roy (21 March 1887 – 26 January 1954), born Narendra Nath Bhattacharya, was an Indian revolutionary, radical activist and political theorist, as well as a noted philosopher in the 20th century. Roy was a founder of the Mexican Communist Party and the Communist Party of India. He was the pioneer of Indian communism.

192. Whom did B.G.Tilak call the “Diamond of India”?
A. Mahatma Gandhi
B. Rabindranath Tagore
C. Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
D. Bhagat Singh

Answer: Option C
Explanation : B.G.Tilak called the “Diamond of India” to Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

193. The Battle of Plassey was fought in
A. 1757
B. 1782
C. 1748
D. 1764

Answer: Option A
Explanation : On 23 June 1757, the Battle of Plassey was fought between the forces of Siraj Ud Daulah, and his French support troops and the troops of the British East India Company, led by Robert Clive. This event was a part of the Seven Years War.

194. The territory of Porus who offered strong resistance to Alexander was situated between the rivers of
A. Sutlej and Beas
B. Jhelum and Chenab
C. Ravi and Chenab
D. Ganga and Yamuna

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The territory of Porus who offered strong resistance to Alexander was situated between the rivers of Jhelum and Chenab.

195. Under Akbar, the Mir Bakshi was required to look after
A. military affairs
B. the state treasury
C. the royal household
D. the land revenue system

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The head of the military was called the Mir Bakshi, appointed from among the leading nobles of the court. The Mir Bakshi was in charge of intelligence gathering, and also made recommendations to the emperor for military appointments and promotions.

196. are sacred books of
A. Buddhists
B. Hindus
C. Jains
D. None of the above

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Tripitaka is a Sanskrit word meaning Three Baskets. The sacred book of Buddhism is called the Tripitaka (called Tipitaka in Pali).

197. The trident-shaped symbol of Buddhism does not represent
A. Nirvana
B. Sangha
C. Buddha
D. Dhamma

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Nirvana because in buddhism trident shaped symbol is a reference to the triple gem bhuddha ,dhamma and sangha.

198. The theory of economic drain of India during British imperialism was propounded by
A. Jawaharlal Nehru
B. Dadabhai Naoroji
C. R.
D. M.K. Gandhi

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The theory of economic drain of India during British imperialism was propounded by Dadabhai Naoroji.

199. The treaty of Srirangapatna was signed between Tipu Sultan and
A. Robert Clive
B. Cornwallis
C. Dalhousie
D. Warren Hastings

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The ‘Treaty of Srirangapatinam (also called Sri Ranga Patanam or Srirangapatna), signed 18 March 1792, ended the Third Anglo-Mysore War. Its signatories included Lord Cornwallis on behalf of the British East India Company, representatives of the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Maratha Empire, and Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore.

200. The system of competitive examination for civil service was accepted in principle in the year
A. 1833
B. 1853
C. 1858
D. 1882

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Charter act 1853 Introduced open competition system for recruitment of civil servants. It was open for Indians also for the first time. Accordingly, Macaulay committee (committee on Indian civil service) was appointed in 1854.

201. Through which one of the following, the king exercised his control over villages in the Vijayanagar Empire?
A. Dannayaka
B. Sumanta
C. Nayaka
D. Mahanayakacharya

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Through Mahanayakacharya, the king exercised his control over villages in the Vijayanagar Empire.

202. The Vijayanagara ruler, Kirshnadev Raya’s work ,, was in
A. Telugu
B. Sanskrit
C. Tamil
D. Kannada

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Vijayanagara ruler, Kirshnadev Rayas work Amuktamalyada, was in Telugu.

203. Under an agreement with which of the following countries did Subhas Chandra Bose organize the Indian soldiers, taken as prisoners by the Axis Powers, into the Azad Hind Fauj?
A. China
B. Germany
C. Italy
D. Japan

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Under an agreement with Japan Subhas Chandra Bose organize the Indian soldiers, taken as prisoners by the Axis Powers, into the Azad Hind Fauj.

204. We hear of two envoys being sent to the Roman kings, one in 27-28 AD to the court of Augustus and the other in 110-20 AD to the court of
A. Cartius
B. Trajan
C. Nero
D. Brutus

Answer: Option B
Explanation : We hear of two envoys being sent to the Roman kings , one in 27-28 AD to the court of Augustus and the other in 110-20 AD to the court of Trajan.

205. The use of , in ancient Indian architecture is the result of India’s contact with
A. Central Asia
B. Iran
C. Greece
D. China

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Greece contact with India is the use of kharoshti architechture.

206. the five-fold conception of Vishnu consists of
A. I II III IV and V
B. II III IV V and VI
C. I II IV V and VI
D. I III IV V and VI

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Vaikhanasa the five-fold conception of Vishnu consists of Brahman, Prakriti, Satya, Achutya and Annirudha.

207. The troops raised by the emperor but not paid directly the state and place under the charge of , were known as
A. Walashahi
B. Barawardi
C. Jcumaki
D. Dakhili

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The troops raised by the emperor but not paid directly the state and place under the charge of mansabadars were known as Dakhili.

208. The treaty of Mangalore was signed between
A. the English East India Company and Haidar Ali
B. the English East India Company and Tipu Sultan
C. Haidar Ali and the Zamorin of Calicut
D. the French East India Company and Tipu Sultan

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Treaty of Mangalore. The Treaty of Mangalore was signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784. It was signed in Mangalore and brought an end to the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

209. To conquer and annex Peshawar and Punjab, Mahmud of Ghazni defeated
A. Ghurids
B. Arabs
C. Karkotakas
D. Hindushahis

Answer: Option D
Explanation : To conquer and annex Peshawar and Punjab, Mahmud of Ghazni defeated Hindushahis.

210. To which professions earlier leaders who struggled for freedom of India mainly belonged?
A. Lawyers
B. Teachers
C. Journalists
D. All of the above

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Earlier leaders who struggled for freedom of India mainly belonged to Lawyers, Teachers and Journalists.

211. The victories of Karikala are well portrayed in
A. Palamoli
B. Aruvanad
C. Pattinappalai
D. Padirrupattu

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The victories of Karikala are well portrayed in Pattinappalai.

212. Todar Mal was associated with
A. music
B. literature
C. land revenue reforms
D. law

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Todar Mal was associated with land revenue reforms. Raja Todar Mal was the Finance Minister of the Mughal empire during Akbar’s reign. He was one of the Navaratnas in Akbar’s durbar.

213. The title of ‘Viceroy’ was added to the office of the Governor-General of India for the first time in
A. 1848 AD
B. 1856 AD
C. 1858 AD
D. 1862 AD

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The title of viceroy was added to the office of the Governer- general of India for the first time in 1858 A.D.

214. To which of the following dynasties did King Bhoja, a great patron of literature and art, belong?
A. Karkota
B. Utpala
C. Paramara
D. Gurjara Pratihara

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Bhoja (reigned c. 1010–1055 CE) was an Indian king from the Paramara dynasty. His kingdom was centered around the Malwa region in central India, where his capital Dhara was located. Bhoja fought wars with nearly all his neighbours in attempts to extend his kingdom, with varying degrees of success. At its zenith, his kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to upper Konkan in the south, and from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east.

215. Vikramaditya, a king of Ujjain, started the Vikrama samvat in 58 BC in commemoration of his victory over
A. Indo-Greeks
B. Sakas
C. Parthinas
D. Kushanas

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Vikramaditya, a king of Ujjain, started Vikrama Samvat era in 58 BCE after defeating the Shakas, and those who believe that he is based on a historical figure place him around the first century BCE. However, this era is identified as “Vikrama Samvat” after the ninth century CE. Other scholars believe that Vikramaditya is a mythical character, since several legends about him are fantastic in nature.

216. Two of the great Mughals wrote their own memories. They were
A. Babar and Humayun
B. Humayun and Jahangir
C. Babar and Jahangir
D. Jahangir and Shahjahan

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Babar and Jahangir were two of the great Mughals wrote their own memories.

217. To which king belongs the Lion capital at Sarnath?
A. Chandragupta
B. Ashoka
C. Kanishka
D. Harshavardhan

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Lion Capital of Ashoka is a sculpture of four Asiatic lions standing back to back, on an elaborate base that includes other animals. A graphic representation of it was adopted as the official Emblem of India in 1950. It was originally placed on the top of the Ashoka pillar at the important Buddhist site of Sarnath by the Emperor Ashoka, in about 250 BCE. The pillar, sometimes called the Aśoka Column, is still in its original location, but the Lion Capital is now in the Sarnath Museum, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

218. The use of spinning wheel (,) became common during the
A. 9th Century AD
B. 10th Century AD
C. 12th Century AD
D. 14th Century AD

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The use of spinning wheel (Charkha) became common during the 14th Century AD.

219. The language of discourses of Gautama Buddha was
A. Bhojpuri
B. Magadhi
C. Pali
D. Sanskrit

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The language discourses of Gautam Buddha was Pali.

220. There were widespread risings against the British in the 1820s. Which one of the following did not revolt in the 1820s?
A. Santhals
B. Ahoms
C. Pagal Panthis
D. Ramosi

Answer: Option A
Explanation : There were widespread risings against the British in the 1820s. Santhals did not revolt in the 1820s.

221. Velu Thampi led a revolt against the British in state of
A. Travancore
B. Baroda
C. Hyderabad
D. Mysore

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Velayudhan Chempakaraman Thampi (1765–1809) was the Dalawa or Prime Minister of the Indian kingdom of Travancore between 1802 and 1809 during the reign of Bala Rama Varma Kulasekhara Perumal. He is best known for being one of the earliest individuals to rebel against the British East India Company’s supremacy in India.

222. Under the Mountbatten Plan of 1947 the people of ___ were given the right to decide through a plebiscite whether they wished to join Pakistan or India.
A. Assam
B. Punjab
C. Bengal
D. N.W.F.P and the Sylhet district of Assam

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Under the Mountbatten Plan of 1947 the people of N.W.F.P and the Sylhet district of Assam were given the right to decide through a plebiscite whether they wished to join Pakistan or India.

223. Three major powers that emerged in southern India in the 7th century AD were
A. I II V
B. II III IV
C. III IV V
D. I II IV

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Three major powers that emerged in southern India in the 7th century AD were Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas.

224. The term ‘Yavanapriya’ mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts denoted
A. Ivory
B. Pepper
C. A fine variety of Indian muslin
D. Damsels sent to the Greek court for dance performance

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The term ‘Yavanapriya’ mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts denoted pepper.

225. The Timariots Governors and the Revenue Contractors, on their part reason in this manner: “Why should the neglected state of this land create uneasiness in our minds and why should we expend our money and time to render it fruitful? We may be deprived of it in a single moment, and our exertions would benefit neither ourselves nor our children.” This statement was made by
A. Monserrate
B. Tavernier
C. Manrique
D. Bernier

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The Timariots Governors and the Revenue Contractors, on their part reason in this manner: “Why should the neglected state of this land create uneasiness in our minds and why should we expend our money and time to render it fruitful? We may be deprived of it in a single moment, and our exertions would benefit neither ourselves nor our children.” This statement was made by Bernier.

226. The ultimate ownership of land during the post-Gupta period lay with
A. The cultivator
B. The village community
C. The king
D. The joint family

Answer: Option C
Explanation : King has the ultimate ownership of land during the post gupta period.

227. To which of the republic of Buddha belong?
A. Licchavis
B. Sakyas
C. Mallas
D. None of the above

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Buddha belong to Sakyas republic.

228. There was a sharp class division at Harappa and Mohenjodaro. This is clear from the
A. Indus seals excavated
B. Religious beliefs of the Harappans
C. Tools and implements used by the Harappans
D. Different types of dwellings excavated

Answer: Option D
Explanation : There was a sharp class division at Harappa and Mohenjodaro. This is clear from the Different types of dwellings excavated.

229. The title given by the British Government to Mahatma Gandhi which he surrendered during the non-cooperation movement was
A. Hind Keasri
B. Kaiser-e-Hind
C. Rai Bahadur
D. Rt. Honorable

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Kaiser-e-hind was the title given by british to Mahatma Gandhi.

230. Tipu sultan was the ruler of
A. Hyderabad
B. Madurai
C. Mysore
D. Vijayanagar

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu sahab was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. He was the eldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore.

231. The term , meant
A. Foreign goods
B. Dancer
C. Curtain
D. Theatre

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The term yavanika meant curtain.

232. The term Khalisa in Mughal administration signified the
A. entire Imperial establishment
B. land owned by the emperor himself
C. religious land grants
D. land from where revenue was collected for the Imperial Treasury

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The term Khalisa in Mughal administration signified the land owned by emperor himself.

233. Visakhadatta sketches the event after the death of Samudragupta in his work
A. Mudrarakasam
B. Devi Chand Guptam
C. Mrichekakatika
D. Malavikagnimitra

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Mudrarakshasa, a historical play in sanskrit by Vishakhadatta in late 4th or early 5th century narrates the ascent of the king Chandragupta Maurya to power in Northern India.

234. The system of Dual Government during the latter half of the 18th century AD is associated with the name of
A. Clive
B. Cornwallis
C. Waren Hastings
D. William Bentinck

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Dual Government of Bengal started in 1765, when Clive concluded two separate ‘treaties of Allahabad’ with Shah Alam II(12 Aug.1765) & Shujauddaula(16 Aug.1765). Warren Hastings ended the dual system of government in 1772.

235. was interpreted by
A. Swami Vivekananda
B. Swami Dayananda
C. Raja Rammohan Roy
D. None of the above

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Vedas contain all the truth was interpreted by Swami Dayananda.

236. The term ,, meaning a feudatory from the sixth century AD, originally meant a
A. slave
B. cultivator
C. neighbour
D. foreigner

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The term samanta, meaning a feudatory from the sixth century AD, originally meant a Neighbour.

237. To evolve a peaceful settlement of the conflict between India and China, which of the following non-aligned Afro-Asian nations participated in a conference held in December 1962?
A. Burma (now Myanmar) Combodia Indonesia and UAR
B. Burma Sri Lanka Combodia and Indonesia
C. Burma Indonesia Ghana and Sri Lanka
D. All of the above

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Burma (now Myanmar), Combodia, Indonesia, UAR, Sri Lanka, and Ghana, all the countries which are mentioned here have participated in the conference held in December 1962.

238. The text of the document called ,, by which Akbar assumed the role of supreme arbiter in the matters of religion is found in
A. Nizamuddin’s Tabaqat-I-Akbari
B. Arif Quandahari’s Tarikh-I-Alfi
C. Abul Fazl’s Akbarnama
D. Badauni’s Muntakahab-ut-Tawarikh

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Akbarnama which translates to Book of Akbar, is the official chronicle of the reign of Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor, commissioned by Akbar himself by his court historian and biographer, Abul-Fazl ibn Mubarak who was one of the nine jewels in Akbar’s court. The text of the document called Mahzar, by which Akbar assumed the role of supreme arbiter in the matters of religion is found in it.

239. Tulsidas, the author of ,, was a contemporary of which of the following rulers?
A. Akbar
B. Humayun
C. Shahjahan
D. Sher Shah Suri

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Tulsidas wrote several popular works in Sanskrit and Awadhi he is best known as the author of the epic Ramcharitmanas, a retelling of the Sanskrit Ramayana based on Rama’s life in the vernacular Awadhi dialect of Hindi. He was a contemporary of Akbar.

240. To meet the educational needs of the people, the Madarasa-I-Nasiri was built in the reign of
A. Qutub-ud-din Aibak
B. Iltutmish
C. Ruknuddin Firoz Shah
D. Jalal-id-din Khilji

Answer: Option B
Explanation : To meet the educational needs of the people, the Madarasa-I Nasiri was built in the reign of Iltutmish.

241. The weekly , was founded by
A. Annie Besant
B. Bipan Chandra Pal
C. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
D. Sarojini Naidu

Answer: Option A
Explanation : After making Madras her home, Annie Besant founded a weekly newspaper Commonweal in January 1914.

242. Ustad Mansur was a famous painter in the reign of
A. Shajahan
B. Akbar
C. Humayun
D. Jahangir

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Ustad Mansur (flourished 1590-1624) was a seventeenth-century Mughal painter and court artist. He grew up during the reign of Jahangir (r. 1605 – 1627) during which period he excelled at depicting plants and animals.

243. The Vedic deity Indra was the Goddess of
A. Wind
B. Eternity
C. Rain and thunder
D. Fire

Answer: Option C
Explanation : In the Vedas, Indra is the king of Svarga (Heaven) and the Devas. He is the god of the heavens, lightning, thunder, storms, rains and river flows. Indra is the most referred to deity in the Rigveda.

244. Tolkappiyam is associated with the
A. first Sangam period
B. second Sangam period
C. third Sangam period
D. post-third Sangam period

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The ancient Tamil literature consists of the grammatical work Tolkappiyam in second Sangam period.

245. Pulakesin II was the most famous ruler of
A. Chalukyas
B. Cholas
C. Pallavas
D. Satavahanas

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Pulakeshin II (IAST: Pulakeśin, r. c. 610-642 CE) was the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty of Vatapi (present-day Badami in Karnataka, India).

246. The term , occurs for the first time in
A. early Vedic texts
B. early Buddhist texts
C. pre-Gupta inscriptions
D. post-Gupta inscriptions

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The term Brahmadeya occured the first time in pre-gupta inscriptions.

247. Under whose leadership was the all India Muslim League set up?
A. Mohammed Ali Jinnah
B. Sayyid Ahmed Khan
C. Aga Khan
D. All of the above

Answer: Option C
Explanation : In 1906, All India Muslim League was set up under the leader ship of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullab of Dacca and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. The League supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi Movement, and demanded special safegurds for its community and a separate electorates of Muslims. This led to communal differences between Hindus and Muslims.

248. Though Ashoka had many sons, the inscriptions mentioned only one who is not mentioned in any other source. He is
A. Kunala
B. Tivara
C. Mahendra
D. Jalauka

Answer: Option B
Explanation : TIVARA is the only son mentioned in the inscription.

249. We can know about early vedic period from
A. archaeological excavations
B. the Rig Veda
C. Jatak Katha
D. contemporary culture

Answer: Option B
Explanation : From Rig Veda, which is the earliest specimen of Indo -European language we know about the Aryans. The Rig Veda consists of ten mandalas or books. We can know about the early vedic period from Rig Veda.

250. The Upanishads are
A. A source of Hindu philosophy
B. Books of ancient Hindu laws
C. Books on social behavior of man
D. Prayers to God

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The Upanishads are a collection of texts of religious and philosophical nature, written in India probably between c. 800 BCE and c. 500 BCE, during a time when Indian society started to question the traditional Vedic religious order.

251. Universities in the Presidency towns in India were established in
A. 1857
B. 1858
C. 1900
D. 1909

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Universities in the Presidency towns in India were established in 1857.

252. The Vijayanagara king who employed skilled archers of the Turkish clan and raised the fighting capacity of his bowmen was
A. Bukka I
B. Devaraya I
C. Krishnadevaraya
D. Ramaraya

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Srikrishna devaraya is the king who employed skilled arches of the Turkish clan and raised the fighting capacity of his bowmen

253. Under the Guptas in eastern India, there was probably an intermediate level of administration between visayas (districts) and villages. Identify it.
A. Bhukit
B. Pradesa
C. Vifhi
D. Ahara

Answer: Option C
Explanation : Under the Guptas in eastern India, there was probably an intermediate level of administration between vishayas (districts) and villages (Vifhi).

254. The two principles monuments of Alaud-din Khilji’s reign – the Jama Masjid at Kana and Alai Darwaza – were constructed at
A. Agra
B. Delhi
C. Dhar
D. Gulbarga

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The two principles monuments of Alaud-din Khilji’s reign – the Jama at Kana Masjid and Alai Darwaza – were constructed at Delhi.

255. The term , is associated with
A. Ajivikas
B. Charvakas
C. Jains
D. Pasupatas

Answer: Option C
Explanation : A Nirgrantha is a term that specifically refers to Jains in religious and philosophical works from the Indian religions.

256. The Kalinga was fought in
A. 321 BC
B. 301 BC
C. 261 BC
D. 241 BC

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Kalinga War was a war fought between the Mauryan Empire and the state of Kalinga. Kalinga was an important kingdom because it controlled the trade routes with Southeast Asia. Because of this, Ashoka, the Mauryan king, wanted to capture it. Therefore he lead his huge army to Kalinga in 261 BC.

257. Under the Government of India, Provincial Legislatures consisted of two chambers, except in the case of
A. Assam
B. Bihar
C. Madras
D. Punjab

Answer: Option D
Explanation : Under the Government of India, Provincial Legislatures consisted of two chambers, except in the case was Punjab.

258. The Venetian traveler who travelled with his wife and reached Vijayanagar around 1420 was
A. Athanasius Nikitin
B. Niccolo de Conti
C. Ibn Batuta
D. Ferishta

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The Venetian traveler who travelled with his wife and reached Vijayanagar around 1420 was Niccolo de Conti.

259. The year 788 AD was a good one for Hinduism. Why?
A. Shankracharya was born that year.
B. Harsha Vardhana the last Buddhist king died.
C. Samudragupta converted to Hinduism.
D. All Muslim invaders were defeated.

Answer: Option A
Explanation : The year 788 AD was a good one for Hinduism because Shankracharya was born that year.

260. The Uprising of 1857 was described as the first Indian war of Independence by
A. S.N. Sen
B. R.
C. Mazumdar
D. Savakar

Answer: Option D
Explanation : The Indian War of Independence is an Indian nationalist history of the 1857 revolt by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar that was first published in 1909.

261. The twenty-third Jaina teacher, Parsva, the immediate predecessor of Mahavira enjoined on his disciples four great vows. To these Mahavira adds which of the followings as the fifth vow?
A. Abstention from stealing
B. Non-injury
C. Brahmacharya or continence
D. Non-attachment

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The twenty-third Jaina teacher, Parsva, the immediate predecessor of Mahavira enjoined on his disciples four great vows. To these Mahavira adds the Brahmacharya or continence as the fifth vow.

262. The Turko-Afghan rule in India lasted for about
A. two centuries
B. three centuries
C. four centuries
D. a little over one century

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Turko Afghan rule in India lasted for about 3 centuries as they were there in the time of Rana Pratap also and the Turkish king Gaznavi invaded Delhi long before that.

263. Which of the following is not included in Mughal paintings?
A. Portraits
B. Islamic themes
C. Flowers and plants
D. Hunting scenes

Answer: Option B
Explanation : The painting which is not included in the Mughal paintings is the Islamic Themes. Mughal paintings are a particular style of South Asian painting. These paintings were evolved during the rule of Mughal Emperors in India and revolved around themes like battles, legendary stories, hunting scenes, wildlife, royal life, mythology, etc.

264. Against which Mughal Emperor was a FATWA issued from Jaunpur?
A. Humayun
B. Akbar
C. Shahjahan
D. Aurangzeb

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Akbar was the Mughal Emperor against whom the Fatwa was issued from Jaunpur.

265. Who gave the slogan DO OR DIE during the quit India movement in 1942?
A. Mahatma Gandhi
B. Subhash Chandra Bose
C. Bhagat Singh
D. Jawaharlal Nehru

Answer: Option A
Explanation : In 1942, in a fiery speech in Mumbai, Mahatma Gandhi gave a ‘do or die’ call to the people of India in a final push to make the British quit.

266. Which Sultan of Delhi was the first to charge GHARI or HOUSE TAX?

A. Balban
B. Alauddin Khalji
C. Mohammad bin Tughlaq
D. Firoz Shah Tughlaq

Answer: Option B
Explanation : Alauddin Khalji was the First Sultan of Delhi to charge Ghari or House Tax.

267. In which year was the quit India movement launched?
A. 1930
B. 1940
C. 1942
D. 1947

Answer: Option C
Explanation : The Quit India Movement, or the August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Gandhiji on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.

268. Which Viceroy of India had largest tenure during British rule:
A. Lord Linlithgow
B. Lord Mountbatten
C. Lord Bentick
D. None of above

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Governor General and Viceroy of India (1936-1944) Lord Linlithgow was Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1944 and this eight years period was longest reign as Viceroy of India.

269. Who was governor general when the 1857 revolt broke out?

A. Canning
B. Lawrence
C. Dalhousie
D. Curzon

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Charles Canning, the Governor-General of India during the rebellion when the 1857 revolt broke out.

270. The title VIKRAMADITYA was assumed by:
A. Samudragupta
B. Kanishka
C. Chandragupta II
D. Ashoka

Answer: Option C
Explanation : “Vikramaditya” was a common title adopted by several Indian kings, and the Vikramaditya legends may be embellished accounts of different kings (particularly Chandragupta II).

271. Zabti System of revenue was prevalent during the reign of
A. Akbar
B. Babar
C. Humayun
D. Jahangir

Answer: Option A
Explanation : Raja Todar Mal, as finance minister of Akbar, brought new system of revenue collection known as zabti system and dahshala system which was a system of taxation. Under the system he took a careful survey of crop yields and prices cultivated for a period of 10 years.


The Curious Case of Multiple Raja Bhojas of India - History

Curious Case Of Chhatradhar Mahato

By Nisha Biswas

16 May, 2015
Countercurrents.org

If memory is not too short, we all remember the circumstances under which Chhatradhar Mahato, spokesperson of Police Santras Birodhi Jansadharaner Committee (People&rsquos Committee Against Police Atrocities (PCAPA)) was arrested. He was arrested while giving interview to a policeman-posing as journalist on September26, 2009 from Pirka near Lalgarh. The incident was reported in all newspapers and television channels. The journalists criticized impersonation of policemen as journalists and intellectuals to the extent that Press Club, Kolkata condemned the manner of his arrest by sending protest letter to the then Union Home Minister, Chief Minister and Chief Secretary and Home Secretary to the government of West Bengal.

However the legal case S.T. Case no XLVI/March/2010 of Lalgarh P.S. Case no. 161/09 dt. 26.09.2009 accusing him and five other (Sambhu Soren, Sagun Murmu, Suksanti Baskey, Raja Sarkhel and Prasun Chatterjee) of offences against the state that includes waging war against the state, criminal conspiracy and sedition (U/secs 121 to 124A of IPC) and attempt to murder along with the provisions of Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act 1967 (UAPA) dealing with banned terrorist organizations, its members and supporters (U/secs 18, 38(2), 39(2) & 40(2)). Chhhatradhar Mahato along with Sambu Soren, Sagun Murmu, Suksanti Baskey were also accused of terrorist activity, raising funds and being member of terrorist gang (U/secs 16(1)(b), 17 & 20 of UAPA). Sambhu Soren and Sagun Mahato were further accused of causing explosion and thus endangering lives U/Sec3 of Explosive Substance Act, 1908 Suksanti Baskey for possessing explosive matter U/Sec 4(b) of the same Act. Furthermore, Chhatradhar Mahato was accused of possessing explosive and illegal arms and ammunitions (Sec 25(1)(a) of the Arms Act, 1959), and are being prosecuted with multiple life sentences speaks otherwise.

The story of their arrest goes like this: That around noon of Sept. 26, 2009 one SI Prasant Kumar Pathak received information from IC Lalgarh PS that some activists of CPI(Maoists) and PCAPA are holding meeting in Kantapahari area of Lalgarh PS. After putting it as GDE no 923 in Lalgarh PS he proceed with joint forces. While crossing Dalilpur village, they heard an explosion. They immediately cordoned the area and took positions with their arms. On searching they found remains of explosive and an electric wire stretching near a bush. Following the wire they found four persons including Sambhu Soren, Ranjit Murmu and Sagun Murmu were hiding behind the tree. They could arrest the above three while the fourth escaped. From the interrogation of above three Mr Pathak learned that the explosion was caused at the order of Chhatradhar Mahato and Kisenji and that they along with Bikash, and others were holding a meeting at Birkar village. First two persons were left in charge of CRPF personnels and Sagun Murmu accompanied the forces to show the way. Around 2.25pm they found 6/7 persons engaged in low voice conversation under the coverage of hedges at Birkar village. Police party rushed to the place and arrested Chhatradhar Mahato while the rest escaped.

The fiction of arrest is similar to the stories usually narrated in FIRs of arresting people accused of terrorist activities all over India. There is always an un-named reliable source and then police party cordoning the area and arresting the accused while other accomplice able to escape. The search will surely find some arm, some incriminatory literature, few posters and leaflets and weapons, which can be a Tangi, axe or a lone arrow in possession. The story has been repeatedly narrated to arrest hundreds of poor villagers for waging war against the state, conspiracy and sedition.

According to police, interrogation in police custody of above four culminated into arrest of Sukshanti Baskey on 02.10.09 and Prasun Chatterjee and Raja Sarkhel on 06.10.09 after the case was transferred to CID, WB and Dy SP Midnapore Sri Ranjit Chakroborty took up the investigation. Case though was initiated against eleven persons, seven in custody and four absconding. Ranjit Murmu died in judicial custody for want of treatment, where instead of providing him care he was chained and tortured. Four absconding Sido Soren, Lalmohan tudu and Kisanji were killed in false encounter.

Out of 39 witnesses 2 remained untraceable and 10 went hostile. So the prosecution depended upon only 27 witnesses. Prosecution against Sambhu Soren and Sagun Murmu failed under Explosive Act, as the material that police exhibit were absolutely new, wires and the tin canisters - fresh from the market. The process of trial was all through biased and depended upon the assumptions of investigating officer that he jotted in FIR. That PCAPA is the frontal organization of banned CPI (Maoist) party and that &lsquotheir activities and circumstances prove that the accused were engaged in conspiracy for abetting waging war against the Government of India and State Government of West Bengal and to overawe the Government by show of criminal force and they, by means of hatching criminal conspiracy amongst the activists of banned CPI (Maoist) and PCAPA have brought and attempted to bring hatred, contempt, excite disaffection towards the Government established by law in India, creating enmity and disloyalty among the masses by visible representation, signs and words by holding meetings, processions, distributing leaflets of banned organizations with the intention to remove the Government by adopting illegal means.&rsquo It is important to remember that CPI (Maoist) party was banned in the state on June22, 2009, but PCAPA said to be its frontal organization was never banned. Chhatradhar Mahato&rsquos statement U/s 313 CrPC that &lsquoPCAPA was initiated in the year 2008, but it was not at all any type of Maoist organization and a number of meetings were held with political leaders like Sudip Bandopadhyay, Partha and Mamta and there Mamta herself declared that if in order to obtain the rights of thousands of people some body is called a Maoist then she agreed to be called as a Maoist and she will even move to Delhi to claim the minimum rights of the people.&rsquo According to the judgment this proves that Chhatradhar Maoist and hence rationalizes the judgment. Then in the 11 CDs/ DVDs it is found that pictures of Carl Marks, Lenin, Stalin, Charu Mazumdar on the stage are clear evidence of Maoist meeting. Prasun Chatterjee is photographed delivering speech in a public meeting. Though content of speech is not there it is assumed that he is instigating public to wage war and is inciting hatred against the state. Raja Sarkhel too is shown in the photographs. The two witnesses claimed to sign under police pressure and that they did not know him. Even the investigating officer (IO) claimed to do under the instructions of his superiors. But does not matter, their being members of Gan Pratirodh Manch (GPM), though is not banned but said to be Maoist frontal organization by the prosecution was sufficient to held them guilty. Photographs with Sido Soren and other members of PCAPA further proved their guilt.

History of Lalgarh movement goes back to Nov6, 2008 when while searching the culprits responsible for land mine blast of Nov2, 2008 at the convoy of chief minister police went to Lalgarh, 45Km away from the place of blast, and subjected the people to beating and molestation and false cases. Lalgarh police station was long been torturing and subjecting them to beating and arrest on a smallest pretext. On Nov4, 2008 evening, three boys all studying in high school standards 8 and 10, were going to their homes in Bashber Village on foot. They were returning from Katapahari, where a program of Baul Song was going on. On the way back home, Lalgarh police picked them for being suspected Maoists. Police party entered the village Baro Pelia in night and beat men and women. Chintamani Murmu was blinded. The villagers were enraged at the incident and surrounded the Lalgarh police station and blockades were made on several roads by felling trees and digging the roads. Later they formed a committee named Police Santras Birodhi Janosadharan Committee (People's Committee against Police Atrocities), putting thirteen demands and put up posters to publicize the same. The major demands include the Superintendent of Police of Paschim Medinipur district has to ask for forgiveness by holding ears and release of those illegally arrested and cases has to be dropped against them. The cases against children arrested were dropped. In turn the Committee removed some of the blockades, though police were not allowed to patrol the area. Lalgarh movement was peaceful and for demand of basic democratic rights and development such as proper prices for forest produce like tendu leaves and babui grass, and an end to harassment in the hands of forest officials, timber mafia etc. that drew the ire of the state on them. Which give us a sense of déjà vu with set up of the Police Santras Birodhi Janosadharaner Committee (PCAPA). State claimed that the movement had direct support of Maoists and to clear them with the help of central government five companies of Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and two companies of Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (COBRA) forces who are specially trained to combat with the Maoist arrived at Midnapore on June17, 2009 and war was declared on its own people who wanted the state to stop oppression and response to their just democratic demands.

The life imprisonment of above six is based on a fabricated story. Court did not bother to look at this angle because then all six would have been acquitted. If police posing journalist has arrested Chhatradhar, then story of the arrest of Sambhu Soren, Sagun Murmu and Ranjit Murmu (died in jail) fails and arrest Of Prasun and Raja too is not justified. Even the admission of Sri Ashok Mukherjee, senior police officer, who was all along present in Lalgarh police camp, that as per Memo of arrest Chhatradhar Mahato was brought under arrest at 14.35 hours on 26.09.2009 at Birkah, Sambhu Soren was brought under arrest at 15.35 hours, Ranjit Murmu at 15.40 hours and Sagun Murmu at 15.30 hours, all on 26.09.2009 from a place near dallipur was ignored. The court went otherwise. It over looked discrepancies in the two GD registers kept in Lalgarh PS, but appreciated them for keeping two registers as per rulebook. It also over looked overwriting on seizure list, interpolating nil in one long barrel gun, the place of recovery remained inconclusive, and the fact that IO himself did not deposit the seized articles in PS malkhana, as well as mismatch in description of the seized articles exhibits shown in the court. It justified the discrepancies in statements, not being able to identify other witness on the pretext of failing memory as a show of genuine and not tutored. It relied on the statement of BDO Binpur-I who claimed that 25 to 30 members of PCAPA came to his office and sought ransom, though he could not provide any material evidence. Moreover, it went over board to discuss social impact of the movement on life and livelihood. This refreshes Parliament attack case and the manner Mohammed Afzal Guru was awarded capital punishment to &ldquosatisfy collective conscience&rdquo.

The judgment of May12, 2015 of Midnapore session court is a travesty of justice and an attempt by the state to send a clear message to the people&rsquos movement across West Bengal and India that any dissent against the state and the ruling classes will be answered in a ruthless manner.

Nisha Biswas is an activist based in Kolkata. She was arrested in Lalgarh in 2010.


The Hindu-Muslim Conflict was Economic, Social, Cultural, Military and Religious

The fierce conflict, that featured the early days of the Muslim occupation of India, was in its hidden essence a conflict for domination of which religion was only one aspect. This struggle was primarily between the Muslim nobility (Amirs) led by the Muslim Monarch (Sultan) on one side with the Hindu nobility and general Hindu population on the other.

To quote D.D. Kosambi , a contemporary historian <block> The monarch's regulations were so strictly carried out that the Khuts, Mukaddims or Chaudhuris (Hindu noblemen and village headmen) were not able to ride on horse-back. They were not allowed to carry weapons or even to indulge in betel. These classes were brought to such a state of obedience that one revenue officer would string twenty Khuts, Mukaddims or Chaudhuris together by the neck and enforce payment by blows. [2] </block>


Motherly figure

Not only did she establish a Church which was elevated to a Basilica in the 20th century, but in 1834 she requested the Pope Gregory XVI to make Sardhana (now in Meerut district) an independent circumscription. Her image as a Mother expanded while she addressed issues related to farmers, hospitals, widows, schools, and orphanages. Begum Samru was passionate about Urdu and Persian as she invited poets like Mirza Rahim Beg and Hira Lal. There are several refined paintings which she commissioned. Some Sardhana portraits were to be found in the Government House at Allahabad and now in Lucknow and one of them was at the Indian Institute at Oxford. She built not only the church but also grand palaces and homes to be found in Delhi, Sardhana and other places. Samru’s persona like that of the Goddess remained contrasted – her image as a benevolent autocrat with cruel acts in the name of social justice. Her austerity contrasted with a lavish lifestyle. Her romantic soul with that of keen diplomatic moves such that she was even perceived as a witch.

Ahilya Bai, on the other hand, grew up in a village in Maharashtra and unlike Samru was known for her simplicity and purity. As a young child, she impressed a passing Maratha chieftain Malhar Rao Holkar with a display of ritualistic worship. He made her the bride of his son who died early leaving Ahilya a widow at 21. Holkar did not allow Ahilya to immolate herself as a Sati, he personally trained her in military and administrator affairs and appointed her ruler. After the loss of her father-in-law and son, she wrote to the head of Maratha Chieftains – The Peshwa and went onto take hold of her kingdom in Malwa. In an undeterred manner, she ruled from Maheshwar on the banks of river Narmada River from 1765-1795. Ahilya fought with four arrows and quivers fitted to the howdah of her elephant, built roads, forts, and encouraged trade and irrigation works. Together with patronising Brahmins, she extended her Brahminical diplomatic tool by constructing ghats, temples, and learning centres in a large number of important religious centres like Kashi, Gaya, Somnath and Dwarka.

Ahilya’s patronage extended to the arts. She patronised poets like Moropant, and Shahir Anantaphandi sculptors and weavers. It was Ahilya who introduced the tradition of the Maheshwari saris. Her persona inspired the Scottish poetess Joanna Baillie who expressed in her poem Ahalya Baee:

“For thirty years her reign of peace,

The land in blessing did increase

And she was blessed by every tongue,

By stern and gentle, old and young.

Yea, even the children at their mothers feet

Are taught such homely rhyming to repeat

“In latter days from Brahma came,

To rule our land, a noble Dame,

Kind was her heart, and bright her fame,

And Ahlya was her honored name.”


The first city Le Corbusier designed

It is cold and bright. All traces of dawn’s fog have blown away in the wind coming from the lake. Sunlight streams in through the thinning neem and bakayan trees that line a central avenue. The Swiss-French urban planner Le Corbusier had planned Chandigarh for half a million Partition-uprooted people. The population is now 1.2 million and projected to shoot up. Satellite towns are already compressing a city that is all of 115 sq. km. If proof were needed, it’s there in the traffic choking this arterial road.

I walk down an inner lane in the fractured shade of bottlebrush and yellow-flowered tecomas to a pair of low, asbestos-roofed, barrack-like structures. A board tells me this is the Le Corbusier Centre where the architect and his talented team worked to create Chandigarh.

Now more than 60 years old, there is a makeshift quality about everything inside the building. The walls have photographs of old work sites, architectural drawings, correspondence around the city, and black-and-white portraits of Le Corbusier alone or with people like Nehru.

On movement and people

Deepika Gandhi is the director of the centre, where she came two years ago. The co-author of a book on Le Corbusier’s work on Chandigarh, she has brought a new energy to the Centre. Visitors have increased exponentially, and there are regular workshops and seminars on Corbusier’s work.

I tell her I am late for our appointment thanks to the traffic. Gandhi says traffic jams have increased only partly because of more vehicles coming in from neighbouring towns the other reason is because Chandigarh’s citizens are using the main arterial roads even when they don’t need to. Seeing my puzzled look, she explains that after the sectors were delineated, Le Corbusier connected them all on a grid of roads so that people could move between sectors without using the main roads. The latter were meant largely for inter-city traffic. Gandhi says people must be made aware of this or the grid will remain under-utilised and arterial roads choked.

The Shadow Tower of Capitol Complex. Photo: Wiki Commons

Le Corbusier philosophised about urban planning, but Chandigarh was the first and last city he actually designed. Inspired by classical Rome, he conceived of the city as a human body with a head, torso and limbs. The Capitol Complex in the north was the head, the middle was the city centre, the limbs the industrial area.

Beyond the Capitol are the Shivalik hills and then the snow-topped Himalayas. Le Corbusier was particular that nothing should obstruct this view. Between the mountains and the plains was a depression into which water channels carrying runoffs from the hills flowed. A three mile-long mud and brick dam was built to form an artificial lake here. And today Sukhna lake continues as Chandigarh’s favourite promenade.

Sukhna Lake and an overcast sky. Photo: Akhilesh Kumar | Photo Credit: Akhilesh Kumar

Influenced by nature

It’s morning and I am at the Mughal gardens in Pinjore, just outside the city. It is quiet. Le Corbusier used to spend time here whenever he could, and was impressed by the symmetry of the garden, its plants, trees and fountains. Did India’s architecture influence him? The open spaces and courtyard of Akbar’s Fatehpur Sikri could have been a prototype for the Capitol. Sawai Jaisingh’s Jantar Mantar certainly lent some motifs, but Lutyen’s Delhi’s imperial coldness clearly did not appeal much to him. What he did bring to Chandigarh were gardens, parks and water bodies. Rows of trees line the streets and shade the housing sectors.

The largest green belt is along the lake, extending into the city. No other Indian city has a garden this size. The Leisure Valley is 8 km long and extends through all the sectors, with a nullah running through the middle that floods during the monsoons.

Water, light and shade are recurring leitmotifs in the city. The architect considered these as the influences that have fashioned our body and spirit. He believed that “towns have snatched men from essential conditions” and therefore sought to re-establish nature in life.

Visitors throng the Zakir Hussain Rose Garden, where more than 800 varieties of roses were on display during the annual rose festival last year. Photo: Akhilesh Kumar

In a sense Chandigarh is designed on two planes. The heart and the limbs are the houses, hospitals, industries and markets where life thrives and throbs. The Capitol with its three monumental edifices is where idealised life is celebrated as in the Acropolis.

Importantly, Le Corbusier democratised the city. Everyone has access to parks, gardens, wide roads and institutions. Buildings are simple with an exposed brick or cement finish. The lower income housing was standardised as two rooms, kitchen and bathroom. This plan was unheard of at the time today it’s the norm.

A view of Punjab and Haryana civil secretariat building, designed and built by Le Corbusier, in Chandigarh. Photo: Akhilesh Kumar

I stand in the middle of the Capitol and look at the enormous High Court on one end. On the other end is the Assembly, with its curvilinear, moulded finish. Its roof has Le Corbusier’s signature with a cooling tower that somehow seems superfluous. The architect placed cloud-shaped floating panels for the acoustics inside. It symbolised the new industrial India.

The High Court. Photo: Wiki Commons

On the plaza is the famous sun dial on Geometric Hill and the wheel and swastika on a winding ramp.

The Open Hand monument. Photo: Wiki Commons

But it’s the Open Hand that transfixes you, with the foothills in the backdrop. Its presence sublimates the Capitol from a utilitarian cluster into soaring art. Its meaning is open to interpretation Le Corbusier merely said it symbolised both giving and receiving. Beyond the Hand is woodland and then the hills. This is perhaps the point of articulation between the present and the eternal, between man and cosmos.

As I retrace my steps it occurs to me that in its majestic sweep and spiritual scale, Le Corbusier’s Chandigarh is comparable perhaps to Hampi, that magnificent capital of another era.

The photography and classical music enthusiast also likes pretending to read and write.


The Revenge of the Republic

By the 4th century AD, the Indian state system had evolved many monarchies, and the early republics had mostly died out owing to the rules of this evolution. Republics were pushed to the periphery of the system, occupying higher ground that was safer from invasion but also less productive, long term.

When the ruler Chandra-Gupta I married Kumaradevi, a Licchhavi “princess” (which means she was the daughter of one of the leading “rajas”), he received the strategically vital city of Pataliputra as dowry. Their son, the emperor Samudra-Gupta, came to the throne in a geopolitical ecology that was hostile to the by-now endangered Indian republic. Sure enough, republics vanish from the scene soon after, while monarchies became increasingly powerful, successful, and normalised. However, this situation changed with the advent of industrialisation, liberalism, and globalisation.

Indian monarchies continued to stick around until the late 20th century, appearing increasingly outdated in the geopolitical ecology, especially compared to nimble, rights-based democracies with an even higher degree of solidarity and surplus redistribution. In the ultimate story of historical justice, perhaps, it was a lady Prime Minister of the Republic of India who abolished a social structure that had been part of the subcontinent for at least 3,500 years.


Watch the video: Dharnath Baba #dharnath City of Raja bhoj (December 2021).