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(DD-520: dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'8"; dr. 17'9", s. 37 k.; cpl. 273, a. 5 5", 10 40mm., 7 20mm., 10 21" tt., 6 dcp.2 dct.; cl. Fletcher)
The second Isherwood (DD-520) was launched by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co., Staten Island, N.Y., 24 November 1942; sponsored by Mrs. A. J. Kerwin, granddaughter of Rear Admiral Isherwood, and commissioned 12 April 1943 at New York Navy Yard, Comdr. R. E. Gadrow in command.
The new destroyer conducted her shakedown training in Casco Bay, Maine, and off Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, through April and May. During the next 2 months she operated with a patrol and escort group out of Argentia Newfoundland, and on 5 August 1943 departed for England with troop ship Queen Mar7,`. Isherwood arrived Scapa Flow 19 August to carry out combined operations with the British Home Fleet, including a search toward Spitzbergen for German battleship Tirpitz. Sailing 14 September, the destroyer returned to Boston with a convoy 29 September 1943.
Isherwood was subsequently reassigned to the Pacific sailing from Boston 14 November for San Francisco. From there she steamed to Pearl Harbor and sailed 11 December to join Task Force 94 in the Aleutians. For the next eight months, Idherwood carried out antisubmarine sweeps of the cold Alaskan waters. In June she took part in bombardments of the Kurile Islands, flnally arriving San Francisco for repairs 15 August 1944.
Isherwood sailed for Pearl Harbor 26 August 1944 to take part in the long awaited invasion of the Philippines. scheduled for October. She arrived Manus 4 October and steamed into Leyte Gulf with the assault force 20 October. carrying out escort and patrol duties during the first days of the operation. She also provided gunfire support and night illumination Sre. Isherwood remained in the assault area during the giant four-part Battle for Leyte Gulf 23-26 October, in which the Japanese surface fleet was all but annihilated. During November the ship escorted convoys from advance bases to the Philippines in support of the buildup there.
The next major invasion of the Philippines campaign was to be at Lingayen Gulf. Isherwood joined Vice Admiral Wilkinson's Lingayen Attack Force at Manus, sailing 27 December. During the voyage through the islands from Leyte to Lingayen, the transport groups and carrier task groups were attacked incessantly by kamikazes, but even these desperate attacks could not stop the invasion. Isherwood shot down at least one suicide plane and assisted in splashing others before arriving the assault area 9 January 1945. She screened a landing craft group during the landing, sailing for Leyte with a returning group 11 January. During the last days of the month, speciflcally 29 and 30 January, the ship returned to Luzon to support the unopposed landings at San Antonio and Subic Bay, as ground units moved on Manila. Isherwood remained in the Philippines providing antisubmarine protection and patrolling until mid-March.
The veteran ship sailed for the Okinawa operation 21 March 1945- and, after her arrival 5 days later, took part in the landings on Kerama Retto preparatory to the main Okinavva assault. Troops from the main task force stormed nshore 1 April in the biggest amphibious operation of the Pacific war, and 2 days later Isherwood moved to a position off the beaches for flre support missions. This continued until 16 April, when the ship was sent to aid stricken destroyers Pringle and Laffey off Ie Shima. That afternoon she took over Laffey's duties as flghter director ship on picket station.
The days that followed found Isherwood in numerous heavy air raids, as the Japanese made a desperate attempt to drive off the invasion fleet with suicide planes. While on station 22 April a kamikaze made a dusk attack on the destroyer and crashed No. 3 gun mount. Many flres were started, but all were quickly extinguished except the one in the depth charge rack aft. After 25 minutes of dangerous flre-flghting, the charge exploded, causing great damage in the after engine room. The gallant ship arrived Kerama Retto with over 80 men killed, wounded, or missing.
Isherwood nrrived Ulithi for repairs 9 May 1945 and steamed into San Francisco Bay 3 June. She flnished her overhaul just as the Pacific war ended; and, after training exercises, sailed 3 October for New York. After taking part in the Navy Day Presidential Review, the ship steamed to Charleston, where she decommissioned 1 February 1946 and was placed in the Atlantic Reserve Fieet.
Isherwood recommissioned at Charleston 5 April 1951 and after shakedown and training in the Caribbean steamed into Newport, her new home port, 6 August. Plane guard duty off Jacksonville and operations in Narragansett Bay occupied her through the end of 1951. She then sailed for a cruise with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean, departing 22 April 1952, and, for the next 6 months, visited various ports supporting the important peace-keeping operations of the fleet. She returned to her home port 17 October 1952.
Isherwood made another 6th Fleet cruise 22 April-26 October 1953, after which she took part in maneuvers and plane guard duty olT the East Caast. In June 1954 the ship underwent refresher training out of Guantanamo Bay, and sailed from Newport 30 November 1954 to join the Pacifle Fleet.
The veteran ship arrived San Diego via the Panama Canal 15 December 1954, and got underway for the Far East 4 January 1855. During this cruise she operated mainly in the Philippines, with a period on Taiwan Patrol in April and May 1955. Her part in these important Tth Fleet operations ended in June and she arrived San Diego the 19th for ndditional training and readiness steaming. 1956, however, brought Isherwood back to these troubled waters, as she spent the period January~July on operations off Taiwan, Malaya, and Japan.
The destroyer returned to the Far East in 1957 and again in 1958. During the latter cruise she steamed aff Taiwan during the tense Quemoy-Matsu crisis, when American forces adoat helped prevent a flareup between Nationalist and Communist Chinese. The ship returned to her home port 7 December 1958, and spent the first 6 months of 1959 on maneuvers and training exercises. Isherwood then sailed for her flfth 7th Eqeet cruise 1 August 1959. During the next months she operated with carrier Lexington in the South China Sea, helping to limit the flghting in Laos and lending strength to United Nations efforts to flnd a solution. After additional eight operations and fleet exercises, the ship sailed for San Diego 29 November 1959.
In 1960 Isherwood took part in training operations, including a summer NROTC midshipmen training cruise until sailing again for 7th Fleet duty 18 October. She served on.Taiwan Patrol and took part in an amphibious exercise on Okinawa before arriving San Diego 27 March 1961
Isherwood engaged in training off California until decommissioning 11 September 1961. She was loaned to Peru 8 October 1961, where she serves the Peruvian Navy as Guise (DD-72).
Isherwood received five battle stars for World War II service.
USS Isherwood (DD-520)
USS Isherwood (DD-520), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Rear Admiral Benjamin F. Isherwood (1822).
Isherwood was launched by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co., Staten Island, N.Y., 24 November 1942, sponsored by Mrs. A. J. Kerwin, granddaughter of Rear Admiral Isherwood and commissioned 12 April 1943 at New York Navy Yard, Commander R. E. Gadrow in command.
The new destroyer conducted her shakedown training in Casco Bay, Maine, and off Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, through April and May. During the next 2 months she operated with a patrol and escort group out of NS Argentia, Newfoundland, and on 5 August 1943 departed for England with troop ship RMS Queen Mary. Isherwood arrived Scapa Flow 19 August to carry out combined operations with the British Home Fleet, including a search toward Spitzbergen for German battleship Tirpitz. Sailing 14 September, the destroyer returned to Boston with a convoy 29 September 1943.
Isherwood was subsequently reassigned to the Pacific, sailing from Boston 14 November for San Francisco. From there she steamed to Pearl Harbor and sailed 11 December to join Task Force 94 (TF 94) in the Aleutians. For the next eight months, Isherwood carried out antisubmarine sweeps of the cold Alaskan waters. In June she took part in bombardments of the Kurile Islands, finally arriving San Francisco for repairs 15 August 1944.
Isherwood II DD 520 - History
- Isherwood (DD 520), Kimberly (DD 521), Luce (DD 522), Charles J. Badger (DD 657) and Picking (DD 685), square-bridge ships from Bethlehem Staten Island, commissioned from April through July and September 1943.
- Sproston (DD 577), Wickes (DD 578), William D. Porter (DD 579) and Young (DD 580), round-brudge ships and the last four destroyers built at Consolidated Shipbuilding, Orange, Texas, commissioned between May and July 1943.
Destroyer Squadron 49
World War II Operations
Kimberly joined the Pacific Fleet in time to participate in the Gilbert Islands operation. After returning to San Francisco in January 1944, she joined the other ships of her squadron in the Aleutians.
Operating from Massacre Bay, Attu from the beginning of 1944 through midsummer, the squadron participated in two raids. In March, it screened light cruiser Richmond in the first operation into the Sea of Okhotsk to search for a convoy and conduct shore bombardment, but ran into a major storm which cause topside damage to several ships. In June, it sortied again in the screen of cruisers Chester, Pensacola and Concord for a bombardment of Paramushiro Island off the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
After overhaul, the squadron joined other forces at Manus for the invasion of the Philippines at Leyte and remained intact for the landings at Lingayen Gulf, Luzon. Less Kimberly and William D. Porter, the squadron then operated out of Subic Bay for the operation against Corregidor and other defenses of Manila Bay.
After Manila was taken, Young followed the Seventh Fleet south to Mindanao while the remainder of the squadron moved north to Okinawa for fire support and radar picket duty before returning to San Francisco at the end of the war.
&bull On 4 May 1945, Luce was hit by a bomb from one suicide plane and immediately crashed by another and sank with a loss of 126 officers and men.
&bull On 10 June 1945, William D. Porter was lost after a suicide plane splashed nearby but exploded beneath her, opening her seams. No lives were lost.
USS Isherwood (DD-520)
USS "Isherwood" (DD-520), a "Fletcher"-class destroyer , was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Rear Admiral Benjamin F. Isherwood ( 1822 &ndash 1915 ).
"Isherwood" was launched by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co., Staten Island , N.Y. , 24 November 1942 , sponsored by Mrs. A. J. Kerwin, granddaughter of Rear Admiral Isherwood and commissioned 12 April 1943 at New York Navy Yard , Commander R. E. Gadrow in command.
The new destroyer conducted her shakedown training in Casco Bay , Maine , and off Guantanamo Bay, Cuba , through April and May. During the next 2 months she operated with a patrol and escort group out of NS Argentia, Newfoundland, and on 5 August 1943 departed for England with troop ship RMS "Queen Mary". "Isherwood" arrived Scapa Flow 19 August to carry out combined operations with the British Home Fleet , including a search toward Spitsbergen for German battleship "Tirpitz". Sailing 14 September , the destroyer returned to Boston with a convoy 29 September 1943 .
"Isherwood" was subsequently reassigned to the Pacific , sailing from Boston 14 November for San Francisco . From there she steamed to Pearl Harbor and sailed 11 December to join Task Force 94 (TF 94) in the Aleutians . For the next eight months, "Isherwood" carried out anti submarine sweeps of the cold Alaska n waters. In June she took part in bombardments of the Kurile Islands , finally arriving San Francisco for repairs 15 August 1944 .
"Isherwood" sailed for Pearl Harbor 26 August 1944 to take part in the long-awaited invasion of the Philippines , scheduled for October. She arrived at Manus on 4 October and steamed into Leyte Gulf with the assault force 20 October , carrying out escort and patrol duties during the first days of the operation. She also provided gunfire support and night illumination fire. "Isherwood" remained in the assault area during the giant four-part Battle for Leyte Gulf 23&ndash 26 October , in which the Japanese surface fleet was all but annihilated. During November the ship escorted convoys from advance bases to the Philippines in support of the buildup there.
The next major invasion of the Philippines campaign was to be at Lingayen Gulf . "Isherwood" joined Vice Admiral Theodore S. Wilkinson 's Lingayen Attack Force at Manus, sailing 27 December . During the voyage through the islands from Leyte to Lingayen, the transport groups and carrier task groups were attacked incessantly by kamikaze s, but even these desperate attacks could not stop the invasion. "Isherwood" shot down at least one suicide plane and assisted in splashing others before arriving the assault area 9 January 1945 . She screened a landing craft group during the landing, sailing for Leyte with a returning group 11 January . During the last days of the month, specifically 29 and 30 January , the ship returned to Luzon to support the unopposed landings at San Antonio and Subic Bay , as ground units moved on Manila . "Isherwood" remained in the Philippines providing antisubmarine protection and patrolling until mid-March.
"Isherwood" sailed for the Okinawa operation 21 March 1945 and, after her arrival 5 days later, took part in the landings on Kerama Retto preparatory to the main assault on Okinawa. Troops from the main task force stormed ashore 1 April in the biggest amphibious operation of the Pacific war, and 2 days later "Isherwood" moved to a position off the beaches for fire support missions. This continued until 16 April , when the ship was sent to aid stricken destroyers "Pringle" (DD-477) and "Laffey" (DD-724) off Ie Shima . That afternoon she took over "Laffey"'s duties as fighter director ship on picket station.
The days that followed found "Isherwood" in numerous heavy air raids, as the Japanese made a desperate attempt to drive off the invasion fleet with suicide planes. While on station 22 April a kamikaze made a dusk attack on the destroyer and crashed No. 3 gun mount. One veteran described the kamikaze pilot as: "a jockey riding in on a horse." Many fires were started by the D3A1 "Val" dive bomber and his 500-pound bomb, but all were quickly extinguished except the one in the depth charge rack aft. After 25 minutes of dangerous fire-fighting, the charge exploded, causing great damage in the after engine room. "Isherwood" arrived Kerama Retto with over 80 men killed, wounded, or missing.
After the war
"Isherwood" arrived Ulithi for repairs 9 May 1945 and steamed into San Francisco Bay 3 June . She finished her overhaul just as the Pacific war ended and, after training exercises, sailed 3 October for New York . After taking part in the Navy Day Presidential Review, the ship steamed to Charleston, where she decommissioned 1 February 1946 and was placed in the Atlantic Reserve Fleet .
"Isherwood" recommissioned at Charleston 5 April 1951 , and after shakedown and training in the Caribbean steamed into Newport, her new home port, 6 August . Plane guard duty off Jacksonville and operations in Narragansett Bay occupied her through the end of 1951. She then sailed for a cruise with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean , departing 22 April 1952 , and, for the next 6 months, visited various ports supporting the important peace-keeping operations of the fleet. She returned to her home port 17 October 1952 .
"Isherwood" made another 6th Fleet cruise 22 April &ndash 26 October 1953 , after which she took part in maneuvers and plane guard duty off the East Coast. In June 1954 the ship underwent refresher training out of Guantanamo Bay, and sailed from Newport 30 November 1954 to join the Pacific Fleet.
The veteran ship arrived San Diego via the Panama Canal 15 December 1954 , and got underway for the Far East 4 January 1955 . During this cruise she operated mainly in the Philippines, with a period on Taiwan Patrol in April and May 1955. Her part in these important 7th Fleet operations ended in June and she arrived San Diego the 19th for additional training and readiness steaming. 1956 , however, brought "Isherwood" back to these troubled waters, as she spent the period January&ndashJuly on operations off Taiwan , Malaya, and Japan .
The destroyer returned to the Far East in 1957 and again in 1958 . During the latter cruise she steamed off Taiwan during the tense Quemoy-Matsu crisis, when American forces afloat helped prevent a flareup between Nationalist and Communist China. The ship returned to her home port 7 December 1958 , and spent the first 6 months of 1959 on maneuvers and training exercises. "Isherwood" then sailed for her fifth 7th Fleet cruise 1 August 1959 . During the next months she operated with carrier "Lexington" (CV-16) in the South China Sea , helping to limit the fighting in Laos and lending strength to United Nations efforts to find a solution. After additional flight operations and fleet exercises, the ship sailed for San Diego 29 November 1959 .
In 1960 "Isherwood" took part in training operations, including a summer NROTC midshipmen training cruise, until sailing again for 7th Fleet duty 18 October . She served on Taiwan Patrol and took part in an amphibious exercise on Okinawa before arriving San Diego 27 March 1961 .
"Isherwood" engaged in training off California until decommissioning 11 September 1961 . She was loaned to Peru 8 October 1961 , but was never returned.
The Peruvian Navy renamed the ship BAP "Almirante Guise" (DD-72).The ship was stricken and scraped in 1981 .
"Isherwood" received five battle star s for World War II service.
* [http://www.navsource.org/archives/05/520.htm navsource.org: USS "Isherwood"]
* [http://www.hazegray.org/danfs/destroy/dd520txt.htm hazegray.org: USS "Isherwood"]
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USS Isherwood (DD 520)
Decommissioned 1 February 1946. Recommissioned 5 April 1951.
Decommissioned 11 September 1961.
Stricken 15 January 1974.
Transferred to Peru on 8 October 1961 being renamed Almirante Guise. Almirante Fuise was stricken and scraped in 1981.
Commands listed for USS Isherwood (DD 520)
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|1||T/Cdr. Robert Emmett Gadrow, USN||12 Apr 1943||11 Apr 1944|
|2||T/Cdr. Louis Edward Schmidt, Jr., USN||11 Apr 1944||15 Aug 1945|
|3||Louis Harkey Mayo, USN||15 Aug 1945||1 Feb 1946|
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Notable events involving Isherwood include:
28 Aug 1943
HrMs O 15 (Lt.Cdr. A.J. Schouwenaar, RNN) conducted A/S exercises at / off Scapa Flow with HMS Spartan (Capt. P.V. McLaughlin, RN), HMS Hardy (Lt.Cdr. R. Horncastle, RN), HMS Rocket (Lt.Cdr. H.B. Acworth, OBE, RN), HMCS Iroquois (Cdr. J.C. Hibbard DSC, RCN) and USS Isherwood (Cdr. R.E. Gadrow, USN). ( 1 )
3 Sep 1943
HrMs O 15 (Lt.Cdr. A.J. Schouwenaar, RNN) conducted A/S exercises at / off Scapa Flow with ORP Orkan (Cdr. S. Hryniewiecki, ORP), USS Isherwood (Cdr. R.E. Gadrow, USN) and USS Hobson (Lt.Cdr. K. Loveland, USN).
Later she departed Scapa Flow for Lerwick escorted by HMS Loch Monteith (T/Lt. K.W. Richardson, RNR). ( 1 )
Isherwood được đặt lườn tại xưởng tàu của hãng Bethlehem Steel Co. ở Staten Island New York vào ngày 12 tháng 5 năm 1942. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 24 tháng 11 năm 1942 được đỡ đầu bởi bà A. J. Kerwin, cháu nội Chuẩn đô đốc Isherwood và nhập biên chế tại Xưởng hải quân New York vào ngày 12 tháng 4 năm 1943 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Trung tá Hải quân R. E. Gadrow.
1943 Sửa đổi
Isherwood tiến hành chạy thử máy huấn luyện tại vùng biển Casco Bay, Maine và ngoài khơi vịnh Guantánamo, Cuba trong tháng 4 và tháng 5 năm 1943. Trong hai tháng tiếp theo, nó hoạt động tuần tra và hộ tống ngoài khơi Argentia, Newfoundland, và vào ngày 5 tháng 8 đã lên đường đi Anh Quốc cùng chiếc tàu chở quân RMS Queen Mary. Nó đi đến Scapa Flow vào ngày 19 tháng 8, hoạt động trong các chiến dịch phối hợp cùng Hạm đội Nhà Anh Quốc, bao gồm một cuộc càn quét về hướng Spitzbergen để truy lùng thiết giáp hạm Đức Quốc Xã Tirpitz. Khởi hành vào ngày 14 tháng 9, chiếc tàu khu trục cùng một đoàn tàu vận tải quay trở về Boston, Massachusetts vào ngày 29 tháng 9.
1944 Sửa đổi
Isherwood được điều động sang Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương nó khởi hành từ Boston vào ngày 14 tháng 11 năm 1943 để đi San Francisco, California để rồi tiếp tục đi đến Trân Châu Cảng. Con tàu lên đường vào ngày 11 tháng 12 để gia nhập Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 94 tại khu vực quần đảo Aleut, và trong tám tháng tiếp theo, nó tuần tra chống tàu ngầm tại vùng biển Alaska lạnh giá. Vào tháng 6 năm 1944, nó tham gia một đợt bắn phá các cứ điểm phòng thủ của Nhật Bản tại quần đảo Kurile. Cuối cùng nó quay trở về San Francisco để sửa chữa vào ngày 15 tháng 8.
Isherwood lên đường đi Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 26 tháng 8 để tham gia chiến dịch giải phóng Philippines, vốn được dự định vào tháng 10. Nó đi đến đảo Manus vào ngày 4 tháng 10, và tiến vào vịnh Leyte cùng lực lượng tấn công vào ngày 20 tháng 10, thực hiện hộ tống và tuần tra trong những ngày đầu của Trận Leyte, cũng như bắn pháo hỗ trợ và bắn pháo sáng ban đêm. Nó tiếp tục ở lại khu vực tấn công vào lúc diễn ra trận Hải chiến vịnh Leyte từ ngày 23 đến ngày 26 tháng 10, một thất bại khác của Hải quân Đế quốc Nhật Bản. Trong tháng 11, nó hộ tống các đoàn tàu vận tải từ các căn cứ tiền phương đến Philippines để tích lũy lực lượng.
1945 Sửa đổi
Trong chiến dịch tấn công lớn tiếp theo ở Philippines tại vịnh Lingayen, Isherwood tham gia lực lượng tấn công dưới quyền Phó đô đốc Theodore S. Wilkinson tại Manus, và lên đường vào ngày 27 tháng 12 năm 1944. Trong suốt hành trình đi từ Leyte đến Lingayen, các đội tàu vận tải và tàu sân bay liên tục bị máy bay tấn công cảm tử Kamikaze không kích, nhưng không ngăn chặn được cuộc tấn công chiếc tàu khu trục đã bắn rơi ít nhất một máy bay tự sát và trợ giúp bắn rơi những chiếc khác trước khi đi đến khu vực tấn công vào ngày 9 tháng 1 năm 1945. Nó đã bảo vệ cho một đội tàu vận chuyển trong quá trình đổ bộ, quay trở lại Leyte cùng một đôi tàu vào ngày 11 tháng 1. Trong các ngày 29 và 30 tháng 1, nó đi đến Luzon hỗ trợ cho cuộc đổ bộ không gặp kháng cự lên San Antonio và vịnh Subic trong khi lực lượng tiến quân về phía Manila. Chiếc tàu khu trục tiếp tục ở lại khu vực Philippines làm nhiệm vụ bảo vệ chống tàu ngầm và tuần tra cho đến giữa tháng 3
Isherwood lên đường cho chiếc dịch tấn công tiếp theo lên Okinawa vào ngày 21 tháng 3. Đến nơi năm ngày sau đó, nó tham gia cuộc đổ bộ lên Kerama Retto nhằm chuẩn bị cho cuộc đổ bộ chính lên Okinawa. Binh lính đổ bộ lên bờ vào ngày 1 tháng 4 trong chiến dịch đổ bộ lớn nhất tại Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương. Hai ngày sau đó, chiếc tàu khu trục đi đến một vị trí ngoài khơi bãi đổ bộ để hoạt động bắn phá hỗ trợ, một nhiệm vụ được thực hiện cho đến ngày 16 tháng 4, khi nó được phái đi trợ giúp các tàu khu trục Pringle (DD-477) và Laffey (DD-724) ngoài khơi Ie Shima. Xế trưa hôm đó, nó thay phiên cho Laffey làm nhiệm vụ cột mốc radar dẫn đường máy bay chiến đấu.
Trong những ngày tiếp theo, Isherwood chịu đựng nhiều cuộc không kích nặng nề khi phía Nhật Bản nỗ lực tuyệt vọng nhằm đánh trả hạm đội đổ bộ bằng máy bay tự sát. Đang khi trực chiến vào ngày 22 tháng 4, một chiếc Kamikaze đã tấn công vào lúc nhá nhem tối, đăm bổ vào tháp pháo 5-inch số 3. Nhiều đám cháy phát sinh bởi chiếc máy bay ném bom bổ nhào Aichi D3A "Val" và quả bom 500-pound mang theo, nhưng tất cả được nhanh chóng dập tắt ngoài trừ tại đường ray thả mìn sâu phía đuôi tàu. Sau 25 phút dập lửa đầy bất trắc, các quả mìn bị kích nổ gây hư hại nặng nề cho phòng động cơ phía sau. Chiếc tàu khu trục quay trở về Kerama Retto với trên 80 người thiệt mạng, mất tích hay bị thương.
Isherwood đi đến Ulithi vào ngày 9 tháng 5 để được sửa chữa, rồi quay trở về San Francisco vào ngày 3 tháng 6. Nó chỉ hoàn tất việc đại tu sau khi chiến tranh tại Thái Bình Dương đã kết thúc, và sau khi thực hành huấn luyện, nó lên đường đi New York vào ngày 3 tháng 10. Sau khi tham gia lễ Duyệt binh Tổng thống nhân ngày Hải quân, chiếc tàu khu trục đi đến Charleston, South Carolina, nơi nó được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 1 tháng 2 năm 1946 và đưa về Hạm đội Dự bị Đại Tây Dương.
1951 – 1961 Sửa đổi
Isherwood được cho nhập biên chế trở lại tại Charleston vào ngày 5 tháng 4 năm 1951, và sau khi chạy thử máy huấn luyện tại vùng biển Caribe, nó đi đến cảng nhà mới tại Newport, Rhode Island vào ngày 6 tháng 8. Nó làm nhiệm vụ canh phòng máy bay cho tàu sân bay ngoài khơi Jacksonville, Florida và hoạt động tại khu vực vịnh Narragansett cho đến cuối năm 1951. Chiếc tàu khu trục sau đó lên đường cho chuyến đi cùng Đệ Lục hạm đội tại Địa Trung Hải, khởi hành vào ngày 22 tháng 4 năm 1952. Trong sáu tháng tiếp theo, nó viếng thăm nhiều cảng thi hành sứ mạng gìn giữ hòa bình của hạm đội, trước khi quay trở về cảng nhà vào ngày 17 tháng 10.
Isherwood thực hiện một lượt bố trí khác cùng Đệ Lục hạm đội từ ngày 22 tháng 4 đến ngày 26 tháng 10 năm 1953, rồi sau đó làm nhiệm vụ cơ động và canh phòng máy bay dọc theo vùng bờ Đông. Vào tháng 6 năm 1954, nó tiến hành huấn luyện ôn tập tại vùng biển ngoài khơi vịnh Guantánamo, rồi lên đường từ Newport vào ngày 30 tháng 11 để gia nhập Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương. Nó băng qua kênh đào Panama và đi đến San Diego vào ngày 15 tháng 12.
Isherwood khởi hành đi sang Viễn Đông vào ngày 4 tháng 1 năm 1955, chủ yếu hoạt động tại khu vực Philippines ngoại trừ một chuyến tuần tra eo biển Đài Loan trong tháng 4 và tháng 5. Con tàu kết thúc lượt phục vụ cùng Đệ Thất hạm đội vào tháng 6, quay về đến San Diego vào ngày 19 tháng 6, và tiếp tục hoạt động thường lệ và huấn luyện dọc theo vùng bờ Tây. Con tàu lại được phái sang khu vực Tây Thái Bình Dương đầy bất ổn trong năm 1956, khi nó trải qua giai đoạn từ tháng 1 đến tháng 7 tuần tra ngoài khơi Đài Loan, Malaya và Nhật Bản. Chiếc tàu khu trục còn quay lại Viễn Đông trong năm 1957, viếng thăm Sydney, Perth và Darwin, Australia cùng ba tàu khu trục khác thuộc Đội khu trục 211 trực thuộc Hải đội Khu trục 21.
Isherwood lại có mặt ngoài khơi Đài Loan vào năm 1958 do vụ Khủng hoảng eo biển Đài Loan lần thứ hai, khi phía Trung Cộng bắn pháo vào các đảo Kim Môn và Mã Tổ còn do Trung Hoa dân quốc kiểm soát, giúp ngăn ngừa lan rộng cuộc xung đột. Nó quay về cảng nhà San Diego vào ngày 7 tháng 12 năm 1958, và trải qua sáu tháng đầu năm 1959 thực hành cơ động và huấn luyện sau khi được tái trang bị tại Xưởng hải quân Mare Island. Nó lên đường cho lượt phục vụ thứ bảy cùng Đệ Thất hạm đội vào ngày 1 tháng 8 năm 1959, hoạt động cùng tàu sân bay Lexington (CV-16) tại Biển Đông khi xảy ra xung đột tại Lào nhằm giúp tìm kiếm một giải pháp hòa bình. Sau các hoạt động thực hành hạm đội và canh phòng máy bay, nó lên đường quay về San Diego vào ngày 29 tháng 11 năm 1959.
Đến năm 1960, Isherwood tham gia các hoạt động thực tập huấn luyện, bao gồm một chuyến đi huấn luyện học viên sĩ quan, cho đến khi lại lên đường làm nhiệm vụ cùng Đệ Thất hạm đội vào ngày 18 tháng 10. Nó tham gia tuần tra tại Đài Loan và thực tập đổ bộ tại Okinawa trước khi quay trở về San Diego vào ngày 27 tháng 3 năm 1961. Con tàu lại hoạt động huấn luyện dọc theo vùng bờ biển California cho đến khi được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 11 tháng 9 năm 1961, và được chuyển cho Peru mượn vào ngày 8 tháng 10 năm 1961.
Chiếc tàu khu trục đã phục vụ cùng Hải quân Peru như là chiếc BAP Almirante Guise (DD-72). Con tàu ngừng hoạt động và bị tháo dỡ vào năm 1981.
Iconic and Heroic: The Fletcher Class Destroyers
The USS Fletcher DD-445
If ever a class of warships can define a ship type the destroyers of the Fletcher Class were that. The most numerous of all United States Navy destroyer classes the Navy commissioned 175 of these ships between June 1942 and February 1945. There were two groupings of ships the 58 round or “high bridge” ships and the 117 square or “low bridged” ships. It was a sound design that would be modified for use in the later Allen M. Sumner and Gearing Class destroyers. Eleven shipyards produced the ships fast, heavily armed and tough the ships would serve in every theater of the war at sea but would find their greatest fame in the Pacific where many became synonymous with the courage and devotion of their officers and crews.
USS Stevens one of the 6 Fletchers equipped with an aircraft catapult
The ships were a major improvement on previous classes of destroyers and were equal or superior to the destroyers of our allies and our enemies in the war. At 2050 tons displacement and 2900 tons full load the ships were significantly larger than preceding classes and were designed to mount a superior anti-aircraft armament to compliment their main battery of five 5” 38 caliber dual purpose guns and ten 21” torpedo tubes. 376 feet long and flush decked they were an exceptionally tough class of ships which was demonstrated often in the brutal surface battles in the South Pacific, Leyte Gulf and in the battles with Kamikazes off the Philippines, Iwo Jima, Okinawa and the Japanese mainland. They were the first destroyers of the US Navy which were built with radar as part of the initial design.
USS O’Bannon DD-450 in 1961
The anti aircraft armament was increased throughout the war. Initially this was composed of: 4 x 40mm Bofors in two twin-mounts and 6 to 13 x 20mm Oerlikon in single-mounts. By June of 1943 new ships of the class mounted 10 x 40mm Bofors in five twin-mounts 7 x 20mm Oerlikon in single-mounts. As the Kamikaze threat became dire ships returning to the United States for refit lost one of their torpedo tube mounts and had their AA armament increased to 14 x 40mm Bofors in three twin and two quad mounts and 12 x 20mm Oerlikon in six twin mounts. One of the more unusual experiments was to equip six ships with a catapult for a float plane. This eliminated some of their AA guns and one torpedo tube mounting. It was not successful and the mounts were removed before the end of the war.
USS Nicholas in action at Kula Gulf
The first ships of the class saw action in the Solomons during the Guadalcanal campaign. Fletcher and O’Bannon took part in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal where O’Bannon was one of several destroyers that ganged up on the Japanese Battleship Hiei at ranges as low as 500 yards causing heavy damage to the Battleship which was sunk by naval aircraft the following day. The O’Bannon would be awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for her actions around Guadalcanal which read:
“For outstanding performance in combat against enemy Japanese forces in the South Pacific from October 7, 1942, to October 7, 1943. An aggressive veteran after a year of continuous and intensive operations in this area, the U.S.S. O’BANNON has taken a tremendous toll of vital Japanese warships, surface vessels and aircraft. Launching a close range attack on hostile combatant ships off Guadalcanal on the night of November 13, 1942, the O’BANNON scored three torpedo hits on a Japanese battleship, boldly engaged two other men o’ war with gunfire and retired safely in spite of damage sustained. During three days of incessant hostilities in July 1943, she gallantly stood down Kula Gulf to bombard enemy shore positions in coverage of our assault groups, later taking a valiant part in the rescue of survivors from the torpedoed U.S.S STRONG while under fierce coastal battery fire and aerial bombing attack and adding her fire power toward the destruction of a large Japanese naval force. In company with two destroyers, the O’BANNON boldly intercepted and repulsed nine hostile warships off Vella Lavella on October 7, 1943, destroying two enemy ships and damaging others. Although severely damaged, she stood by to take aboard and care for survivors of a friendly torpedoed destroyer and retired to base under her own power. The O’BANNON’s splendid acheivements and the gallant fighting spirit of her officers and men reflect great credit upon the United States Naval Service.
Fletcher’s composed DESON 23 the Little Beavers” commanded by Commodore Arleigh “31 knot” Burke. The squadron which covered the initial landings at Bougainville in November 1943 fought in 22 separate engagements during the next four months. During this time the squadron was credited with destroying one Japanese cruiser, nine destroyers, one submarine, several smaller ships, and approximately 30 aircraft. Under Burke the squadron was composed of USS Foote (DD-511), USS Charles Ausburne (DD-570), USS Spence (DD-512), USS Claxton (DD-571), USS Dyson (DD-572), USS Converse (DD-509) and USS Thatcher (DD-514). At the Battle of Cape St. George the squadron intercepted a Japanese force of 5 destroyers sinking 3. At the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay the ships were in action as part of Task Force 39 based around Cruiser Division 12 comprised of the Cleveland Class Light Cruisers Montpelier, Cleveland, Columbia and Denver the took part in the sinking of the Japanese Light Cruiser Sendai and a destroyer. For their efforts DESRON 23 would be awarded the Presidential Unit Citation which stated:
“For extrordinary heroism in action against enemy Japanese forces during the Solomon Islands Campaign, from November 1, 1943, to February 23, 1944. Boldly penetrating submarine-infested waters during a period when Japanese naval and air power was at its height, Destroyer Squadron TWENTY THREE operated in daring defiance of repeated attacks by hostile air groups, closing the enemy’s strongly fortified shores to carry out sustained bombardments against Japanese coastal defenses and render effective cover and fire support for the major invasion operations in this area. Commanded by forceful leaders and manned by aggressive, fearless crews the ships of Squadron TWENTY THREE coordinated as a superb fighting team they countered the enemy’s fierce aerial bombing attacks and destroyed or routed his planes they intercepted his surface task forces, sank or damaged his warships by torpedo fire and prevented interference with our transports. The brilliant and heroic record achieved by Destroyer Squadron TWENTY THREE is a distinctive tribute to the valiant fighting spirit of the individual units in this indomitable combat group and of each skilled and courageous ship’s company.”
USS Johnston DD-557
Fletcher’s served heroically with “Taffy-3” in the Battle of Samar at the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Taffy-3 which was composed of 6 escort carriers, the Fletcher Class destroyers Hoel, Johnston and Heermann and 4 destroyer escorts was assigned the task of providing close air support for troops ashore and anti-submarine protection for transports. On the morning of October 25 th Admiral Halsey took Third Fleet north to engage a Japanese carrier force believing a Japanese surface force of battleships and cruisers to have withdrawn after being heavily hurt by submarine and air attacks. The carrier force had few aircraft and was considered a decoy by the Japanese. This left the San Bernardino Strait unguarded and the Japanese surface force which by now was comprised of 4 battleships including the Yamato as well as 6 heavy and 2 light cruisers and 11 destroyers doubled back going through the strait during the early morning hours of the 25 th . Just before dawn a patrol aircraft spotted the Japanese force and at 0659 Yamato opened fire on the task group.
USS Hoel DD-533
The three Fletcher’s and the Destroyer escort Samuel B Roberts were launched into a suicidal counter-attack against the Japanese force. Led by Johnston under the command of Ernest E. Evans the little ships engaged their vastly superior foe as the escort carriers edged away as they launched and recovered their aircraft to keep a continuous air assault on the Japanese force. Johnston scored numerous hits with her 5” guns on the Heavy Cruiser Kumano and when she reached torpedo range launched her 10 “fish” one of which blew off Kumano’s bow and another of which crippled Kumano’s sister Suzuya before she was hit in quick succession by a 14” shell from the Battleship Kongo which hit her engine room and three 6” shells from Yamato which struck her bridge. Evans kept the crippled ship in the fight drawing fire away from other attacking destroyers and fending off a Japanese destroyer squadron that was trying to flank the carriers. Johnston continued to be hit and was abandon at 0945 sinking 25 minutes later with 186 of her crew. Evans did not survive and was awarded the Medal of Honor.
USS Heermann DD-532 in action at Samar
Hoel under the command of Commander Leon S. Kintberger took on the Battleship Kongo and a column of cruisers lead by the Heavy Cruiser Haguro. Hoel’s torpedo attack on Kongo forced that ship to turn away and torpedo hits were claimed on the Haguro, although that ship remained in action and the Japanese denied any torpedo damage from the attack. The Japanese concentrated on Hoel sinking her at 0855 taking all but 86 of her crew to a watery grave.
Heermann under Commander Amos Hathaway threw herself into the fight engaging Japanese battleships and cruisers. Heermann engaged Heavy Cruiser Chikuma with her guns while mounting a torpedo attack on Haguro. She then attacked the Japanese battleships directly engaging Haruna and forcing Yamato to head away from the action for 10 minutes as she was bracketed by two of Heermann’s torpedoes running on a parallel course. She engaged the other battleships at such close range that they could not hit her and broke off to intercept a column of cruisers. Once again she engaged Chikuma in a bloody duel with both ships taking heavy damage. Crippled by a series of 8” shell hits from the heavy cruisers Heermann was down heavily at the bow, so much so that her anchors dragged the water. Carrier aircraft joined the battle and Chikuma withdrew from the fight and sank during her withdraw. Heermann then engaged Heavy Cruiser Tone before that ship, also damaged by air attack withdrew from the fight. Though she was heavily damaged the Heermann was the only destroyer to survive the action. Despite their terrible losses the ships and aircraft of Taffy-3 sank 3 heavy cruisers and a destroyer and heavily damaged 3 battleships and 3 heavy cruisers.
Just a bit wet, USS Halsey Powell unrep with USS Wisconsin
For their heroic actions which kept the Japanese from getting to the vulnerable transports Taffy-3 including the valiant destroyers Johnston, Hoel, Heerman and Destroyer Escort Samuel B Roberts was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation which read:
“For extraordinary heroism in action against powerful units of the Japanese Fleet during the Battle off Samar, Philippines, October 25, 1944. Silhouetted against the dawn as the Central Japanese Force steamed through San Bernardino Strait towards Leyte Gulf, Task Unit 77.4.3 was suddenly taken under attack by hostile cruisers on its port hand, destroyers on the starboard and battleships from the rear. Quickly laying down a heavy smoke screen, the gallant ships of the Task Unit waged battle fiercely against the superior speed and fire power of the advancing enemy, swiftly launching and rearming aircraft and violently zigzagging in protection of vessels stricken by hostile armor-piercing shells, anti-personnel projectiles and suicide bombers. With one carrier of the group sunk, others badly damaged and squadron aircraft courageously coordinating in the attacks by making dry runs over the enemy Fleet as the Japanese relentlessly closed in for the kill, two of the Unit’s valiant destroyers and one destroyer escort charged the battleships point-blank and, expending their last torpedoes in desperate defense of the entire group, went down under the enemy’s heavy shells as a climax to two and one half hours of sustained and furious combat. The courageous determination and the superb teamwork of the officers and men who fought the embarked planes and who manned the ships of Task Unit 77.4.3 were instrumental in effecting the retirement of a hostile force threatening our Leyte invasion operations and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.”
|USS Isherwood (DD-520) underway in heavy weather as she comes alongside the heavy cruiser USS Tuscaloosa (CA-37) in August 1943. National Archives and Records Administration. Photo # 80-G-79429. [Navsource]|
During the war 19 of the class were lost and 6 damaged so badly that they were not repaired. 44 of the ships were awarded 10 battle stars or more while 19 were awarded Naval Unit Commendations and 16 Presidential Unit Citations. Following the war all were decommissioned and placed in reserve. Many were re-commissioned during the Korean War and served through Vietnam. Some of these ships were modernized with newer ASW weapons and re-designated Escort Destroyers (DDE) while others had their air search radar modernized and were re-classified as Radar Picket Destroyers or (DDR). The last Fletcher in US Service decommissioned in 1971. 52 were sold or transferred under military assistance programs to other navies in the 1950s. The ships served well and the last one in active service the Mexican Navy Destroyer Cuitlahuac the former USS John C Rodgers DD-874 was decommissioned in 2001.
Ex USS Twinning in Republic of China Navy Service, note weapon modifcations
Zerstörer Z-1 Rommel
USS Kidd as Museum and Memorial
Four are currently open as memorial ships the USS Cassin Young DD-793 at Buffalo NY, the USS The Sullivans DD-537 at Boston MA and USS Kidd DD-661 at Baton Rouge LA can be seen in the United States. The Cassin Young is berthed at the old Charlestown Naval Yard in Boston across the pier from the Frigate USS Constitution. The former the Greek destroyer Velos the ex-USS Charette DD-581 is located in Athens. The John Rodgers has been purchased by a group in the US but is currently laid up in Mexico and her fate is undecided. I hope that she too will be saved for future generations.
The Fletcher Class really symbolizes more than any class of destroyer the classic look of what a destroyer should be. Their clean lines and classic design are iconic not just in this country but in the 15 other countries that they would serve in during the following years. Their amazing record and service in World War Two and in the following years in both the US Navy and the navies of our Allies is one that will probably never be surpassed.
I have visited the Cassin Young in Boston it is well worth the time to see. I hope that I might see The Sullivans and Kidd in the coming years.
The Zerstörer Z-4 ex USS Dyson in heavy seas
I salute the ships of the class and the officers and sailors that served on them in peace and war.
Isherwood II DD 520 - History
3,640 long tons
328' x 50' 14' 1"
1 × 3" gun
8 x 40mm guns
12 × 20mm guns
2 × .50 cal MG
2 × .30 cal MG
2 x LCVP
During October 1944, assigned to the 7th Fleet Amphibious Force. During November 1944, participated in the landings at Leyte.
On January 9, 1945 participated in the landings at Lingayen Gulf, repelling two kamikaze attacks, and claimed a pair of Ki-44 Tojo fighters shot down and assisted in the shoot down of another.
During early February 1945 proceeding as part of a convoy sailing in a single column proceeding from Hollandia to Leyte.
On February 10, 1945 at roughly 8:10am hit by a torpedo fired by Japanese submarine RO-50 off the eastern coast of Mindanao. The explosion blew off roughly 1/3 of the bow including the entire bridge and the ship broke into two with the aft section sinking immediately. Aboard, 100 U.S. Army passengers and 66 of the ship's crew including Lt. Carl H. Stahl.
The forward section remained afloat after the attack. On February 11, 1945 the wreckage of LST-577 was scuttled by destroyer USS Isherwood DD-520 at roughly Lat 08.05N, Long 126.17E.
Officially stricken from the Naval Register on March 30, 1946. She earned two battle stars for World War II service.
The passengers and crew missing were officially declared dead the day of the sinking. All are memorialized on the tablets of the missing at Manila American Cemetery.
Nick Zeigler (relative of S1c John Mick, 8961790 USNR)
"I am sure you are very busy w/research. But did you ever come across any info on LST 557. My mother's cousin's ship was torpedoed off the coast of PI in WW2."
Beverly Bolger (niece of Adolph Grant, 4029671 USNR)
"Uncle Adolph Red Grant was killed on LST577. He was 23 years old."
Are you a relative or associated with any person mentioned?
Do you have photos or additional information to add?
Artaxerxes in 458/7
The decree in 458/7 BC (Ezra 7:12-26), about 60 years after the temple had been completed, granted permission to the exiles to return to Jerusalem, assigned funds for the support of the temple in Jerusalem and exempted the temple and temple personnel from tax. These are not different from the previous decrees. But what was now added is that the decree established a legal system based on the Torah for all the Jews in Judea. This included appointing magistrates and judges to enforce the law. Judea was to enjoy significant judicial and civil autonomy under the larger overlordship of Persia. Of particular importance is Ezra 7:26:
“Whoever does not obey the law of your God and the law of the king must surely be punished by death, banishment, confiscation of property, or imprisonment.”
In this way, the Persian king made the Mosaic law part of his own law and granted authority to the Jews to govern themselves on the basis of the law of God. It does provide for a measure of civil autonomy unknown since the Babylonian desolation of Jerusalem and Judea (Ezra 7:25-26).
In response to this decree, Ezra, with a considerable company of people (priests, Levites, singers, gate-keepers, and temple servants) went up from Babylon in Mesopotamia to Jerusalem in the seventh year of his reign (Ezra 7:6-7, 11-17). After a journey lasting several months, they arrived at Jerusalem.
All historical sources point unanimously and harmoniously to the fact that the seventh regnal year of Artaxerxes I extended from March/April of 458 BC to March/April of 457 BC. The Jews who lived in this historical period, however, did not use the Persian-Babylonian March/April calendar. Their calendar began in September/October:
Nehemiah 1:1 and 2:1 provide specific evidence for this. Both verses date the events to Artaxerxes’ twentieth year, but to different months. In Neh 1:1 it is the “month Chislev” and in Neh 2:1 it is the “month Nisan.” But in the Persian-Babylonian calendar, Chislev was the ninth month and Nisan was the first. If Nehemiah had used the Persian-Babylonian calendar, then Neh 2:1 should have been dated to Artaxerxes’ twenty-first regnal year. The fact that the regnal year number did not change is evidence that Nehemiah employed the Jewish calendar, which used the same names for months, but started the year in a different month.
Since Ezra was a contemporary of Nehemiah, it is possible to apply the same Jewish calendar to the dates in Ezra. This would mean that the decree recorded in Ezra 7 was issued sometime in the year that began in September/October of the year 458.
Isherwood II DD 520 - History
Prior to the U.S. entry into World War II Ralph Talbot was assigned to Destroyers, Battle Force, operating in the eastern Pacific. In early 1941, she began a major overhaul at Mare Island and in April, she rejoined the fleet at San Diego. At midmonth, she steamed to Pearl Harbor whence she operated for the remainder of the year. Moored at Pearl Harbor on the morning of 7 December, she manned her guns and began preparations for getting underway within minutes of the start of the Japanese attack. By 0900 she was en route out of the harbor having already splashed her first enemy aircraft. After the attack, she searched for enemy submarines and, on the 14th, sortied with TF 14 on the first of a series of carrier force screening assignments. In January 1942, she sailed with TF-8 during raids against Japanese positions in the Marshalls and Gilberts and in February and March against Wake and Marcus Islands.
Returning to Pearl Harbor with TF 16 on 9 March, Ralph Talbot joined TF 15 on the 19th and through May escorted convoys between Hawaii and the West Coast. In early June, she escorted to the northwest of Hawaii auxiliaries that refueled and replenished the victors of the Battle of Midway, then escorted TF 16 back to Pearl Harbor. On the 14th she got underway for Australia and New Zealand, whence she sailed on 22 July for the Solomons and the first of the island assaults that would eventually lead to victory. Assigned to TG 62.6, she screened the transport group to Guadalcanal arriving on the morning of 7 August, and then patrolled off the transport area through the landings. On the 8th she took up patrol station north of Savo Island and at 0145 on the 9th received word of three enemy ships inside Savo Island. Soon afterward, heavy gunfire was seen to the southeast, the first Battle of Savo Island had begun and Ironbottom Sound was on its way to being named.
Half an hour later, a friendly destroyer shelled Ralph Talbot . The error was quickly rectified, but within minutes an enemy cruiser appeared off her port quarter. Both ships opened fire and search light switches were flicked on. Ralph Talbot&rsquos cables had been severed in the earlier shelling, but the enemy&rsquos worked. The spotlighted 390 took a hit in the chart house, which destroyed radar equipment, cut fire control circuits and ignited fires. Three more shells came in close succession, hitting the wardroom, the starboard quarter and the underside of gun No. 4. Among the 12 dead were the doctor and the chief pharmacist&rsquos mate.
At 0221 Ralph Talbot ceased firing. The enemy had disappeared, but the damage she had caused required a new fight. Fire enveloped the bridge and the ship listed heavily to starboard. Slowing to one-third speed, she turned toward Savo. At 0230 all radio communication to and from the vessel ceased, but 20 minutes later she stood in close to the shore where the crew continued the battle to save her. By 0330 fires and flooding were under control and repair work was begun. Soon after 0700 communications were reestablished and by 1210 repairs, including mattress patches on the hull, were sufficient to begin the journey back to the United States for repairs. (continued)