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Boeotian Cavalryman Figurine

Boeotian Cavalryman Figurine


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Tanagra figurine

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Tanagra figurine, any of the small terra-cotta figures dating primarily from the 3rd century bc , and named after the site in Boeotia, in east-central Greece, where they were found. Well-dressed young women in various positions, usually standing or sitting, are the main subject matter of the statuettes. On occasion the figures pull their garments around them closely, veiling the face, or they may wear a hat or hold a fan or mirror. The Tanagra figurines were all manufactured with molds, but the use of separate molds in combination (different arms, heads) lent interesting variation. The figures were all originally covered with a white coating and then painted. The garments were generally bright shades—blue, red, pink, violet, yellow, and brown. The flesh was reddish or pinkish, the hair auburn, the lips red, and the eyes blue. Gilt and black were used for details. The authentic statuettes that survive are missing their white coating and bright paint. On their discovery in the 19th century they became enormously popular and were extensively and expertly forged, even with paint.


Clasical Period

Together, the Boeotian cities proceeded to form a political and military federation, the Koinon of the Boeotians. It was very probably set up before the end of the 6th century BC. The member-cities sent their representatives, the Boeotarchai and councillors (bouleutai) to the Koinon, as well as foot-soldiers (hoplitai) and horsemen (hippeis), according to their capability. The Thebans usually had the leading role. The proximity to Athens was a constant threat to Boeotia.

In 457 BC, the Boeotians were defeated by the Athenians in the battle of Oenophyta. A little later, however, in 447 BC they defeated the Athenians in the battle of Koroneia and obliged them to leave Boeotia, with the exception of Plataies. In the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC), the Boeotian Koinon was on the side of the Spartans. In this war (424 BC), the Boeotian cavalry crushed the Athenians at Delion (today Dilesi).

In 371 BC, the Spartans invaded Boeotia, but in the battle of Leuktra (371 BC) the Thebans triumphed and established a short-lived hegemony (371-362 BC). They owed their victory to the strategic genius of Epameinondas, who used the echelon formation of the phalanx for the first time.

Determined to extinguish all political ambition on the part of the Spartans, the Thebans invaded Laconia, founded Messene and settled in Megalopolis, cities hostile to Sparta that would represent a permanent threat to it. Despite these measures, the hegemony of the Thebans was destined to be extremely brief. As soon as its leaders were gone, Pelopidas first of all in 364, and two years later Epameinondas, the hegemony was dissolved.

A few decades later, the Macedonians and Philip II arrived on the scene. In the battle of Chaironeia in August of 338 BC, the allied Boeotians and Athenians were defeated by the Macedonians, who ultimately proved victorious due to the superiority of their own phalanx.

The three hundred men in the Hieros Lochos (Sacred Band) of Thebes all fell on the battlefield and were buried there, under a tumulus marked by a marble lion. The rout of the Boeotians at Chaironeia in 338 BC signalled the end of the political independence of the city-state. After his victory, Philip installed a garrison in Thebes. In 335 BC, however, the Thebans revolted, with the result that Alexander III, after a persistent siege, destroyed the city completely and took captive all its surviving citizens.

The period was characterized by the on-going rivalry between Athens and Sparta as well as between Thebes and Athens. Thebes emerged weakened from the

Persian Wars, but rapidly recovered and went on to lead the Koinon of the Boeotians. Almost a century after the humiliation of the Persian Wars it became the head of Greece as a whole (the Theban Hegemony, 371-364 BC). Soon, however, the city was defeated in the battle of Chaironeia by Philip II, and in 335 BC, the city was laid waste by Alexander III, the Great.

Despite the frequent military events, the classical period is characterized by the incomparably high level of its art. Pottery, sculpture and architecture, as well as philosophy, literature and scientific reasoning flourished.

During the classical period, Boeotian pottery and terracotta figurines (coroplastic) workshops were remarkable for their productivity. Oddly enough – and despite the political rivalry – the artistic influence of Athens was very strong, and there was no lack of imported Attic pottery, which was regarded as a luxury item.

Vases of the Kabirian type were locally inspired, as were the grave stelai of dark stone and incised representations of known hoplites, such as Saugenos, Rynchon and Mnason. In Thespies, a city usually loyal to Athens, a number of works were produced strongly influenced by Attic art.

The tour of section 8 starts with a sculpture from the mature classical period on stand 48 and a dedication to the state organization of Boeotia, on which the basic symbols of the state are displayed such as coins, public weights (stathma) (showcase 128) and the Resolution of the Koinon of the Boetians on stand 49. There, too, we see interpolated the votive stand of the bronze statue from Thespies bearing the signature of the Athenian Praxiteles (stand 50).

The troubled political and military dimension of the classical period is presented through the epigraphs that have been preserved. Of special interest are the stelai with the names of those who fell in the battle of Delion in 424 BC (stands 52 and 53-55) and the cuboid grave stele of warriors lost in the battle of Leuktra (371 BC), as well as that of the Theban Boeotarch Xenokrates and his fellow warriors Theopompos and Mnasilaos, with the epigram that praises their bravery (stand 56).

The thematic unit of worship follows (showcase 132). Finds from Boeotian sanctuaries of local or broader range are presented in showcases 133-138 on stands 57-59, votive offerings of all kinds are displayed. Outstanding among them are the black-figure vases with satirical scenes, offerings to the Cabiri (showcase 132) and terracotta wreaths from the rural sanctuary of female deities on the west edge of Orchomenos (showcase 138).

Showcases 135-137 contain representative samples from Boeotian pottery workshops, such as the kylikes with palmette decoration), figurines and the red - figure kalyx krater), works by a group of potters from the mid-4th c. BC showing strong Attic influences.

In contrast with the development of bronze work, terracotta figurines and vase

painting, there was nothing comparable in Boeotian sculpture, perhaps because of the lack of stone appropriate for carving. Typical local works include black grave stelai, a technique that is more closely associated with painting. The most characteristic are those of Rynchon and Mnason from Thebes (stands 61-62).

Stands 60, 63-65 display relief funeral stelai (5th-4th c. BC) mainly from Thespies and Thebes, some in a marked Attic style. In showcase 139, a bronze mirror from Akraiphnio displays the skill of Boeotian bronze workshops around the mid-5th c. BC.

In showcase 140, vases are exhibited bearing scenes from a symposium and a hunt and objects from men’s daily lives, among which the strigils (athletes’ accessories to clean the sweat and oil from their skin after exercise) are noteworthy, as well as the knuckle-bones (children’s game and object for predicting the future) from the cave of the Leibethrid Nymphs, Agia Triada).

In showcase 141 is a lovely marble kalyx krater from Akraiphnio which may have been imported from Attica. In showcase 142 are objects related to women’s lives, such as a pyxis with a wedding procession scene, rattles, feeding bottles, jewellery and containers for toiletries. Here, too, are images of ideal female beauty, such as the terracotta head of a woman in strong, well-preserved colours.

In showcase 143, dedicated to music and dance, one can distinguish a red-figure lekythos decorated with the scene of a woman dancing the pyrrichion (war-dance), a Boeotian imitation of the Athenian “Achilles Painter” vases, with scenes of dancing and figurines of actors, dancers and musicians.

The last section concerns funeral customs and occupies showcases 144-151 until the stairs leading to the balcony. Of particular interest is the grave stele of Philotera holding her baby (stand 68) from Ancient Siphai and the reconstruction of a female funeral pyre and its grave goods from Thebes (showcase 145). In showcase 147 are typical grave goods from burials in Aliartos, Thebes, Eleon and Chaironeia.

Τhe visitor has an opportunity to compare grave goods from a Theban boy’s grave with those of a girl’s (showcase 149-150). And finally showcase 151 features white-ground lekythoi from Akraiphnio and Thebes, most of which were imported from Attica.


Boeotian Cavalryman Figurine - History

We cater specifically for the 54mm-1/32 buyer of Plastic Toy Soldiers,

but also have 50mm and 60mm items.

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Company is based in Singapore, production is in China.

These figures contain separate arms, heads and weapons giving great flexibility throughout the range to swap the parts between figures from other sets to create different stances.

52/54mm American Civil War.

54/56mm Zulu Wars British & Zulus.

58/60mm Romans & Ancient Britons.

58/60mm Ancient Greeks, Macedonians & Persians.

58/60mm Knights and Peasants.

Most sets contain either 9 foot figures or 5 mounted figures

just in, the 5th and final set of WWII Japanese, £29.00

WWII Japanese Tropical Defence Section, £29.00 a set

WWII Japanese (set #4) Mortar Section £29.00

WWII Japanese (set #3) Defence Section. £29.00

WWII Japanese (set #2) Machine Gun section. out of stock

WWII Japanese (set #1) Infantry Rifle section, £29.00

3 sets perfect for use as Robin Hood figures, fit nicely with Barzso/LOD, Marx and Marskmen Robin Hood figures.

Monk & Peasants. (set #2) £29.00

Armed Peasants. (set #1) £29.00

set #1, Archers & Billmen. £29.00

set #2, Crossbowmen & Pavisiers. £29.00

set #3, Dismounted Men-at-Arms & Armati. £29.00

set #4, “Free Companies”. £29.00

set 5, mounted Hobilars & Mounted Sergeants. £29.00

Set #6, mounted Knights & Men-at-Arms. £29.00

set #7, mounted Knight Command. £29.00

56mm Napoleonic Wars series:

Dismounted French Dragoons. £29.00

British Light Dragoons. £29.00

British Line Command, £29.00

British Royal Horse Artillery. £29.00

Highland Light Infantry. £29.00

Scottish Flank Company Highlanders, 9 figures, £29.00

British Light Infantry. £29.00

British Grenadiers. out of stock

British Officers, Line Light and Marine. £29.00

British Royal Marines, 9 figures, £29.00

(all mounted sets complete with horses)

French Line Chasseurs mounted with officer. £29.00

French Line Chasseurs mounted with Trumpeter. £29.00

French Line Lancers with Officer. £29.00

French Line Lancers with Trumpeter. £29.00

French Line Dragoons with Officer. £29.00

French Line Dragoons with Trumpeter. £29.00

British Line Infantry. out of stock

French Line Officers £29.00

Ancient Germanic Cavalry. £29.00

Ancient Germanic Command. £29.00

Ancient Germanic Infantry. £29.00

Celt Command. out of stock

Warband at the Charge, £29.00

Ancient Britons Chariot. £30.00

Roman Legion Italica. £29.00

Mounted Roman Cavalry, each £29.00

Singulares

Roman Legion Augusta. £29.00

Roman Legion Gallica. £29.00

Roman Legion Hispana. £29.00

Roman Praetorian guards. £29.00

Indian Service Lancers (different headwear from above), £29.00

Carbineers with spikes, £29.00

Naval Brigade with Gatling Guns. £29.00

Landing Party in Senate hats, 9 figures. £25.00

Landing Party in flat caps, 9 figures. out of stock

Zulu Wars Auxiliary Carabineers and Frontier Light Horse.

Choose from plain pith helmet, set P

British Infantry for the Zulu Wars period,

set 1p in regular pith type helmets. £29.00

set 1m in badged helmets as per the movie. £29.00

Set 1s in spiked helmets. £25.00

Natal/Boer Volunteers, £29.00

To save us all trying to pronounce the names of the Zulu sets,

we are going with set S, M and C for purposes of ordering.

54 ZUL 02 – S (Shaka’s uGibabanye regiment). £29.00

54 ZUL 02 – M (Mpande’s uThulwana regiment). £29.00

54 ZUL 02 – C (Cetshwayo’s inGobamakhosi regiment). £29.00

Set 1, married regiment. £29.00

Set 2, unmarried regiment. £29.00

60mm Ancient Persians Range,

#09 Y Persian Sparabara (Pavisiers & Bowmen) – 9 x foot models. £29.00

#10 Y Persian Royal Guards (Apple-Bearers) – 9 x foot models £29.00

set #8 Persian Immortals – out of stock

set # 7 Persian 4-horse Scythed Chariot £30.00

The Persians, Medes and Phrygians

PSN 01 Archers & Slingers (1 Officer + 4 Slingers + 4 Archers). £29.00

PSN 02 Kardakes Infantry with Javelin & Axe. £29.00

(1 Officer + 4 Javelin-Throwers + 4 Axe-men)

PSN 03 Provincial Infantry with Spear & Bow. £29.00

(1 Officer + 1 Standard Bearer + 4 Bowmen + 4 Spearmen) – Persians

PSN 03-Y Provinical Infantry with Spear and Bow. £29.00

(Same models as Persians, different head gear).

PSN 04Y Satrap Guard Infantry with Spear & Bow (as above) – Persians. £29.00

PSN 04F Satrap Guard Infantry with Spear and Bow – Phrygians. £29.00

(same models as Persians except with different head gear).

PSN 05 Light Cavalry. £29.00

(1 Officer, 1 Axe man, 2 javelin throwers, I Horse Archer on Un-armoured horses)

PSN 06 Satrap Guard Cavalry £29.00

(1 officer + 1 Lancer + 2 Axe-men + 1 Javelin-Thrower) on armoured horses

Ancient Greek Stone Thrower Artillery, £29.00

Set 1 PSILOI ARCHERS & SLINGERS. £29.00

Set 4 Spartans out of stock

Set 5 Greek cavalry A. £29.00

Set 6 Greek cavalry B. £29.00

Greek set 7, Thracian Tribal Infantry. £29.00

Set 09 and 11 are infantry sets while set 15, 17 and 19 are cavalry sets. All £29.00 a set

set 09 R Cretan Archers (9 models – 1 Macedonian Officer + 8 Archers with bow & arrows, including option to convert 2 models into swordsmen)

set 10 R Agrianian Infantry (9 models – 1 Macedonian officer + 8 Agrianian with 6 javelineers and 2 slingers, with option for conversion to other Greek Mercenary light troops)

set 11 R Hypaspists (9 models – 1 Officer + 8 Soldiers, 4 in armor, and 4 unarmored – with spear plus options for javelin and sword)

set 12 R Greek Mercenaries in Asia (9 models – 1 Officer (Spartan), 2 armored Hoplites (Spartan), 2 armored Archers, 2 unarmoured Hoplites and 2 peltasts, hoplite shields have apron)

set 14 R Allied Greek Hoplites (9 models – 1 Officer (Theban), 8 armored Hoplites including 2 Sacred Band Hoplites)

set 15 R Prodromoi Cavalry (5 models – 1 Officer + 4 Light Cavalrymen with lance)

set 16 R Paeonian Cavalry (5 models – 1 Officer, 2 unarmored Medium Cavalrymen with lances and 2 Light Cavalrymen with javelins, with options for conversions to more variety in dress)

GRK 17 R Thessalian Cavalry (5 models – 1 Officer, 2 Noble Cavalry in armor with spear and 2 Light Cavalrymen unarmored with javelins)

set 18 R Allied Greek Cavalry (9 models – 1 Officer (Boeotian), 2 armored Cavalrymen (Boeotian) with spears and 2 Light Cavalrymen (Boeotian) with javelins, with options to convert unit into Greek Mercenary Horse (Spartan).

52-54mm American Civil War

Fine crisp mouldings, sized to fit with Marx, Britains Swoppets,

A Call to Arms, Accurate, Imex and Airfix.

American Civil War Zouaves, £21.00.

In Blue or Grey, each box contains

1 Officer with sword, 1 bugler (easy to convert to a standard bearer), 7 infantrymen with sufficient arms to for four different actions poses: firing, attacking, advancing, at ready. (9 models + 12 sets of actions arms)

Militia. £21.00

Each box will also contain 18 optional heads: for the Zouaves – 6 French kepi, 6 turban, 6 fez for the Militia – 6 French Kepi, 6 havelocked kepi, and 6 round peaked cap.


1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Boeotia

BOEOTIA, a district of central Greece, stretching from Phocis and Locris in the W. and N. to Attica and Megaris in the S. between the strait of Euboea and the Corinthian Gulf. This area, amounting in all to 1100 sq. m., naturally falls into two main divisions. In the north the basin of the Cephissus and Lake Copaïs lies between parallel mountain-walls continuing eastward the line of Parnassus in the extensive ridge of Helicon, the “Mountain of the Muses” (5470 ft.) and the east Locrian range in Mts. Ptoüm, Messapium and other smaller peaks. These ranges, which mostly lie close to the seaboard, form by their projecting spurs a narrow defile on the Phocian frontier, near the famous battlefield of Chaeroneia, and shut in Copaïs closely on the south between Coronea and Haliartus. The north-east barrier was pierced by underground passages (katavothra) which carried off the overflow from Copaïs. The southern portion of the land forms a plateau which slopes to Mt. Cithaeron, the frontier range between Boeotia and Attica. Within this territory the low ridge of Teumessus separates the plain of Ismenus and Dirce, commanded by the citadel of Thebes, from the upland plain of the Asopus, the only Boeotian river that finds the eastern sea. Though the Boeotian climate suffered from the exhalations of Copaïs, which produced a heavy atmosphere with foggy winters and sultry summers, its rich soil was suited alike for crops, plantations and pasture the Copaïs plain, though able to turn into marsh when the choking of the katavothra ​ caused the lake to encroach, being among the most fertile in Greece. The central position of Boeotia between two seas, the strategic strength of its frontiers and the ease of communication within its extensive area were calculated to enhance its political importance. On the other hand the lack of good harbours hindered its maritime development and the Boeotian nation, although it produced great men like Pindar, Epaminondas, Pelopidas and Plutarch, was proverbially as dull as its native air. But credit should be given to the people for their splendid military qualities: both their cavalry and heavy infantry achieved a glorious record.

In the mythical days Boeotia played a prominent part. Of the two great centres of legends, Thebes with its Cadmean population figures as a military stronghold, and Orchomenus, the home of the Minyae, as an enterprising commercial city. The latter’s prosperity is still attested by its archaeological remains (notably the “Treasury of Minyas”) and the traces of artificial conduits by which its engineers supplemented the natural outlets. The “Boeotian” population seems to have entered the land from the north at a date probably anterior to the Dorian invasion. With the exception of the Minyae, the original peoples were soon absorbed by these immigrants, and the Boeotians henceforth appear as a homogeneous nation. In historical times the leading city of Boeotia was Thebes, whose central position and military strength made it a suitable capital. It was the constant ambition of the Thebans to absorb the other townships into a single state, just as Athens had annexed the Attic communities. But the outlying cities successfully resisted this policy, and only allowed the formation of a loose federation which in early times seems to have possessed a merely religious character. While the Boeotians, unlike the Arcadians, generally acted as a united whole against foreign enemies, the constant struggle between the forces of centralization and disruption perhaps went further than any other cause to check their development into a really powerful nation. Boeotia hardly figures in history before the late 6th century. Previous to this its people is chiefly known as the producer of a type of geometric pottery similar to the Dipylon ware of Athens. About 519 the resistance of Plataea to the federating policy of Thebes led to the interference of Athens on behalf of the former on this occasion, and again in 507, the Athenians defeated the Boeotian levy. During the Persian invasion of 480, while some of the cities fought whole-heartedly in the ranks of the patriots, Thebes assisted the invaders. For a time the presidency of the Boeotian League was taken away from Thebes, but in 457 the Spartans reinstated that city as a bulwark against Athenian aggression. Athens retaliated by a sudden advance upon Boeotia, and after the victory of Oenophyta brought under its power the whole country excepting the capital. For ten years the land remained under Athenian control, which was exercised through the newly installed democracies but in 447 the oligarchic majority raised an insurrection, and after a victory at Coronea regained their freedom and restored the old constitutions. In the Peloponnesian War the Boeotians, embittered by the early conflicts round Plataea, fought zealously against Athens. Though slightly estranged from Sparta after the peace of Nicias, they never abated their enmity against their neighbours. They rendered good service at Syracuse and Arginusae but their greatest achievement was the decisive victory at Delium over the flower of the Athenian army (424), in which both their heavy infantry and their cavalry displayed unusual efficiency.

About this time the Boeotian League comprised eleven groups of sovereign cities and associated townships, each of which elected one Boeotarch or minister of war and foreign affairs, contributed sixty delegates to the federal council at Thebes, and supplied a contingent of about a thousand foot and a hundred horse to the federal army. A safeguard against undue encroachment on the part of the central government was provided in the councils of the individual cities, to which all important questions of policy had to be submitted for ratification. These local councils, to which the propertied classes alone were eligible, were subdivided into four sections, resembling the prytaneis of the Athenian council, which took it in turns to take previous cognizance of all new measures. [1]

Boeotia took a prominent part in the war of the Corinthian League against Sparta, especially at Haliartus and Coronea (395–394). This change of policy seems due mainly to the national resentment against foreign interference. Yet disaffection against Thebes was now growing rife, and Sparta fostered this feeling by stipulating for the complete independence of all the cities in the peace of Antalcidas (387). In 374 Pelopidas restored the Theban dominion. Boeotian contingents fought in all the campaigns of Epaminondas, and in the later wars against Phocis (356–346) while in the dealings with Philip of Macedon the federal cities appear merely as the tools of Thebes. The federal constitution was also brought into accord with the democratic governments now prevalent throughout the land. The sovereign power was vested in the popular assembly, which elected the Boeotarchs (between seven and twelve in number), and sanctioned all laws. After the battle of Chaeroneia, in which the Boeotian heavy infantry once again distinguished itself, the land never rose again to prosperity. The destruction of Thebes by Alexander (335) seems to have paralysed the political energy of the Boeotians, though it led to an improvement in the federal constitution, by which each city received an equal vote. Henceforth they never pursued an independent policy, but followed the lead of protecting powers. Though the old military training and organization continued, the people proved unable to defend the frontiers, and the land became more than ever the “dancing-ground of Ares.” Though enrolled for a short time in the Aetolian League (about 245 B.C. ) Boeotia was generally loyal to Macedonia, and supported its later kings against Rome. In return for the excesses of the democracies Rome dissolved the league, which, however, was allowed to revive under Augustus, and merged with the other central Greek federations in the Achaean synod. The death-blow to the country’s prosperity was given by the devastations during the first Mithradatic War.

Save for a short period of prosperity under the Frankish rulers of Athens (1205–1310), who repaired the katavothra and fostered agriculture, Boeotia long continued in a state of decay, aggravated by occasional barbarian incursions. The first step towards the country’s recovery was not until 1895, when the outlets of Copaïs were again put into working order. Since then the northern plain has been largely reclaimed for agriculture, and the natural riches of the whole land are likely to develop under the influence of the railway to Athens. Boeotia is at present a Nomos with Livadia (the old Turkish capital) for its centre the other surviving townships are quite unimportant. The population (65,816 in 1907) is largely Albanian.

Authorities .—Thuc. iv. 76-101 Xenophon, Hellenica, iii.-vii. Strabo, pp. 400-412 Pausanias ix. Theopompus (or Cratippus) in the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. v. (London, 1908), No. 842, col. 12 W. M. Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, chs. xi.-xix. (London, 1835) H. F. Tozer, Geography of Greece (London, 1873), pp. 233–238 W. Rhys Roberts, The Ancient Boeotians (Cambridge, 1895) E. A. Freeman. Federal Government (ed. 1893, London), ch. iv. § 2 B. V. Head, Historia Numorum, pp. 291 sqq. (Oxford, 1887) W. Larfeld, Sylloge Inscriptionum Boeoticarum (Berlin, 1883). (See also Thebes .)


Boeotia - Encyclopedia

BOEOTIA, a district of central Greece, stretching from Phocis and Locris in the W. and N. to Attica and Megaris in the S. between the strait of Euboea and the Corinthian Gulf. This area, amounting in all to zioo sq. m., naturally falls into two main divisions. In the north the basin of the Cephissus and Lake Copais lies between parallel mountain-walls continuing eastward the line of Parnassus in the extensive ridge of Helicon, the "Mountain of the Muses" (5470 ft.) and the east Locrian range in Mts. Ptoiim, Messapium and other smaller peaks. These ranges, which mostly lie close to the seaboard, form by their projecting spurs a narrow defile on the Phocian frontier, near the famous battlefield of Chaeroneia, and shut in Copais closely on the south between Coronea and Haliartus. The north-east barrier was pierced by underground passages (katavothra) which carried off the overflow from Copais. The southern portion of the land forms a plateau which slopes to Mt. Cithaeron, the frontier range between Boeotia and Attica. Within this territory the low ridge of Teumessus separates the plain of Ismenus and Dirce, commanded by the citadel of Thebes, from the upland plain of the Asopus, the only Boeotian river that finds the eastern sea. Though the Boeotian climate suffered from the exhalations of Copais, which produced a heavy atmosphere with foggy winters and sultry summers, its rich soil was suited alike for crops, plantations and pasture the CopaIs plain, though able to turn into marsh when the choking of the katavothra caused the lake to encroach, being among the most fertile in Greece. The central position of Boeotia between two seas, the strategic strength of its frontiers and the ease of communication within its extensive area were calculated to enhance its political importance. On the other hand the lack of good harbours hindered its maritime development and the Boeotian nation, although it produced great men like Pindar, Epaminondas, Pelopidas and Plutarch, was proverbially as dull as its native air. But credit should be given to the people for their splendid military qualities: both their cavalry and heavy infantry achieved a glorious record.

In the mythical days Boeotia played a prominent part. Of the two great centres of legends, Thebes with its Cadmean population figures as a military stronghold, and Orchomenus, the home of the Minyae, as an enterprising commercial city. The latter's prosperity is still attested by its archaeological remains (notably the "Treasury of Minyas") and the traces of artificial conduits by which its engineers supplemented the natural outlets. The "Boeotian" population seems to have entered the land from the north at a date probably anterior to the Dorian invasion. With the exception of the Minyae, the original peoples were soon absorbed by these immigrants, and the Boeotians henceforth appear as a homogeneous nation.

In historical times the leading city of Boeotia was Thebes, whose central position and military strength made it a suitable capital. It was the constant ambition of the Thebans to absorb the other townships into a single state, just as Athens had annexed the Attic communities. But the outlying cities successfully resisted this policy, and only allowed the formation of a loose federation which in early times seems to have possessed a merely religious character. While the Boeotians, unlike the Arcadians, generally acted as a united whole against foreign enemies, the constant struggle between the forces of centralization and disruption perhaps went further than any other cause to check their development into a really powerful nation. Boeotia hardly figures in history before the late 6th century. Previous to this its people is chiefly known as the producer of a type of geometric pottery similar to the Dipylon ware of Athens. About 519 the resistance of Plataea to the federating policy of Thebes led to the interference of Athens on behalf of the former on this occasion, and again in 507, the Athenians defeated the Boeotian levy. During the Persian invasion of 480, while some of the cities fought whole-heartedly in the ranks of the patriots, Thebes assisted the invaders. For a time the presidency of the Boeotian League was taken away from Thebes, but in 457 the Spartans reinstated that city as a bulwark against Athenian aggression. Athens retaliated by a sudden advance upon Boeotia, and after the victory of Oenophyta brought under its power the whole country excepting the capital. For ten years the land remained under Athenian control, which was exercised through the newly installed democracies but in 447 the oligarchic majority raised an insurrection, and after a victory at Coronea regained their freedom and restored the old constitutions. In the Peloponnesian War the Boeotians, embittered by the early conflicts round Plataea, fought zealously against Athens. Though slightly estranged from Sparta after the peace of Nicias, they never abated their enmity against their neighbours. They rendered good service at Syracuse and Arginusae but their greatest achievement was the decisive victory at Delium over the flower of the Athenian army (424), in which both their heavy infantry and their cavalry displayed unusual efficiency.

About this time the Boeotian League comprised eleven groups of sovereign cities and associated townships, each of which elected one Boeotarch or minister of war and foreign affairs, contributed sixty delegates to the federal council at Thebes, and supplied a contingent of about a thousand foot and a hundred horse to the federal army. A safeguard against undue encroachment on the part of the central government was provided in the councils of the individual cities, to which all important questions of policy had to be submitted for ratification. These local councils, to which the propertied classes alone were eligible, were subdivided into four sections, resembling the prytaneis of the Athenian council, which took it in turns to take previous cognizance of all new measures.' Boeotia took a prominent part in the war of the Corinthian League against Sparta, especially at Haliartus and Coronea (395-394)This change of policy seems due mainly to the national resentment against foreign interference. Yet disaffection against Thebes was now growing rife, and Sparta fostered this feeling by stipulating for the complete independence of all the cities in the peace of Antalcidas (387). In 374 Pelopidas restored the Theban dominion. Boeotian contingents fought in all the campaigns of Epaminondas, and in the later wars against Phocis (356-346) while in the dealings with Philip of Macedon the federal cities appear merely as the tools of Thebes. The federal constitution was also brought into accord with the democratic governments now prevalent throughout the land. The sovereign power was vested in the popular assembly, which elected the Boeotarchs (between seven and twelve in number), and sanctioned all laws. After the battle of Chaeroneia, in which the Boeotian heavy infantry once again distinguished itself, the land never rose again to prosperity. The destruction of Thebes by Alexander (335) seems to have paralysed the political energy of the Boeotians, though it led to an improvement in the federal constitution, by which each city received an equal vote. Henceforth they never pursued an independent policy, but followed the lead of protecting powers. Though the old military training and organization continued, the people proved unable to defend the frontiers, and the land became more than ever the "dancing-ground of Ares." Though enrolled for a short time in the Aetolian League (about 245 B.C.) Boeotia was generally loyal to Macedonia, and supported its later kings against Rome. In return for the excesses of the democracies Rome dissolved the league, which, however, was allowed to revive under Augustus, and merged with the other central Greek federations in the Achaean synod. The death-blow to the country's prosperity was given by the devastations during the first Mithradatic War.

Save for a short period of prosperity under the Frankish rulers of Athens (1205-1310), who repaired the katavothra and fostered agriculture, Boeotia long continued in a state of decay, aggravated by occasional barbarian incursions. The first step towards the country's recovery was not until 1895, when the outlets of CopaIs were again put into working order. Since then the northern plain has been largely reclaimed for agriculture, and the natural riches of the whole land are likely to develop under the influence of the railway to Athens. Boeotia is at present a Nomos with Livadia (the old Turkish capital) for its centre the other surviving townships are quite unimportant. The population (65,816 in 1907) is largely Albanian.

Authorities. - Thus. iv. 76 -101 Xenophon, Hellenica, iii.-vii. Strabo, pp. 400-412 Pausanias ix. Theopompus (or Cratippus) in the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. v. (London, 1908), No. 842, col. 12 W. M. Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, chs. xi.-xix. (London, 1835) H. F. Tozer, Geography of Greece (London, 18 73), pp. 233-238 W. Rhys Roberts, The Ancient Boeotians (Cambridge, 1895) E. A. Freeman, Federal Government (ed. 1893, London), ch. iv. § 2 B. V. Head, Historia Numorum, pp. 291 sqq. (Oxford, 1887) W. Larfeld, Sylloge Inscriptionum Boeoticarum (Berlin, 1883). (See also THESES.)


Digital Eleon

Three-dimensional modeling is enabling us to record the site’s architecture and analyze artifacts in new ways. We are excited to share some of the results from this year’s digital fabrication project, sponsored by the Friends of the Library at Wellesley College.

Below please find numerous 3D models documenting the results of excavations conducted from 2011 to 2017, as well as a video capture of the virtual reality platform through which we are uniting artifacts with the archaeological site.

Virtual Eleon 2016
A prototype for our unified virtual platform, in which users can tour the site and interact with artifacts.

Digital Models of the Site and Select Artifacts

This model, documenting the excavations at the end of the 2016 season, offers a sense of the site’s topography and major features. The steep cliffs on the north, west and south give way to a more gentle approach at the east, where the polygonal wall was built by 500 BCE. Most of the settlement remains exposed in large trenches date to the Late Helladic IIIB and IIIC periods, and a burial complex of the Early Mycenaean period is at the center of the excavations

Excavations since 2015 have focused on the Blue Stone Structure and the burials contained within this Early Mycenaean monument. We have revealed eleven tombs within the rectangular wall that separates this group from a larger burial area.

Finds from the BSS tombs consistently date to the beginning of the Mycenaean era, ca 1700-1600 BCE. This jug represents a mainland tradition of bichrome decoration, and was found alongside other small Minyan and Matt-painted vessels.

The steatite jewelry mold (measuring 7.3 x 4.8 cm) was found in a Late Helladic IIIB level in the Northwest excavations. Open molds of this type were used to produce glass ornaments that were sometimes covered in gold foil. The designs cut into this tool are typical of the adornments found at Thebes and other major sites, including a large waz lily, papyrus, and cockle shell.

The site’s post-palatial settlement is characterized by vessels like the LH IIIC Early kylix with a distinctive conical shape. The cup was found with two others, fallen into a bathtub in a room that was destroyed by fire.

A new phase of activity at Eleon is marked by the accumulation of Archaic vessels and figurines. This kylix with four horizontal handles is typical of Boeotian style in the 6th century BCE.

The elaborately coiffed hair of this terracotta figurine indicates a date in the mid-5th century BCE. This suggests the cultic activity at Eleon may have been carried out for several generations.

The polygonal wall is best preserved at its southern terminus, where the bastion stands 5 meters tall. Three courses of irregular blocks Eleon’s eastern stand upon the ashlar leveling course and exposed foundations of roughly cut stone.


Boeotian Helmet

Originating in 4th Century B.C. - The Boeotian Helmet named after the region of it's origin, Boeotia), was an &ldquoopen helmet&rdquo head protection device. Made of bronze (and weighing around 4 pounds), it featured the ability to maintain vision and hearing (both vital on the battlefield). Domed in shape, The Boeotian Helmet featured a sloping metal brim encircling the cap. The front and rear of the brim sloped downwards for protection. The brim sides protected the ears and upper neck. Often described as having various feather plumes worn with the helmet for decoration (or Unit identification), The Boeotian Helmet was used by cavalry mostly. The helmet was so popular that a felt version was designed and very popular among Greek Farmers. The cavalry of Alexander The Great wore this type of helmet in their campaigns. Although popular, it seems to have stayed in the Athens Region.

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Battle of Delium, 424 B.C.

The battle of Delium (424 BC) was a costly Athenian defeat that came during an unsuccessful attempt to seize control of Boeotia (Great Peloponnesian War). In the summer before the battle the Athenian general Demosthenes had been in contact with some potential Boeotian rebels who were opposed to the policy of the Boeotian League (led by Thebes). The plan was for the rebels to seize Siphae, on the southern coast of Boeotian (the northern shore of the Corinthian Gulf) and Chaeronea, in the west of the area, and hand them over to the Athenians. At the same time the Athenians were to capture Delium, on the eastern edge of Boeotian (and the site of a temple to Apollo). The rebels hoped that this would trigger democratic revolts across Boeotia, and that the newly democratic cities would then support Athens.

The plan went wrong almost from the start. The Spartans discovered the plot and informed the Boeotians, so the element of surprise was lost. The Athenians then failed to properly synchronise their attacks. Demosthenes moved first, but when his fleet reached Siphae he found the place occupied by a strong Boeotian army. The Athenians were unable to make any progress, and the rebels decided not to act. Demosthenes was forced to retire without achieving anything.

The Athenian army, under the command of Hippocrates, only appeared on the scene after Demosthenes had retired. The temple at Delium was captured, and the Athenians began to work on fortifying the site. The short distances involved in some Greek warfare is well demonstrated here - the Athenians reached Delium on the third day after leaving Athens. They then spent the third and fourth days and most of the fifth day building the fortifications, before Hippocrates made a rather odd decision. The fortification work was completed by the afternoon of the fifth day. Instead of staying in the fortifications overnight, Hippocrates decided to begin the march back to Athens. His army consisted of 7,000 Athenian hoplites, some cavalry and a large force of light troops, mainly made up of resident foreigners and poorly equipped Athenian citizens. After marching for just over one mile the hoplites decided to pause and rest, but the light troops continued onwards. The Athenians would soon be forced to fight without them.

The failure of Demosthenes's naval expedition meant that the Boeotians had been able to concentrate on Hippocrates. By the fifth day of the expedition the Boeotians had gathered at Tanagra, close to Delium. They also had 7,000 hoplites, supported by 1,000 cavalry, 500 peltasts and 10,000 light troops.

At this date the Boeotian army was commanded by eleven generals, two from Thebes and nine from the other major members of the League. When they discovered that the Athenians were heading home ten of generals wanted to avoid battle, but the eleventh, Pagondas, son of Aeolidas, one of the two Theban generals, convinced his colleagues to offer battle. The Boeotian army then advanced towards the Athenians, before forming up on the far side of a hill. The Boeotians deployed in a somewhat unusual formation. Their basic formation was conventional, with the hoplites in the centre and the cavalry and light troops on the wings, but the Theban contingent, on the right of the line of hoplites, took up an unusually deep formation - twenty five men deep.

The Athenian deployment was more conventional. Once again their hoplites were in the centre and their cavalry on the wings, but their line was eight ranks deep. The main part of the battle only involved the hoplites, as the light troops and cavalry were initially held up by watercourse.

The Boeotians began to advance while Hippocrates was still moving along the Athenian line giving his pre-battle speech. He was forced to abandon his efforts when he was only half way along the line. Both sides then advanced towards each other at the run, and a stubborn clash between the two lines of hoplites began.

At first the Athenians were victorious on their right and in the centre, inflicting heavy casualties on some of the Boeotian contingents, and in particular on the Thespians. Pagondas responded to the crisis on his left by sending some of his cavalry from his right to his left, around the back of a hill just behind the battlefield.

On the Boeotian right the deep Theban formation was having more success, pushing the Athenians slowly back. Meanwhile, the cavalry had made its way round to the left, and now appeared on the Athenian's right flank. Believing that the cavalry was the first part of a fresh army the Athenian right panicked and fled. The panic spread along the line and the Athenian left also broke. The Athenian army scattered, with some men making for Delium, while others fled towards the mountains or the coast. The Boeotians mounted a pursuit, but the battle had been fought late in the day, and nightfall saved the Athenians from a worse disaster.

The battle was followed by some unusually drawn out negotiations between the two sides. In most cases a truce was quickly agreed to allow both armies to retrieve their dead, but in this case the two sides argued over the rights and wrongs of the Athenian invasion and of their occupation of Delium. Only after the temple had been recaptured (using an early flame thrower) did the Boeotians agree to let the Athenians recover the dead.

The battle had been a costly affair. The Athenians had lost nearly 1,000 men, most of them citizen hoplites, and amongst them Hippocrates. The Boeotians lost around 500 men. The Athenian casualties were amongst the highest suffered in any hoplite battle.


The regional unit Boeotia is subdivided into 6 municipalities. These are (number as in the map in the infobox): [13]

Prefecture

Boeotia was created as a prefecture in 1899 (Greek: Νομός Βοιωτίας ), and again in 1943 out of the Attica and Boeotia Prefecture. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Boeotia was created out of the former prefecture Boeotia. The prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. [13]

New municipality Old municipalities & communities Seat
Aliartos Aliartos Aliartos
Thespies
Distomo-Arachova-Antikyra Distomo Distomo
Arachova
Antikyra
Livadeia Livadeia Livadeia
Davleia
Koroneia
Kyriaki
Chaironeia
Orchomenus Orchomenus Orchomenus
Akraifnia
Tanagra Tanagra Schimatari
Dervenochoria
Oinofyta
Schimatari
Thebes (Thiva) Thebes Thebes
Vagia
Thisvi
Plataies

Provinces


Watch the video: Parliamentary Cavalryman (May 2022).