History Podcasts

Roger Wiliams: A Letter to the People of Providence (1655 CE)

Roger Wiliams: A Letter to the People of Providence (1655 CE)

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Roger Wiliams: A Letter to the People of Providence (1648) · Wallace House

The Patriot Plan: Growth of Human Rights in Colonial America

℗ 2004 Smithsonian Folkways Recordings / 1958 Folkways Records

Released on: 1958-01-01


Ch. 2 History "Voices of Freedom"

Q: How does the exchange illuminate some of the roots of conflict between settlers and indians.

John Smith seeks corn and food for his men.

A: Each group has something the other wants but is reluctant to trade because by the act of trading they cause the opposite group to gain strength.

Q: What advantages does the Virginia Company see in the promotion of family life in the colony?

Q: Why does the company prefer that women marry landowning men as opposed to servants?

A: The company prefers women to marry landowning men because these men were much more likely to be able to provide for their wives as compared with servants.

Q: Members of which religious groups would be excluded from toleration under Maryland law?

Q: What does the law refer to as the major reasons for instituting religious toleration?

A: Most nations and colonies had strict laws regarding religion and had outlawed various religions that rulers deemed dangerous or disruptive. Maryland was established in 1653 as a grant of land by Celcelius Calvert, a catholic who hoped that protestants and catholics could live in harmony.

In 1640’s Maryland had a civil uprising due to a civil war that was taking place in England between protestants and catholics. In 1649, to restore order, Maryland institutionalized the principle of toleration that had prevailed from the colony’s beginning.

Q: Why does Winthrop use an analogy to the status of women within the family to explain his understanding of liberty?

Q: Why does Winthrop consider “natural” liberty dangerous?

A: Natural Liberty, or acting without restraint is a “liberty to do evil as well as good”. Winthrop insists that this liberty is “incompatible and inconsistent with authority. The exercise of maintaining of this liberty makes men grow more evil, and in time to be worse than brute beasts.”

Q: What seem to be the major charges against Hutchinson?

Q: What does the case tell us about what the Puritan leaders thought about religious freedom?

A: The puritan leaders value order more so than religious freedom. Not total religious freedom

Q: IN what ways does Williams place limits on Liberty?

Q: What are the strengths and weaknesses of William’s analogy between civil society and a group of people aboard a ship?

– so basically he didn’t want people to be forced to follow a certain religion but he thought it necessary for society to function for members of society to obey all civil laws

A: The strengths are that the ship allows for complete religious freedom among all mentioned religions.

– He calls for justice, peace and sobriety

Weakness: Religious freedom would not be okay on land to any groups outside of Christians.

– You are not to question authority

– “If any should rise up against their commanders and officers and officers if any should preach or write that there ought to be no commanders or officers, because we are all equal in Christ, therefore no masters nor officers, no laws nor orders, nor corrections nor punishments, i Say , i never denied” But “the commander may judge, resist, compel and punish such transgressors according to their deserts and merits.”

He is allowing for questioning of authority, but at the same time saying it is bad.

Q: What are the Levelers criticizing when they propose that “in all laws made or t be made every person may be bound alike”?

Q: What are the main rights that the Levelers are aiming to protect?

A: – Freedom of Conscience with regards to Religion
“Matters of religion and the way of God’s worship are not at all entrusted by us to any human power, because therein we can not remit tor exceed a title of what our consciences dictate to be the mind of God..”

– Equality under the laws
“That all laws made or the be made every person may b bound alike, and that no tenure, estate, charter, degree, birth, or place do confer any exception from the ordinary course of legal proceedings..”


Ch. 2 History "Voices of Freedom"

Q: What advantages does the Virginia Company see in the promotion of family life in the colony?

Q: Members of which religious groups would be excluded from toleration under Maryland law?

A: Most nations and colonies had strict laws regarding religion and had outlawed various religions that rulers deemed dangerous or disruptive. Maryland was established in 1653 as a grant of land by Celcelius Calvert, a catholic who hoped that protestants and catholics could live in harmony.

Q: Why does Winthrop use an analogy to the status of women within the family to explain his understanding of liberty?

Q: What seem to be the major charges against Hutchinson?

Q: IN what ways does Williams place limits on Liberty?

- so basically he didn't want people to be forced to follow a certain religion but he thought it necessary for society to function for members of society to obey all civil laws

A: The strengths are that the ship allows for complete religious freedom among all mentioned religions.

- He calls for justice, peace and sobriety

Weakness: Religious freedom would not be okay on land to any groups outside of Christians.

- You are not to question authority

- "If any should rise up against their commanders and officers and officers if any should preach or write that there ought to be no commanders or officers, because we are all equal in Christ, therefore no masters nor officers, no laws nor orders, nor corrections nor punishments, i Say , i never denied" But "the commander may judge, resist, compel and punish such transgressors according to their deserts and merits."

Q: What are the Levelers criticizing when they propose that "in all laws made or t be made every person may be bound alike"?

A: - Freedom of Conscience with regards to Religion
"Matters of religion and the way of God's worship are not at all entrusted by us to any human power, because therein we can not remit tor exceed a title of what our consciences dictate to be the mind of God.."

- Equality under the laws
"That all laws made or the be made every person may b bound alike, and that no tenure, estate, charter, degree, birth, or place do confer any exception from the ordinary course of legal proceedings.."


Contents

When George Fox was eleven, he wrote that God spoke to him about "keeping pure and being faithful to God and man." [2] After being troubled when his friends asked him to drink alcohol with them at the age of nineteen, Fox spent the night in prayer and soon afterwards, he felt left his home to search for spiritual satisfaction, which lasted four years. [2] In his Journal, at age 23, he recorded the words: [2]

And when all my hopes in them and in all men were gone, so that I had nothing outwardly, to help me, nor could tell what to do then, O then, I heard a voice which said 'There is one, even Christ Jesus, that can speak to thy condition.' When I heard it, my heart did leap for joy. Then the Lord let me see why there was none upon the earth that could speak to my condition, namely, that I might give him all the glory. For all are concluded under sin, and shut up in unbelief, as I had been, that Jesus Christ might have the pre-eminence, who enlightens, and gives grace, faith, and power. Thus when God doth work, who shall let (hinder) it? [2]

At this time, Fox believed that he "found through faith in Jesus Christ the full assurance of salvation." [2] Fox began to spread his evangelical Christian message and his emphasis on "the necessity of an inward transformation of heart", as well as the possibility of Christian perfection, drew opposition from English clergy and laity. [2] Fox wrote that "The professors [professing Christians] were in a rage, all pleading for sin and imperfection, and could not endure to hear talk of perfection, or of a holy and sinless life." [2] However, in the mid-1600s, many people became attracted to Fox's preaching and his followers became known as Friends. [2] By 1660, the Quakers grew to 35,000. [2] Well known early advocates of Quaker Christianity included Isaac Penington, Robert Barclay, Thomas Ellwood, William Penn and Margaret Fell. [2]

Quakerism pulled together groups of disparate Seekers that formed the Religious Society of Friends following 1647. [ citation needed ] This time of upheaval and social and political unrest called all institutions into question, so George Fox and his leading disciples—James Nayler, Richard Hubberthorne, Margaret Fell, as well as numerous others—targeted "scattered Baptists", disillusioned soldiers, and restless common folk as potential Quakers. Confrontations with the established churches and its leaders and those who held power at the local level assured those who spoke for the new sect a ready hearing as they insisted that God could speak to average people, through his risen son, without the need to heed churchmen, pay tithes, or engage in deceitful practices. They found fertile ground in northern England in 1651 and 1652, building a base there from which they moved south, first to London and then beyond. In the early days the groups remained scattered, but gradually they consolidated in the north—the first meeting being created in Durham in 1653—to provide financial support to the missionaries who had gone south and presently abroad. Before long they seemed a potential threat to the dignity of the Cromwellian state. Even arresting its leaders failed to slow the movement, instead giving them a new audience in the courts of the nation. [3]

In 1656, a popular Quaker minister, James Nayler, went beyond the standard beliefs of Quakers when he rode into Bristol on a horse in the pouring rain, accompanied by a handful of men and women saying "Holy, holy, holy" and strewing their garments on the ground, imitating Jesus's entry into Jerusalem. While this was apparently an attempt to emphasize that the "Light of Christ" was in every person, most observers believed that he and his followers believed Nayler to be Jesus Christ. The participants were arrested by the authorities and handed over to Parliament, where they were tried. Parliament was sufficiently incensed by Nayler's heterodox views that they punished him savagely and sent him back to Bristol to jail indefinitely. [4] This was especially bad for the movement's respectability in the eyes of the Puritan rulers because some considered Nayler (and not Fox, who was in jail at the time) to be the actual leader of the movement. Many historians see this event as a turning point in early Quaker history because many other leaders, especially Fox, made efforts to increase the authority of the group, so as to prevent similar behaviour. This effort culminated in 1666 with the "Testimony from the Brethren", aimed at those who, in its own words, despised a rule "without which we . cannot be kept holy and inviolable" it continued the centralizing process that began with the Nayler affair and was aimed at isolating any separatists who still lurked in the Society. Fox also established women's meetings for discipline and gave them an important role in overseeing marriages, which served both to isolate the opposition and fuel discontent with the new departures. In the 1660s and 1670s Fox himself travelled the country setting up a more formal structure of monthly (local) and quarterly (regional) meetings, a structure that is still used today. [5]

The Society was rent by controversy in the 1660s and 1670s because of these tendencies. First, John Perrot, previously a respected minister and missionary, raised questions about whether men should uncover their heads when another Friend prayed in meeting. He also opposed a fixed schedule for meetings for worship. Soon this minor question broadened into an attack on the power of those at the centre. Later, during the 1670s, William Rogers of Bristol and a group from Lancashire, whose spokesmen John Story and John Wilkinson were both respected leaders, led a schism. They disagreed with the heightening influence of women and centralizing authority among Friends closer to London. In 1666, a group of about a dozen leaders, led by Richard Farnworth (Fox was absent, being in prison in Scarborough), gathered in London and issued a document that they styled "A Testimony of the Brethren". It set rules to maintain the good order that they wanted to see among adherents and excluded separatists from holding office and prohibited them from travelling lest they sow errors. Looking to the future, they announced that authority in the Society rested with them. [6] By the end of the century, these leaders were almost all now dead but London's authority had been established the influence of dissident groups had been mostly overcome.

One of their most radical innovations was a more nearly equal role for women, as Taylor (2001) shows. Despite the survival of strong patriarchal elements, Friends believed in the spiritual equality of women, who were allowed to take a far more active role than had ordinarily existed before the emergence of radical civil war sects. Among many female Quaker writers and preachers of the 1650s to 1670s were Margaret Fell, Dorothy White, Hester Biddle, Sarah Blackborow, Rebecca Travers and Alice Curwen. [7] Early Quaker defenses of their female members were sometimes equivocal, however, and after the Restoration of 1660 the Quakers became increasingly unwilling to publicly defend women when they adopted tactics such as disrupting services. Women's meetings were organized as a means to involve women in more modest, feminine pursuits. Writers such as Dorcas Dole and Elizabeth Stirredge turned to subjects seen as more feminine in that period. [8] Some Quaker men sought to exclude them from church public concerns with which they had some powers and responsibilities, such as allocating poor relief and in ensuring that Quaker marriages could not be attacked as immoral. The Quakers continued to meet openly, even in the dangerous year of 1683. Heavy fines were exacted and, as in earlier years, women were treated as severely as men by the authorities. [9]

In 1650 George Fox was imprisoned for the first time. Over and over he was thrown in prison during the 1650s through the 1670s. Other Quakers followed him to prison as well. The charge was causing a disturbance at other times it was blasphemy. [10]

Two acts of Parliament made it particularly difficult for Friends. The first was the Quaker Act of 1662 [11] which made it illegal to refuse to take the Oath of Allegiance to the Crown. Those refusing to swear an oath of allegiance to the Crown were not allowed to hold any secret meetings and as Friends believed it was wrong to take any "superstitious" oath their freedom of religious expression was certainly compromised by this law. The second was the Conventicle Act of 1664 which reaffirmed that the holding of any secret meeting by those who did not pledge allegiance to the Crown was a crime. Despite these laws, Friends continued to meet openly. [12] They believed that by doing so, they were testifying to the strength of their convictions and were willing to risk punishment for doing what they believed to be right.

The ending of official persecution in England Edit

Under James II of England persecution practically ceased. [13] James issued a Declaration of Indulgence in 1687 and 1688, and it was widely held that William Penn had been its author. [14]

In 1689 the Toleration Act was passed. It allowed for freedom of conscience and prevented persecution by making it illegal to disturb anybody else from worship. Thus Quakers became tolerated though still not widely understood or accepted.

Netherlands Edit

Quakers first arrived in the Netherlands in 1655 when William Ames and Margaret Fell's nephew, William Caton, took up residence in Amsterdam. [15] The Netherlands were seen by Quakers as a refuge from persecution in England and they perceived themselves to have affinities with the Dutch Collegiants and also with the Mennonites who had sought sanctuary there. However, English Quakers encountered persecution no different from that they had hoped to leave behind. Eventually, however, Dutch converts to Quakerism were made, and with Amsterdam as a base, preaching tours began within the Netherlands and to neighboring states. In 1661, Ames and Caton visited the County Palatine of the Rhine and met with Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine at Heidelberg.

William Penn, the Quaker founder of Pennsylvania, who had a Dutch mother, visited the Netherlands in 1671 and saw, first hand, the persecution of the Emden Quakers. [16] He returned in 1677 with George Fox and Robert Barclay and at Walta Castle, their religious community at Wieuwerd in Friesland, he unsuccessfully tried to convert the similarly-minded Labadists to Quakerism. They also journeyed on the Rhine to Frankfurt, accompanied by the Amsterdam Quaker Jan Claus who translated for them. His brother, Jacob Claus, had Quaker books translated and published in Dutch and he also produced a map of Philadelphia, the capital of Penn's Holy Experiment.

The attraction of a life free from persecution in the New World led to a gradual Dutch Quaker migration. English Quakers in Rotterdam were permitted to transport people and cargo by ship to English colonies without restriction and throughout the 18th century many Dutch Quakers emigrated to Pennsylvania. [16] There were an estimated 500 Quaker families in Amsterdam in 1710 [17] but by 1797 there were only seven Quakers left in the city. Isabella Maria Gouda (1745–1832), a granddaughter of Jan Claus, took care of the meeting house on Keizersgracht but when she stopped paying the rent the Yearly Meeting in London had her evicted. [18] The Quaker presence disappeared from Dutch life by the early 1800s until reemerging in the 1920s, with Netherlands Yearly Meeting being established in 1931. [19]

William Penn, a colonist who the king owed money to, received ownership of Pennsylvania in 1681, which he tried to make a "holy experiment" by a union of temporal and spiritual matters. Pennsylvania made guarantees of religious freedom, and kept them, attracting many Quakers and others. Quakers took political control but were bitterly split on the funding of military operations or defenses finally they relinquished political power. They created a second "holy experiment" by extensive involvement in voluntary benevolent associations while remaining apart from government. Programs of civic activism included building schools, hospitals and asylums for the entire city. Their new tone was an admonishing moralism born from a feeling of crisis. Even more extensive philanthropy was possible because of the wealth of the Quaker merchants based in Philadelphia. [20]

The Friends had no ordained ministers and thus needed no seminaries for theological training. As a result, they did not open any colleges in the colonial period, and did not join in founding the University of Pennsylvania. The major Quaker colleges were Haverford College (1833), Earlham College (1847), Swarthmore College (1864), and Bryn Mawr College (1885), all founded much later. [21]

Persecution in the New World Edit

In 1657 some Quakers were able to find refuge to practice in Providence Plantations established by Roger Williams. [22] Other Quakers faced persecution in Puritan Massachusetts. In 1656 Mary Fisher and Ann Austin began preaching in Boston. They were considered heretics because of their insistence on individual obedience to the Inner Light. They were imprisoned and banished by the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Their books were burned, and most of their property was confiscated. They were imprisoned under terrible conditions, then deported. [23]

Some Quakers in New England were only imprisoned or banished. A few were also whipped or branded. Christopher Holder, for example, had his ear cut off. A few were executed by the Puritan leaders, usually for ignoring and defying orders of banishment. Mary Dyer was thus executed in 1660. Three other martyrs to the Quaker faith in Massachusetts were William Robinson, Marmaduke Stephenson, and William Leddra. These events are described by Edward Burrough in A Declaration of the Sad and Great Persecution and Martyrdom of the People of God, called Quakers, in New-England, for the Worshipping of God (1661). Around 1667, the English Quaker preachers Alice and Thomas Curwen, who had been busy in Rhode Island and New Jersey, were imprisoned in Boston under Massachusetts law and publicly flogged. [24]

In 1657 a group of Quakers from England landed in New Amsterdam. One of them, Robert Hodgson, preached to large crowds of people. He was arrested, imprisoned, and flogged. Governor Peter Stuyvesant issued a harsh ordinance, punishable by fine and imprisonment, against anyone found guilty of harboring Quakers. Some sympathetic Dutch colonists were able to get him released. Almost immediately after the edict was released, Edward Hart, the town clerk in what is now Flushing, New York, gathered his fellow citizens on Dec. 27, 1657 and wrote a petition to Stuyvesant, called the Flushing Remonstrance, citing the Flushing town charter of 1645, which promised liberty of conscience. Stuyvesant arrested Hart and the other official who presented the document to him, and he jailed two other magistrates who had signed the petition, and also forced the other signatories to recant. But Quakers continued to meet in Flushing. Stuyvesant arrested a farmer, John Bowne, in 1662 for holding illegal meetings in his home and banished him from the colony Bowne immediately went to Amsterdam to plead for the Quakers. Though the Dutch West India Company called Quakerism an "abominable religion", it nevertheless overruled Stuyvesant in 1663 and ordered him to "allow everyone to have his own belief". [25]

In 1691 George Fox died. Thus the Quaker movement went into the 18th century without one of its most influential early leaders. Thanks to the Toleration Act of 1689, people in Great Britain were no longer criminals simply by being Friends.

During this time, other people began to recognize Quakers for their integrity in social and economic matters. Many Quakers went into manufacturing or commerce, because they were not allowed to earn academic degrees at that time. These Quaker businessmen were successful, in part, because people trusted them. The customers knew that Quakers felt a strong conviction to set a fair price for goods and not to haggle over prices. They also knew that Quakers were committed to quality work, and that what they produced would be worth the price.

Some useful and popular products made by Quaker businesses at that time included iron and steel by Abraham Darby II and Abraham Darby III and pharmaceuticals by William Allen. An early meeting house was set up in Broseley, Shropshire by the Darbys.

In North America, Quakers, like other religious groups, were involved in the migration to the frontier. Initially this involved moves south from Pennsylvania and New Jersey along the Great Wagon Road. Historic meeting houses such as the 1759 Hopewell Friends Meeting House in Frederick County, Virginia and Lynchburg, Virginia's 1798 South River Friends Meetinghouse stand as testaments to the expanding borders of American Quakerism. [26] From Maryland and Virginia, Quakers moved to the Carolinas and Georgia. In later years, they moved to the Northwest Territory and further west.

At the same time that Friends were succeeding in manufacturing and commerce and migrating to new territories, they were also becoming more concerned about social issues and becoming more active in society at large.

One such issue was slavery. The Germantown (Pennsylvania) Monthly Meeting published their opposition to slavery in 1688, but abolitionism did not become universal among Quakers until the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting reached unity on the issue in 1754. Reaching unity (spiritual consensus) was a long and difficult process. William Penn himself owned slaves. Some Quaker businessmen had made their fortunes in Barbados or owned ships that worked the British/West Indies/American triangle. But gradually the reality of slavery took hold and the promotion by concerned members such as John Woolman in the early 18th century changed things. Woolman was a farmer, retailer, and tailor from New Jersey who became convinced that slavery was wrong and published the widely read "John Woolman's Journal". He wrote: ". Slaves of this continent are oppressed, and their cries have reached the ears of the Most High. Such are the purity and certainty of his judgments, that he cannot be partial to our favor." In general Quakers opposed mistreatment of slaves [27] [28] and promoted the teaching of Christianity and reading to them. Woolman argued that the entire practice of buying, selling, and owning human beings was wrong in principle. Other Quakers started to agree and became very active in the abolition movement. Other Quakers who ministered against slavery were not so moderate. Benjamin Lay would minister passionately and personally and once sprayed fake blood on the congregation, a ministry which got him disowned. After initially finding agreement that they would buy no slaves off the boats, the entire society came to unity (spiritual consensus) on the issue in 1755, after which time no one could be a Quaker and own a slave. In 1790, one of the first documents received by the new Congress was an appeal by the Quakers (presented through Benjamin Franklin) to abolish slavery in the United States.

Another issue that became a concern of Quakers was the treatment of the mentally ill. Tea merchant, William Tuke opened the Retreat at York in 1796. It was a place where the mentally ill were treated with the dignity that Friends believe is inherent in all human beings. Most asylums at that time forced such people into deplorable conditions and did nothing to help them.

The Quakers' commitment to pacifism came under attack during the American Revolution, as many of those living in the thirteen colonies struggled with conflicting ideals of patriotism for the new United States and their rejection of violence. Despite this dilemma, a significant number still participated in some form, and there were many Quakers involved in the American Revolution.

By the late 18th century, Quakers were sufficiently recognized and accepted that the United States Constitution contained language specifically directed at Quaker citizens—in particular, the explicit allowance of "affirming", as opposed to "swearing" various oaths.

The abolition of slavery Edit

Most Quakers did not oppose owning slaves when they first came to America. To most Quakers, "slavery was perfectly acceptable provided that slave owners attended to the spiritual and material needs of those they enslaved". [29] 70% of the leaders of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting owned slaves in the period from 1681 to 1705 however, from 1688 some Quakers began to speak out against slavery.

John Blunston, Quaker pioneer founder of Darby Borough, Pennsylvania and 12th Speaker of the PA Colonial Assembly took part in an early action against slavery in 1715.

In The Friend, Vol. 28:309 there is text of a "minute made in 'that Quarterly Meeting held at Providence Meeting-house the first day of the Sixth month, 1715' ." It reads as follows "A weighty concern coming before the meeting concerning some Friends being yet in the practice of importing, buying and selling negroe slaves after some time spent in a solid and serious consideration thereof, it is the unanimous sense and judgment of this meeting, that Friends be not concerned in the importing, buying or selling of any negro slaves that shall be imported in future and that the same be laid before the next Yearly Meeting desiring their concurrence therein. Signed by order and on behalf of the Meeting, Caleb Pusey, Jno. Wright,Nico. Fairlamb, Jno. Blunsten"

By 1756 only 10% of leaders of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting owned slaves. [30]

Two other early prominent Friends to denounce slavery were Anthony Benezet and John Woolman. They asked the Quakers, "What thing in the world can be done worse towards us, than if men should rob or steal us away and sell us for slaves to strange countries". [31] [ verification needed ] In that same year, a group of Quakers along with some German Mennonites met at the meeting house in Germantown, Pennsylvania, to discuss why they were distancing themselves from slavery. Four of them signed a document written by Francis Daniel Pastorius that stated, "To bring men hither, or to rob and sell them against their will, we stand against." [32] [ verification needed ] [ page needed ]

From 1755–1776, the Quakers worked at freeing slaves, and became the first Western organization to ban slaveholding. [28] They also created societies to promote the emancipation of slaves. [33] [ verification needed ] From the efforts of the Quakers, Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson were able to convince the Continental Congress to ban the importation of slaves into America as of December 1, 1775. Pennsylvania was the strongest anti-slavery state at the time, and with Franklin's help they led "The Pennsylvania Society for Promoting The Abolition of Slavery, The Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage, and for Improving the Condition of the African Race" (Pennsylvania Abolition Society). [31] [ verification needed ] In November 1775, Virginia's royal governor announced that all slaves would be freed if they were willing to fight for Great Britain (Dunmore's Proclamation). This encouraged George Washington to allow slaves to enlist as well, so that they all did not try to run away and fight on the Royalist side to get their freedom (Black Patriot). About five thousand African Americans served for the Continental Army and thus gained their freedom. By 1792 states from Massachusetts to Virginia all had similar anti-slavery groups. From 1780–1804, slavery was largely abolished in all of New England, the Middle Atlantic states, and the North West territories.

The Southern states, however, were still very prominent in keeping slavery running. Because of this, an informal network of safe houses and escape routes—called the Underground Railroad—developed across the United States to get enslaved people out of America and into Canada (British North America) or the free states. The Quakers were a very prominent force [34] [35] in the Underground Railroad, and their efforts helped free many slaves. Immediately north of the Mason-Dixon line, the Quaker settlement of Chester County, Pennsylvania—one of the early hubs of the Underground Railroad—was considered a "hotbed of abolition". However, not all Quakers were of the same opinion regarding the Underground Railroad: because slavery was still legal in many states, it was therefore illegal for anyone to help a slave escape and gain freedom. Many Quakers, who saw slaves as equals, felt it was proper to help free slaves and thought that it was unjust to keep someone as a slave many Quakers would "lie" to slave hunters when asked if they were keeping slaves in their house, they would say "no" because in their mind there was no such thing as a slave. Other Quakers saw this as breaking the law and thereby disrupting the peace, both of which go against Quaker values thus breaking Quaker belief in being pacifistic. Furthermore, involvement with the law and the government was something from which the Quakers had tried to separate themselves. This divisiveness caused the formation of smaller, more independent branches of Quakers, who shared similar beliefs and views.

However, there were many prominent Quakers who stuck to the belief that slavery was wrong, and were even arrested for helping the slaves out and breaking the law. Richard Dillingham, a school teacher from Ohio, was arrested because he was found helping three slaves escape in 1848. Thomas Garrett had an Underground Railroad stop at his house in Delaware and was found guilty in 1848 of helping a family of slaves escape. Garrett was also said to have helped and worked with Harriet Tubman, who was a very well-known slave who worked to help other slaves gain their freedom. Educator Levi Coffin and his wife Catherine were Quakers who lived in Indiana and helped the Underground Railroad by hiding slaves in their house for over 21 years. They claimed to have helped 3,000 slaves gain their freedom. [32] [ verification needed ] [ page needed ] [36] Susan B. Anthony was also a Quaker, and did a lot of antislavery work hand in hand with her work with women's rights.

Quaker influence on society Edit

During the 19th century, Friends continued to influence the world around them. Many of the industrial concerns started by Friends in the previous century continued as detailed in Milligan's Biographical dictionary of British Quakers in commerce and industry, with new ones beginning. Friends also continued and increased their work in the areas of social justice and equality. They made other contributions as well in the fields of science, literature, art, law and politics.

In the realm of industry Edward Pease opened the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northern England in 1825. It was the first modern railway in the world, and carried coal from the mines to the seaports. Henry and Joseph Rowntree owned a chocolate factory in York, England. When Henry died, Joseph took it over. He provided the workers with more benefits than most employers of his day. He also funded low-cost housing for the poor. John Cadbury founded another chocolate factory, which his sons George and Richard eventually took over. A third chocolate factory was founded by Joseph Storrs Fry in Bristol. The shipbuilder John Wigham Richardson was a prominent Newcastle upon Tyne Quaker. His office at the centre of the shipyard was always open to his workers for whom he cared greatly and he was a founder of the Workers’ Benevolent Trust in the region, (a forerunner to the trades’ union movement). Swan Hunter and Wigham Richardson, the builders of the RMS Mauretania, refused to build war ships on account of his pacifist beliefs.

Quakers actively promoted equal rights during this century as well [ citation needed ] . As early as 1811, Elias Hicks published a pamphlet showing that slaves were "prize goods"—that is, products of piracy—and hence profiting from them violated Quaker principles it was a short step from that position to reject use of all products made from slave labour, the free produce movement that won support among Friends and others but also proved divisive. Quaker women such as Lucretia Mott and Susan B. Anthony joined the movement to abolish slavery, moving them to cooperate politically with non-Quakers in working against the institution. Somewhat as a result of their initial exclusion from abolitionist activities, they changed their focus to the right of women to vote and influence society. Thomas Garrett led in the movement to abolish slavery, personally assisting Harriet Tubman to escape from slavery and to coordinate the Underground Railroad. Richard Dillingham died in a Tennessee prison where he was incarcerated for trying to help some slaves escape. Levi Coffin was also an active abolitionist, helping thousands of escaped slaves migrate to Canada and opening a store for selling products made by former slaves.

Prison reform was another concern of Quakers at that time. Elizabeth Fry and her brother Joseph John Gurney campaigned for more humane treatment of prisoners and for the abolition of the death penalty. They played a key role in forming the Association for the Improvement of the Female Prisoners in Newgate, which managed to better the living conditions of woman and children held at the prison. Their work raised concerns about the prison system as a whole, so that they were a factor behind Parliament eventually passing legislation to improve conditions further and decrease the number of capital crimes.

In the early days of the Society of Friends, Quakers were not allowed to get an advanced education. Eventually some did get opportunities to go to university and beyond, which meant that more and more Quakers could enter the various fields of science. Thomas Young an English Quaker, did experiments with optics, contributing much to the wave theory of light. He also discovered how the lens in the eye works and described astigmatism and formulated an hypothesis about the perception of color. Young was also involved in translating the Rosetta Stone. He translated the demotic text and began the process of understanding the hieroglyphics. Maria Mitchell was an astronomer who discovered a comet. She was also active in the abolition movement and the women's suffrage movement. Joseph Lister promoted the use of sterile techniques in medicine, based on Pasteur's work on germs. Thomas Hodgkin was a pathologist who made major breakthroughs in the field of anatomy. He was the first doctor to describe the type of lymphoma named after him. An historian, he was also active in the movement to abolish slavery and to protect aboriginal people. John Dalton formulated the atomic theory of matter, among other scientific achievements.

Quakers were not apt to participate publicly in the arts. For many Quakers these things violated their commitment to simplicity and were thought too "worldly". Some Quakers, however, are noted today for their creative work. John Greenleaf Whittier was an editor and a poet in the United States. Among his works were some poems involving Quaker history and hymns expressing his Quaker theology. He also worked in the abolition movement. Edward Hicks painted religious and historical paintings in the naive style and Francis Frith was a British photographer, whose catalogue ran to many thousands of topographical views.

At first Quakers were barred by law and their own convictions from being involved in the arena of law and politics. As time went on, a few Quakers in England and the United States did enter that arena. Joseph Pease was the son of Edward Pease mentioned above. He continued and expanded his father's business. In 1832 he became the first Quaker elected to Parliament. Noah Haynes Swayne was the only Quaker to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He was an Associate Justice from 1862–1881. He strongly opposed slavery, moving out of the slave-holding state of Virginia to the free state of Ohio in his young adult years.

Theological schisms Edit

Quakers found that theological disagreements over doctrine and evangelism had left them divided into the Gurneyites, who questioned the applicability of early Quaker writings to the modern world, and the conservative Wilburites. Wilburites not only held to the writings of Fox (1624–91) and other early Friends, they actively sought to bring not only Gurneyites, but Hicksites, who had split off during the 1820s over antislavery and theological issues, back to orthodox Quaker belief. [37] Apart from theology there were social and psychological patterns revealed by the divisions. The main groups were the growth-minded Gurneyites, Orthodox Wilburites, and reformist Hicksites. Their differences increased after the Civil War (1861–65), leading to more splintering. The Gurneyites became more evangelical, embraced Methodist-like revivalism and the Holiness Movement, and became probably the leading force in American Quakerism. They formally endorsed such radical innovations as the pastoral system. Neither the Hicksites nor Wilburites experienced such numerical growth. The Hicksites became more liberal and declined in number, while the Wilburites remained both orthodox and divided. [38]

During the Second Great Awakening after 1839 Friends began to be influenced by the revivals sweeping the United States. Robert Pearsall Smith and his wife Hannah Whitall Smith, Quakers from New Jersey, had a profound effect. They promoted the Wesleyan idea of Christian perfection, also known as holiness or sanctification, among Quakers and among various denominations. Their work inspired the formation of many new Christian groups. Hannah Smith was also involved in the movements for women's suffrage and for temperance.

Hicksites Edit

The Society in Ireland, and later, the United States suffered a number of schisms during the 19th century. In 1827–28, the views and popularity of Elias Hicks resulted in a division within five-yearly meetings, Philadelphia, New York, Ohio, Indiana, and Baltimore. Rural Friends, who had increasingly chafed under the control of urban leaders, sided with Hicks and naturally took a stand against strong discipline in doctrinal questions. Those who supported Hicks were tagged as "Hicksites", while Friends who opposed him were labeled "Orthodox". The latter had more adherents overall, but were plagued by subsequent splintering. The only division the Hicksites experienced was when a small group of upper-class and reform-minded Progressive Friends of Longwood, Pennsylvania, emerged in the 1840s they maintained a precarious position for about a century. [39]

Gurneyites Edit

In the early 1840s the Orthodox Friends in America were exercised by a transatlantic dispute between Joseph John Gurney of England and John Wilbur of Rhode Island. Gurney, troubled by the example of the Hicksite separation, emphasized Scriptural authority and favored working closely with other Christian groups. Wilbur, in response, defended the authority of the Holy Spirit as primary, and worked to prevent the dilution of the Friends tradition of Spirit-led ministry. After privately criticizing Gurney in correspondence to sympathetic Friends, Wilbur was expelled from his yearly meeting in a questionable proceeding in 1842. Probably the best known Orthodox Friend was the poet and abolitionist editor John Greenleaf Whittier. Over the next several decades, a number of Wilburite–Gurneyite separations occurred. [40]

Starting in the late 19th century, many American Gurneyite Quakers, led by Dougan Clark Jr., adopted the use of paid pastors, planned sermons, revivals, hymns and other elements of Protestant worship services. They left behind the old "plain style". [41] This type of Quaker meeting is known as a "programmed meeting". Worship of the traditional, silent variety is called an "unprogrammed meeting", although there is some variation on how the unprogrammed meetings adhere strictly to the lack of programming. Some unprogrammed meetings may have also allocated a period of hymn-singing or other activity as part of the total period of worship, while others maintain the tradition of avoiding all planned activities. (See also Joel Bean.)

Beaconites Edit

For the most part, Friends in Britain were strongly evangelical in doctrine and escaped these major separations, though they corresponded only with the Orthodox and mostly ignored the Hicksites. [42]

The Beaconite Controversy arose in England from the book A Beacon to the Society of Friends, published in 1835 by Isaac Crewdson. He was a Recorded Minister in the Manchester Meeting. The controversy arose in 1831 when doctrinal differences amongst the Friends culminated in the winter of 1836–1837 with the resignation of Isaac Crewdson and 48 fellow members of the Manchester Meeting. About 250 others left in various localities in England, including some prominent members. A number of these joined themselves to the Plymouth Brethren and brought influences of simplicity of worship to that society. Those notable among the Plymouthists who were former Quakers included John Eliot Howard of Tottenham and Robert Mackenzie Beverley.

Native Americans Edit

The Quakers were involved in many of the great reform movements of the first half of the 19th century. After the Civil War they won over President Grant to their ideals of a just policy toward the American Indians, and became deeply involved in Grant's "Peace Policy". Quakers were motivated by high ideals, played down the role of conversion to Christianity, and worked well side by side with the Indians. They had been highly organized and motivated by the anti-slavery crusade, and after the Civil War were poised to expand their energies to include both ex-slaves and the western tribes. They had Grant's ear and became the principal instruments for his peace policy. During 1869–85, they served as appointed agents on numerous reservations and superintendencies in a mission centered on moral uplift and manual training. Their ultimate goal of acculturating the Indians to American culture was not reached because of frontier land hunger and Congressional patronage politics. [43]

During the 20th century, Quakerism was marked by movements toward unity, but at the end of the century Quakers were more sharply divided than ever. By the time of the First World War, almost all Quakers in Britain and many in the United States found themselves committed to what came to be called "liberalism", which meant primarily a religion that de-emphasized corporate statements of theology and was characterized by its emphasis on social action and pacifism. Hence when the two Philadelphia and New York Yearly Meetings, one Hicksite, one Orthodox, united in 1955—to be followed in the next decade by the two in Baltimore Yearly Meeting—they came together on the basis of a shared liberalism. [ citation needed ] As time wore on and the implication of this liberal change became more apparent, lines of division between various groups of Friends became more accentuated. [ citation needed ]

World War I at first produced an effort toward unity, embodied in the creation of the American Friends Service Committee in 1917 by Orthodox Friends, led by Rufus Jones and Henry Cadbury. A Friends Service Committee, as an agency of London Yearly Meeting, had already been created in Britain to help Quakers there deal with problems of military service it continues today, after numerous name changes, as Quaker Peace & Social Witness. Envisioned as a service outlet for conscientious objectors that could draw support from across diverse yearly meetings, the AFSC began losing support from more evangelical Quakers as early as the 1920s and served to emphasize the differences between them, but prominent Friends such as Herbert Hoover continued to offer it their public support. Many Quakers from Oregon, Ohio, and Kansas became alienated from the Five Years Meeting (later Friends United Meeting), considering it infected with the kind of theological liberalism that Jones exemplified Oregon Yearly Meeting withdrew in 1927. [44] That same year, eleven evangelicals met in Cheyenne, Wyoming, to plan how to resist the influence of liberalism, but depression and war prevented another gathering for twenty years, until after the end of the second world war. [ citation needed ]

To overcome such divisions, liberal Quakers organized so-called worldwide conferences of Quakers in 1920 in London and again in 1937 at Swarthmore and Haverford Colleges in Pennsylvania, but they were too liberal and too expensive for most evangelicals to attend. [ citation needed ] A more successful effort at unity was the Friends Committee on National Legislation, originating during World War II in Washington, D.C., as a pioneering Quaker lobbying unit. In 1958 the Friends World Committee for Consultation was organized to form a neutral ground where all branches of the Society of Friends could come together, consider common problems, and get to know one another it held triennial conferences that met in various parts of the world, but it had not found a way to involve very many grassroots Quakers in its activities. [ citation needed ] One of its agencies, created during the Cold War and known as Right Sharing of World Resources, collects funds from Quakers in the "first world" to finance small self-help projects in the "Third World", including some supported by Evangelical Friends International. Beginning in 1955 and continuing for a decade, three of the yearly meetings divided by the Hicksite separation of 1827, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New York, as well as Canadian Yearly Meeting, reunited. [ citation needed ]

Disagreements between the various Quaker groups, Friends United Meeting, Friends General Conference, Evangelical Friends International, and Conservative yearly meetings, involved both theological and more concrete social issues. FGC, founded in 1900 [45] and centered primarily in the East, along the West coast, and in Canada, tended to be oriented toward the liberal end of the political spectrum, was mostly unprogrammed, and aligned itself closely with the American Friends Service Committee. By the last part of the century it had taken a strong position in favor of same-sex marriage, was supportive of gay rights, and usually favored a woman's right to choose an abortion. Its membership tended to be professional and middle class or higher. [ citation needed ]

Rooted in the Midwest, especially Indiana, and North Carolina, FUM was historically more rural and small-town in its demographics. The Friends churches which formed part of this body were predominantly programmed and pastoral. Though a minority of its yearly meetings (New York, New England, Baltimore, Southeastern and Canada) were also affiliated with Friends General Conference and over the decades became more theologically liberal and predominantly unprogrammed in worship style, the theological position of the majority of its constituent yearly meetings continues to be often similar in flavor to the Protestant Christian mainstream in Indiana and North Carolina. In 1960, a theological seminary, Earlham School of Religion, was founded in FUM's heartland—Richmond, Indiana—to offer ministerial training and religious education. [46] The seminary soon came to enroll significant numbers of unprogrammed Friends, as well as Friends from pastoral backgrounds. [ citation needed ]

EFI was staunchly evangelical and by the end of the century had more members converted through its missionary endeavors abroad than in the United States Southwest Friends Church illustrated the group's drift away from traditional Quaker practice, permitting its member churches to practice the outward ordinances of the Lord's Supper and baptism. On social issues its members exhibited strong antipathy toward homosexuality and enunciated a pro-life position on abortion. At century's end, Conservative Friends held onto only three small yearly meetings, in Ohio, Iowa, and North Carolina, with Friends from Ohio arguably the most traditional. In Britain and Europe, where institutional unity and almost universal unprogrammed worship style were maintained, these distinctions did not apply, nor did they in Latin America and Africa, where evangelical missionary activity predominated. [ citation needed ]

In the 1960s and later, these categories were challenged by a mostly self-educated Friend, Lewis Benson, a New Jersey printer by training, a theologian by vocation. Immersing himself in the corpus of early Quaker writings, he made himself an authority on George Fox and his message. In 1966, Benson published Catholic Quakerism, a small book that sought to move the Society of Friends to what he insisted was a strongly pro-Fox position of authentic Christianity, entirely separate from theological liberalism, churchly denominationalism, or rural isolation. He created the New Foundation Fellowship, which blazed forth for a decade or so, but had about disappeared as an effective group by the end of the century. [ citation needed ]

By that time, the differences between Friends were quite clear, to each other if not always to outsiders. Theologically, a small minority of Friends among the "liberals" expressed discomfort with theistic understandings of the Divine, while more evangelical Friends adhered to a more biblical worldview. Periodical attempts to institutionally reorganize the disparate Religious Society of Friends into more theologically congenial organizations took place, but generally failed. By the beginning of the 21st century, Friends United Meeting, as the middle ground, was suffering from these efforts, but still remained in existence, even if it did not flourish. In its home base of yearly meetings in Indiana especially, it lost numerous churches and members, both to other denominations and to the evangelicals. [ citation needed ]

Quakers in Britain and the Eastern United States embarked on efforts in the field of adult education, creating three schools with term-long courses, week-end activities, and summer programs. Woodbrooke College began in 1903 at the former home of chocolate magnate George Cadbury in Birmingham, England, and later became associated with the University of Birmingham, while Pendle Hill, in the Philadelphia suburb of Wallingford, did not open until 1930. Earlier, beginning in 1915 and continuing for about a decade, the Woolman School had been created by Philadelphia Hicksites near Swarthmore College its head, Elbert Russell, a midwestern recorded minister, tried unsuccessfully to maintain it, but it ended in the late 1920s. All three sought to educate adults for the kind of lay leadership that the founders Society of Friends relied upon. Woodbrooke and Pendle Hill still maintain research libraries and resources. [ citation needed ]

During the 20th century, two Quakers, Herbert Hoover and Richard Nixon, both from the Western evangelical wing, were elected to serve as presidents of the United States, thus achieving more secular political power than any Friend had enjoyed since William Penn. [ citation needed ]

Kindertransport Edit

In 1938–1939, just prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, 10,000 European Jewish children were given temporary resident visas for the UK, in what became known as the Kindertransport. This allowed these children to escape the Holocaust. American Quakers played a major role in pressuring the British government to supply these visas. The Quakers chaperoned the Jewish children on the trains, and cared for many of them once they arrived in Britain. [47]

War Rescue Operations, and The One Thousand Children Edit

Before and during the Second World War, the Quakers, often working with the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee or Œuvre de secours aux enfants (OSE), helped in the rescue from Europe of mainly Jewish families of refugees, in their flight finally to America. But in some cases, only the children could escape—these mainly Jewish children fled unaccompanied, leaving their parents behind, generally to be murdered by the Nazis. Such children are part of the One Thousand Children, actually numbering about 1400. [ citation needed ]

Costa Rica Edit

In 1951 a group of Quakers, objecting to the military conscription, emigrated from the United States to Costa Rica and settled in what was to become Monteverde. The Quakers founded a cheese factory and a Friends' school, and in an attempt to protect the area's watershed, purchased much of the land that now makes up the Monteverde Reserve. The Quakers have played a major role in the development of the community. [48]


One Rhode Island Family

The Early Records of the Town of Providence is a set of 21 volumes that provides a transcription of many of the earliest record books of Providence, Rhode Island, over the period of 1636 to 1750. The books were compiled in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. They are short books, and fairly readable (although original spelling is maintained). They represent a unique and powerful glimpse into the lives of the early Providence settlers – their life events, businesses, laws, misdeeds, families, property, sense of community and ambitions. The books are well worth perusing for more than just an index to our individual ancestors.

What can be found

Because of the separation of church and state when Providence was founded by Roger Williams and others, the early town records encompassed not only laws, taxation, court cases, probate and deeds but also vital records, including marriage banns, and some cemetery records. The uncertain early relationships between Providence, Newport, Portsmouth and Warwick are apparent in the pages, as well as the growth of the settlement in Providence and the tensions that arose in the distribution of land and resources. In the earliest years, Providence encompassed what are now other towns in Providence County, so records could be in the books for those areas, such as Cranston and Smithfield.

The settlement at Providence was damaged during King Phillips War (1675-1676) and for this and many other reasons town records are incomplete and somewhat scattered. There is no clear progression of topics and dates from volume to volume. Each book contains a thoughtful introduction to the status of the particular records found there and I would encourage people to examine those pages. The latest record I saw was about 1750.

What follows is a brief overview of the contents of each volume, plus a link to where each one can be found and downloaded (in most cases, from Archive.org). The links were provided to me by a blog reader in England, who knew that others would like to have easy access to them. Thanks!

The entry, possibly for my 9th great grandfather Michael Phillips, from volume 5, page 151, indicates that he may have died before 1676.

Each book is well indexed, but a compiled index of all 21 volumes was produced by Richard LeBaron Bowen and published in 1949 by the Rhode Island Historical Society. The index book begins with a synopsis of the contents of each book (far more comprehensive than what you see below), followed by the index (with corrections from the original indexing) and an interesting analysis of how the indexed names compare to other compiled lists of early Rhode Island families, for instance, Austin’s Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island.

The index book is available online here, and can be downloaded from Archive.org directly through this link.

The volumes

Below are each of the 21 volumes and an indication of what is in them.

Volume 1 “Being the First Book of the Town of Providence otherwise called the Long Old Book with Parchment Cover.” From the introduction:

The first volume of records selected for perpetuation in print is the earliest in date of the existing public records of the city, and has at different times been referred to in town documents as the ” First Book of the Town of Providence,” and “The Long old Book with Parchment Cover.” The original leaves of this book are now separately fastened to or inlaid in sheets of strong paper 11-3/4 by 19-1/2 inches in size, and the whole is substantially bound in green leather inscribed on the side with the words, ” First Book Town of Providence.”

Vol. 1 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 2 “Being the Second Book of the Town of Providen ce otherwise called the Town Old Book The Short Old Book The Old Burnt Book and sometimes called The Book with Brass Clasps.” From the introduction:

It will be observed that the book, analytically, is divided into two parts that is, that it has been used for two different and distinct purposes first, for recording evidences of land titles and other instruments and, secondly, for the minutes of meetings for town purposes. One end of the book was probably used for one of these purposes and the other end for the other.

Vol. 2 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Richard Pray, my 11th great grandfather “hath taken vp the Sahrpe peece of land lying neere the place where Rich watermans Great Cannoo was made.” From volume 2, page 17.

Volume 3 “Being part of the Third Book of the Town of Providence otherwise called the book with brass clasps.”

Vol. 3 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 4 “Being part of the Third Book of the Town of Providence otherwise called the book with brass clasps.” (a continuation of the previous volume) From the introduction:

The records of the Town Meeting terminate at page 157 in the original, and at page 53 in this book the remainder of the original containing enrollments of deeds, births, marriages and deaths, together with other miscellaneous records. … As will be noticed, the last date of a Town Meeting is on the 16th of February, 1675…

Vol. 4 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 5 “Being part of the Third Book of the Town of Providence otherwise called the book with brass clasps.” (the final installment of this set)

This printed volume completes the records contained in the third manuscript book, entitled “Third Book Town of Providence A and B,” otherwise called “The Book with Brass Clasps.” It also completes the series of books that were in use for the earliest records of the town.

Vol. 5 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 6 “Being part of Will Book No. 1 otherwise called the first booke for Prouidence Towne Councill Perticulior Vse.”

This volume reproduces in type a portion of the records contained in the earliest book now in the possession of the city, mainly used for probate proceedings of the town. It is not, however, the first book so used, for in the schedule of the books and papers belonging to the town, which survived the effects of King Philip’s War, so called, and which schedule bears date June 4, 1677, there is inventoried among other records “A Small papor Book Containing the Enrolements of wills:”

Vol. 6 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Google.com by clicking here.

A 1691 warning that he will not pay the debts of his wife, from Ephraim Pierce. The papers sometimes served purposes later served by newspapers.

Volume 7 “Being part of Will Book No. 1 otherwise called the first booke for Prouidence Towne Councill Perticulior Vse.” (The second and final section, including the probate record for my 9th great grandfather John Malavery, which begins on page 145. There are a lot of inventory lists in this book – a fascinating glimpse into Providence life circa 1700.)

Vol. 7 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 8 “Being part of the Book of Records of Town Meetings No. 3 1677 to 1750 and other papers.”

The period succeeding the time embraced in the last named volume was one of disaster to the town, for the Indian War which had raged with varying success throughout the New England Colonies was then brought within the confines of Rhode Island. During a part of this period, previous to March 28, 1676, and for some time thereafter the town was practically deserted, its business well nigh suspended and a portion of it destroyed by the ravages of the Indians. The townsmen however carried on such governmental affairs as were actually necessary, and during this time Roger Williams held the office of Town Clerk. Some of the records during his incumbency are now extant, but it is not thought that all have been preserved.

Vol. 8 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 9 “Being part of the Book of Records of Town Meetings No. 3 1677 to 1750 and other papers.” From the introduction:

The material contained in this volume consists largely of layouts of various highways in and around Providence. Through the courtesy of J. Herbert Shedd, City Engineer, the commissioners have been able to identify nearly every one of these highways, and foot notes are added to show the present street or highway intended by the crude and indefinite courses and boundaries given in the originals. The remaining entries consist of a few town meeting records, records of coroners’ inquests, indentures of apprenticeship and records of marriages, while a part of the book is taken up with entries relative to stray cattle, reports of wolf killers and other miscellaneous records.

Vol. 9 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 10 “Being the book called Town Council No. 1 1692-1714 and containing the records of the Providence Town Council.” From the introduction:

The proceedings recorded in this volume refer almost entirely to the administration of probate affairs, for little else was brought to the Town Council for consideration except occasional requests or liquor licenses and for permission to keep public houses of entertainment.

Vol. 10 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 11 “Being the book of records designated as Town Meeting No. 1 1692-1715.”

Vol. 11 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

My 10th great grandmother Mary (—-) Pray was, with her husband Richard, was granted a public house license in Providence as early as 1655. This license, in 1681, may refer to Mary, who had separated from Richard in 1667. It is from volume 6 page 29.

Volume 12 “Being the book called Town Council No. 2 1715 to 1752 and containing the records of the Providence Town Council.” From the introduction:

This book contains the proceedings of the Town Council, sitting as a court of probate, and is devoted almost entirely to this class of records, although the granting of tavern licenses, with the attendant privilege of selling liquors, occupied some space.

Vol. 12 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 13 “Being the book called Town Meeting No. 2 1716 to 1721 and containing the records of the Providence Town Meeting.” From the introduction:

The record book known as “Town Meeting No 2 1716 1721” which is here produced in type purports to contain the proceedings of the town meetings between those dates but in fact it also contains records for the years 1722, 1723, 1724 and 1725. A careful examination of it, leaves one somewhat in doubt as to just what this book was intended to be, for though it has many features about it to convey the impression that it is the original book of record there are likewise certain indications that it was used by the town clerk as a “Blotter” in which to make memoranda of the town proceedings previous to the more extended record. The perplexing irregularity of dates as shown in its present condition probably resulted from a lack of care in placing the sheets in proper order when the volume was bound up many years ago, and the incongruity of the title doubtless arose from the fact that, as bound, proceedings for the year 1721 come upon the last page of the manuscript book, thus misleading the person in charge of the binding into the belief that 1721 was the latest date referred to in the volume.

Vol. 13 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 14 “Being the first book for the recording of deeds and called Deed Book No. 1.” From the introduction:

It Is the first volume which was particularly used for the entry of land evidences and similar documents, and marks a period when the growth of the town demanded a more systematic method of keeping its records.

Vol. 14 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Google.com by clicking here.

Volume 15 “Being the Providence Town papers Vol. 1 1639-April 1682 Nos. 01-0367.” From the introduction:

These papers are decidedly miscellaneous in character and include petitions, letters, reports, depositions, tax lists, and nearly every other kind of public document in use in the early days of the Providence settlement during the time they cover, which extends from 1639 to 1682. The Commissioners have reproduced these papers in type with all the imperfections of spelling and arrangement, believing that any editing or revising would detract from their value.

Vol. 15 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 16 “Being the records contained in Will Book No. 2 from Sept. 12, 1716 to Jan 7, 1728-9.”

Vol. 16 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 17 “Being the Providence Town Papers Vol. 2 April 1682 – March 1722, Nos. 0358-0717.” From the introduction:

… these papers are of a miscellaneous character and include nearly every variety of documents of a public nature.

Vol. 17 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

An example of a 1688 tax list that would show you that Mary Harris was a widow, and some indication of the death of Joseph Wise. From volume 17, page 122.

Volume 18 “Being official records and documents of title and proceedings relative to the North Burial Ground .” Much of volumes 18 and 19 are simple payments for perpetual care of a certain plot, by the families. From the introduction:

On January 25, 1894, the Joint Standing Committee of the City Council on the North Burial Ground requested the City Engineer to compile and prepare for the use of said committee all the material on record from the earliest period in the history of the town of Providence up to that date, relating to the North Burial Ground. The growth of that institution with its changes of boundaries and the acquisition of territory made it absolutely necessary that there should be readily at hand the various records and data relating to this burying ground under the management and control of the municipality.

Vol. 18 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 19 “Being official records and documents of title and proceedings relative to the North Burial Ground .” (continued from previous volume).

Vol. 19 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Volume 20 “Being the first part of the Second Book for the Recording of Deeds and Called Deed Book No. 2. ” From the introduction:

The book, which is herewith presented in type, comprises the first two hundred and five pages, being nearly one-half, of what is designated as Deed Book No. 2. It purports to be “Begun on June the Twentieth Anno: 1705” and the date of the last record of this portion is “November ye 6th 1711.”

Vol. 20 is available for browsing only at this link on HathiTrust, and cannot be downloaded as a whole book.

Volume 21 “Being the beginning of the second part of the second book for the recording of deeds and called Deed Book 2 .” From the introduction:

“Second Part of the Second Book for the Recording of Deeds and called Deed Book No. 2”. The earliest date is 3 Feb. 1661 and the latest date is 12 Mar. 1712/13.

Vol. 21 is available for browsing at this page, or download directly from Archive.org by clicking here.

Tax Lists of the Town of Providence during the Administration of Sir Edmund Andros and his Council 1686-1689 on Archive.org: http://archive.org/details/taxlistsoftownof00field

The Early Records of the Town of Portsmouth (1901) on Archive.org: http://www.archive.org/details/earlyrecordsofto02port
The Early Records of the Town of Warwick (1926) on Archive.org: http://archive.org/details/earlyrecordsofto00rhod

In closing

The first 18 volumes were produced by record commissioners Horatio Rogers, George Moulton Carpenter, Edward Field, with volumes 19 and 20 being compiled by William E Clarke, Daniel F. Hayden, and William G. Brennen, and volume 21 by William C. Pelkey.

I enjoyed perusing these volumes, and I know I will continue to do so.

Judge Horatio Rogers, 1836 – 1904, one of the record commissioners who compiled the books.


Residents of Portsmouth after split with Newport [ edit | edit source ]

Anne Hutchinson/Mary Dyer Memorial Herb Garden at Founders' Brook Park, Portsmouth, Rhode Island

Those Portsmouth settlers who remained after the group left to found Newport, and who signed an agreement for a government on 30 April 1639: ⎪]


Ralph Wallen, II

ID: I28189 Name: Ralph Wallen Surname: Wallen Given Name: Ralph Sex: M Birth: ABT 1595 in , , England Death: BEF 1644 in Plymouth, Plymouth Co., Massachusetts _UID: BA8ECAC25A66D511B4DE99B85F718F39F563 Note: ! (1) "The Great Migration Begins, Immigrants to New England 1620-1633," by Robert Charles Anderson (Great Migration Study Project, NEHGS, Boston, 1995) 2:1196l 3:1915-1916. Cites: (a) "The American Genealogist," 52:136-139 67:47-52. (b) "Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England," ed. Nathaniel B. Shurtleff and David Pulsifer (Boston 1855-1861) 1:3,10,25,57,76 2:177 8:174 12:6 12:12.

! Birth: (1) By about 1595 based on date of marriage. Death: (1) By 1644 when his wife remarried.

(1) 1623: Came to New England on the "Anne". (1) Settled at Plymouth, MA. (1b) 1623: In Plymouth land division Ralfe WALEN granted an unknown number of acres as a passenger on the "Anne." (1b) 1627: In the Plymouth land division Ralph WALLEN and Joyce WALLEN were the 9th and 10th persons in the company of Francis EATON. (1b) Bef 1632/3, 1 Jan: On list of Plymouth freemen who were made free before 1 Jan 1632/3. (1b) 1633, 25 Mar: Assessed 9s. in Plymouth tax list. (1b) 1633/4, 24 Feb: Sold to Thomas CLARK, for 20 bushels of corn and 40s. in money, "so much land next adjoining to the said Thomas, on the south side of his dwelling, as maketh up a former moiety the said Thomas bought of the said Raph twenty acres," and also "one share of meadow ground belonging to the said lot when division shall be made thereof." (1b) 1636/7, 7 Mar: On list of Plymouth freemen. (1b) 1636/7, 20 Mar: Allotted mowing ground "where he had the last year." (1b) 1637/8, 5 Feb: Ralph WALLEN acknowledged receipt of 18 pounds from Thomas CLARK, "in full payment for the lands he bought of him." (1b) 1639: On list of Plymouth freemen, with later annotation "dead." Change Date: 1 Dec 1999 at 23:00:00

Caleb Hazel - His Legacy Lives On Entries: 123917 Updated: 2006-01-08 23:49:30 UTC (Sun) Contact: Donnie Hazel Email: [email protected]

Name: Ralph WALLEN Sex: M Change Date: 12 JUL 2004 Note: [3096946.FTW]

Ralph Wallen came over to America on the ship Anne, from London, England to Plymouth Massachusetts in 1623. By a division of land, he was given one acre of land near Hobes Hole. His division of cattle, listed on May 22, 1627, shows a heifer and 2 she goats. Sources: V3 6265 WFT, England/Plymouth History and People American Genealogy V67 #1 by Eleanor C. Rue

Marriage 1 Joyce UNKNOWN Children: Thomas WALLING

Contact: Pam Shelton-Anderson Home Page: Pam Shelton-Anderson Family Tree Maker homepagehttp://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/s/h/e/Pam--Sheltonanderson/index.html

ID: I09873 Name: Ralph WALLEN Sex: M Birth: ABT 1595 in England 1 Death: BEF 1644 in Plymouth co, MA 2

Marriage 1 Joyce Wallen UNKNOWN Married: ABT 1623 in England 3 4 5 6 Children

Sources: Title: The Great Migration Begins:Immigrants to New England 1620-1633 Author: Anderson, Robert Charles Publication: [database online] Provo, UT: Ancestry.com, 2000 Original data: vols. 1-3. Boston, MA: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1995 Repository: Note: www.ancestry.com Media: Electronic Page: Ralph Wallen Text: BIRTH: By about 1595 based on date of marriage. Title: The Great Migration Begins:Immigrants to New England 1620-1633 Author: Anderson, Robert Charles Publication: [database online] Provo, UT: Ancestry.com, 2000 Original data: vols. 1-3. Boston, MA: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1995 Repository: Note: www.ancestry.com Media: Electronic Page: Ralph Wallen Text: DEATH: By 1644 when his wife remarried. Title: The Great Migration Begins:Immigrants to New England 1620-1633 Author: Anderson, Robert Charles Publication: [database online] Provo, UT: Ancestry.com, 2000 Original data: vols. 1-3. Boston, MA: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1995 Repository: Note: www.ancestry.com Media: Electronic Page: Ralph Wallen Text: In 1627 Plymouth land division Ralph Wallen and Joyce Wallen were the ninth and tenth persons in the company of Francis Eaton. MARRIAGE: By 1623 Joyce _____. She married (2) by 1644, as his third wife, THOMAS LUMBARD of Barnstable. Title: Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England Author: Savage, James Repository: Media: Book Page: Vol 4 p 399 Text: WALLEN, RALPH, Plymouth, came in the Ann, 1623, prob. with w. Joyce, wh. surv. him. Title: Pioneers of Massachusetts Author: Pope, Charles Repository: Note: FHL Media: Book Page: p 476 Text: wife Joyce had share of cattle with him in 1627. She, as widow,sold land 7 Sept. 1643. Title: Plymouth Colony: Its History and People 1620-1691 Author: Stratton, Eugene Aubrey Publication: ancestry.com, 1989 Repository: Note: www.ancestry.com Media: Electronic Page: Part III Text: Arriving in 1623 on the Anne Ralph Wallen was accompanied by his wife Joyce

Source 5: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=onlytrueh. The Only True & Correct Hillcoat site Entries: 34030 Updated: 2007-02-15 16:29:12 UTC (Thu) '

The Hugh Bryce Hillcoat and Hattie Belle Patten ancestry information is the only true information available.It is the original research of this researcher.All other sites showing this information are copies of my work no matter what they give as a source unless it is one found here.All other collateral lines should be used as guidelines only.This is not an active research site.WYSIWYG. Do not add postems as they will be deleted. If you do not agree with the information here DO NOT USE IT.

ID: I24810 Name: Ralph Wallen Given Name: Ralph Surname: Wallen Sex: M _UID: 945FB1B45E1F7449839B62EBA6D4760AF7BB Change Date: 27 Jan 2007 Birth: BET 1595 AND 1598 in England Birth: BET 1595 AND 1598 in England Death: BEF 1644 in Plymouth Colony Immigration: 1623 On the "Anne". Residence: Plymouth, Ma. Event: Appointments Unknown 1633 Plymouth list of freeman. Event: Land Grants Unknown 1623 Plymouth-granted an unknown number of acres as a passenger on the "Anne." Event: Land Grants Unknown 20 MAR 1636/37 Allotted mowing ground "where he had the last year." Event: Land Grants Unknown 20 MAR 1636/37 Allotted mowing ground "where he had the last year."

Marriage 1 Joyce Unknown b: ABT 1601 in England Married: ABT 1623 Children

Unfortunately all other trees on World Connect giving information on the ancestry and decendancy of the Hugh Bryce Hillcoat and Hattie Belle Patten lines has been copied from my 40 years of research. Sadly they have all taken credit for that part of the research located here. I guarantee I was the original researcher and would appreciate credit be given to me. I am 89 years old and it has been the work of my adult life. Collateral lines have been reseached by myself as well as gleaned from other sources.

Ralph and Joyce Wallen arrived at plymouth colony aboard the ship "Anne" in 1623. They were on the third ship of Pilgrims arriving at Plymouth. The "Mayflower" in 1620 and the "Fortune" in 1621 preceeded them. The arrival of the "Anne" and her sister ship, the "Little James" brought the total number of colonists to about 200.

Ann, the first child of Ralph and Joyce Wallen, was born shortly after their arrival. Ann married John Smalley, a tailor. The Smalleys moved to Eastham then to Little Compton, RI, then later to Piscataway, NJ.

Sailed from port of London, arrived in Plymouth, Mass. on July 10, 1623 aboard Mayflower s sister ship "ANNE". Linked to the Jamestown settlers, the first Families of Virginia and the same bloodline as three Presidents. In 1633 is was on the freeman list, he was a purchaser

.NOTE: "The Mayflower arrived at Cape Cod on Nov 11, 1620 with 102 passengers, the first Pilgrims in the New World. In 1621, the fortune brought 35 Pilgrims and on July 10. 1623, the ship Anne arrived in Plymouth with 60 Pilgrims on board. the Little James arrived in Plymouth around July soth 1623. The Anne and the Little James were classed as the last of the Pilgrim Ships. Two of the Pilgrims on the anne were Ralph and Joyce Walling.

NOTE: Ralph and Joyce Walling were assigned to the thirteen member company under the leadership of Frank Easton. In the "Division of Cattle" their group was given "an heyfer on the last yeare called white belyed heyfer and two shee goats". the documents were in the handwriting of Goveners William Bradford and Edward Winslow and secretaries of the Colony, Nathaniel Morton, and Nathaniel Clarke and Samuel Sprague.

(NOTE) Walling, Morton & Winslow are to be found in Westover family lineage, directly relating the Westovers to 3 pilgrim familys.

Children of Ralph and Joyce Walling are: 1. Anne Walling b. 1623, believed to have been born aboard ship, arriving in the New World, with a Anne Walling being listed on ship with Ralph. She married John Smalley 29 Nov in New Plymouth Colony. 2. Thomas Walling born abt 1627 in Mass. and died 1674/76 in rhode Island. He married Mary Abbott 1651, daughter f Daniel Abbott I and Mary. She was born 13 Dec in Providence, R.I. and died 1669. He married Margaret White 19 Jun 1669. she died abt 1717. 3. Jane Walling, born bef 1633 in Mass. She married John Cooper. she married Hall 1640/43 in New Haven, ct. He died in Wallingford, Ct. 4. Richard Walling, born bef 1633 in Mass.

Emmigrated to Plymouth Colony with his wife on the "Good Ship Ann"

Pilgrim Village Families Sketch: Ralph Wallen BASED ON THE GREAT MIGRATION BEGINS

Birth: Ralph Wallen was born by about 1595 (based on his estimated date of marriage).

Death: He died before August 1643.

Ship: Anne or Little James, 1623

Life in England: Nothing is known of his life in England.

Life in New England: Ralph and Joyce Wallen came to Plymouth in 1623. He was a freeman of Plymouth in 1633, but did not hold any public office.He owned several parcels of land in Plymouth, including a house and garden plot at Hob’s Hole and land along Eel River called “Wallen’s Well.�ter his death, his widow Joyce remained in Plymouth until 1644/5. She was in Barnstable by 1651𠄲.

Family: Ralph Wallen married Joyce _____ by 1623. After his death, she married (2) Thomas Lumbard as his third wife. She died after September 1683, probably in Barnstable.

Children of Ralph and Joyce Wallen:

Mary was born about 1628. She married (1) John Ewer about 1648, but there were no recorded children. He died before June 29, 1642. She married (2) John Jenkins on February 2, 1652/3, in Barnstable and had seven children. He died between September 25, 1683, and October 26, 1685, in Barnstable. She was still living on October 28, 1685. Thomas was born by about 1630. He was still living in Barnstable in 1650 (the last mention of his name in the Plymouth Colony records) and may have died or left the colony by 1660.

1. Ralph Wallen born about 1590 in England, arrived at Plymouth colony in 1623 aboard the ship "Anne" along with his wife Joyce They were aboard the third ship of the pilgrims to arrive at Plymouth, the "Mayflower " in 1620 and the"Fortune" in 1621 having preceeded them. ralph wallen died before 1643

arrived to plymouth colony july 10 1623 sail from the port of london england

found on web page called wallen/walling family of Handcock county, Tenessee and Lee county ,virginia

2. Ralph and Joyce Wallen arrived at plymouth colony aboard the ship "Anne " in 1623. They were on the third ship of Pilgrims arriving at Plymouth . The "Mayflower" in 1620 and the "Fortune" in 1621 preceeded them. The a rrival of the "Anne" and her sister ship, the "Little James" brought th e total number of colonists to about 200.

Ann, the first child of Ralph and Joyce Wallen, was born shortly after t heir arrival. Ann married John Smalley, a tailor. The Smalleys moved to E astham then to Little Compton, RI, then later to Piscataway, NJ.

Sailed from port of London, arrived in Plymouth, Mass. on July 10, 1623 a board Mayflower s sister ship "ANNE". Linked to the Jamestown settlers, t he first Families of Virginia and the same bloodline as three President s. In 1633 is was on the freeman list, he was a purchaser

.NOTE: "The Mayflower arrived at Cape Cod on Nov 11, 1620 with 102 pass engers, the first Pilgrims in the New World. In 1621, the fortune broug ht 35 Pilgrims and on July 10. 1623, the ship Anne arrived in Plymouth w ith 60 Pilgrims on board. the Little James arrived in Plymouth around J uly soth 1623. The Anne and the Little James were classed as the last o f the Pilgrim Ships. Two of the Pilgrims on the anne were Ralph and Joy ce Walling.

NOTE: Ralph and Joyce Walling were assigned to the thirteen member comp any under the leadership of Frank Easton. In the "Division of Cattle" t heir group was given "an heyfer on the last yeare called white belyed h eyfer and two shee goats". the documents were in the handwriting of Gov eners William Bradford and Edward Winslow and secretaries of the Colon y, Nathaniel Morton, and Nathaniel Clarke and Samuel Sprague.

(NOTE) Walling, Morton & Winslow are to be found in Westover family lin eage, directly relating the Westovers to 3 pilgrim familys.

Children of Ralph and Joyce Walling are: 1. Anne Walling b. 1623, belie ved to have been born aboard ship, arriving in the New World, with a An ne Walling being listed on ship with Ralph. She married John Smalley 29 N ov in New Plymouth Colony. 2. Thomas Walling born abt 1627 in Mass. and died 1674/76 in rhode Isla nd. He married Mary Abbott 1651, daughter f Daniel Abbott I and Mary. S he was born 13 Dec in Providence, R.I. and died 1669. He married Margar et White 19 Jun 1669. she died abt 1717. 3. Jane Walling, born bef 1633 in Mass. She married John Cooper. she ma rried Hall 1640/43 in New Haven, ct. He died in Wallingford, Ct. 4. Richard Walling, born bef 1633 in Mass.

"Ralph and Joyce Wallen arrived at Plimouth Colony aboard the ship "Anne" in 1623. They were on the third ship of Pilgrims arriving at Plimouth. The "Mayflower" in 1620 and the "Fortune" in 1621 preceeded them. The arrival of the "Anne" and her sister ship, the "Little James" brought the total number of colonists to about 200. Ann, the first child of Ralph and Joyce Wallen, was born shortly after their arrival. Ann married John Smalley, a tailor. The Smalleys moved to Eastham then to Little Compton, RI, then later to Piscataway, New Jersey. Thomas and Richard, sons of Ralph and Joyce Wallen, moved to Providence, Rhode Island. In 1627, a division of land and assets in Plimouth was made. Ralph and Joyce Wallen were assigned to the thirteen member Francis Eaton company. Their group was given "an heyfer of the last yeare called the white belyed heyfer and two shee goats." The documents were signed by Governor William Bradford, Edward Winslow, Nathaniel Morton, Nathaniel Clarke and Samuel Sprague. In 1633 the freemen of the Colony were listed and Ralph Wallen was on the list. He was on the Plimouth Colony tax list for 1632/33. In 1633/34 the name "widow Wallen" replaced her husband's on the tax list. Joyce Wallen continued to live in Plimouth until she sold her land on September 7, 1643 .

The will of Nicholas Snow who had come to Plimouth on the "Anne" with the Wallens gives the names of his neighbors: Ralph Wallen, Thomas Clarke, Manessah Kempton, Edward Bangs and the Hopkins family. The will of Dr. Samuel Fuller on July 30, 1633 directs that "my daughter Mercy be and remaine to Goodwife Wallen". "Goodwife" was a term used for a single female head of a household.

Much of Wallen family information from "Elisha Wallen, the Longhunter" by Carolyn Wallin, wherein she cites many sources.

Ralph and Joyce Wallen arrived at plymouth colony aboard the ship "Anne" in 1623. They were on the third ship of Pilgrims arriving at Plymouth. The "Mayflower" in 1620 and the "Fortune" in 1621 preceeded them. The arrival of the "Anne" and her sister ship, the "Little James" brought the total number of colonists to about 200.

Ann, the first child of Ralph and Joyce Wallen, was born shortly after their arrival. Ann married John Smalley, a tailor. The Smalleys moved to Eastham then to Little Compton, RI, then later to Piscataway, NJ.

Sailed from port of London, arrived in Plymouth, Mass. on July 10, 1623 aboard Mayflower s sister ship "ANNE". Linked to the Jamestown settlers, the first Families of Virginia and the same bloodline as three Presidents. In 1633 is was on the freeman list, he was a purchaser

.NOTE: "The Mayflower arrived at Cape Cod on Nov 11, 1620 with 102 passengers, the first Pilgrims in the New World. In 1621, the fortune brought 35 Pilgrims and on July 10. 1623, the ship Anne arrived in Plymouth with 60 Pilgrims on board. the Little James arrived in Plymouth around July soth 1623. The Anne and the Little James were classed as the last of the Pilgrim Ships. Two of the Pilgrims on the anne were Ralph and Joyce Walling.

NOTE: Ralph and Joyce Walling were assigned to the thirteen member company under the leadership of Frank Easton. In the "Division of Cattle" their group was given "an heyfer on the last yeare called white belyed heyfer and two shee goats". the documents were in the handwriting of Goveners William Bradford and Edward Winslow and secretaries of the Colony, Nathaniel Morton, and Nathaniel Clarke and Samuel Sprague."

Thomas came to Plymouth Colony in 1623 aboard the ship "Anne," the third ship of Pilgrims to arrive in Plymouth. They were Mayflower in 1620, Fortune in 1621 and Anne in 1623. Birth: Ralph Wallen was born by about 1595 (based on his estimated date of marriage). Death: He died before August 1643. Ship: Anne or Little James, 1623 Life in England: Nothing is known of his life in England. Life in New England: Ralph and Joyce Wallen came to Plymouth in 1623. He was a freeman of Plymouth in 1633, but did not hold any public office. He owned several parcels of land in Plymouth, including a house and garden plot at Hob’s Hole and land along Eel River called “Wallen’s Well.�ter his death, his widow Joyce remained in Plymouth until 1644/5. She was living in Barnstable by 1651𠄲. Family: Ralph Wallen married Joyce _____ by 1623.After his death, she married (2) Thomas Lumbard as his third wife. She died after September 1683, probably in Barnstable. Children of Ralph and Joyce Wallen: • Mary was born about 1628. She married (1) John Ewer about 1648, but there were no recorded children. He died before June 29, 1642. She married (2) John Jenkins on February 2, 1652/3, in Barnstable and had seven children. He died between September 25, 1683, and October 26, 1685, in Barnstable. She was still living on October 28, 1685. • Thomas was born by about 1630. He was still living in Barnstable in 1650 (the last mention of his name in the Plymouth Colony records) and may have died or left the colony by 1660. For Further Information: Robert C. Anderson. The Great Migration Begins. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1995. Robert C. Anderson. The Pilgrim Migration. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2004. Eleanor Cooley Rue.“Widow Joyce Wallen of Plymouth (1645) and Widow Joyce Lombard of Barnstable (1664): One and the Same?” The American Genealogist 67(1): 47�. January, 1992. Ethel Farrington Smith. “John Jenkins of Barnstable, Massachusetts.” New England Historical and Genealogical Register 149: 339�. 1995. Eugene A. Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620�. Salt Lake City:Ancestry Publishing, 1986. A collaboration between PLIMOTH PLANTATION and the NEW ENGLAND HISTORIC GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY


William Arnold

Christian the Daughter of Thomas Peak of Muoheny* my wife was Baptized the 15° of February, 1583.

  1. Elizabeth Arnold our Daughter was borne the 23° of November, 1611.
  2. Benedict Arnold her Brother was borne the 21° of December, 1615.
  3. Joane Arnold their Sister was borne the 27° ofFebr y , 1617.
  4. Steven Arnold their Brother was borne the, 22° of December, 1622,

Memorandom. "We came from Providence withour ffamily to Dwell at Newport inRhode Island the 19 th of November, Thursday in-afternoon, &. arived yesame night Ano. Domina 1651. Memorandom my father and his family Sett Sayle ffrom Dartmouth in Old England, the first of May, friday &.Arrived In New England. .June 24° Ano 1635. Mem 1 ".- We came to Providence toDwell,the 20th of April,1636. per me Bennedict Arnold. _____________________________________________________________________________________

Born in Ilchester, Somerset, England on 24 June 1587, William Arnold was the son of Nicholas Arnold by his first wife Alice Gully. In about 1610 he married Christian Peak who was baptized 15 February 1584, the daughter of Thomas Peak of Muchelney, Somerset, a village about six miles west of Ilchester.

Arnold's parents lived in the small village of Northover, located across the River Yeo from the town of Ilchester. Nicholas was a tailor, and the mention of his occupation in his will and the vital records of some of his family members suggests that he was prominent in his work, and likely a member of the Tailor's Guild, which carried professional and political clout in its day. As he advanced in his profession, and after the baptism of his oldest daughter Thomasine in 1572, Nicholas moved with his small family from Northover across the river to the much larger town of Ilchester where he became well established in his trade, and where the remainder of his children were born.

Arnold's mother, Alice Gully, was the daughter of John Gully and his wife Alice of Northover. His mother died in 1596 shortly after child birth, when Arnold was eight years old, and he was thereafter largely raised and influenced by his sister Joanne who was ten years older than he. Though Joanne eventually married William Hopkins of Yeovilton and died at an early age in England, two of her children, Frances Man and Thomas Hopkins, immigrated to New England with their Uncle William Arnold.

Arnold and his siblings were likely educated at the Free Grammar School associated with the parish church in Limington, slightly more than a mile to the east of Ilchester. This ancient school is where Thomas Wolsey was the curate and schoolmaster from 1500 to 1509. Wolsey later became the Lord Cardinal and Primate of England.

Only two records for Arnold are known to exist while he still lived in England. The first of these was a transcript of baptisms, marriages and burials that he signed in 1622 as the warden of St. Mary's, the parish church of Ilchester. These bishop's transcripts, as they were called, were sent to the City of Wells, Somerset, a central repository for such records. The other record mentioning his name was the will of his father, Nicholas Arnold, dated 18 January 1623. William Arnold was appointed by the will as overseer along with Ambrose Chappell, a friend of Nicholas.

There is no record of Arnold between 1623 and his sailing to New England in 1635. He was an educated man, since he had to be able to read and write as the warden of his parish church, and appeared to have a secure relationship with his church and community. Unknown are his motives for emigrating from England and when he began planning to do so. For whatever reasons, his plan to leave England with his family and associates materialized in 1635. Voyage to New England William Arnold (settler)

With members of his immediate family and other relatives and associates, Arnold gathered his group together with their baggage and supplies in the spring of 1635 and made the trip from Ilchester to Dartmouth on the coast of Devon. While the exact route of the travelers was not recorded, a probable path was through Yeovil, Crewkerne and Axminster to Exeter. From there the party likely turned south along the Devonshire coast traveling through Teignmouth and Torquay to the port city of Dartmouth.

Fred Arnold, in 1921, provided a perspective of the group as they prepared to load their ship destined for the New World: "While their eyes rested upon these last scenes in the home land, the. young people. were perhaps thinking more of the village greens of Ilchester and Yeovil. and their playmates from whom they were now separated. while the older ones were more likely turning their thoughts toward the unknown sea with some doubts and misgivings mayhap, but yet with stout hearts and strong hopes facing the great adventure that lay before them in a new world."

The ship carrying William Arnold and his group sailed from England to New England in 1635, with some brief particulars of the voyage given by his son Benedict in the family record: "Memorandom my father and his family Sett Sayle ffrom Dartmouth in Old England, the first of May, friday &c. Arrived In New England June 24o Ano 1635" The name of the ship on which this group sailed was not recorded, nor has it been identified since. Governor Winthrop recorded that in the six-week period beginning 4 June 1635, fifteen ships had arrived in the Massachusetts Bay area, but he gave the names of only two of them. The ship on which the Arnolds sailed was not the Plain Joan, as stated in some accounts, which vessel carried a Thomas Arnold from England to Virginia. There is no known record of any event that took place at sea, only the length of the trip. The journey to America was less than two months in duration and ended on William Arnold's 48th birthday. Settling Providence and Pawtuxet William Arnold (settler)

Once in New England, Arnold joined a group of settlers from Hingham, Norfolk, England who were about to establish the new settlement of Hingham, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. On 18 September 1635 the town of Hingham gave Arnold a 2-acre house lot "lying in the Town Street."

According to historian John Barry, William Arnold was banished from Hingham for reasons that were not religious, but the reason is not given, nor are any references. Years later, Arnold's son, Benedict, recorded in the family record, "Memm. We came to Providence to Dwell the 20th of April, 1636. per me Bennedict Arnold." The younger Arnold was using the place name of Providence loosely, since Providence had not yet been founded the Arnolds actually settled with Roger Williams at Seekonk near the western edge of the Plymouth Colony. That the Arnolds came here before arriving in Providence is borne out by a statement made by William Arnold in 1659: "for as much that I was one that the very first day entred with some others upon the land of providence, and so laid out my money to buy and helpe pay for it. " The settlers could not remain in Seekonk, because Plymouth would then be harangued by Massachusetts for harboring its fugitives. The Plymouth governor Edward Winslow, gently urged Williams to move with his fellow settlers across the Seekonk River into the lands of the Narragansetts. Most historians agree that it was about June 1636 when the small group of settlers moved across the river, and settled on the bank of the Moshassuck River at a place that Roger Williams soon named Providence.

Arnold became one of the 13 original proprietors of Providence, and his initials appear second on the "initial deed" signed by Roger Williams in 1638, following the initials of his son Benedict's future father-in-law, Stukeley Westcott. He was assigned a house lot on what was later North Main Street, but his stay in this part of Providence was short. About 1638 he, his wife and children, his son-in-law William Carpenter, his nephew Thomas Hopkins and a few associates and all their families moved four miles south to the Pawtuxet River, at the far southern edge of Williams's Providence purchase. They settled at the ford where the Pequot Trail crossed the river, close to where the Warwick Avenue bridge later crossed the river in the town of Cranston. Here Arnold remained until the end of his life. Though in some deeds he continued to be called "of Providence" after his move to Pawtuxet, this was before a dividing line had been created between the two localities, and he physically resided at the location called Pawtuxet.

William Arnold had been important to his church in England, and Samuel Gorton, in his work Simplicity's Defence. wrote that Arnold had been a great professor of religion in the west of England. Once in the New World, Arnold became one of the original 12 members to organize the First Baptist Church in Providence in 1638. This church, founded by Roger Williams, was also the first Baptist church established in America.

Arnold had a good relationship with the native people, and in the words of Elisha Stephen Arnold, author of the family genealogy, "he felt for the Indians a conscientious kindliness and in his dealings with them was actuated by a sense of strictest justice." Also, like Roger Williams, he made an effort to learn their language and acted as interpreter many times, being paid, in one instance, 26 shillings for his services. Being able to communicate with the Indians, he was able to buy large tracts of land from them, and soon he and his sons owned nearly 10,000 acres. In 1650 he paid more than three and a half pounds and his son Benedict paid five pounds, the highest taxes paid in the colony, implying that the Arnold family was among the wealthiest, if not the wealthiest, families in the colony in terms of land holdings. Difficulty with the Gortonites

In 1641 the Pawtuxet settlers complained to the Massachusetts authorities of their neighbors in Warwick, the Gortonites, so called, led by the Samuel Gorton mentioned earlier. Gorton had been causing disturbances for several years, and had already been evicted from several places for creating difficulties which centered around his religious beliefs, insubordination towards the magistrates, refusal to pay taxes, and his dealings with and treatment of the Indians. The Massachusetts authorities replied that they were unable to help because the Pawtuxet settlement fell under the jurisdiction of neither the Massachusetts Bay Colony nor the Plymouth Colony. As a result, in 1642 William Arnold and other Pawtuxet settlers subjected themselves to the Massachusetts government with Arnold appointed to keep the peace. This separation from Providence lasted for 16 years.

One of the primary reasons for the separation from Providence was dissension over admitting Samuel Gorton and his Warwick friends to equal rights in Providence. After being evicted from other places Gorton attempted to join in the Providence government, but the Pawtuxet settlers wanted no part of him or his followers. On a personal level, Gorton had bought from the Indians some of the same land that Arnold had bought four years earlier and attempted to seize the land. Another cause of dissatisfaction was Gorton's treatment of the Indians. Having acquired the language of the Narragansett people, Arnold felt a strong affinity towards them, and in a long letter to Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts in 1648 he complained of the injustice shown them by Gorton and the other Warwick settlers.

So unhappy was Arnold with the conduct of the Gortonites that on 1 September 1651 he wrote to Massachusetts protesting Roger William's proposed errand to England to seek a charter for the colony. In this letter he spoke in very uncomplimentary terms of the Warwick settlers saying "under the pretense of liberty of conscience about these parts there came to live all the scum and runaways of the country, which in time for want of better order may bring a heavy burden on the land." Over time these sentiments dissipated following an appeal to the Massachusetts government, Gorton's objectionable activities ceased, and he accepted Arnold's ownership of disputed land. Being able to coexist with Gorton, in 1658 the Pawtuxet settlers expressed the desire to reunite with Providence, and upon their own motion it was done. End of life

In the two decades following Pawtuxet's reunification with Providence, William Arnold continued to reside in Pawtuxet being a party to several land transactions where he deeded away some of his properties. Here he lived in relative peace until July 1675 when King Philip's War erupted into a major confrontation between the natives and the English settlers. Pawtuxet was not a safe place to be, but Arnold refused to go to his son Benedict's house in Newport, nor would he go up to Providence. He was eventually persuaded to go to his son Stephen's garrison house further up the Pawtuxet River. In December 1675 a detachment of Massachusetts troops led by General Josiah Winslow, en route to the "Great Swamp Fight" in Kingston, Rhode Island, stayed at this garrison house and was given provisions.

In January 1676, after the Kingston fight, about 300 Indians attacked Pawtuxet, burning buildings on William Carpenter's land, driving away livestock and killing two members of his family. The attacks continued, and by March the Indians had burned all the houses in Warwick and Pawtuxet, and most of them in Providence, scattering the residents to other localities. William Carpenter and Thomas Hopkins most likely went to Oyster Bay, Long Island where they had family. Where Stephen Arnold went with his family is not known, but William Arnold was probably not with him. He likely died that winter or spring, aged 88, and was buried in a family plot with his wife and grandson William, son of Benedict. Confirmation of his death did not occur until 3 November 1677 when his son Benedict described himself as "eldest son and heir of William Arnold late of Pautuxett in the said Colony deceased." Ancestry

The genealogy of the early Arnold family has been pieced together from a number of historical documents, but two such documents were of enough significance to be published as entire articles in an early genealogical journal. The first of these was a family record created by William Arnold and brought to New England by him in 1635. The second of these was a fabricated pedigree of Arnold's lineage, showing descent from some early kings in Wales dating back to the 12th century. Both of these documents were published side-by-side in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register in October 1879. The Arnold family record

While events concerning the immediate families of many colonial immigrants to America were recorded in family Bibles, some of which exist to this day, what William Arnold did was highly unusual among those immigrating to the New World in the 17th century. As the warden of St. Mary's Church in Ilchester, Arnold had access to the records of baptisms, marriages and burials that were kept in the parish register. As he contemplated immigrating with his family to New England, he recorded all the baptismal entries in the Ilchester parish register pertaining to his children and siblings. He then took the process a step further, crossing the River Ivel to the parish of Northover, where his parents had lived and where his oldest sister was baptized, recording pertinent information from that register as well, thus creating a personal family record.

This family document sailed with Arnold from England to the New World in 1635, but the record did not end then. In later years Arnold's son, Benedict, added his own notes and family events to the document, and then Benedict's son Josiah Arnold added his family. The latest entries in the family record were made by the son of Josiah, Josiah Arnold Jr. This exceptional historical document, spanning a total of 223 years and six generations, began with the baptism of William Arnold's mother Alice Gully in 1553 and ended with the death of Josiah Arnold III in 1776.

What became of the document between 1776 and the mid-19th century is uncertain, but it eventually came into the possession of Mr. Patrick Anderson McEwen of Windsor, Ontario, Canada, from whom it passed to Isaac N. Arnold, president of the Chicago Historical Society. A copy was then made by Edwin Hubbard in 1878, and ultimately published under his name the following year. As with any historical document, genealogists and historians wanted to know how reliable it was. Once the original parish registers were discovered by a researcher in 1902, it was demonstrated that every entry in Arnold's original document that could be corroborated with these parish records in England was correct and precise to the minutest detail. The false pedigree of the Arnold family

Published in the same issue of the New England Historical and Genealogical Register with the Arnold family record was another article giving a lineage for William Arnold going back 16 generations. In 1870 the genealogist Horatio G. Somerby compiled this pedigree of the Arnold family for a client in New York based on his research in England. In this pedigree, William Arnold was shown to be a son of a Thomas Arnold and to descend from a 12th-century King of Gwentland whose name was Ynir. Mr. Somerby's manuscript was "compiled from Herald's Visitations, Inquisitions Post Mortem, Subsidy rolls, Wills, Parish registers, and other original documents." A few years after this pedigree was published, John O. Austin incorporated some of it into his Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island.

In 1902, Edson S. Jones, a descendant of Thomas Arnold of Watertown and Providence mentioned earlier, visited England in search of records pertaining to his family. Thinking that Thomas Arnold was connected with William Arnold, he visited Northover and Ilchester, finding the original parish registers, as well as other important source documents. He discovered that every entry in the Arnold record that could be compared with entries in the parish registers matched perfectly. He also discovered that the Somerby pedigree of the Arnold family had serious discrepancies with original documents. As he checked the source documents from which Somerby supposedly compiled the pedigree, he found that some of the generations in the Somerby pedigree had been shuffled from the original documents, some members of the lineage came from unrelated families, and some place names seemed to have been totally made up. It had earlier been believed that a Thomas Arnold was the father of William Arnold, and Somerby stated that this Thomas Arnold came from a place called Northover near Cheselbourne in County Dorset. No such place exists. The Somerby pedigree of the Arnold family published in 1879 was riddled with misinformation, and it had been accepted as fact for over three decades by even prominent genealogists such as John O. Austin. Fred Arnold wrote in 1921, "The most regrettable feature in Somerby's work is, that in the absence of any English record, known here to disprove it, so reliable a genealogist as Mr. John O. Austin was led to accept and use it in his dictionary, although neither give any record evidence. Very rarely has Mr. Austin accepted another's statement, unless he has himself seen evidence to support it." This fabricated research was not an isolated incident Mr. Somerby had also been implicated in other fraudulent research and was out to please his clients regardless of the veracity of his work. The correct ancestry and English home of William Arnold

Edson Jones eventually published his findings on the Arnold family in 1915, demonstrating the accuracy of the Arnold family record, and then carefully revealing each inconsistency and factual error found in Somerby's pedigree. In 1921, Fred Arnold summarized these findings and synthesized them into a coherent lineage of the Arnold family which is consistent with every known historical document, and presented his findings to the Rhode Island Historical Society. To summarize the work of both Edson Jones and Fred Arnold, William Arnold was the son of Nicholas Arnold of Northover and Ilchester in Somerset based on the Arnold family record and the Northover parish register. Arnold's mother was Alice Gully, and her parents were John and Alice Gully based on the same two documents. These are the only known ancestors of William Arnold based on known historical records, and the parents of Nicholas Arnold have not been identified in any historical document.

The Somerby pedigree of the Arnold family indicated that the family had lived in many counties in both England and Wales. This was not the case the Arnolds and their associates all lived in a small area within southeastern Somerset. While in England William Arnold and his family lived in Ilchester. His parents had come from the village of Northover, scarcely one half mile across the River Yeo to the north. When Arnold's son Benedict mentioned his "Lemmington" farm in his will, he was referring to a New England property named after the village of Limington in old England this village is less than a mile and a half east of Ilchester. A very short distance north of Limington across the River Yeo is the town of Yeovilton where William Hopkins, the husband of Arnold's sister Joanne, lived. Six miles west of Ilchester is the village of Muchelney, the home of Arnold's wife Christian Peak, and five miles south of Ilchester is Yeovil, the home of Stukeley Westcott, whose daughter Damaris married Arnold's son Benedict, and who may have accompanied the Arnolds on their voyage to the New World. Thus, Arnold and all of his known kinsmen had lived within six miles of each other in southeastern Somerset. Children

William and Christian Arnold had four children, all born in Ilchester, Somerset. The oldest child was Elizabeth who married William Carpenter, the son of Richard Carpenter of Amesbury, Wiltshire, England the couple had eight children. William and Elizabeth Carpenter settled in Providence, and then followed her parents to the settlement of Pawtuxet, where they lived the remainder of their lives, except for a short time during King Philip's War, when they were forced to flee to Long Island.

The second child and oldest son was Benedict who married Damaris Westcott, the daughter of Stukeley and Juliann Westcott. They had nine children. Stukeley Westcott lived in Yeovil, five miles south of Ilchester, where he was married and where Damaris was baptized. The Westcotts may have sailed to New England with the Arnolds if not they likely sailed at about the same time. Benedict moved with his family from Pawtuxet to Newport in 1651, and in 1657 succeeded Roger Williams as the President of the colony. When the royal charter arrived from England in 1663, Benedict Arnold became the first Governor of the colony, and served as either president or governor for a total of 11 years.

The third child and youngest daughter, Joanna, married first Zachariah Rhodes, and settled in Pawtuxet near Joanna's brother Stephen. Following Zachariah's death by drowning, Joanna married Samuel Reape. She had eight children, all by her first husband, and became the ancestress of the Rhodes family of Rhode Island.

The fourth and youngest child of William and Christian Arnold was Stephen who married Sarah Smith, the daughter of Edward Smith of Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Stephen and Sarah had seven children. Stephen was either a Deputy to the General Assembly or colonial Assistant nearly every year for a period of three decades. He and his family settled in Pawtuxet near his father, and had a garrison house along the Pawtuxet River. Stephen was 13 years old when he sailed from England to the New World with his parents and relatives, and he was the last surviving member of that sailing party. Notable descendants

Several descendants of William Arnold became prominent in either the military or the civil affairs of the United States. A great-great grandson, named Benedict Arnold, became one of the great generals of the American Revolutionary War but was better known for his betrayal of the American revolutionary cause. Other well-known descendants include U.S. Presidents George Herbert Walker Bush and George W. Bush Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, American hero of the Great Lakes during the War of 1812 and his younger brother Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry who was sent across the Pacific in 1852 by President Millard Fillmore to open Japan to western trade and Stephen Arnold Douglas who debated Abraham Lincoln in 1858 while vying for the Illinois Senate seat and winning the contest, but later losing to Lincoln in the 1860 presidential race. Stephen A. Douglas descends from both sons of William Arnold. Rhode Island colonial Deputy Governor George Hazard is another descendant. The hall of fame rodeo cowboy and western artist Earl W. Bascom is also a noted descendant. A published line of descent from Arnold to U.S. President James A. Garfield was later disproven. Issue William Arnold was one of the founding settlers of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and with his sons was among the wealthiest people in the colony. He was raised and educated in England where he was the warden of St. Mary's, the parish church of Ilchester in southeastern Somerset. In 1635, along with family and associates, he immigrated to New England, where he initially settled in Hingham in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, but soon relocated to the new settlement of Providence with Roger Williams. He was one of the 13 original proprietors of Providence, appearing on the deed signed by Roger Williams in 1638, and was one of the twelve founding members of the first Baptist church to be established in America. After living in Providence for about two years, Arnold moved with his family and other relatives and associates to the north side of the Pawtuxet River forming a settlement commonly called Pawtuxet, later a part of Cranston, Rhode Island. He and his fellow settlers had serious disputes with their Warwick neighbors on the south side of the river and as a result separated themselves from the Providence government, putting themselves under the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. This separation from Providence lasted for 16 years, and as the head of the settlement, Arnold was appointed as the keeper of the peace. He died sometime during the great turmoil of King Philip's War in 1675 or 1676. Arnold's son, Benedict Arnold, succeeded Roger Williams as President of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1657, and under the royal charter of 1663 became the first Governor of the colony. Highly unusual for a 17th-century American settler, Arnold began a family record based on entries from the local parish registers in England and brought this with him to New England this family record would eventually span more than 200 years and six generations. Nearly 300 years after his birth, a fabricated pedigree for Arnold was published, claiming his descent from 12th-century kings living in Wales. Three and a half decades later, in 1915, his correct ancestry was published, but not before the misinformation had been printed in an important source for Rhode Island genealogy.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Arnold_%28settler%29 William Arnold (24 June 1587 – c. 1676) was one of the founding settlers of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and with his sons was among the wealthiest people in the colony. He was raised and educated in England where he was the warden of St. Mary's, the parish church of Ilchester in southeastern Somerset. In 1635, along with family and associates, he immigrated to New England, where he initially settled in Hingham in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, but soon relocated to the new settlement of Providence with Roger Williams. He was one of the 13 original proprietors of Providence, appearing on the deed signed by Roger Williams in 1638, and was one of the twelve founding members of the first Baptist church to be established in America.

After living in Providence for about two years, Arnold moved with his family and other relatives and associates to the north side of the Pawtuxet River forming a settlement commonly called Pawtuxet, later a part of Cranston, Rhode Island. He and his fellow settlers had serious disputes with their Warwick neighbors on the south side of the river and as a result separated themselves from the Providence government, putting themselves under the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. This separation from Providence lasted for 16 years, and as the head of the settlement, Arnold was appointed as the keeper of the peace. He died sometime during the great turmoil of King Philip's War in 1675 or 1676. Arnold's son, Benedict Arnold, succeeded Roger Williams as President of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1657, and under the royal charter of 1663 became the first Governor of the colony.

Highly unusual for a 17th-century American settler, Arnold began a family record based on entries from the local parish registers in England and brought this with him to New England this family record would eventually span more than 200 years and six generations. Nearly 300 years after his birth, a fabricated pedigree for Arnold was published, claiming his descent from 12th-century kings living in Wales. Three and a half decades later, in 1915, his correct ancestry was published, but not before the misinformation had been printed in an important source for Rhode Island genealogy.

William Arnold--the ancestor of such famous Americans as Benedict Arnold and Presidents James Abram Garfield and George Walker Bush--sailed from Dartmouth ENG on May 1, 1635 on the Plain Joan, arriving in New England on June 24th. He was accompanied by his family and they settled initially in Hingham MA. By April 20, 1636, however, William Arnold had joined with Roger Williams as one of the twelve original proprietors of Providence Plantations

In 1638, with other friends of Roger Williams, the Arnolds relocated to Pawtuxet, Providence RI (which later became the Town of Cranston) and William Arnold was the first Englishman to settle there. He built a home in the wilderness about a mile north of the Pawtuxet Falls and was shortly followed by William Harris, William Carpenter and Zachariah Rhodes (William's son-in-law). Rhodes and Arnold's brother-in-law, Stephen Arnold, built a gristmill near the falls and laid out the "Arnold Road" northward to join the Pequot Trail that led south to Connecticut.

William Arnold was President of the towns of Warwick, Providence, Newport and Portsmouth for five years and Governor of the Colony for ten.

Genealogical and family history of western New York: a record of . Volume 1 edited by William Richard Cutter Pg.274

William Arnold of Hollesley, County Suffolk, England.

His mother died when he was nine years old. His older sister Joanne was his foster mother thereafter.

1636, April- He settled in Providence, RI.

From the Find A Grave page for William Arnold:

Birth: Jun. 24, 1587 - Ilchester, Somerset, England

Death: 򑙷 - Pawtuxet, Kent County, Rhode Island, USA

He was mentioned as deceased by his son Benedict on Nov 3,1677, and died "after the beginning of King Philip's War", i.e. mid-1675.

He came to New England in 1635, first settling at Hingham, and then Providence by April 1636. In 1638, he settled in Pawtuxet (now Warwick).

Son of Nicholas Arnold and Alice Gully Arnold of Ilchester, Co.Somerset. He was a brother of Joan (Arnold) Hopkins, and therefore his nephew was Thomas Hopkins of Providence,RI.

He married Christian Peake/Peak by 1611.

  • 1. Elizabeth Arnold Carpenter,
  • 2. Benedict Arnold,
  • 3. Joanna Arnold Rhodes Reape, and
  • 4. Stephen Arnold.

There may have been other children that died young.

Thomas Hopkins was great grandfather of Stephen Hopkins who signed the Declaration of Independence and became both Governor and Rhode Island's first serious historian.

  • Elizabeth Arnold Carpenter (1611 - ____)*
  • Benedict Arnold (1615 - 1678)*
  • Joanna Arnold Rhodes Reape (1616 - 1691)*
  • Stephen Arnold (1622 - 1699)*

William Hopkins died on 8 July 1723 in Providence, Rhode Island. He was born <1656> in Providence, Providence, Ri. Parents: Thomas Hopkins (LH7F-MBZ) and Elisabeth Arnold (KNHF-JT4).

Spouse: Joanna Arnold (KNZ7-TCG). Joanna Arnold and William Hopkins were married on 13 October 1611 in Of Melcombe, Horsey, D, England. ________________________________________________________________________________ Arnold Family History

The following copy of early Arnold records, received from Canada by the Hon. Isaac N. Arnold, president of the Chicago Historical Society, was made by me in May, 1878. The volume from which I copy is a small quarto of sixteen pages of English paper, un ruled, faded and worn. The original,* of which this appears to be a copy, seems to have been written by four different persons. If I were to attempt to assign the authorship to the several writers, it would be, first, from the beginning to the second or third paragraph of page 4 of the quarto volume (the pages of which are given in brackets in the middle of the page), to William Arnold, born June 24, 1587 second, thence to the second paragraph of page 9, to Gov. Benedict Arnold, born Dec. 21, 1615, died 1678 third, thence to the end of page 12, to Josiah Arnold, Sen., bom Dec. 22, 1646 fourth, thence to the close, to Josiah Arnold, Jr., born Aug. 25, 1707. The quarto volume from which Icopy is probably in the handwriting of the last named Josiah. The record extends one generation farther back than is given by Mr.Savage or any of the authorities referred to by him and, besides giving the names of the English port from which William Arnold sailed for New England, and the precise date of his sailing, it other dates and localities not previously met with by me". The records of the four writers are all in the first person. If the authenticity of the document and copy be admitted, we have the unusual instance of a personal record of a distinguished family for six generations, extending over a period of two hundred and twenty three years, from A.D, 1553 to 1776. I have appended a genealogy of one line of this family, giving the ancestry of Mr. Arnold, through whose courtesy I have copied the old record. E. H. A Register, or true account of my owne agge, with my Mother, my Wife, my Brothers and Sisters, and Others of my frinds and acquantance. 1. Imprimis Alee Gully the Daughter of John Gully of Northouer. Who was my Mother, was Baptized ye 29: Septem 155.3. 2. Tamzen, my Sister was Baptized the 4th of Jan. 1571. 3. Joane Arnold, my Sister was Baptized the 30th of November in the yeare 1577. ' 4. Margery Arnold,my Sister was Baptized the 30th of August, 1581. 5. IWilliamArnold, their Brother was borne the 24th ofJune, 1587. 6. Robert Arnold, my Brother was Baptized the 18thof October 1593. 7. Elizabeth Arnold my Sister was borne the 9th of April, 1596.

Query. Is this original document still inexistence €Â铭. 4 Early Records of the Arnold Family. [2 ] 8. Thomas Arnold myBrother, my Mother in lawes Sonne, wasBap­ tized the 18° April,1599. 9. Elenor Arnold, my Sister was Baptized the 31° ofJuly, 1603. The age of my Sister Tamzens Children. 1. Robert Hacker was Baptized the 22° of Jan/. 1597. 2. Francis Hacker was Baptized the 24th of January.1599. 3. John Hacker their brother was Baptized the 25th of October, 1601. 4. WilliamHacker was Baptized the 31th of October, 1604. 5. Alee Hacker was Baptized the 25 of August, 1607. 3. Mary Hacker was' Baptized the 4th of March, 1609. 7. Thomas Hacker was Baptized the 7 th of April,1616. [3 ] 1. Christian the Daughter of Thomas Peak of Muoheny* my wife was Baptized the 15th of February, 1583. 2. Elizabeth Arnold our Daughter was borne the 23th of November, 1611. 3. Benedict Arnold her Brother was borne the 21th of December, 1615. 4. Joane Arnold their Sister was borne the 27th ofFebr y ,1617. 5. Steven Arnold their Brother was borne the, 22nd of December, 1622,

WILLIAM ARNOLD: b.1587, d.1676. Deeded land in Providence which Roger Williams bought from the Narragansett sachems, Canonicus and Miantonomi. One of the original members of the First Baptist Church and signer of the agreement for a form of government. Moved to Pawtuxet where he and other settlers subjected themselves to the government of Massachusetts for a 16-year period. Wrote a letter to the Massachusetts Governor complaining of the injustice shown by the Indians by the Warwick settlers, "who are going on with a high hand." Wrote to Massachusetts, protesting against Roger Williams' proposal errand to England seeking a charter. Expressed a desire, along with other Pawtuxet settlers, to be reunited with Providence. Photo location: City Hall, Cranston, Rhode Island.

Reference: The Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island, John Osborne Austin, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1969 (Originally published in Albany, New York, 1887.). ____________________________________________________________________________________

Friend Stukeley Westcott-Wikepedia source mentions William Arnold The baptisms of two of Stukeley Westcott's children were also recorded in Yeovil: a daughter Damaris in 1620/21 and a son Samuel in 1622/23.[5][6] There is no record of where Westcott lived following the baptisms of these two children, but there is evidence that in 1635 he and his family accompanied the family of William Arnold to New England, departing from the port town of Dartmouth in county Devon. Roscoe Whitman states this as a fact, [7] based upon a memorandum made in April 1656 by Benedict Arnold, the oldest son of William Arnold, and found among old family papers.[8] The Arnold family came from the town of Ilchester, scarcely five miles north of Yeovil, and it is probable that the two families were acquainted with each other before sailing to the New World. Both families came to Providence at about the same time. The oldest daughter of Stukeley Westcott, Damaris, married Benedict Arnold several years later.[9] Settling in New England[edit]

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stukeley_Westcott ____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ On June 24, 1635, there arrived in Massachusetts Bay a group of neighbors, nearly all related, either by blood or mar- riage. They had sailed from Dartmouth in Devonshire May 1 of the same year, all but one of the party, William Car- penter, coming from Ilchester, in southern Somersetshire or within about five miles of that place. The leader of the party was William Arnold whose 48th birthday was the day of their arrival. His oldest son Benedict one of the party, a lad 19 years of age at that time, has given us the only account that we have of their embarkation, in his own family record, written probably soon after his removal to Newport in 1651. which begins as follows. Source: http://www.archive.org/stream/accountofenglish00arno/accountofengli.

William Arnold of Hollesley, County Suffolk, named a son Thomas in his will dated 22 Nov 1616, when Thomas was still under age. Richard Arnold of London, goldsmith, in his will dated 8 Nov 1644, left a legacy to two cousins, Richard Arnold of Kelshall, County Suffolk [13 miles for Hollesley] who was a son of the testator's uncle William Arnold, and also to Richard Arnold of Killingworth, County Warwick, who was a son of his uncle Richard. These two nephews were to pay to their brothers and sisters except for Thomas Arnold who is now supposed to be in New England or some other part beyond the seas. The uncle Richard also had a son named Thomas but he wasn't in a location to be the Thomas who married Phoebe Parkhurst from county Suffolk. However, Thomas and Phoebe didn't actually marry until they were in Massachusetts, so Thomas could have been the son of either brother, Richard or William.

Correct William Arnold Lineage The correct ancestry and English home of William Arnold[edit]

Church of St. Andrew in Northover, England where William Arnold's mother and oldest sister were baptized. Edson Jones eventually published his findings on the Arnold family in 1915, demonstrating the accuracy of the Arnold family record, and then carefully revealing each inconsistency and factual error found in Somerby's pedigree.[40] In 1921, Fred Arnold summarized these findings and synthesized them into a coherent lineage of the Arnold family which is consistent with every known historical document,[f] and presented his findings to the Rhode Island Historical Society.[42] To summarize the work of both Edson Jones and Fred Arnold, William Arnold was the son of Nicholas Arnold of Northover and Ilchester in Somerset based on the Arnold family record and the Northover parish register. Arnold's mother was Alice Gully, and her parents were John and Alice Gully based on the same two documents.[43] These are the only known ancestors of William Arnold based on known historical records,[f] and the parents of Nicholas Arnold have not been identified in any historical document.[g]

The Somerby pedigree of the Arnold family indicated that the family had lived in many counties in both England and Wales.[h] This was not the case the Arnolds and their associates all lived in a small area within southeastern Somerset. While in England William Arnold and his family lived in Ilchester. His parents had come from the village of Northover, scarcely one half mile (0.8 km) across the River Yeo to the north.[44] When Arnold's son Benedict mentioned his "Lemmington" farm in his will, he was referring to a New England property named after the village of Limington in old England this village is less than a mile and a half (2.5 km) east of Ilchester.[45] A very short distance north of Limington across the River Yeo is the town of Yeovilton where William Hopkins, the husband of Arnold's sister Joanne, lived. Six miles (10 km) west of Ilchester is the village of Muchelney, the home of Arnold's wife Christian Peak, and five miles (8 km) south of Ilchester is Yeovil, the home of Stukeley Westcott, whose daughter Damaris married Arnold's son Benedict, and who may have accompanied the Arnolds on their voyage to the New World.[45][46][47] Thus, Arnold and all of his known kinsmen had lived within six miles (10 km) of each other in southeastern Somerset.

Children[edit] William and Christian Arnold had four children, all born in Ilchester, Somerset. The oldest child was Elizabeth (1611 – after 7 September 1685) who married William Carpenter (c. 1610�), the son of Richard Carpenter of Amesbury, Wiltshire, England the couple had eight children.[3][48][49] William and Elizabeth Carpenter settled in Providence, and then followed her parents to the settlement of Pawtuxet, where they lived the remainder of their lives, except for a short time during King Phillip's War, when they were forced to flee to Long Island.[50]

The second child and oldest son was Benedict (1615�) who married Damaris Westcott (1621[i] – after 1678), the daughter of Stukeley and Juliann (Marchante) Westcott.[3][48][49] They had nine children. Stukeley Westcott lived in Yeovil, five miles (eight km) south of Ilchester, where he was married and where Damaris was baptized.[46] The Westcotts may have sailed to New England with the Arnolds if not they likely sailed at about the same time.[37] Benedict moved with his family from Pawtuxet to Newport in 1651, and in 1657 succeeded Roger Williams as the President of the colony.[48] When the royal charter arrived from England in 1663, Benedict Arnold became the first Governor of the colony, and served as either president or governor for a total of 11 years.[48]

The third child and youngest daughter, Joanna (1617 – after 11 February 1693[j]), married first Zachariah Rhodes (c. 1603�),[3][48][49] and settled in Pawtuxet near Joanna's brother Stephen.[51] Following Zachariah's death by drowning, Joanna married Samuel Reape. She had eight children, all by her first husband, and became the ancestress of the Rhodes family of Rhode Island.[13]

The fourth and youngest child of William and Christian Arnold was Stephen (1622�) who married Sarah Smith (1629�), the daughter of Edward Smith of Rehoboth, Massachusetts.[3][48][49] Stephen and Sarah had seven children. Stephen was either a Deputy to the General Assembly or colonial Assistant nearly every year for a period of three decades.[52] He and his family settled in Pawtuxet near his father, and had a garrison house along the Pawtuxet River. Stephen was 13 years old when he sailed from England to the New World with his parents and relatives, and he was the last surviving member of that sailing party.[33]

Stephen Arnold Douglas, who is descended from both sons of William Arnold. Several descendants of William Arnold became prominent in either the military or the civil affairs of the United States. A great-great grandson, named Benedict Arnold,[53] became one of the great generals of the American Revolutionary War but was better known for his betrayal of the American revolutionary cause. Other well-known descendants include U.S. Presidents George Herbert Walker Bush and George W. Bush[54] Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry,[55] American hero of the Great Lakes during the War of 1812 and his younger brother Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry[55] who was sent across the Pacific in 1852 by President Millard Fillmore to open Japan to western trade and Stephen Arnold Douglas[56] who debated Abraham Lincoln in 1858 while vying for the Illinois Senate seat and winning the contest, but later losing to Lincoln in the 1860 presidential race. Stephen A. Douglas descends from both sons of William Arnold.[56] Rhode Island colonial Deputy Governor George Hazard is another descendant. A published line of descent from Arnold to U.S. President James A. Garfield[57] was later disproven.[58]

See also[edit] List of early settlers of Rhode Island Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations Notes[edit] a. ^ The date as written in the original record reads "1622/3." This is because England and her colonies were still using the Julian calendar, and the year began and ended in March. However, clerks and record keepers realized that much of Europe had switched over to the Gregorian calendar (beginning in 1582), with the new year beginning on 1 January, so for the months of January, February and part of March, they wrote the dual year, meaning 1622 in the old calendar and 1623 in the new, even though England would not switch to the Gregorian calendar until the middle of the 18th century.[59] b. ^ Written 1583/4 in the original records. See note a. c. ^ Written 1571/2 in the original records. See note a. d. ^ Another (or possibly the same) Thomas Arnold was of Watertown, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and later of Providence and has erroneously been labeled as the half-brother of William. William did have a younger half-brother named Thomas, but this half-brother lived and presumably died in England, with no record of his ever having been in New England. The possible parentage of Thomas Arnold of Watertown and Providence was published in 1915 by E. S. Jones, who narrowed down the father of Thomas to two candidates.[60] Fred Arnold, in 1921, was more definitive about Thomas Arnold's parentage, calling him the son of Richard Arnold, goldsmith of London and grandson of William and Katherine Arnold of Kelsale, Suffolk, England.[15] e. ^ See, for example, Richard Sears (pilgrim), concerning Rev. Edward Hamilton Sears.[61] f. ^ These original documents include the Arnold family record, the Northover parish register, the bishop's transcript of Ilchester parish records sent to Wells in 1622 (and signed by William Arnold), and the will of Nicholas Arnold.[37] g. ^ So thorough was Fred Arnold's treatment of the genealogy of William Arnold in 1921, that his work was included verbatim in Elisha S. Arnold's 1935 genealogy of the descendants of William Arnold.[62] Even a modern account of the Arnold family, created from all known published sources and then published under the Great Migration project in 1999 shows no difference in the structure of the family from what was published in 1921, and shows no known ancestry for Nicholas Arnold.[63] h. ^ Somerby had the family living in Monmouthshire, Gloucester, Wiltshire, and Dorset, as well as a part of Somerset that does not include the Ilchester area.[64] No record has been found to support the claims that the family of William Arnold ever lived in any of these places.[65][40] i. ^ Written 1620/1 in the original records. See note a. j. ^ Written 1692/3 in the original records. See note a. References[edit] Footnotes[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Hubbard 1879, p. 427. ^ Jump up to: a b Jones 1915, p. 67. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Hubbard 1879, p. 428. Jump up ^ Blair 2007, p. 232. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, p. 22. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, p. 23. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1921, p. 25. Jump up ^ Arnold 1935, p. 43. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1921, p. 37. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, p. 18. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, pp. 18â€錙. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1921, p. 38. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1921, p. 39. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1921, p. 9. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1921, p. 19. Jump up ^ Anderson, Sanborn & Sanborn 1999, p. 84. Jump up ^ Barry 2012, p. 267. Jump up ^ Chapin 1916, p. 11. Jump up ^ Chapin 1916, pp. 8-17. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, p. 31. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Arnold 1935, p. 45. ^ Jump up to: a b Anderson, Sanborn & Sanborn 1999, p. 88. Jump up ^ Anderson, Sanborn & Sanborn 1999, pp. 84â€鎆. Jump up ^ Arnold 1935, pp. 45â€鍆. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1932, p. 47. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Austin 1887, p. 242. Jump up ^ Arnold 1935, p. 46. Jump up ^ Arnold 1935, pp. 46â€鍉. ^ Jump up to: a b c Arnold 1935, p. 49. Jump up ^ Arnold 1935, pp. 46â€鍇. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1935, p. 47. Jump up ^ Anderson, Sanborn & Sanborn 1999, p. 91. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1921, p. 33. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, pp. 33â€錴. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Drowne 1879, p. 432. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, p. 27. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Arnold 1921, p. 10. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, p. 14. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, pp. 13â€錕. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Jones 1915, pp. 65â€鍩. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1921, p. 28. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, pp. 9â€錹. Jump up ^ Hubbard 1879, pp. 427â€򓐨. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, p. 15. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1921, p. 13. ^ Jump up to: a b Moriarity 1944, p. 233. Jump up ^ Whitman 1932, p. 13. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Austin 1887, pp. 242â€򓉇. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Arnold 1921, pp. 21â€錢. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, pp. 34â€錵. Jump up ^ Arnold 1921, p. 32. Jump up ^ Austin 1887, p. 244. Jump up ^ Arnold 1935, p. 132. Jump up ^ Roberts 1995, pp. 121â€򓄰. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1935, p. 90. ^ Jump up to: a b Arnold 1935, p. 274. Jump up ^ Jackson & Polson 1981, p. 123. Jump up ^ Roberts 2009, p. 243. Jump up ^ Spathaky 2006. Jump up ^ Jones 1915, pp. 68â€鍩. Jump up ^ Sears 1857. Jump up ^ Arnold 1935, pp. 9â€錹. Jump up ^ Anderson, Sanborn & Sanborn 1999, pp. 84â€鎉. Jump up ^ Drowne 1879, pp. 432â€򓐵. Jump up ^ Anderson, Sandborn & Sanborn 1999, pp. 84â€鎆. Bibliography[edit] Anderson, Robert Charles Sanborn, George F. Jr. Sanborn, Melinde L. (1999). The Great Migration, Immigrants to New England 1634â€�. Vol. I Aâ€ऻ. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society. ISBN 0-88082-110-8. Arnold, Elisha Stephen (1935). The Arnold Memorial: William Arnold of Providence and Pawtuxet, 1587â€�, and a genealogy of his descendants. Rutland, VT: Tuttle Publishing Company. OCLC 6882845. Arnold, Fred A. (1921), "William Arnold, Stukeley Westcott and William Carpenter", in Arnold, E. S., Arnold Memorial, Rutland, VT: Tuttle Publishing Company, pp. 9â€錹 Austin, John Osborne (1887). Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island. ISBN 978-0-8063-0006-1. Barry, John M. (2012). Roger Williams and The Creation of the American Soul. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-02305-9. Blair, John (2007). Waterways and canal-building in medieval England. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2011-01-29. Chapin, Howard M. (1916). Documentary History of Rhode Island. Providence: Preston and Rounds Company. pp. 8â€錖. Drowne, Henry T. (October 1879). "Mr. Somerby's Genealogy of the Arnold Family". New England Historical and Genealogical Register 33: 432â€򓐸. ISBN 0-7884-0293-5. Hubbard, Edwin (October 1879). "Early Records of the Arnold Family". New England Historical and Genealogical Register (New England Historic Genealogical Society) 33: 427â€򓐲. ISBN 0-7884-0293-5. Jackson, Ronald V. Polson, Altha (1981). American Patriots. privately published. Jones, Edson S. (January 1915). "The Parentage of William Arnold and Thomas Arnold of Providence, R.I.". New England Historical and Genealogical Register 69: 65â€鍩. Moriarity, G. Andrews (April 1944). "Additions and Corrections to Austin's Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island". The American Genealogist 20: 233. Roberts, Gary Boyd (1995). Ancestors of American Presidents. Santa Clarita, California: Boyer. Roberts, Gary Boyd (2009). Ancestors of American Presidents, 2009 edition. Boston, Massachusetts: New England Historic Genealogical Society. ISBN 978-0-88082-220-6. Sears, Edward Hamilton Rev. (1857). Pictures of the Olden Time. Includes the spurious pedigree derived from the fraudulent research of Horatio G. Somerby. Spathaky, Mike (2006), "Old Style and New Style Dates and the change to the Gregorian calendar A summary for genealogists", Whitman, Roscoe L. (1932). History and Genealogy of the Ancestors and some Descendants of Stukely Westcott. privately published. External links[edit] Rhode Island History from the State of Rhode Island General Assembly website. See Chapter 2, Colonial Era. Correction of Arnold Pedigree from Ancestry.com. History of Cranston, Rhode Island from City of Cranston website. Pawtuxet History from Pawtuxet Cove website see Pawtuxet Village History. Ancestry of George W. Bush showing descent of Presidents George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush from William Arnold. See #9998 in the initial ahnentafel. The date and place of death given for William Arnold are incorrect. [hide] v t e Original proprietors of Rhode Island's first settlements First settlers of Providence with Roger Williams (1636) Roger Williams William Harris John Smith (miller) Francis Wickes Thomas Angell Joshua Verin William Arnold Benedict Arnold William Carpenter William Mann Thomas Hopkins

Original proprietors of Providence (signers of "initial deed," October 1638) Roger Williams Stukeley Westcott William Arnold Thomas James Robert Cole John Greene John Throckmorton William Harris William Carpenter Thomas Olney Francis Weston Richard Waterman Ezekiel Holyman Pawtuxet Claimants (Settled 1638 under Massachusetts jurisdiction 1642-1658) William Arnold Benedict Arnold William Carpenter Robert Cole Founders of Portsmouth (signers of Portsmouth Compact, 7 March 1638) William Coddington John Clarke William Hutchinson John Coggeshall William Aspinwall Samuel Wilbore John Porter John Sanford Edward Hutchinson, Jr. Thomas Savage William Dyre William Freeborn Philip Shearman John Walker Richard Carder William Baulston Edward Hutchinson, Sr. Henry Bull Randall Holden Thomas Clarke John Johnson William Hall John Brightman Founders of Newport (Signers of initial agreement, 28 April 1639) William Coddington (Judge) Nicholas Easton (Elder) John Coggeshall (Elder) William Brenton (Elder) John Clarke (Elder) Jeremy Clarke (Elder) Thomas Hazard (Elder) Henry Bull (Elder) William Dyre (Elder clerk) Founders of Warwick (Original purchasers, 1643) Randall Holden John Greene John Wickes Francis Weston Samuel Gorton Richard Waterman John Warner Richard Carder Samson Shotten Robert Potter William Wodell Nicholas Power Italics: The names of Clarke, Johnson, Hall, and Brightman at the end of the Portsmouth list were crossed out, and it is uncertain if they came to Portsmouth, though most, if not all, of them did appear on Aquidneck Island. Sources for template: Arnold, Samuel Greene (1859). History of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Vol.1. New York: D. Appleton & Company. pp. 97,100,132,176. OCLC 712634101. Chapin, Howard M. (1916). Documentary History of Rhode Island. Providence: Preston and Rounds Company. pp. 8â€錧. Biography portal England portal United States portal New England portal Rhode Island portal Authority control VIAF: 108068452 Categories: 1587 births1676 deaths17th-century English peopleKingdom of England emigrants to the Thirteen ColoniesPeople from Providence, Rhode IslandPeople from South Somerset (district)Rhode Island colonial people Burials in Rhode Island

The Arnold Memorial: William Arnold of Providence and Pawtuxet, 1587-1675 . By Fred Augustus Arnold

Ilchester Somersetshire England United Kingdom

PROVIDENCE PUBLIC LIBRARY Special Collections Department MSS 016 William Arnold AutographCollection 1655-1922 OVERVIEW OF THE COLLECTION Number: MSS 01 6 Title: William Arnold Autograph Collection Creator: Multiple sources Dates: 1655 - 1922 Media: Correspondence, poems , ephemera, portraits, legal documents, business records Quantity: .25 linear feet plus oversized box BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES William Arnold Son of Nicholas Arnold and Alice Gully Arnold, William Arnold was born June 24, 1587, in Ilchester, Somerset, England. He married Christian Peake in 1610, and they had four children: Elizabeth, Benedict, Joanna, and Stephen. Arnold sailed with his family from Dartmouth, England to America on May 1 , 1635. With Roger Williams, Arnold was one of the founding settlers of Rhode Island, and settled in Providen ce. After several years, he moved and formed the settlement known as Pawtuxet, now a part of Cranston. Arnold died during King Philip’s War sometime between1675 - 1676. Frederick Augustus Arnold Son of Russell G. Arnold and Sarah P. Arnold, Frederick A. Arno ld was born March 21, 1841. He served in the Second Rhode Island Infantry Re giment during the Civil War and later served as Secretary for the Second Regiment Rhode Island Volunta ry Infantry Veteran Association . He worked in the water department for the City of Providence, and was a well - known figure among Providence Public Library users of the time. He was als o a member of the Rhode Island Historical Society. Arnold died August 8, 1924. SCOPE AND CONTENTS OF THE COLLECTION The William Arnold Autograph Collection is part of a larger collection of books and manuscripts dealing with American, especially Rhode Island, history. The entire collection was d onated to the Providence Public Library in 1923 by Mr. Frederick Augustus Arnold. In an effort to support collections at other Providence librari es, the following transfers of materials were made: i tems representing 𠇊mericana” before the year 1801 were transferred t o the John Carter Brown Library items relating to American poetry were transferred to the John Hay Library and publications concerni ng the Arnold family were transferred to the Rhode Island Historical Society. The remaining materials constitute the William Arnold Autograph Collection. The collection was named for William Arnold, an ancestor of Frederick A. Arnold. The collection consists mainly of legal documents and correspondence, but also includes poems, portraits, business records, and ephemera dating from 1655 to 1922. ORGANIZATION OF THE COLLECTION The collectionis arranged in alphabetical order by name/document title, and is housed within two boxes. SEE ALSO Providence Public Library Special Collections: Rhode Island MSS 010 , 17 2 3 - 1939 . Providence Public Library Special Collections: Rhode Island Ephemera William Arnold Autograph Collection MSS 016 2 ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION Access: This collection is open under the rules and regulations of the Providence Public Library Special Collections department. Preferred Citation: Researchers are requested to cite William Arnold Autograph Collection MSS 016 and Providence Public Library Special Collections in all footnote and bibliographic references. Processed By: The collection was processed in 2013 by Stephanie Knott. Property Rights: The Providence Public Library owns the property rights to this collection

See also: Arnold (surname). Colour: LightCoral Arnold Motto: Ut vivas vigla Motto Translation: watch that you may live Ethnicity:šnglo-Saxon Region: New England and Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America Great Britain, Canada Origin:žngland Members:šlfie William Arnold, Barry William Arnold, Benedict Arnold I, Benedict Arnold V, Richard Arnold, Lemuel H. Arnold, Lillie-Rose Arnold, Isaac N. Arnold Otherfamilies: Anderson Family Astor family Carpenter Family Hopkins Family Bovee Family Longworth family Westcott Family Farano Family Lechasseur Family Meaning:šrnu & walda

The Arnold family is an American political and military family with ties to New England, Georgia and Ohio. The descendents of American Revolutionary War general Benedict Arnold in Great Britain, while not particularly politically active, also achieved notable success in the 19th century. History

William Arnold was one of the founding settlers of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and one of the 13 original settlers of Providence. He was the son of Nicholas Arnold of Northover and Ilchester in County Somerset, England by his first wife Alice Gully. William was born in Ilchester on 24 Jun 1587, and all four of his children were also born there. In 1622 he was the warden of St. Mary's Church in Ilchester, and remained in that town until immigrating to New England in 1635. One remarkable aspect of his emigration from England is that he had copied baptismal records from the parish registers of Northover and Ilchester and brought these with him to the New World, beginning a record that would eventually encompass six generations of his family. In New England William Arnold first settled in Hingham in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, but within a year joined Roger Williams in founding the settlement of Providence on the Narraganset Bay. By 1638 William had moved to the Pawtuxet River, five miles south of Providence, and lived there the remainder of his life, dying some time in 1675 or 1676 during the turmoil of King Philip's War. William's son Benedict Arnold was the first Governor of Rhode Island under the royal charter of 1663.

Other members of the Arnold family came to Boston from England in 1687. The. Rev. William George Arnold, a minister, was charged with the task of establishing a parish of the official religion of England, the Church of England in Boston. Upon arrival he found he was disliked in Boston and quickly learned that no one would sell land for the construction of a church that was not Puritan. He established King's Chapel in Boston in 1689 on public land. William was soon followed from England by his brother Edward Arnold, who opened a successful general store in Boston.

Edward Arnold brought two daughters with him from England. The older of the pair, Charlotte, married the Puritan minister Ebenezer Punderson in 1730. He was a Yale graduate and was ordained as a Puritan minister in 1729 and began serving as the minister of the Congregational Church in North Groton (now Ledyard), Connecticut. It seems that her Church of England upbringing and beliefs made an impression on her husband, as he announced his intention to be ordained in the Church of England and left his Congressional Church and was ordained in London in 1734. He erected a parish of the Church of England in Preston, Connecticut in 1735 and at a service attended by William and Edward Arnold the place was consecrated St. James' Church.

Upon the 1737 death of William Arnold, many of his children moved to Connecticut near Preston and St. James' Church where the climate for Church of England members was less harsh. The family prospered in Connecticut and married well. One of Gov. Benedict Arnold's descendants Benedict III married his cousin Mary Arnold (who was descended from the William George side of the family) and gained control of the family estate in Norwich. They named their first son Benedict IV, who died in infancy. Their second son, Benedict Arnold V, became a general and war hero but is now best known as an infamous turn-coat for his treasonous attempt to surrender West Point and subsequent flight to the British side during the war.

During the American Revolution the family became active in politics. The William George Arnold side of the family remained fiercely loyal to English rule while the Benedict side favored independence. Jonathan Arnold (1741�) became a member of the Rhode Island Legislature in 1776 and then a delegate to the Continental Congress from Rhode Island from 1782 to 1784.

After the revolution much of the family left New England for Savannah, Georgia, where they opened a number of mills. The Savannah branch of the family remained active in politics until the American Civil War. Notable family members Surname Arnold (New England families)

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Arnold family".


Chapter 5. What Native People Were on Cape Ann at the Time of Contact and Where Did They Come From?

One is tempted to begin this chapter with who they were not, for there are many statements of fact in the historical record that turn out not to be true. For example, the people who were living on Cape Ann at the time of contact were not Massachuset. Nor were they Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Mahican, or Mohawk. They were Pawtucket and their original homelands were with the Pennacook in New Hampshire. It is surprising that this fact was not in our local historical canon. It is well documented in the earliest colonial literatures and attested to by oft-cited historical figures, such as the preacher to the Indians John Eliot and the first Indian agent for the Mass. Bay Colony, Daniel Gookin, not to mention by modern ethnographers. 1

Plaque Commemorating John Eliot’s Ministry among the Pennacook-Pawtucket at Wamesit

The colonists variously called the native people living on Cape Ann the Agawam, Naumkeag, Pawtucket, or Wamesit, depending on where they encountered them on their subsistence rounds. On the coast in eastern Essex County on the Gulf of Maine the Pawtucket were called the Agawam, an extension of the name of their village on Castle Neck in Ipswich. On the coast in southern Essex County on Massachusetts Bay the Pawtucket were called the Naumkeag, an extension of the name of their village on the Bass River in Beverly-Salem. At Pawtucket Falls in Lawrence, where they exploited the spring fish runs, they were Pawtucket, and at their winter village at Lowell at the junction of the Merrimack and Concord rivers, they were the Wamesit. These Pawtucket were all the same people, however. When asked who they were, they had simply given the name of where they were at the time—their place or village. The Europeans misapplied those names to invent tribes where no tribe existed. Rather, Pawtucket lived in an amalgam of bands occupying what became Essex County, an outflow of the Pennacook of New Hampshire’s Merrimack Valley. They called themselves “the people here” (Ninnuok). Pawtucket social organization and leadership are treated in more detail in Chapter 6.

The Pawtucket were Algonquian-speaking. They spoke a form of Eastern Algonquian, a so-called “genetic” language group (also known as Algic), descended from Proto-Algonquian around 3,000 years ago, which, in turn descended from proto-Algic around 8,000 years ago. 2 Eastern Algonquian was the parent language of the Abenaki dialects spoken by the people of northern New England and Essex County, including the Pawtucket, as well as other dialects spoken by the Massachuset and others living to the south of them. Eastern Algonquian languages were spoken from circum-polar regions (for example, Innu) all the way to Chesapeake Bay (for example, Powhattan). Other, different, languages were spoken in Central Algonquian and Western Algonquian areas: in the northern plains (for example, Cheyenne) in the Great Lakes region (for example, Ojibwe or Chippewa) and in Canada (for example, Cree). So it’s a large language family in which all the people had common ancestors in the remote past, much as the 445 Indo-European languages comprise a family of related languages and dialects. The Algonquian-speaking peoples were descended from the first people to occupy northeastern North America after the end of the Ice Age. 3

Distribution Map of Native North American Language Families

People in the diagonally lined tan areas all spoke languages and dialects of the Algic (Algonquian) language family and were the first people to occupy North America.

Algonquian Loan Words

English has many loan words from Eastern Algonquian languages, including many place names—such as Winnipesauke, Nashua, Chebacco, Agawam—and names for native plants (for example, sumac, squash, tobacco) and animals (for example, raccoon, chipmunk, muskrat). 4

caribou opossum skunk
caucus papoose squash
chipmunk pecan squaw
eskimo pemmican succotash
hickory persimmon terrapin
hominy pokeweed toboggan
husky pone tomahawk
kinkajou (wolverine) powwow totem
moccasin quahog wampum
moose quonset (hut) wapiti (elk)
mugwump (warrior) raccoon wickiup
muskeg (swamp) sachem wigwam
muskrat sagamore woodchuck

In European historical literature, names of language groups, bands, tribes, chiefdoms, confederacies, and temporary alliances often are used interchangeably or are confused. For example, Algonquian is a language group and is not the same as the Algonquins (or Algonkins), who were Algonquian-speaking people occupying the St. Lawrence Valley and Ottawa Valley in Canada. Many similar confusions persist, such as the Mohegans and Mahicans, two entirely separate Algonquian-speaking peoples. The Mohegans, with their famous sachem Uncas, occupied the Thames River valley in Connecticut (formerly the Pequot River), while the Mahican Confederacy included a group of bands living in New York’s Hudson Valley. James Fennimore Cooper’s 1826 novel, Last of the Mohicans is about the New Yorkers, despite his misspelling of the name and appropriation of the Connecticut sachem’s moniker for one of his characters. Mahican territory encompassed western Massachusetts and the Mahicans and their allies the Pocumtuck were allies of the Pawtucket of Essex County and others against the Iroquois. 5

Likewise, Iroquois is not the name of a tribe but of a language group (Iroquoian). It is also the name of the famous confederacy composed of a few Iroquoian-speaking tribes originally known collectively as the Haudenosaunee (“People of the Longhouse”). The Iroquois confederacy was composed of the Five Nations: the Mohawk (Kanien’kehaka), Seneca (Onondowaga), Cayuga (Gayogohono), Onondaga (Ononda’gega), and Oneida (Onyota’aka). The confederacy was founded by Ayenwatha of the Onandaga more than 600 years ago between 1400 and 1450 CE. The League of the Iroquois became the Six Nations in 1722 with the addition of the Tuscarora (Skaru’ren). 6

All the native populations in the Northeast had similar material cultures and lifestyles because of their similar adaptations to their Eastern Woodland environment. The Pawtucket were not Iroquois, however. They had a different language family and kinship system and traditionally did not build longhouses. It is wrong for our elementary school teachers to present Iroquois culture as local and to have students construct Iroquois longhouses instead of Algonquian wigwams. Iroquois never lived here. The Iroquoians–Huron (Wyandot), Erie, Susquehanna, and the nations of the Iroquois League—were traditional arch-enemies of the Pawtucket and other Algonquian-speaking peoples of New England. 7

Members of the Iroquois League

Song of Hiawatha

Artists and writers, along with schoolteachers, get things mixed up. The “Song of Hiawatha” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow is an example. Its title to the contrary, this narrative poem does not celebrate the life and legend of Ayenwatha of the Iroquois League but is about a fictional hero by another name belonging to the Algonquian Ojibwa. The confusion is based on errors in the work of the early ethnologist Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. 8 Longfellow’s 1855 poem is a classic example of romanicism and mysticism in mid-19 th century treatments of Native Americans. The following excerpt from the poem begins Chapter 1 of Part 1, “The Peace-Pipe”: 8

On the Mountains of the Prairie,

On the great Red Pipe-stone Quarry,

He the Master of Life, descending,

On the red crags of the quarry

Stood erect, and called the nations,

Called the tribes of men together.

From his footprints flowed a river,

Leaped into the light of morning,

O’er the precipice plunging downward

Gleamed like Ishkoodah, the comet.

And the Spirit, stooping earthward,

With his finger on the meadow

Traced a winding pathway for it,

Saying to it, “Run in this way!”

From the red stone of the quarry

With his hand he broke a fragment,

Moulded it into a pipe-head,

Shaped and fashioned it with figures

From the margin of the river

Took a long reed for a pipe-stem,

With its dark green leaves upon it

Filled the pipe with bark of willow,

With the bark of the red willow

Breathed upon the neighboring forest,

Made its great boughs chafe together,

Till in flame they burst and kindled

And erect upon the mountains,

Smoked the calumet, the Peace-Pipe,

As a signal to the nations.

As the poem goes on, Manitou gathers the tribes, admonishes them for warring among themselves, and tells them he will send a prophet to show them the way of peace. The prophet is “Hiawatha” (modeled on the historical Ayenwatha), and the poem sets forth his fictional adventures, including his famously tragic love affair with “Princess” Minnehaha. In the process Longfellow mixes up historical tribes, languages, heroes, and legends, which readers of his day nevertheless took as truth. Other writers did the same thing, such that Native American “history” is rife with mistakes, misnomers, and misconceptions stemming from centuries of European Americans’ efforts to tell it.

The Pawtucket were closely related to the Pentucket to their immediate north, Abenaki-speaking people around Haverhill above the Merrimack. Pentucket translates as “At the bend in the large tidal river”. The area is erroneously identified as a tribal territory in Sidney Perley’s 1843 map of Essex County. Like the Pawtucket, the Pentucket were a branch of the Pennacook of central New Hampshire. The Pennacook were Central Abenaki, closely allied with Western Abenaki of Vermont, such as the Sokoki and Missisquoi, and with the Eastern Abenaki of Maine, such as the Saco, Androscoggin, and Penobscot. Following European contact, these Abenaki-speaking groups were further allied through the Pennacook Confederacy, named after its most powerful group in 1620. The leader of that Confederacy was Passaconaway (Pappiseconewa), described in greater detail in Chapter 6. So, the Pawtucket were not an isolated band of Indians with seasonal migration between Lowell and the coast. They were connected in a vast network of sophisticated, nuanced, ever-changing relationships. Thus, the answer to the question of who they were turns out to be both more complex and more dynamic over time than we thought. 9

Abenaki Distribution in VT, NH, and ME

Pennacook permanent winter villages included Concord, New Hampshire, and the Pennacook Confederacy had its seat at Amoskeag, today’s Manchester, NH. Amoskeag village was by a waterfall that exists by that name in Manchester today. Amoskeag means “place for taking small fish,” referring to the alewives or shad (river herrings) and smelt that swam far upriver on the Merrimack to spawn. You can still see stone fish weirs or corrals made by the Indians at Amoskeag Falls. 10

Amoskeag Falls in Manchester, NH, Today

In 1640 there were 19 principal bands or sagamoreships in the Pennacook Confederacy, as recorded by Daniel Gookin and John Eliot:

SAGAMORESHIPS LOCALITY
Accominta York ME + Rockingham NH counties
Newichawawock (Norridgewock) York + Cumberland counties ME
Piscataqua (Pascataway) Stratford County NH + Oxford County ME
Monchiggan (Morattigan) Mohegan Island
Coosuc and Cowasuck (Cohassiac) Grafton + Coos counties NH
Winnipesaukee Carroll + Belknap counties NH
Pennacook Merrimack County NH
Amoskeag Hillsborough + Rockingham counties, NH
Squamscot Rockingham County NH
Winnecowet Rockingham County NH
Natticook Cheshire + Hillsborough counties NH
Souhegan Sullivan + Hillsborough counties NH
Agawam Northern Essex County MA
Naumkeag Southern Essex County MA
Pentucket Rockingham NH + Northern Essex MA
Wamesit (Pawtucket) Northern Middlesex County MA
Nashua (Nashaway) Hillsborough NH + Worcester County MA
Wachuset Northern Worcester County MA
Weshacum Northern Worcester County MA

The Pennacook Sagamoreships

The Pennacook Confederacy often allied with other Abenaki groups of New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine to defend against their mutual enemies. Abenaki allies in Vermont included the Sokoki, for example, while New Hampshire allies included the Ossipee and Pequawket (often written as Pigwacket). Abenaki allies to the east included at times the Saco (Sawacotuck), Kennebec, and Penobscot. During the 1650s, the Pennacook Confederacy also allied with some members of the Massachuset Alliance, especially the Nipmuc of Worcester County. 11

.

Sphere of Influence of the Pennacook Confederacy

The Pennacook dominated the White Mountain region of New Hampshire. Pennacook is said to mean “at the bottom of the hill”, referring perhaps to a foothill of the White Mountains or to hills in Merrimack County, NH, near Suncook or Hooksett, both Pennacook sites—or perhaps Jeremy Hill in Pelham, NH. Another candidate is a hill above Long Pond in Dracut, MA, where the great Pennacook sachem Passaconaway is said to have resided.

Another translation of Pennacook is “Land of the Winding Hills” (penna = winding and sloping land + coo = continuous [as in a range] or abundant + k = place, land), referring to the southern foothills of the White Mountains. However, penna (plural pennak) is also Abenaki for “groundnut(s)”, small potato-like tubers that grow at intervals on a long, winding, continuous root. This food was critical for subsistence as a survival food to both the Indians and arriving colonists. As one or two others have suggested, the true meaning of Pennacook may be “Here Are Abundant Groundnuts”. 12

Passaconaway was at his fort at the foot of Sugar Ball Hill (present-day Fort Eddy in Concord, NH) in 1659 (according to other sources this was in 1655) when, according to the ethnographer Henry Schoolcraft, he sold Pennacook to a Major Richard Waldron, having already given up his seat at Natticook. Other than these sites on the Merrimack River, Pennacook leaders favored the regions of Lake Winnepesaukee and Lake Ossipee and summered on the coasts of New Hampshire and southern Maine, including Ogunquit, Kittery, York Beach, Hampton, Portsmouth and Seabrook, NH, and Salisbury, MA. When explorer Bartholomew Gosnold went ashore to get directions at York Beach in 1602, he almost certainly was talking to Pennacook, as suggested in Chapter 4. 13

So, in addition to Gloucester’s history being tied to the histories of other nearby towns and cities, Pawtucket history is tied as much to that of other New England states (especially Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine), as it is to the history of Massachusetts. We can see the big picture in this context—the broader sweep of time and place, which seems important, because we live in a culture that prefers to keep things simple and tends to treat American history without reference to the history of the rest of North America.

Confusion about Pawtucket identity stems in part from their close associations with trading partners and shifting allies. The Pawtucket traded with members of the Massachuset and Wampanoag Confederacies to their south and west, especially with the Nipmuc. The Pawtucket and others carried out trade (in corn, stones, minerals, copper, shells, pearls, furs, medicinal plants, dried seafood, and finished goods) by canoe and via their extensive network of trails through woodland forests and along riverbanks. Many trails that the colonists made into roadways had been in use for a thousand years or more. Most ran east to west, connecting the coast to the interior, but also north-south along the coast and major north-south rivers such as the Connecticut, the Upper Merrimack, and the Hudson. The Pawtucket traded mainly with the Pennacook of New Hampshire, the Abenaki of Vermont and Maine, , the Nipmuck and Massachuset, and the Mahicans of the Hudson River Valley to the west. 14

Algonquians of Southern New England

Pawtucket Trading Partners

The history of Pennacook-Pawtucket alliances is quite checkered. Prior to European Contact the Pawtucket were part of an Eastern Abenaki coastal confederacy led by Bashabes, but this fell apart prior to 1600 when Bashabes was killed in a war with the Mi’Kmaqs. During the Contact Period, most Pawtucket were part of the Pennacook Confederacy, which gradually weakened. After King Philip’s War, some Pawtucket families looked to Chicataubut’s Massachuset alliance, but most distanced themselves from the southern New England groups. Pawtucket who had not already fled to Canada joined the Wabanaki, a powerful Abenaki confederacy centered on the Gulf of Maine that attacked English fisheries and settlements on the Maine frontier. Members of the Wabanaki Confederacy, including remnants of defeated Pennacook, including the Pawtucket, ultimately allied with the French. 15

Strong Algonquian confederacies other than the Pennacook and the Wabanaki included the Wampanoag of the southeast coast of Massachusetts (the Pokanoket sachem “Massasoit” famously met William Bradford at Plymouth in 1620) the Nantucket alliance of islanders on Martha’s Vinyard and Nantucket the Massachuset of Boston and the Charles River watershed (first contacted by John Smith in 1614 and in 1629 by English colonists led by John Eliot) the Nipmuc, whose territory overlapped with the Pawtucket in Worcester County the Narraganset of Rhode Island (Canonicus and Miantonomi sold “Providence” to Roger Williams in 1636) and the Pequot of Connecticut (who traded with the Dutch at Hartford in 1633 and ended up in a disastrous war with the English). The Algonquian confederacies maintained alliances for mutual trade, exogamous marriage, and aid against enemies, but they frequently realigned and sometimes turned on each other. 16

Algonquian Confederacies of the Northeast

The numbers on this map represent the chronology of confederacies to which the Pawtucket bands of Cape Ann belonged. Prior to 1600 (1 on the map) they were in a Penobscot-Abenaki confederacy led by a powerful sachem by the name of Bashabes. This confederacy ended when Bashabes was assassinated by Tarrantines (Mi’Kmaq), a historical event reported by Samuel de Champlain, which sparked a series of wars of retribution.

Algonquian Confederacies of the Northeast, 1600-1700

The Pawtucket of Cape Ann belonged to different overlapping regional confederations over time, represented by the numbers. The other four groups represent the other key confederacies of southern New England.

Next (2) the Pawtucket under Masconomet joined a confederacy, along with the Massachuset, led by the powerful Abenaki-Nipmuc sachem Nanepashemet, who summered in Marblehead. One of Nanepashemet’s sons was married to one of Masconomet’s daughters. In 1619, however, Nanepashemet, too, was killed by Tarrantines at his fort in Medford, a historical event reported by Edward Winslow. More warfare and realignments ensued. Nanepashemet’s widow became known as squaw-sachem. She remarried a Muskataquid shaman from the Lower Merrimack at Concord and brought her people into the new confederacy led by the powerful Pennacook sachem Passaconaway (Papisseconewa), who summered in Amoskeag (Manchester, NH). One of Squaw-sachem’s sons was married to one of Passaconaway’s daughters. Only one of her three sons survived the smallpox epidemic of 1633, but their stories are taken up in a later chapter. 17

In 1644 most sachems and sagamores in the Passaconaway’s Pennacook Confederacy (3), including Masconomet, signed a declaration of allegiance to the King of England, agreed to become Christians, put themselves under the protection of the colonists, and attempted to maintain strict neutrality in times of conflict. This confederacy broke up in 1674 when some warriors joined King Philip’s War of the Wampanoags, becoming enemies of the English, who then indiscriminately attacked Indian villages or forced the people to live on reservations or in internment camps. In the aftermath of that war, most surviving members of the Pennacook confederacy ended up on slave plantation or fled to western allies, went north to Quebec, or joined Abenaki war parties on the eastern frontiers.

Some Pennacook joined the Wabanaki Confederacy (4), which had formed around 1610 and included Abenaki, Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Maliseet, and Mi’Kmaq and was led by war chiefs such as the famous Membertou. Between 1680 and the Revolutionary War, members of the Wabanki Confederacy fought on the side of the French and were dedicated to expelling the English from coastal settlements and fisheries on the Gulf of Maine. 18 The “Anglo-Wabanaki Maritime Wars”, in which Gloucester fishermen paid a high price for plying their trade, is taken up in another chapter.

After King Philip’s War other surviving Pawtucket and Pennacook of the Lower Merrimack Valley and Essex County allied themselves with the Massachuset sachem Chickatawbut of Neponsit (5) and his heirs and successors, largely because they had a special positive relationship with the English. Chickataubut had fought for the English against Metacomet (King Philip). As the Pawtucket, Pennacook, and Massachuset lost their discrete identities, other groups in southern New England survived in place in sufficient numbers to retain their identities even to the present day, including the Nipmuc, Mohegan, Pequot, and Wampanoag. 19 Today there are no groups, however, who call themselves Pawtucket, Agawam, Naumkeag, or Wamesit.

So, just as you may express your identity as an Indo-European Germanic/English-speaking Cape Anner of Massachusetts in New England in North America, a Pawtucket was an Eastern Woodland Algonquian Abenaki-speaking Pennacook Indian of Essex County in New England in North America. And there is a lot more to their story. The wigwam-dwellers on Champlain’s map of Gloucester Harbor and the people identified in this chapter are one in the same. As I learned this, the “Agawam Indians” I thought I knew began to seem unfamiliar, even alien. And that’s another thing about real history: It is indeed strange. To know what really happened in the past, one needs to be open to the unexpected, the hidden, the odd juxtaposition, the untrumpeted. Untrumpeted heroes of this history include the Pennacook-Pawtucket sachems and sagamores who steadfastly strove to remain neutral during the turbulent colonial period, and this leads me to my next question: How were these people organized, related to each other, and led, and who were their leaders?


Watch the video: Roger Williams Medical Center. Providence, RI (December 2021).