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Walter Raymond Jr.

Walter Raymond Jr.

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Walter Raymond Jr. was born in New York in 1929. After graduating from the College of William and Mary in 1950 he joined the United States Army and saw action during the Korean War.

Raymond joined the Central Intelligence Agency in 1952. According to Robert Parry (Secrecy & Privilege: Rise of the Bush Dynasty from Watergate to Iraq) Raymond worked for the CIA's propaganda office. It is believed that he played an important role in Operation Mockingbird.

George H. W. Bush and William Casey recruited Raymond to the National Security Council staff in April, 1982. Raymond later told an Iran-Contra committee that he resigned from the CIA so “there would be no question of any contamination of this.”

The following year President Ronald Reagan established its own propaganda campaign within the United States called "Project Truth." It later merged with a broader program that combined domestic and international propaganda under the umbrella of "Project Democracy." Raymond, as senior director of international communications and information, was placed in charge of this project.

In 1987 Raymond was appointed as assistant director of the U.S. Information Agency and senior coordinator for an initiative to promote democracy in Eastern Europe. He left this post in 1992 but continued to support right-wing agencies and in January, 2001, he became President of the Council for a Community of Democracies.

Walter Raymond Jr. died of cancer at Virginia Hospital on 16th April, 2003.

One muggy August day in 1983, five advertising executives entered the stately Old Executive Office Building next to the White House and walked to the security checkpoint where uniformed officers handed them temporary clearance badges. The executives were then led to a briefing room where a young military aide explained why the director of the Central Intelligence Agency, William J. Casey, had invited them to the National Security Council offices. Casey, the aide explained, wanted these ad men to devise tactics for selling the American people on the strategic threat posed by the leftist Sandinista government in Nicaragua and by Marxist rebels in El Salvador. After lunch, the executives met with Casey and in a brainstorming session more likely on Madison Avenue than Pennsylvania Avenue, the group sketched some ideas for pitching the Central American threat to the public.

The story of the PR campaign inspired by this meeting is one of the lesser known aspects of Iran-contra; it was overlooked again when the Reagan administration's biggest scandal crept back into the news in September to rehaunt George Bush with "what-did-he-know" questions. But in 1983, Casey set up a highly unusual propaganda machine that for three years ran "private" fundraising fronts, spread unseemly lies about the Sandinistas, and bullied journalists and editors, all in an effort to encourage the media and Congress to be more pro-contra. It didn't entirely work; most Americans never believed the contras were the God fearing boy scouts Reagan said they were any more than they thought the Sandinistas were the devil's diplomats. But it did influence the congressional debate and discourage reporting about the contras in the nation's press. Casey's campaign was also extraordinary because it helped shield a secret White House contra aid program that was explicitly against the law. And it was a flagrant violation of the historic and legal barrier against the CIA's interference in U.S. political debates.

Casey initiated the PR offensive because, by the summer of 1983, Congress was losing patience with the contras. Stories were seeping northward about atrocities perpetrated by undisciplined contra units sweeping through Nicaraguan villages like born-to be-wild motorcycle gangs. Unarmed captives were executed, women raped, and farming communities devastated. But Casey knew that to toss out the Sandinistas, the contras needed to grow into an effective fighting force. That would take time and money; he was running out of the former and Congress was about to get tight with the latter.

The most pressing concern of all for the Reagan administration was the need to win the support of the US people for its policies in Central America. "I think the most critical special operations mission we have today is to persuade the American people that the communists are out to get us. If we can win this war of ideas, we can win everywhere else," explained Michael Kelly, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the US Air Force. "Psychological operations, ranging from public affairs on the one end, through black propaganda on the other end is the advertising and marketing of our product."

Public affairs" is the government's term for "public relations"- a rather pointless change in terminology adopted to get around a law which specifically enjoins federal government agencies against engaging in public relations activities. The law also forbids the White House from using ads telegrams, letters, printed matter or other media outside "official channels" to influence members of Congress regarding legislation. Rules against CIA involvement in domestic US politics are even more severe. It is against the law for the CIA to operate domestically, except in narrowly-defined circumstances such as cooperating with an FBI investigation. In 1982 however, reports of the secret CIA war in Nicaragua led Congress to pass the Boland Amendment, ending military aid to the contras and barring the Reagan administration from any further attempts to overthrow the Sandinistas.

In response, Reagan dispatched CLA Director William Casey in January 1983 to set up a "public diplomacy' machine that journalists Robert Parry and Peter Kornbluh describe as "America's first peace time propaganda ministry . a set of domestic political operations comparable to what the CIA conducts against hostile forces abroad. Only this time they were turned against the three key institutions of American democracy: Congress, the press, and an informed electorate.... Employing the scientific methods of modern public relations and the war-tested techniques of psychological operations, the administration built an unprecedented bureaucracy in the [National Security Council] and the State Department designed to keep the news media in line and to restrict conflicting information from reaching the American public."

As head of the operation, Casey appointed Walter Raymond, Jr. a 20-year veteran of the CIA's clandestine overseas media operations-described by one US government source as the CIA's leading propaganda expert. According to Washington Post editor Ben Bradlee, Raymond's involvement in the campaign symbolized "the wholesale integration of intelligence and PR at the National Security Council." During the Iran/Contra scandal, Congress investigated the Reagan administration's domestic propaganda operations and found that Raymond's name appeared on Oliver North's calendar more than that of any other White House staff member or government employee. A chapter detailing these domestic activities was drafted for the investigating committee's Iran/Contra report, but House and Senate Republicans successfully blocked even a paragraph of the draft from being included in the committee's final report. As a result the CIA's domestic propaganda activities in violation of its charter have received almost no public scrutiny.

The congressional investigation into the Iran/Contra affair uncovered a domestic side to the Reagan administration’s efforts to circumvent the law in pursuing its foreign policy aims. The chapter dealing with this aspect of the scandal was deleted from the final public report at the insistence of House and Senate Republicans. According to anonymous sources on the staff of the investigative committee, the White House detailed a senior CIA propaganda expert to head up a covert domestic operation designed to manipulate congress and the American public. In 1982, William Casey assigned Walter Raymond to the NSC staff to set up a public diplomacy program. Raymond is a veteran of the CIA’s overseas media operations and has been described as the CIA’s leading propaganda expert. Raymond put together an Office of Public Diplomacy for Latin America and the Caribbean (S/LPD) in the State department, which took its orders from, among others, Oliver North and Elliott Abrams.

An (anonymous) NSC official who worked with North and Raymond told the authors that they were trying to manipulate US public opinion, using the tools of Walt Raymond’s trade craft which he learned from his career in the CIA covert operation shop. Another public diplomacy official characterized the effort as a vast psychological warfare operation.

The congressional investigation revealed that they: pressured journalists and news executives into giving a sympathetic portrayal of administration activities WRT Latin America, deployed secretly funded private sector surrogates to attack anti-contra legislators in TV and newspaper ads, funded non-profit political organizations to push the contra cause, used the FBI to mount intimidating investigations into groups opposed to Reagan’s policies in Central America, and manipulated ongoing criminal investigations to protect their domestic operation from exposure.

The original name for the Reagan-Bush administration's plan to mount its own propaganda campaign within the United States was "Project Truth." It later merged with a broader program that combined domestic and international propaganda under the umbrella of "Project Democracy." The central figure in the administration's media operations was Walter Raymond Jr., a 30-year veteran of the CIA's propaganda office who was assigned to the National Security Council staff in 1982.

President Reagan took the first formal step to create the propaganda bureaucracy on January 14, 1983, by signing National Security Decision Directive 77, entitled "Management of Public Diplomacy Relative to National Security." The secret directive deemed it "necessary to strengthen the organization, planning and coordination of the various aspects of public diplomacy of the United States Government." Reagan defined public diplomacy broadly as "those actions of the U.S. Government designed to generate support for our national security objectives."

To direct these "public diplomacy" campaigns, Reagan ordered the creation of a Special Planning Group - or SPG - within the National Security Council. "The SPG ... shall ensure that a wide-ranging program of effective initiatives is developed and implemented to support national security policy, objectives and decisions."

Reagan turned to Raymond to manage the public diplomacy operations at home and abroad. The veteran CIA propagandist was a slight, soft-spoken New Yorker who reminded some of a character from a John le Carre spy novel, an intelligence officer who "easily fades into the woodwork," according to one acquaintance. Associates said Raymond's CIA career stayed close to headquarters because of special care required for a sick child. Still, he rose to senior levels of the CIA's Directorate of Operations - the DO which is responsible for spying, paramilitary actions and propaganda - where his last job title was considered so revealing about the CIA's disinformation capabilities that it remained a highly classified secret.

Critics would later question the assignment of a career CIA propagandist to carry out an information program that had both domestic and foreign components. After all, in CIA propaganda operations, the goal is not to inform a target population, but rather to manipulate it. The trick is to achieve a specific intelligence objective, not foster a full-and-open democratic debate. In such cases, CIA tactics include disinformation to spread confusion or psychological operations to exploit cultural weaknesses. A skillful CIA operation will first carefully analyze what "themes" can work with a specific culture and then select - and if necessary distort - information that advances those "themes." The CIA also looks for media outlets to disseminate the propaganda. Some are created; others are compromised with bribes to editors, reporters or owners.

Raymond D. Walter, Jr.

Raymond D. Walter, Jr., 90, of Lower Saucon Twp., died Wednesday, March 24, 2021 at the St. Luke's Hospice House, Lower Saucon Twp. He is the husband of the late Shirley E. (Deemer) Walter. He was born in Easton on September 21, 1930 to the late Raymond D. Walter Sr. and Margaret (Kutzler). Raymond served our country faithfully in the US Army during the Korean War. He worked at the Mack Printing, Easton as a Pressman for many years until retiring. He is a member of St. John's Church on Morgan Hill, Williams Township. Raymond enjoyed all sports, of which he played baseball & basketball, pitched quoits, softball, and fished.

Loving daughters: Kathie Ann (Jeffrey L.) Haag of Hellertown, Nancy J. (Michael J.) Moninghoff of Easton sister: Jane Ealer of Williams Twp. 4 grandchildren 2 great granddaughters with a great grandson expected in June. Predeceased by daughters: Amy Jo and Melinda D. brother: Russell.

Family and friends are invited to call 1-2 p.m. Monday, March 29, 2021 at the Heintzelman Funeral Home, Inc. 326 Main Street &ndash Hellertown followed by the service at 2 p.m. The interment will be held Tuesday at 2 p.m. at Raubsville Cemetery, Williams Twp. with Military Honors will be accorded by the Edward H. Ackerman Post 397. Make positive choices following CDC guidelines. Online expressions of sympathy can be recorded at: www.heintzelmancares.com.


In lieu of flowers, memorials to Pennsylvania Wounded Warriors Inc., 1117 Country Club, Camp Hill, PA 17011 (pawoundedwarriors.org).

To plant Memorial Trees in memory of Raymond D. Walter, Jr., please click here to visit our Sympathy Store.

Added 2014-03-23 15:53:54 -0700 by Patrick James Spain

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About Walter Raymond Kiniry, Jr.

Walter R. Kiniry Death Notice

May 8, 2004, beloved husband of Rita (Connolly) dear father of Karen (Alex) Vilardo, Keith Kiniry and Heather Kiniry also survived by Beverly (Johnson) Kiniry, the mother of his 3 children loving grandfather of Kayleigh and Morgan Vilardo. Friends may call Wednesday from 7-9 PM and Thursday from 2-4 and 7-8 PM. A Prayer Service will be held at 8 PM at the JAMES W. CANNAN FUNERAL HOME INC. (Southtowns Chapel), 3155 Orchard Park Rd. In lieu of flowers, donations may be send to the American Diabetes Assoc. Walter was a retired U.S. Customs Special Agent. Published in the Buffalo News from May 11 to May 12, 2004

WALTER R. KINIRY JR., CUSTOMS AGENT: Newspaper Obituary and Death Notice Buffalo News, The (NY) - Wednesday, May 12, 2004 Deceased Name: WALTER R. KINIRY JR., CUSTOMS AGENT Walter R. Kiniry Jr. of Hamburg, a retired U.S. Customs Service agent who worked on several prominent federal drug and weapons cases in the area, died unexpectedly Saturday (May 8, 2004) in Mercy Hospital. He was 60.

He was born in Bellows Falls, Vt., and graduated from Windsor (Vt.) High School. He later graduated from American International College, Springfield, Mass., with a bachelor's degree in 1965.

Mr. Kiniry was a high school math and English teacher in Vermont.

He later joined the federal government, first as an immigration inspector and U.S. Customs inspector in Vermont. He continued his career in the Customs Service in Washington, D.C.

In 1974, Mr. Kiniry moved to the Buffalo office of the Customs Service. In 1987, he was named supervisory special agent.

One federal weapons case from the 1980s led to two arrests and later was covered by the network news show "20/20," said his wife, the former Rita Connolly.

Mr. Kiniry was lead agent on the case that led to the 1987 arrest of John Anticoli, a Niagara Falls businessman sentenced to 10 years in federal prison after pleading guilty in connection with a plan to bring 270 pounds of marijuana from Florida to Buffalo.

In one two-week period in the summer of 1994, Mr. Kiniry and other officials announced two drug busts that each involved the confiscation of more than $10 million worth of heroin.

Later that year, Mr. Kiniry was named special agent for internal affairs. He retired in 1999.

In addition to his wife, survivors include his former wife, the former Beverly Johnson of Hamburg two daughters Karen Vilardo of Williamsville and Heather of the Town of Tonawanda a son, Keith of Hamburg and two grandchildren.

The CIA and the Media: Historical Fact #93

Upon its ascension to power in 1981 the Ronald Reagan-George Bush-led presidential administration faced a public relations crisis concerning its foreign policy plans for Central America. Severe human rights violations by right wing regimes there constituted an obstacle to gaining the American public’s approval to back such leadership. At the same time administration officials complained of having their hands tied with regard to domestic propaganda activities.

Thus the Reagan-Bush team established a strategy to initiate its own propaganda campaign on the US population, called “Project Truth.” This effort was later absorbed by a larger propaganda effort directed at foreign audiences, dubbed, “Project Democracy.” The individual overseeing this program was Walter Raymond Jr., a Central Intelligence Agency staffer who spent 30 years with the Agency before his assignment as a National Security Council (NSC) staffer in 1982.

This ambitious propaganda apparatus was formally established on January 14, 1983 when President Reagan signed National Security Decision Directive 77, titled, “Management of Public Diplomacy Relations to National Security.” Reagan asserted that public diplomacy meant “those actions of the U.S. Government designed to generate support for our national security objectives.”

CIA propaganda and disinformation specialist Walter Raymond Jr. Raymond is partially obscured by President Reagan. To his right is National Security Adviser John Poindexter. (Via ConsortiumNews. Image credit: Reagan presidential library.)

Raymond was tapped to direct such “public diplomacy operations at home and abroad,” explains journalist Robert Parry. “The veteran CIA propagandist was a slight, soft-spoken New Yorker who reminded some of a character from a John leCarré spy novel, an intelligence officer who ‘easily fades into the woodwork,’ according to one acquaintance.”

In Raymond’s final post at CIA the spy worked within the Agency’s Directorate of Operations, formerly known as the Clandestine Service, “which is responsible for spying, paramilitary actions and propaganda–where his last job title was considered so revealing about the CIA’s disinformation capabilities that it remained a highly classified secret.”

In his new role Raymond went on to oversee the public diplomacy agenda of the Department of State, the United States Information Agency, the Agency for International Development, the Department of Defense, the CIA and the NSC.

“Critics would later question the assignment of a career CIA propagandist to carry out an information program that had both domestic and foreign components,” Parry writes.

After all, in CIA propaganda operations the goal is not to inform a target population, but rather to manipulate it. The trick is to achieve a specific intelligence objective, not foster a full-and-open democratic debate. In such cases, CIA tactics include disinformation to spread confusion or psychological operations to exploit cultural weaknesses. A skillful CIA operation will first carefully analyze what “themes” can work with a specific culture and then select–and if necessary distort–information that advances those “themes.” The CIA also looks for media outlets to disseminate the propaganda. Some are created others are compromised with bribes to editors, reporters or owners.

According to one strategy paper developed under Raymond’s direction the “‘public diplomacy effort'” necessary to achieve acceptance of the Reagan-Bush policy in Central America included “‘foster[ing] a climate of editorial and public opinion that will encourage congressional support of administration policy.'” Along these lines, the news media necessitated “‘a comprehensive and responsive strategy, which would take timely advantage of favorable developments in the region, could at least neutralize the prevailing climate and perhaps, eventually overcome it.'”

Robert Parry, Secrecy and Privilege: Rise of the Bush Dynasty from Watergate to Iraq, Arlington VA: The Media Consortium Inc., 2004, 218-222.

A School History Of Somerset

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Tag Archives: Walter Raymond Jr.

This is an interesting, but detailed and long, account of how the Reagan administration set up psyops sell its interventions, primarily in Central America, both at home and abroad. From Robert Parry at consortiumnews.com:

Special Report: The mainstream U.S. media obsesses over Russian “propaganda” yet the U.S. government created a “psyops” bureaucracy three decades ago to flood the world with dubious information, reports Robert Parry.

Newly declassified documents from the Reagan presidential library help explain how the U.S. government developed its sophisticated psychological operations capabilities that – over the past three decades – have created an alternative reality both for people in targeted countries and for American citizens, a structure that expanded U.S. influence abroad and quieted dissent at home.

The documents reveal the formation of a psyops bureaucracy under the direction of Walter Raymond Jr., a senior CIA covert operations specialist who was assigned to President Reagan’s National Security Council staff to enhance the importance of propaganda and psyops in undermining U.S. adversaries around the world and ensuring sufficient public support for foreign policies inside the United States.

Raymond, who has been compared to a character from a John LeCarré novel slipping easily into the woodwork, spent his years inside Reagan’s White House as a shadowy puppet master who tried his best to avoid public attention or – it seems – even having his picture taken. From the tens of thousands of photographs from meetings at Reagan’s White House, I found only a couple showing Raymond – and he is seated in groups, partially concealed by other officials.

But Raymond appears to have grasped his true importance. In his NSC files, I found a doodle of an organizational chart that had Raymond at the top holding what looks like the crossed handles used by puppeteers to control the puppets below them. Although it’s impossible to know exactly what the doodler had in mind, the drawing fits the reality of Raymond as the behind-the-curtains operative who was controlling the various inter-agency task forces that were responsible for implementing various propaganda and psyops strategies.

Kourtney Walter Raymond Yochum Jr., 32

Kourtney Yochum, a 32-year-old transgender woman, was shot and killed Wednesday, March 23, in the 500 block of South San Pedro Street in downtown, according to authorities and Los Angeles County coroner’s records.

Shortly before 2 p.m., the alleged gunman, possibly embroiled in a domestic dispute with Yochum, approached and opened fire, said Los Angeles police Officer Tony Im. Yochum was pronounced dead at the scene.

Anita U. Nelson, chief executive of SRO Housing Corp. said Yochum lived at the Gateway Apartments, a 107-unit permanent supportive housing project for formerly chronically homeless individuals.

Nelson said Yochum was walking her two dogs when a gunman approached and shot her in the head.

“It’s mind-boggling it happened out in the open,” Nelson said. “I’m heartbroken. Our residents are traumatized, our staff is traumatized. Everybody loved her. She was very popular.”

Alex Valiente, an armed security guard, took the suspected gunman into custody until police arrived. He chased him to the corner of San Julian and 6th streets and ordered him to the ground at gunpoint, Valiente told The Times.

“I heard people saying ‘Shoot him.’ They wanted him dead for what he did,” Valiente said. A gun was recovered at the scene.

Police identified the gunman as Daniel Molayem, a 39-year-old Asian. Molayem, a homeless man, and Yochum had been in a dating relationship for an unknown amount of time, said Jane Robison, a spokeswoman for the Los Angeles County district attorney's office.

On Friday, prosecutors charged Molayem with one count of murder as well as one count of assault with a firearm, according to the complaint. Molayem is scheduled to be arraigned April 8.

At a vigil Thursday, Mariana Vasquez said the role of domestic violence was clear.

“Her boyfriend would follow her around, even come in the building sometime," said Vasquez, who lived in the apartment complex. "I didn't know her real well because she was a 'hi and bye' kind of girl. But people had seen him before and you could just tell it wasn't healthy. I wish someone would have said something."

Amoretta Buchanan, Yochum’s neighbor, tapped the ashes from her cigarette while leaning against her apartment building.

"She was just so cute. She would always strike a pose when she said hello," Buchanan said.

She then pouted her lips and shifted her hips to the side in imitation.

"She really went out of her way to keep to herself. Not everybody understood her, and she knew that could be trouble. But those who got to know her, she was such a good person."

Note: The coroner's office identified Yochum's first name as Allen. Yochum went by Kourtney, so the Homicide Report has updated her identification.

Do you have information to share about the life of Kourtney Walter Raymond Yochum Jr. ? The Homicide Report needs your help. Please fill out this form or e-mail us at [email protected]

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One reader comment

My wife was a witness to this, she saw Kourtney every day on her way to work. Both my wife and I where deeply saddened about this.

Walter Raymond Jr. - History

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Walter Raymond Jr. - History

Walter Raymond Shinault, Jr., age 88, of 298 Cabin Draft Road, Millboro, Virginia, died peacefully Thursday, August 20, 2015 in the Hospice Unit at LewisGale Hospital - Alleghany, Low Moor.

He was born in Millboro on March 6, 1927, a son of the late Walter Raymond Shinault, Sr. and Oakley Rhea Shinault.

He served in the Merchant Marines during World War II.

He was a retired service supervisor with B.A.R.C. Electric in Millboro, was a certified master electrician, an active member of the Millboro Presbyterian Church, where he was an elder and former deacon of the church.

Mr. Shinault was a former fire chief for twenty-five years with the Millboro Volunteer Fire Department, a former member and Vice President of the Millboro Ruritan Club, and an avid hunter.

He was preceded in death by a son Robert Allen Shinault a daughter, Susan Creese Dillard sisters, Larnie Conner, Corine Whiteside, Lilly Shinault and Margaret Forbes and brothers, Raymond Shinault and Theral Shinault.

He is survived by his wife, Jean Brown Shinault of Millboro a daughter, Sharon Shinault Birckbichler of Hot Springs two sons, Barry Layne Shinault of Newport News and Gary Wayne Shinault of Spotsylvania a sister, Zora Hefner and husband, Calvin of Staunton 3 grandchildren, Clay Creese and wife, Katie and Colton Creese, all of Aliquippa, PA, and McKinsey Creese of Coraopolis, PA a great granddaughter, Priscilla Marie Creese and a number of nieces, nephews and friends in the Millboro area.

A funeral service will be conducted Tuesday, August 25, 2015 at 11:00 a.m. from the Millboro Presbyterian Church with Rev. John Haney officiating. Interment will follow in the Windy Cove Cemetery, Millboro Springs.

Active pallbearers will be Selby Schwend, Arne Peterson, Clay Creese, Cole Creese, Grover Ford, Bill Tuttle, Lester Bowyers and Dan Weyant. Wayne Martin will be an alternate pallbearer. The family will receive friends Monday evening from 6:00 p.m. until 8:00 p.m. at Nicely Funeral Home, Clifton Forge and any time at the residence in Millboro.

The family suggests memorial tributes take the form of contributions in Mr. Shinault's name to the American Cancer Society, Alleghany Highlands Division, C/O Karen Buzzard, 807 McCormick Boulevard, Clifton Forge, VA 24422.

Walter Raymond Jr. - History

On this web page we consider a contemporary history of Blacks in Mathematics , not Who are the greatest Black Mathematicians? (for that click the question). Here you can learn about (and even before) the first African Americans in the Mathematical Sciences , (for the First African American Women click) The First Africans , and Other Important Events in the past 300 years . For earlier periods in history see the web pages of Mathematics in Ancient Africa . For a history of African Americans in science read Kenneth Manning's article Can History Predict the Future?

Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806) is often recognized as the first African American mathematician however, ex-slave Thomas Fuller 's (1710-1790) and the Nigerian Muhammad ibn Muhammad 's (16??-1741) activities predate Benjamin Banneker. None of these men had formal degrees.

1849 Charles Reason (1814-1893) was probably the first African American to receive a faculty position in mathematics at a predominantly white institution - Central College in Cortland County, New York.

1862 Yale University becomes the first United States of America institution to award a Ph.D. in mathematics.

1878 The first African American to earn a Ph.D. in Science was Edward Alexander Bouchet (Physics - Yale University) and only the sixth American to possess a Ph.D. in Physics. For the history of African Americans in Physics, see [ A Timeline of African American Physicists ].

1886 Kelly Miller was the first African American to study graduate mathematics (Johns Hopkins University), the first American University, to offer a program in graduate mathematics.

From 1923 to 1947, 12 Blacks earned a Ph.D. in Mathematics.

1923 The first African to earn a Ph.D. was Ali Mostafa Mosharafa, of Egypt, who received his Ph.D. (1923) and D.Sc. (1924) from the University of London in 1923 and 1924.

1925 The first african american to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics (Cornell University) was Elbert Frank Cox . There were 28 Ph.D.'s awarded in the United States that year. However, nearly 20 years would pass before the first african american Women would earn a Ph.D.

1928 Dudley Weldon Woodard becomes the second african american to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics (University of Pennsylvania).

1929 The first research paper published in an acredited mathematics journal by an african american. Dudley Woodard 's On two dimensional analysis situs with special reference to the Jordan Curve Theorem, Fundamenta Mathematicae 13 (1929), 121-145.

1933 William Schieffelin Claytor becomes the third african american to earn a a Ph.D. in Mathematics (University of Pennsylvania). Dr. Claytor's struggle to earn recognition in the mathematical world was quite typical prior to 1970. You can read about it in his profile.

1934 Walter R. Talbot becomes the fourth african american to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics (University of Pittsburgh). The first African American publication in a top research journal was William W. S. Claytor 's Topological Immersian of Peanian Continua in a Spherical Surface, Annals of Mathematics 35 (1934), 809-835 . Here is a page from another of Claytor's papers. Claytor was thought have extraordinary promise as a mathematician however, racism took its toll on his success.

1938 Ruben R. McDaniel (Cornell University) and Joesph Pierce (University of Michigan) are the fifth and sixth African Americans to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics

1941 At the age of 22, David Blackwell becomes the seventh african american to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics (University of Illinois). He may well be the greatest black Mathematician.

1942 At age 19, J. Ernest Wilkins becomes the eithth african american to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics (University of Chicago). He is certainly one of the greatest black Mathematicians .

From 1943 to 1969, thirteen african american women earn the Ph.D. in Mathematics.

1943 Euphemia Lofton Haynes (Catholic University), the first african american woman, and Clarence F. Stephens (University of Michigan) become the ninth and tenth african americans to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics.

See our web page Black Women in Mathematics for a chronology of the first 20 Black women Ph.D.'s. Also an ongoing effort, a chronology of all African Americans is under construction at Timeline of African American Ph.D.'s in Mathematics .

1944 The eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth african americans earned a Ph.D. this year. Joseph J. Dennis earned a Ph.D. in Mathematics (Northwestern University). Wade Ellis and Warren Hill Brothers both earned a Ph.D. in Mathematics (University of Michigan).

1945 Jeremiah Certaine was the fourteenth african american to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics (University of Michigan). At this time half of all African American Ph.D.'s in Mathematics were earned by students of the University of Michigan .

1947 The earliest record of a Mathematics Ph. D. by an African appears to be Ghanaian A. M. Taylor (Oxford University, we think in 1947).

According to a 1951 letter from the AMS (the American Mathematics Society) to Lee Lorch , "when the Society met at the University of Georgia in 1947, not one Negro was present." This is false, J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr . had asked to participate however, he received a letter from the AMS Associate Secretary for the Southeastern region urging him to come and saying that very satisfactory arrangements had been made with which they were sure he'd be pleased: they had found a ``nice colored family" with whom he could stay and where he would take his meals! The hospitality of the University of Georgia (and of the AMS) was not for him. This is why the meeting there was totally white.

1949 The fourteenth african american and the second african american Woman to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics was Evelyn Boyd Granville (Yale University).

1950 The third African American Women and fifteenth African american to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics was Marjorie Lee Browne (University of Michigan). George H. Butcher is the sixteenth african american to earn the Ph.D. (University of Pennsylvania). The Nigerian Chike Obi is the second African to earn the Ph.D. in Mathematics.

1951 The American Mathematics Society sold its library to the University of Georgia, which was the highest of six bidders. A careful search of AMS records does not disclose any assurances given --- or even sought --- that all AMS members, regardless of race, would be able to use it. This was at a time of intense segregation mandated by Georgia state law. (At the other four U.S. institutions bidding, access would not have been a problem.)

1953 Luna I. Mishoe is the seventeenth african american to earn the Ph.D. (New York University).

1954 David Blackwell becomes the first African American to hold a permanent position at major university (university of California at Berkley). Charles Bell is the eighteenth african american to earn the Ph.D. (University of Notre Dame).

1955 Adegoke Olubummo (King's College, University of Durham in Castle-Upon-Tyne, United Kingdom) is the third African to earn a Ph. D. in Mathematics. Vincent McRea (Catholic University) and Lonnie Cross (Cornell University) are the ninteenth and twentieth african american to earn the Ph.D. in Mathematics.

1956 The Soviet Union launched the first satellite to orbit the Earth. The United States reaction by pouring enormous funds in to basic research. As a result, many African American students of the late 1950's and the 1960's were able to study mathematics at a level not possible before (see Raymond L. Johnson ). Lloyd K. Williams is the twenty-first african american to earn the Ph.D. in Mathematics. Also in 1956, Gloria Ford Gilmer is the first african american woman to publish a non-Ph.D.-thesis mathematics research paper (with Luna I. Mishoe ) and this is the first paper publishd joint mathematics research between two Black co-authors .

1957 Eugene A. Graham earns a Ph.D. from the University of Turin in Italy. This appears to be the first instance of an African American earning a Mathematics Ph.D. outside the U.S.

1960 second paper published joint mathematics research between two Black co-authors, Charles Bell and David Blackwell : Bell, C. B. Blackwell, David Breiman, Leo On the completeness of order statistics . Ann. Math. Statist. 31 1960 794--797.

1961 Lonnie Cross shocked the african american and mathematics community by changing his name to Abdulalim Shabbazz , and becoming the first African American scientist to embrace the followers of Elijah Mohammed, the leader of the African American Moslem community.

1963 Grace Lele Williams became the first Nigerian woman to earn any doctorate when she got her Ph.D. in Mathematics (University of Chicago).

1964 This year David Blackwell became the first african american mathematician to Chair a department (Statistics) at a major university University of California-Berkeley. Elsewhere, under the direction of Clarence Stephens (using the The Morgan-Potsdam Model of teaching and learning mathematics) and Walter Talbot , Morgan State University (then College) became the first institution to have three african americans of the same graduating class who would eventually go on to obtain a Ph.D. in Mathematics. This record still stands among all universities and colleges .

1965 David Blackwell became the first african american named to The National Academy of Sciences .

1968 From 1968 to 1969: Percy A. Pierre was White House Fellow for the Executive Office of the President of the United States

1969 Clarence Ellis is the first African American to earn a Computer Science Ph.D. (University of Illinois, 1969). At the January 1969 Annual Meeting of The American Mathematics Society, then mathematics graduate students Johnny Houston and Scott Williams called together a group of African American mathematicians. This group begat an adhoc organization, Black and Third World Mathematicians, which, in 1971, changed its name to The National Association of Mathematicians (NAM). In 1969, the Balamp Company publishes the book Negroes in Science- Natural Science Doctorates by James M. Jay.

1972 The first Kenyan African to become Full Professor of Mathematics was Morris Sika Alala , (at the University of Nairobi).

1974 J. Ernest Wilkins, jr . became President of the American Nuclear Society. Alton Wallace becomes the first African American to earn a mathematics Ph.D. with an African American thesis advisor, Raymond L. Johnson at the University of Maryland

1975 The African Mathematical Union (AMU) was founded in Africa. Its first president was Henri Hogbe Nlend , then of the Cameroon.

1976 The first AMU Pan-African Congress of Mathematicians is held in Rabat, Morocco. J. Ernest Wilkins, jr . becomes a member of The National Academy of Engineers . Under the guidance of its Mathematics Department chair James Donaldson and aid of the chair, J. Ernest Wilkins, jr , of its Physics Department, Howard University established the first Ph.D. program in Mathematics at a Historically Black University and College (HCBU).

1979 David Blackwell wins the von Neumann Theory Prize (Operations Research Society of America).

1980 NAM inaugurates the first Claytor Lecture with Professor James Josephs as speaker. The first book (begun in 1971 by Virginia K. Newell) on African American Mathematicians, Black Mathematicians and their Works , Dorrance & Company, was finally published by V. K. Newell, J. H. Gipson, L. W. Rich, and B. Stubblefield . The Southern African Mathematical Sciences Association (SAMSA). was founded among the 12 countries of southern Africa in 1980.

1981 C. Dwight Lahr is the first African American to get tenure in a department of mathematics of an Ivy League School.

1984 C. Dwight Lahr is the first African American to become Full Professor in a department of mathematics of an Ivy League School.

1986 The first issue of the AMUCHA - The African Mathematical Union's Commission on the History of Mathematics in Africa was presented.

1990 AMUCWMA - The African Mathematical Union Commission on Women in Mathematics in Africa is founded with Grace Lele Williams as Chairman.

1992 Gloria Gilmer is the first woman to deliver a major NAM lecture.

1995 The first Conference for African American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS1) was held at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI). The conference organizers were Raymond Johnson , William Massey , William Thurston, and James Turner . Each year since then CAARMS has met: CAARMS2 (at Rutgers University and Lucent Technologies), CAARMS3 (at Morgan State University and the National Security Agency), CAARMS4 (at Rice University). In June of 1999, CAARMS5 will meet at University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.

1997 Kate Okikiolu becomes the first Black to win Mathematics' most prestigious young person's award, the Sloan Research Fellowship . She also is awarded the new $500,000 Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers . The organization Council for African American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences ( CAARMS ) was formed to oversee the CAARMS conferences and to aid African Americans interested in research in mathematics. Also in 1997, Nathaniel Dean 's book African American Mathematicians was published by the American Mathematical Society.

Sources and References

The First Africans

Algeria: Chikh BOUZAR Ph.D. 1986 Belorussian State University (Minsk, Belorussia).

Angola: Manuel Domingos O. CADETE Ph.D. 1999 Tula State Pedagogical University (Tula, Russia)

Benin: Sunday Osarumwense Iyahen Ph. D. (Keele) 1967 D. Sc. (Keele) 1987 Idris Assani The Doctorat 3 eme cycle 1981 Pure mathematics University Pierre and Marie Curie- Paris 6- Doctorat es Sciences 1986- Pure mathematics- University Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6.

Botswana: Basinyi CHIMIDZA 1995 (Ph.D.) Louisiana State University

Burkina Faso: Albert OUEDRAOGO 1969 (Doctorat 3ème cycle) Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI (Paris, France

Burundi: Juma SHABANI 1986 (Doctorat en sciences) Université de Louvaine, Belgium

Ghana: Daniel Akyeampong ( University of London 1966) and F.K.A. Allotey (Princeton 1966) were the first Ghanaian Ph.D.s in the mathematical sciences. Atu M. Taylor was the third (Oxford 1967)

Nigeria: Indigenous mathematics research activities in Nigeria were pioneered by Chike Obi (1950) , Adegoke Olubummo (1955) , and James Ezeilo all of whom obtained their doctorates in mathematics from British Universities in the 1950's. For more read Mathematics in Nigeria Today . Grace Lele Williams became, in 1963, the first Nigerian woman to earn any doctorate when she got her Ph.D. from the University of Chicago.

Kenya : The first Kenyan African to become Full Professor of Mathematics was Morris Sika Alala , at the University of Nairobi in 1972.


this section is being researched with the help of African Mathematical Union .

A Personal Statement

It is most fortunate that I, Scott Williams, have had the opportunity to meet several of the individuals above or on the page Black Women in Mathematics , among them are: Drs. Marjorie Lee Browne (who taught math alongside my mother at Gilbert Academy in the late 1930s), Gloria Hewitt, Vivienne Malone Mayes, Geraldine Darden, Etta Falconer, and J. Ernest Wilkins, all of whom I met after obtaining my Ph.D. However, the individuals having the greatest influence upon my career, where met during my mathematical formatory years. In my hometown Baltimore, Benjamin Banneker was most revered, and we learned about his works in grade school in the 1950s. A close family friend, Virgil Clift co-authored the Enclyopedia of Black America , and my Physics teacher, Julius Taylor, wrote The Negro in Science . The physical-chemist Dr. Herman Branson and the mathematical physicist, Dr. Luna Mishoe both taught in summer programs at Morgan State for high ability high school students of which I was a member. Both Dr. Clarence Stephens and Dr. Walter Talbot were my teachers at Morgan State. Dr. William Claytor and his wife Dr. Mae Claytor (Psychology) were friends of my parents. After Dr. Claytor's death in 1967, and upon the occasion of my Ph.D. (1969), Mae Claytor presented me with her husband's entire personal mathematics library with the words,

"He watched your career more closely than you realized, and as you chose Topology, his field of interest, he wanted you to have these."

Dr. Claytor, I hope in your eyes, that I have done well.

This web page is dedicated to my wife Glo Watkins Aniebo who suggested it and obtained out-of-print books for some sources.


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