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Ice Man, Otzi: A Treacherous Murder with Unexpected Links to Central Italy

Ice Man, Otzi: A Treacherous Murder with Unexpected Links to Central Italy

The copper used to make Otzi's axe blade did not come from the Alpine region as had previously been supposed, but from ore mined in southern Tuscany. Ötzi was probably not involved in working the metal himself, as the high levels of arsenic and copper found in his hair had, until now, led us to assume. His murder over 5,000 years ago seems to have been brought about due to a personal conflict a few days before his demise, and the man from the ice, despite his normal weight and active life-style, suffered from extensive vascular calcification. Scientists from all over the world presented these and other new insights, at the recent International Mummy Congress in Bozen-Bolzano. To celebrate the 25th anniversary of Ötzi's discovery, the three days of the Congress, from 19th to 21st September, are all dedicated to the man from the ice.

Since the man from the ice came on the scene on 19th September 1991, he has not ceased to fascinate scientists from all over the world. No corpse has been more thoroughly investigated. "In terms of his significance for science, Ötzi is not simply an isolated mummy discovery. He could be seen as a typical European from earlier times and is precious for this reason alone," explained the anthropologist Albert Zink from EURAC Research, the scientific leader of the congress. "Ötzi is so well preserved as a glacier mummy and through this alone, he serves us researchers as a model for developing scientific methods which can then be used on other mummies," said Zink. "What concerns us most these days is to know who the man from the ice was, what role he played in society and what happened to him in the last days of his life. Sophisticated procedures, now available to scientists, are continually supplying us with new evidence," said Angelika Fleckinger, Director of the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology which helped to organise the Congress.

Ötzi the Iceman, now housed at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, Italy

Links to Central Italy

One surprising new fact has been unearthed which concerns the most extraordinary item amongst Ötzi's equipment -- the valuable copper axe. In contrast to what had previously been presumed, the copper used in the blade does not derive from the Alpine region (researchers had suggested East or North Tyrol as the most likely provenance) but from Central Italy. Professor Gilberto Artioli's archaeometallurgy research group at the University of Padua has discovered that the metal had been obtained from ore mined in South Tuscany. In order to determine its origin, Italian scientists took a tiny sample from the blade and compared the proportion of lead isotope -- a kind of "finger print" of the ore deposits which remains unchanged in any objects subsequently made from the ore -- with the corresponding data from numerous mineral deposits in Europe and the entire Mediterranean region.

  • Otzi Speaks: Scientists Reconstruct Voice of 5,300-Year-Old Iceman
  • 5,300-Year-Old Otzi the Iceman Yields Oldest Known Human Blood
  • 5,300-Year-Old Otzi the Iceman Was Wearing Clothing from Five Separate Animal Species

A replica of Ötzi's copper axe. ( CC BY 3.0 )

The result pointed unequivocally to South Tuscany. "No one was prepared for this finding. We will commission further analyses in order to double-check these first results" stressed Angelika Fleckinger. If the original results are confirmed, this new evidence will give researchers some interesting food for thought. Was Ötzi as a trader travelling possibly as far as the area around today's Florence? What was the nature of the trading and cultural links with the south in those days? Did the exchange of goods also involve movements of the population? That is to say, did people from the south venture into the Alpine region and vice versa? "This is a particularly exciting insight especially with respect to questions about population development," explained Albert Zink.

Blank physical map of Northern Italy. Red dot marks the location of where Ötzi was discovered. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Was he or was he not Involved in Smelting copper?

Another question long debated amongst the scientific community, is whether Ötzi was perhaps involved himself in the process of copper smelting. Scientists have advocated this thesis because raised arsenic and copper levels have been measured in the mummy's hair, a fact which might possibly be explained, for example, by breathing in the smoke which is released when melting and pouring metal. Geochemist Wolfgang Müller of Royal Holloway, University of London, who had already used isotope analysis to establish Ötzi's South Tyrol origins, has now turned to this question once more.

Ötzi the Iceman while still frozen in the glacier, photographed by Helmut Simon upon the discovery of the body in September 1991. ( Fair Use )

Using highly developed methods of analysis such as laser mass spectrometry and speciation analysis, Müller's team examined not just hairs but also samples from Ötzi's nails, skin and organs for possible heavy metal contamination. His, so far still provisional, findings suggest that the hypothesis that Ötzi was involved in processing metal was premature. Müller did indeed find slightly raised arsenic values in the nail sample, but not in other tissue samples. Raised copper levels were only present at the extremities and this correlates with other change indicators, and thus it is doubtful if one can establish a heavy metal contamination for Ötzi's actual life time: raised values might also be due to environmental influences over the 5,000 years since his death.

  • 5,800-Year-Old Snowshoe Kept in Office as a Keepsake by its Finder is Oldest in the World
  • Making the Dead Speak: Scientists Plan to Recreate the Voice of Otzi the Iceman
  • Stomach Troubles for the Iceman: How Otzi Continues to Provide Information About the Past

Radiological investigations with the latest CT equipment

A new computer tomography (CT) scan of the man from the ice was undertaken by radiologists Paul Gostner and Patrizia Pernter in January 2013 in the Department of Radiology of Bozen-Bolzano Hospital. To do this they used a CT-scanner of the latest generation which, thanks to its large opening, allowed the doctors to run Ötzi rapidly through the machine from head to toe despite the way his arm is angled. In addition to the vascular calcification in the arteries of his stomach and legs which had already been known about, the superior image allowed doctors to spot three small areas of calcification near to the outflow tracts of the heart which had hitherto escaped their notice. This substantiates the earlier finding made by molecular biologists in EURAC that Ötzi had a strong genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and that this was probably also the main reason for his general arteriosclerosis.

Scientist analyzing Ötzi. ( YouTube Screenshot )

Investigations of a "profiler"

Ötzi was murdered. The arrow head discovered in 2001 in his left shoulder suggests this. But what were the circumstances surrounding the crime? In 2014 the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology commissioned Chief Inspector Alexander Horn of the Munich Criminal Investigation Department to investigate the "Ötzi Murder Case" using the latest criminological methods. Horn interrogated various "acquaintances" of the murder victim such as archaeologists from the museum who had been looking after Ötzi for years, or experts from forensic medicine, radiology and anthropology. Members of the project team also took part in an on-site inspection of the location in Schnals where the body was found. The results of this investigation were that Ötzi probably did not feel threatened shortly before his murder, because the situation at the Tisenjoch location where he was found indicates that he had been resting while enjoying a hearty meal. In the days prior to the murder he had incurred an injury to his right hand, probably as a result of defensive action during the course of a physical altercation. No further injuries could be found, and this might serve to indicate that he had not been defeated in this particular conflict. The arrow shot, which was probably fatal, seems to have been launched from a great distance and took the victim by surprise, from which we may infer that it was an act of treachery. Further medical findings suggest that the victim fell and that the perpetrator used no further violence. The perpetrator probably did not wish to risk a physical altercation, but instead chose a long distance attack to kill the man from the ice. As valuable objects such as the copper axe remained at the crime scene, theft can be excluded as the motive. The reason for the offence is more likely to be found in some sort of personal conflict situation, in a previous hostile encounter -- "a behavioural pattern which is prevalent even today in the bulk of murder crimes," as Alexander Horn explained.

Talk:Ötzi/Archive 4

The article makes statements like "he wore a . hat". It rather carelessly gives the impression that he was found wearing all these clothes. In fact, the film in the Bolzano museum shows that he was largely (entirely?) unclothed when found. The article needs to be a lot clearer about what he really was wearing when he was dug out of the ice, and where and when his (presumed) clothes were found. The text displayed in the museum says that his belongings were recovered many months later in more than one expedition. How do we even know that they were *his* clothes? There may be little doubt that they were his, but this needs to be justified. The article omits a lot of interesting and valuable information about the stages in which his belongings were recovered and where exactly they were found in relation to the body. The German version of this wiki page is a bit clearer on this point: it says his clothes were found nearby. But it still doesn't say how far away or when. It's frustrating that no-one seems to be addressing this important point: how did come to be undressed? Did he undress himself (unlikely)? Did someone else undress him? Or did his clothes just remove themselves after he died?

I'm not a valid source, but it's likely the glacial stuff that distorted his body/skin and removed his hair also removed his clothing. I've got a Scientific American article from 2003 that says (along with corroborating the 3300BC date given in the intro) that there was a second expedition in 1992 to get his stuff. I don't know how good Scientific American is as a source, though. (Also I can't be more helpful about the source because I have a pdf for a class, not the issue itself) (talk) 08:00, 24 February 2010 (UTC)

Removed latter part of sentence stating that the dried fungus was to be used as tinder. There is no evidence to support this. In fact the maple leaves in the woodbark container contained charcoal, which catches fire much quicker than wood and thus would be used as tinder. Additionally the fungus was on a leather string, making it more likely to have been used as medicine then to have been burned. -http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/otzi-the-iceman-murder/ —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 01:58, 11 April 2010 (UTC)

Given the time period and the definition of each word, and the "assumed" reason Ötzi had and carried these items "Medicinal" seems to be the correct wording. Mlpearc MESSAGE 13:56, 21 April 2010 (UTC)

The infobox contains the statement that Ötzi was possibly the victim of "ritual sacrifice." As I understand it from current thinking [1], that possibility has almost certainly been ruled out. Is that not correct? MarmadukePercy (talk) 00:01, 2 August 2010 (UTC)

I'm quite surprised that this banal edit was reverted and even more surprised that it was reverted due to a supposed lack of sources. The content of my addition is so trivial that I don't see the need to source it. In what universe is it dubious that Bolzano is the capital of the province of South Tyrol? I don't think that it's really necessary, but here are a couple of links [2] [3] [4].

My motivation for the edit was twofold: First I wanted to make it more evident, why the museum is called South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology. Secondly the region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is just a loose commonwealth of the autonomous provinces South Tyrol and Trentino which are by far better known than the region. So the mention of South Tyrol makes the article preciser and the museum easier for readers to locate. Regards, --Mai-Sachme (talk) 17:17, 4 May 2011 (UTC)

I am surprised you were reverted too - your edit did improve the article and is 100% correct. noclador (talk) 08:46, 5 May 2011 (UTC)

"The body was at first thought to be a modern corpse, like several others which had been recently found in the region." I wish this was sourced. Were modern bodies turning up in the region? How modern? Was it initially thought that Ötzi was a very recently deceased person? If only this were sourced, I might have a way of knowing. Goateeki (talk) 18:58, 10 June 2011 (UTC)

huh? "which had been recently found in the region"?? I am from the region, and there was no other corpses found there until years later - the only mummified other corpses I know off are 3 dead Austrian soldiers killed during the Battle of San Matteo found in 2004 on a flank of Punta San Matteo (around 100km south of where Ötzi was found). And if you read the BBC article about that [5] you have this line: "Bodies haven't been found in the ice around here for decades." What we find in the mountains are bones, ammunition and equipment from the fighting in WWI, but preserved mummies - the first I heard in my lifetime off were the 3 found in 2004. Thanks for finding this sentence I will remove it as a) wrong and b) unsourced (which is obvious as it is a wrong statement).noclador (talk) 19:15, 10 June 2011 (UTC)

Otzi carried two finished longbows and one unfinished. Only the unfinished is mentioned in the entry. Can someone confirm this and correct the entry? — Preceding unsigned comment added by Maasha (talk • contribs) 16:52, 21 July 2011 (UTC)

The German Wikipedia reports a current body weight of 15kg (thats the weight they monitor in the museum). Unless he did not lose 23kg between his discovery and the display in the museum, which I think is unlikely, one of the weights is wrong. The German reference doesn't seem to be more reliable, so this needs an independent source.

I have corrected the "weight at recovery". Agentilini (talk) 20:32, 19 September 2011 (UTC)Agentilini

Interesting is: how high is the memorial, what does its form stand for? --Helium4 (talk) 12:01, 18 September 2011 (UTC)

Yes, does anyone expect that any reader would want to know the elevation of the body when it was found? I read the fascinating theories of this or that, but the article forgets this basic fact? How high was the body when found?

This page is often the target of vandalism. Can't this page be blocked from beeing edited by anonymous users (IP-adresses)?--Sajoch (talk) 08:05, 17 September 2011 (UTC)

This is a historicaly relevant page, and if it is frequently targeted by vandals it should be protected.Meatsgains (talk) 23:28, 14 October 2011 (UTC)

From what I've read it takes years of practice and you have to develop the strength to draw a longbow. Does the body show stronger muscles which are involved with drawing a longbow of that size? (talk) 23:24, 14 October 2011 (UTC)

Copied here from my Talk page, as this is about the article, not me, and other editors here may want to comment.
Can you explain what you mean by "simple, bald statement" about his eye color? Surely a source that indicates they used genetic analysis to figure out his eye color is more useful than that Discovery reference with no real explanation of how they came to that conclusion? Hergilfs (talk) 21:22, 17 October 2011 (UTC)

I am very sorry, Hergilfs, I did not see your edit further down the page when I began by reverting this edit of yours. I saw only your deletion of the sentence about eye colour, especially since you had not given an edit summary. in my own edits I only intended to reinstate some coverage of the Discovery News article, with more than just eye colour emphasised. I did not see the collateral damage I was causing down the page. My silly fault, and I should have been more careful. Sorry. I see you put back the deleted material here so nothing is lost. I think our two additions live quite happily together in their separate sections now, don't you? Sorry again. --Nigelj (talk) 21:57, 17 October 2011 (UTC)

Very simple, interesting, and relevant question of fact: at what elevation was the body found? CountMacula (talk) 15:04, 4 November 2011 (UTC)

Thanks for the question - that info was truly missing! I added it.--Sajoch (talk) 16:07, 4 November 2011 (UTC) Thanks for the answer, Sajoch. But hey, I see you used what we Yanks call a decimal point instead of a comma. To us, 3.210 meters is about ten feet! Not sure of the convention in Britain, Canada, or Australia.CountMacula (talk) 07:40, 19 November 2011 (UTC)

should maybe used (because it is more accurate) rather than the one from the Museum Bélesta, Ariège, France. kind regards --ManfredK (talk) 22:42, 10 January 2012 (UTC)

Wickipedia article on the Copper Age say: "Since copper metallurgy was already known to have existed in Europe since 7000 BC, with heavy axes of natural bronze produced in bulk since 5500 BC, and since true bronze, made by deliberately alloying copper with tin had already been used in parts of east-central Europe since 3700 BC, Ötzi's axe came as no surprise to archaeologists." — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 15:12, 29 February 2012 (UTC)

The height of Otsi is estimated to 1.58 +/- 2 cm in this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.02.001

This scientific paper should be used as source rather than the dated newspaper reference now used in 9. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Jkander59 (talk • contribs) 18:09, 9 May 2014 (UTC)

I changed the weight to reflect what was found in this research. I could not change the reference on the page. Maybe someone can do it. [6]

Otzi's weight given in the article's panel differ from that given under the 'Body' heading. The weight figure in the panel does not seem to have a source. — Preceding unsigned comment added by John11235813 (talk • contribs) 04:42, 15 October 2016 (UTC)

Lyme disease, though discovered through genetic testing and described there, should be mentioned under the health heading.

Both the haft and the handle were made of yew. But a haft is a handle--doncha know? OK, the haft was perpendicular to the handle. --AGF — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 16:57, 17 March 2012 (UTC)

There does seem to be something wrong there. Most of that paragraph is uncited (WP:V), but there is a reference link regarding the axe. The source confirms it was 60 cm long. The axe article confirms that the haft of an axe is its handle. Ötzi's axe is complicated by the wooden right-angle. The cited source calls the part beyond the right-angle a 'forked shaft' at one point, then later refers to it as the haft again when talking about attaching the blade. It is not clear from the photo whether there is a woodworking joint at the right-angle of if is what might be called a 'grown crook'. In either case, saying the haft is made from 'yew tree bark' is clearly nonsense, as that would have no strength. the cited source says the haft is made from 'carefully smoothed yew', which implies wood. Therefore adding that 'the handle of the axe was made from yew branch' is redundant, and the leather binding is at the blade end, not the grip end as we imply. I'm going to try to improve what we have, based on the source. The second part of the paragraph, talking about metallurgy I cannot help with without a reference, but I shall remove the comment about whether archaeologists were 'surprised' or not, as it seems unnecessary and unencyclopedic without a source. --Nigelj (talk) 20:55, 17 March 2012 (UTC) (talk) 05:58, 21 June 2012 (UTC) In the first sentence of the last paragraph of the 'tools and equipment section' there is a slight spelling error. The line says something like, "arrow's HAFT". It is a slight mistake, but I believe the line should say something more like, "arrow's SHAFT." Thank you for considering it. -Grant Anderson. Danville, CA (talk) 06:03, 21 June 2012 (UTC) In the first sentence of the last paragraph of the 'tools and equipment section' there is a slight spelling error. The line says something like, "arrow's HAFT". It is a slight mistake, but I believe the line should say something more like, "arrow's SHAFT." Thank you for considering it. -Grant Anderson. Danville, CA

A "HAFT" is only usually acceptable when referring to the handle of a sword.

Done, but there really was no need to post the same thing thrice. AndieM (Am I behaving?) 07:09, 21 June 2012 (UTC)

The article only uses "haft" once, referring to the axe. It is correct. I have reverted it. Strebe (talk) 15:04, 21 June 2012 (UTC)

"Died c3255 BC"? Seriously? with birth year estimated to approximately the closest century it does look a bit ridiculous to give an exact year for the poor guy's demise. IdreamofJeanie (talk) 17:14, 19 September 2013 (UTC)

It should be noted with prejudice that the deaths of these people occurred over a course of a two decades and are not at all mysterious. There are very good, logical reasons they died that are no more unusual then any other deaths from accidents to cancer. I love when fringe people use terms like 'mysterious', 'unusual', 'unexplained', etc. in place of any actual science behind what they are saying. What they really mean is these are completely explained but not in a way that I want it to be so I will just call it mysterious unless some expert comes to the conclusion I most agree with. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 2601:B:A3C0:7:293A:2CD9:9471:59E7 (talk) 01:46, 5 September 2013 (UTC)

I love when skeptics try to disguise self-important barbs as actual fact. No one is saying "seven people died in the thirty years since Otzi was discovered how very mysterious!" Seven people directly related to Otzi's discovery, removal from the mountain, and initial handling died in very dramatic, often ironic ways. That's unusual. Period. Even if you chalk it up to pure coincidence, seven coincidences in a row are still unusual. (talk) 20:48, 6 September 2013 (UTC)

It seems a lot of people connected with the Kennedy assassination died suspiciously which has suggested a conspiracy. When the regicides of Charles I were rounded up 11 years later, out of 59 approx a third had died - notably Oliver Cromwell. It is interesting to compare the death rates with people associated with any event over the succeeding decades, especially as many participants are often middle-aged men (politicians, archaeologists etc.) or depending on the event may be in dangerous occupations, so we may be ooking at a particular demographic.Streona (talk) 09:07, 10 October 2013 (UTC)

In June, 2013, scientists determined that the head wound caused Otzi's death. [1] These scientists tested Otzi's blood and found Fibirin, a coagulation protein, in his brain tissue. Fibirin appears when a person is wounded, and quickly disappears, within 30 minutes or less. The fact that he still had Fibirin in his blood proves that Otzi died quickly, from the head wound, not from bleeding out due to the arrow as previously thought. [2] Bleeding out from the artery severed by the arrow would have taken taken several days, not several minutes. They still don't know, however, if Otzi fell because of the arrow, was hit over the head by an attacker or otherwise injured his head. Regardless, this scientific discovery definitively proves that the head wound, not the arrow, killed Otzi. Hermansmom (talk) 21:39, 25 November 2013 (UTC) Hermansmom (talk) 21:42, 25 November 2013 (UTC)

Not done: please make your request in the form "change X to Y", and please identify your source(s). Thanks. --Stfg (talk) 13:08, 26 November 2013 (UTC)

Has anyone proposed a hypothesis as to what language Ötzi spoke in life? Was it Proto-Indo-European? MerscratianAce (talk) 00:16, 31 December 2013 (UTC)

Unlikely. No known model locates Proto-Indo-European anywhere close to northern Italy. The most favoured Kurgan hypothesis has Proto-Indo-European spoken ca. 3400 BC in the southern Ukraine (at the northern shore of the Sea of Azov west until the mouth of the Dnieper River or so). From there, it spread into all directions, reaching Central Europe by way of migrations along the valley of the Danube. Ötzi most likely lived in the 33rd century, or possibly a century earlier or later, and almost certainly died before 3100 BC, and by 3100 BC, Indo-European dialects were hardly spoken further west than the Pannonian Basin (modern Hungary). So Ötzi lived indeed roughly at the same time as Proto-Indo-European or early Indo-European, but in the wrong location to interact with its speakers. Too far away from the Black Sea in any case. He must therefore have spoken one of the many Pre-Indo-European languages native to the region. The closest known such language is the North Picene language, unfortunately essentially only known from a single substantial inscription, whose meaning and purpose is elusive. Alternatively, he might also have spoken a relative of Basque/Aquitanian, whose origin apparently lies in Southern France. Rhaetic and Etruscan are geographically most close, but often suspected to be a late introduction (ca. 1000 BC) from the Aegean Sea region. Some place-names in the Alps, and perhaps some dialect words, are sometimes ascribed to unknown "Alpine" Pre-Indo-European substratum languages, which may or may not be identical with some of the named/identified groups. Ötzi's genetic link to Corsica and Sardinia may be telling: Pre-Indo-European languages with uncertain affiliation were spoken on Corsica and Sardinia in the Bronze Age and certainly as late as the Iron Age, but nothing but scant traces in modern Corsican and Sardinian dialects are left from them. While some of these languages may have been introduced through immigration from North Africa, the Iberian peninsula or Southern France, and some of the non-Latin elements of Corsican and Sardinian seem to point into these directions, including a few words resembling Basque, there is also evidence for immigration from what is now Italy, and since this is also the region from which Corsica and Sardinia were easiest to access, a very early (perhaps even Paleolithic) migration from northern Italy to Corsica and Sardinia is very likely and would best explain the genetic similarity (a migration from Corsica or Sardinia being much less probable). The exceptionally high contribution of Neanderthal genes in Ötzi's genome indicates that his group was deeply rooted in Europe and makes it less likely that his group descends from a later (Mesolithic or Neolithic) migration from elsewhere, especially the Middle East or North Africa. It is thought that agriculture was spread in Europe through a migration from Anatolia, accompanied by the spread of the Linear Pottery culture, and probably a language family as well. This language family, to which could well have belonged the unknown languages of the Old European cultures of the Balkan (Vinča and Cucuteni-Trypillian), might have been related to ancient Hattic, or the languages of the Caucasus. Certain substratum traces in Germanic, Celtic and Italic point to a language which may have typologically resembled Hattic and (Northwest) Caucasian languages (per Schrijver especially). The Minoan language of Bronze Age Crete (whose texts can be analysed structurally and phonetically with some probability, but are not understood) could belong to the same group, as it appears typologically similar. It appears that Ötzi belonged to the older, pre-Neolithic population of Europe, and therefore it seems less likely that he spoke a language of the family presumably spoken by the agriculturalists from Anatolia who are associated with the Linear Pottery. According to the rival Anatolian hypothesis of Indo-European origins, however, agriculture (at least in Europe) was spread by early Indo-Europeans, and Proto-Indo-European was spoken in Anatolia ca. 7000–6000 BC. This would mean that the family supposedly spoken by the agriculturalists of Old Europe was simply Indo-European. If this hypothesis is true (despite the serious problems found with it), Ötzi could have spoken a very early Indo-European language, presumably some ancestral form of Italic or Celtic. But he would not have spoken Proto-Indo-European. Apart from the two major hypotheses, there are various lesser proposals for Indo-European origins, but none whose conclusions substantially differ. However, you are touching on a somewhat surprising gap in the coverage of Ötzi. Was Ötzi "Neolithicised"? Was he a member of a farming society who went on a hunting trip (farming societies frequently supplement their diet with hunting, especially in bad times)? Or was he a member of a group of hunter-gatherers? Who were in contact with farmers and traded with them? Which archaeological culture could he belong to? I have no answers to these questions, even though they seem relevant. --Florian Blaschke (talk) 17:24, 25 January 2014 (UTC) Ah, OK – I missed the proposal that he was a mountain shepherd. So he does not seem to have been from a hunter-gatherer culture. --Florian Blaschke (talk) 20:26, 25 January 2014 (UTC) I have now read up on Ötzi's Y-chromosomal haplogroup and considering it is haplogroup G2a2b (formerly known as G2a4), he is really a descendant of the first European agriculturalists, whose origin is in West or South Asia. (Interestingly, this subgroup has now been found in individuals from the southwestern corner of Tyrol.) So it appears most likely that he either spoke an "Old European"/"Linear Pottery" language (for want of an established name – terms encountered in the literature are "North Balkan Substrate", "A1", "European", "Atlantic" or "language of bird names"), or, per Renfrew's revision of the Anatolian hypothesis, some form of (North-)Western Indo-European – (Pre-)Proto-Italic? – Venetic is the closest attested ancient Indo-European language besides the Celtic languages Lepontic and Noric. Proto-Italic and Proto-Celtic are both very different from Proto-Indo-European, though. --Florian Blaschke (talk) 19:17, 5 February 2014 (UTC)

Should this image be included somewhere? Original European (ᴛᴀʟᴋ) 23:51, 15 February 2014 (UTC)

Edit Request: The last paragraph under the genetic analysis, while an accurate statement of what appeared in the popular press, is unfortunately misleading and uninformative. What was actually found in the survey cited was 19 local modern Tyrolean men who were Y-chromosome haplotype G-L91. As mentioned in the first paragraph under genetic analysis, Otzi falls in this haplogroup which is actually more abundant in South Corsica than in Tyrol. Haplogroups are generally 10s of thousands of years old and widely distributed. So this match says very little about how closely these men are related to Otzi. (talk) 21:01, 14 May 2014 (UTC)

The article says, "it was discovered that he had genetic markers associated with reduced fertility. It has been speculated that this may have affected his social acceptance, or at least that his infertility could have had social implications within his tribal group, which could have played a role in the chain of events that led to the confrontation"

This sounds very,very far-fetched. His infertility can't even be confirmed. This is speculation, built on speculation, built on one possible trait. I don't think we should report everything that "has been speculated" in the article ?

Seems more an attempt at writing a fantasy romance story than a reality.

If, then would you have left all those tools with the corpse? The answer is no, unless you had no room to spare, allready having your own.

The fantasy in your ´sacrifice´ relationships, have not much to do with any reality relationships. Uncurable diseases, uncurable wounds, epidemic forms of viral infection, all which lead to instances of death accompanied with severe pain, made many of what you would call ´sacrifice´, not a ´sacrifice´ at all, but an assisted ending. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 12:16, 2 January 2015 (UTC)

This edit request to Ötzi has been answered. Set the |answered= or |ans= parameter to no to reactivate your request.

"Currently it is believed that death was caused by a blow to the head, though researchers are unsure if this was due to a fall, or from being struck with a rock by another person"

"Currently, it is believed that the cause of death was a blow to the head, however researchers are unsure of what inflicted the fatal injury."

The reason for this edit would be that the original sentence tries to make a guess about the origin of the injury without any real evidence to back it up. The author has trapped the reader into thinking that the injury could had been caused by either a fall or an assault when in reality it could had been anything. In contrast, my edited version is aimed towards leaving the cause of the injury up for more speculation than just two specific scenarios.

I am pulling my information from a English translation of the paper:

Publication: Lippert, A., Gostner, P., Egarter Vigl, E., Pernter, P., Vom Leben und Sterben des Ötztaler Gletschermannes. Germania 85-1 (2007) 1-21.

TheSteelGuru (talk) 20:17, 10 February 2015 (UTC)

Done — <> (e • t • c) 23:18, 10 February 2015 (UTC)

This edit request to Ötzi has been answered. Set the |answered= or |ans= parameter to no to reactivate your request.

Please add to the paragraph talking about Borrelia burgdorferi and the Lyme disease, that the B. burgdorferi discovery was probably spurious, as outlined in this paper: S. K. Ames, D. A. Hysom, S. N. Gardner, G. S. Lloyd, M. B. Gokhale, and J. E. Allen, “Scalable metagenomic taxonomy classification using a reference genome database,” Bioinformatics, vol. 29, no. 18, pp. 2253–2260, Jul. 2013. Sammy0740 (talk) 19:31, 15 February 2015 (UTC)

Done -- TOW 20:00, 15 February 2015 (UTC)

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Skillet622 (talk) 18:42, 4 September 2015 (UTC) it did not say he bled to death

Already done I think it does under Ötzi#Initial_data Cannolis (talk) 20:12, 4 September 2015 (UTC) Not done - the only reference to bled to death in the article is this newspaper article entitled "Iceman bled to death, scientists say" - so who did not say "he bled to death" ? and where ? - Arjayay (talk) 20:14, 4 September 2015 (UTC)

Weight in stones/pounds as an alternate to kilograms? Really? Give the alternate weight in pounds.

Done - Nunh-huh 06:59, 16 September 2015 (UTC)

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May you please add the following reference at the end of the section titled Skeletal details and tattooing Deter-Wolf, Aaron Robitaille, Benoît Krutak, Lars Galliot, Sébastien (February, 2016). "The World's Oldest Tattoos". Journal of Archaeological Science:Reports 5: 19–24. doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2015.11.007. ( it is the peer reviewed article that corrects the misconception that a tattooed Chilean mummy may have been older than Otzi. it is not.

Done. Presumably this is the journal article of which the reference preceding it is the popular report? - Nunh-huh 02:38, 17 November 2015 (UTC)

Yes, exactly. thank you. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Benoit Robitaille (talk • contribs) 03:47, 17 November 2015 (UTC) The proper name of the Journal in the reference is The Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. It is not the same as The Journal Of Archaological Science. Thank you for your time. Benoit Robitaille (talk) 04:09, 17 November 2015 (UTC)

Fixed it. - Nunh-huh 05:10, 17 November 2015 (UTC)

I've looked, but I can't to find anything about how they decided he's called "Otzi", should something like that be added? GWires (talk) 17:54, 28 August 2013 (UTC) Apparently he's called 'Ötzi' because the hikers who found him were hiking in the Ötztal Alps along the Austrian-Italian border. I think this should be added to the Wikipedia page, though. GWires (talk) 18:35, 29 August 2013 (UTC) This has been done :) He was called Ötzi because of the place where he was found, i.e.at the end of the "Ötztal" (valley named after the river "Ötztaler Ache") at the Austrian-Italian border. It was believed that he was found on Austrian territory and so he was named "Ötzi" = one coming from/belonging to the Ötztal. --Aschland (talk) 17:07, 4 January 2016 (UTC)

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One sentence is missing a comparative and contains verb problems and comma splices. Change:

The leather loincloth and hide coat were made from sheepskin, a genetic analysis showed the sheep species is near to modern domestic European sheep than to wild sheep, the items were made from the skins of at least four animals.

The leather loincloth and hide coat were made from sheepskin. Genetic analysis showed that the sheep species was nearer to modern domestic European sheep than to wild sheep the items were made from the skins of at least four animals.

Done Topher385 (talk) 15:27, 20 August 2016 (UTC)

The link to the is South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology http://www.iceman.it/ not http://www.archaeologiemuseum.it/ — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:12, 24 February 2017 (UTC)

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otzi the ice man is a eco fact not an artifact (talk) 06:28, 12 March 2017 (UTC)

Not done: it's not clear what changes you want to be made. Please mention the specific changes in a "change X to Y" format. TheDragonFire (talk) 11:33, 12 March 2017 (UTC)

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Please change "By current estimates, at the time of his death Ötzi was approximately: 1.65 metres (5 ft 5 in) tall,[10] weighed about 61 kilograms (134 lb)[11] and was about 45 years of age." to "Prevailing research estimates that Ötzi, at the time of his death, was approximately: 45 years old, 1.60 meters (5 feet 2 inches) tall, and weighed about 50 kilograms (110 pounds)." or the same information rephrased as "By current estimates, at the time of Ötzi's death he was approximately 45 years old, about 1.60 meters (5 feet 2 inches) tall, and weighed around 50 kilograms (110 pounds)." This information should be changed because creditable sites (as listed following) are the most up-to-date and reliable sources available. <ref:http://www.iceman.it/en/the-mummy/#health> <ref:http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/iceman-reborn.html> Alexandra Adams Horgan (talk) 16:27, 16 March 2017 (UTC)

However, I do not have the necessary expertise to comment on the subject and understand the key details of the evidence. Could someone please review this new information and update the article as appropriate? — Preceding unsigned comment added by Darksamus8 (talk • contribs) 23:24, 21 April 2017 (UTC)

Note that the cause of death recorded in the infobox does not match up with the body of the article. Also, the linked abstract does not say that he died primarily of hypothermia: "Based also on comparative modern forensic data, one can assume now that the laceration of the subclavian artery lead [sic] within minutes to hours to a massive mostly external trauma, and in combination with hypothermia, to his death." Moioci (talk) 04:44, 3 May 2017 (UTC)

hi guys — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 00:25, 18 August 2017 (UTC)

In the lead, there's a hyperlink associated with "around 3,300 BCE." But the link points to the 31st century, which was 3,100 - 3,001 BCE. Shouldn't it point to the 33rd or 34th centuries? I'd edit, but I don't have an account and the page is locked. (talk) 21:38, 17 September 2017 (UTC)

The midpoint of the more precise estimate is 3172, which I think is in fact in the 32nd century BC? I also think the age estimate should not be solely in the lead, but expanded and referenced somewhere in the main body of the article. But well spotted. I'd advise you to create an account as soon as you can. Martinevans123 (talk) 22:00, 17 September 2017 (UTC)

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It says cause of death: Hypothermia due to freezing temperatures but he actually died from being shot by an arrowhead and with no other people to help he bled out and died. There he was preserved. Just a suggestion to change it. (talk) 06:35, 2 November 2017 (UTC)

Not done: please establish a consensus for this alteration before using the <> template. The infobox COD is sourced, but according to the body of the article this isn't universally accepted. I would suggest getting consensus from people more familiar with this article before making this change to the infobox. — KuyaBriBri Talk 14:33, 2 November 2017 (UTC) Note, the article does say, with a supporting source: "Currently, it is believed that the cause of death was a blow to the head, but researchers are unsure of what inflicted the fatal injury." So it might be valid to change the cause of death in the info box? Martinevans123 (talk) 14:43, 2 November 2017 (UTC) @Martinevans123: You seem to be more involved with this article than I am, so I wouldn't be opposed to you initiating a BRD on this. — KuyaBriBri Talk 15:33, 2 November 2017 (UTC)

Article contradicts itself by stating exsanguination as cause of death and later citing article which discredits the theory.

Citation for cause of death is a spurious documentary. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 08:04, 7 February 2013 (UTC) Otzi could have been murdered by someone in his tribe. Since he had the copper axe, witch indicates power in the Stone Age, a tribe member could have been jealous. Hoping to end his glory and power, and have it for himself killed him. That's why he left the axe, others would know who killed Otzi. So he left it with him hoping someone would find him. But, no one in his time period ever found it so the axe was gone forever.05:06, 30 November 2017 (UTC)Lionlike1 (talk)https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:%C3%96tzi&action=edit&section=6#

In the cause of death section, the paragraph that talks about the DNA found on his gear says "two from the same arrowhead". This could be interpreted as meaning the arrowhead lodged in his shoulder. It could be reworded as something like "two from one of his arrowheads". — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 05:29, 11 February 2018 (UTC)

The recent analysis of Ötzi the Similaun iceman DNA mutations relative to the updated Y-G DNA tree show that the iceman was from the Y paternal haplogroup: G2a2a1a2a1a (L166/FGC5672+). The Ötzi's sample Y DNA haplogroup is G-L166 under the G-L91 tree here: https://yfull.com/tree/G-L91/ --Giovannamax (talk) 17:38, 19 August 2018 (UTC) — Preceding unsigned comment added by Giovannamax (talk • contribs) 14:01, 19 August 2018 (UTC)

I reverted an edit and it has been reverted with "There surely are many more people related to Ötzi living today (not necessarily carrying those specific mutations) In fact the Most recent common ancestor of all living mankind might have lived later than Ötzi (4,000 to 2,000 years ago) so he or a close relative might also be a contender for the title." This is editorialising based on two sources, neither of which mention Otzi. They also do not support the impossible claim that the the Most recent common ancestor of all living mankind might have lived later than Ötzi. The first is about a computer model and the second 'JC Virus Evolution and Its Association with Human Populations', says "this virus should not be used as a marker for human population history". I think this edit should be deleted. Dudley Miles (talk) 21:56, 19 August 2018 (UTC)

@Zefr, @Dudley_Miles I think you should consult the article Most recent common ancestor and Identical ancestors point. May be your wisdom is needed there or may be you will learn something. Deleting my contribution here (which essentially was to point where Ötzi belong in the timeline of that event, so we can understand better our relationship to him) amounts to objecting to that articles content. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Cobanyastigi (talk • contribs) 01:43, 20 August 2018 (UTC) @Zefr, Dudley Miles, and Cobanyastigi: - Cobanyastigi, sources must discuss the subject of the article. It's as simple as that. If you were writing an essay your edit would be ok, but it isn't here. I'm not entirely happy with the two articles you point to. Doug Weller talk 13:20, 20 August 2018 (UTC)

In June, 2013, scientists determined that the head wound caused Otzi's death. [Cause of Death 1] These scientists tested Otzi's blood and found Fibirin, a coagulation protein, in his brain tissue. Fibirin appears when a person is wounded, and quickly disappears, within 30 minutes or less. The fact that he still had Fibirin in his blood proves that Otzi died quickly, from the head wound, not from bleeding out due to the arrow as previously thought. [Cause of Death 2] Bleeding out from the artery severed by the arrow would have taken taken several days, not several minutes. They still don't know, however, if Otzi fell because of the arrow, was hit over the head by an attacker or otherwise injured his head. Regardless, this scientific discovery definitively proves that the head wound, not the arrow, killed Otzi. Hermansmom (talk) 21:39, 25 November 2013 (UTC) I really don't think this is valid.

  1. ^ woollaston, Victoria. "Ötzi the prehistoric iceman was killed by a blow to the head - and NOT by an arrow, claim scientists Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2339447/tzi-prehistoric-iceman-killed-blow-head--NOT-arrow-claim-scientists.html#ixzz2lhAc5plu Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook". Mail Online . Retrieved 11 June 2013 . External link in |title= (help)
  2. ^
  3. Gannon, Megan. "Otzi The Iceman Suffered Head Blow Before Death, Mummy's Brain Tissue Shows" . Retrieved 11 June 2013 .

I really don't think this is valid. — Preceding unsigned comment added by WarmChocolatechipcookie (talk • contribs) 22:32, 13 September 2018 (UTC)

This edit request to Ötzi has been answered. Set the |answered= or |ans= parameter to no to reactivate your request.
Please advise what it is that you think needs changing as your request does not indicate anything. thanks IdreamofJeanie (talk) 10:15, 27 September 2018 (UTC)

There are two meals listed, one of which was eaten 8 hours before he died and the other was eaten 2 hours prior, and both say that that was his last meal- it's contradictory and confusing. Mross0012 (talk) 00:43, 3 February 2016 (UTC)

I have tried to make this a bit clearer. But it still seems to be somewhat contradictory - we have chamois meat, red dear and goat, but only two meals. Martinevans123 (talk) 10:35, 27 September 2018 (UTC)

By what measure are his shoes and clothing considered to be "sophisticated"? There's no woven clothing in evidence, with the exception of his straw rain cape. The paragraph that follows the initial statement only serves to describe his clothing, and does nothing to support the initial statement. I've inserted an "OR" statement there in hopes that this will be cleared up.

Language of otzi — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 18:11, 7 November 2018 (UTC)

The page mentions that Ötzi carried two species of polypore mushrooms, birch fungus for medicinal purposes, and tinder fungus, which allegedly would be used together with a 'firelighting kit' (the Retoucheur?). The Museum webpage states that Ötzi had two medicinal fungi (http://www.iceman.it/en/node/288), but does not talk about the tinder fungus.

Where does this information come from?

in Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms, Paul Stamets does mention the use of polypores being for fires and medicine.

Excellent question. There is full wikipedia article on this fire starting fungus, called amadou, which references this article. I will add a reference to the amadou article.

In a Joe Rogan interview available on Youtube, Stammets confirms that he wears a hat made of amadou mushrooms.

Please consider linking directly to the DOI for reference number 71 in Antiquity Journal. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X0010016X — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:32, 1 February 2019 (UTC)

It looks like a movie is coming out based on his life: Iceman

Otzi was 85/76 years old. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 15:18, 9 November 2019 (UTC)

How can this person be born 3345 bce and die at 3300 bce tell me how and your evidence shows nothing it's actually real Pastel purple (talk) 03:57, 8 December 2018 (UTC)

Dates BCE are negative numbers on the great number line of history. This means that 3300 BCE is a later date than 3345 BCE. He lived from 3345 BCE to 3300 BCE. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:04, 3 April 2020 (UTC) Hi, Pastel Purple. the evidence you are requesting is in the sources to the article - try reading for example link 4, or link 8. Cheers IdreamofJeanie (talk) 09:02, 8 December 2018 (UTC)

Might be some content of interest for the article.

This edit request to Ötzi has been answered. Set the |answered= or |ans= parameter to no to reactivate your request.

It is stated under the tattooing section that Ötzi is the oldest mummy found with tattoos. However, this is no longer the case after the Deir el-Medina mummies were discovered in 2018 in Egypt. Smithsonian link here: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/infrared-reveals-egyptian-mummies-hidden-tattoos-180973700/ INyawira (talk) 22:04, 19 June 2020 (UTC)

Thank you for this information! I've gone ahead and made the change to the article. Welcome to Wikipedia, by the way - if you want to stay and contribute some more, feel free to ask me for help anytime. :) Just leave a note on my talk page. Ganesha811 (talk) 03:37, 20 June 2020 (UTC) Since it's not entirely clear, if the Egyptian mummies or Ötzi are older, the article in the Journal of Archaeological Science remains cautious (. positioning [the Egyptian mummies] amongst the bearers of some of the oldest preserved tattoos in the world). The superlative in the article title (Natural mummies from Predynastic Egypt reveal the world's earliest figural tattoos) refers to the word figural :-) I changed the article accordingly. Mai-Sachme (talk) 06:47, 20 June 2020 (UTC)

The referenced article about higher degree of Neanderthal ancestry was self refuted by the author as stated on the article linked page. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Fbn79 (talk • contribs) 12:26, 13 July 2020 (UTC)

Fbn79, thank you! I've removed the claim in question. Good catch! Ganesha811 (talk) 13:50, 13 July 2020 (UTC)

According to the German Wiki of Ötzi, the legal dispute did not end in 2008, but rather in 2010. It ended with a settlement of 175.000. There are numerous references about that (in German). — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 18:47, 1 August 2020 (UTC)


Childhood Edit

Theodore John Kaczynski was born on May 22, 1942, in Chicago, Illinois, to working-class parents, Wanda Theresa (née Dombek) and Theodore Richard Kaczynski, a sausage maker. [12] The two were Polish Americans, and were raised as Catholics but later became atheists. [13] They married on April 11, 1939. [13]

Kaczynski's parents told his younger brother, David, that Ted had been a happy baby until severe hives forced him into hospital isolation with limited contact with others, after which he "showed little emotions for months". [13] Wanda recalled Ted recoiling from a picture of himself as an infant being held down by physicians examining his hives. She said he showed sympathy for animals who were in cages or otherwise helpless, which she speculated stemmed from his experience in hospital isolation. [14]

From first to fourth grade (ages six to nine), Kaczynski attended Sherman Elementary School in Chicago, where administrators described him as healthy and well-adjusted. [15] In 1952, three years after David was born, the family moved to suburban Evergreen Park, Illinois Ted transferred to Evergreen Park Central Junior High School. After testing scored his IQ at 167, [16] he skipped the sixth grade. Kaczynski later described this as a pivotal event: previously he had socialized with his peers and was even a leader, but after skipping ahead of them he felt he did not fit in with the older children, who bullied him. [17]

Neighbors in Evergreen Park later described the Kaczynski family as "civic-minded folks", one recalling the parents "sacrificed everything they had for their children". [13] Both Ted and David were intelligent, but Ted exceptionally so. Neighbors described him as a smart but lonely individual. [13] [18] His mother recalled Ted as a shy child who would become unresponsive if pressured into a social situation. [19] At one point she was so worried about his social development that she considered entering him in a study for autistic children led by Bruno Bettelheim. She decided against it after seeing Bettelheim's abrupt and cold manner. [20]

High school Edit

Kaczynski attended Evergreen Park Community High School, where he excelled academically. He played the trombone in the marching band and was a member of the mathematics, biology, coin, and German clubs. [21] [22] In 1996, a former classmate said: "He was never really seen as a person, as an individual personality . He was always regarded as a walking brain, so to speak." [13] During this period, Kaczynski became intensely interested in mathematics, spending hours studying and solving advanced problems. He became associated with a group of like-minded boys interested in science and mathematics, known as the "briefcase boys" for their penchant for carrying briefcases. [22]

Throughout high school, Kaczynski was ahead of his classmates academically. Placed in a more advanced mathematics class, he soon mastered the material. He skipped the eleventh grade, and by attending summer school he graduated at age 15. Kaczynski was one of his school's five National Merit finalists and was encouraged to apply to Harvard College. [21] He entered Harvard on a scholarship in 1958 at age 16. [23] A classmate later said Kaczynski was emotionally unprepared: "They packed him up and sent him to Harvard before he was ready . He didn't even have a driver's license." [13]

Harvard College Edit

During his first year at Harvard, Kaczynski lived at 8 Prescott Street, which was designed to accommodate the youngest, most precocious incoming students in a small, intimate living space. For the following three years, he lived at Eliot House. Housemates and other students at Harvard described Kaczynski as a very intelligent but socially reserved person. [24] Kaczynski earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics from Harvard in 1962, finishing with a GPA of 3.12. [25] [26] [27]

Psychological study Edit

In his second year at Harvard, Kaczynski participated in a study described by author Alston Chase as a "purposely brutalizing psychological experiment" led by Harvard psychologist Henry Murray. Subjects were told they would debate personal philosophy with a fellow student and were asked to write essays detailing their personal beliefs and aspirations. The essays were turned over to an anonymous individual who would confront and belittle the subject in what Murray himself called "vehement, sweeping, and personally abusive" attacks, using the content of the essays as ammunition. [28] Electrodes monitored the subject's physiological reactions. These encounters were filmed, and subjects' expressions of anger and rage were later played back to them repeatedly. [28] The experiment lasted three years, with someone verbally abusing and humiliating Kaczynski each week. [29] [30] Kaczynski spent 200 hours as part of the study. [31]

Kaczynski's lawyers later attributed his hostility towards mind control techniques to his participation in Murray's study. [28] Some sources have suggested that Murray's experiments were part of Project MKUltra, the Central Intelligence Agency's research into mind control. [32] [33] Chase and others have also suggested that this experience may have motivated Kaczynski's criminal activities. [34] [35] Kaczynski stated he resented Murray and his co-workers, primarily because of the invasion of his privacy he perceived as a result of their experiments. Nevertheless, he said he was "quite confident that my experiences with Professor Murray had no significant effect on the course of my life". [36]

Mathematics career Edit

In 1962, Kaczynski enrolled at the University of Michigan, where he earned his master's and doctoral degrees in mathematics in 1964 and 1967, respectively. Michigan was not his first choice for postgraduate education he had applied to the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Chicago, both of which accepted him but offered him no teaching position or financial aid. Michigan offered him an annual grant of $2,310 (equivalent to $19,763 in 2020) and a teaching post. [27]

At Michigan, Kaczynski specialized in complex analysis, specifically geometric function theory. Professor Peter Duren said of Kaczynski, "He was an unusual person. He was not like the other graduate students. He was much more focused about his work. He had a drive to discover mathematical truth." George Piranian, another of his Michigan mathematics professors, said, "It is not enough to say he was smart". [37] Kaczynski received 1 F, 5 Bs and 12 As in his 18 courses at the university. In 2006, he said he had unpleasant memories of Michigan and felt the university had low standards for grading, as evidenced by his relatively high grades. [27]

For a period of several weeks in 1966, Kaczynski experienced intense sexual fantasies of being a female and decided to undergo gender transition. He arranged to meet with a psychiatrist, but changed his mind in the waiting room and did not disclose his reason for making the appointment. Afterwards, enraged, he considered killing the psychiatrist and other people whom he hated. Kaczynski described this episode as a "major turning point" in his life: [38] [39] [40] "I felt disgusted about what my uncontrolled sexual cravings had almost led me to do. And I felt humiliated, and I violently hated the psychiatrist. Just then there came a major turning point in my life. Like a Phoenix, I burst from the ashes of my despair to a glorious new hope." [39]

In 1967, Kaczynski's dissertation Boundary Functions [41] won the Sumner B. Myers Prize for Michigan's best mathematics dissertation of the year. [13] Allen Shields, his doctoral advisor, called it "the best I have ever directed", [27] and Maxwell Reade, a member of his dissertation committee, said, "I would guess that maybe 10 or 12 men in the country understood or appreciated it." [13] [37]

In late 1967, the 25-year-old Kaczynski became an acting assistant professor at the University of California, Berkeley, where he taught mathematics. By September 1968, Kaczynski was appointed assistant professor, a sign that he was on track for tenure. [13] His teaching evaluations suggest he was not well-liked by his students: he seemed uncomfortable teaching, taught straight from the textbook and refused to answer questions. [13] Without any explanation, Kaczynski resigned on June 30, 1969. [41] The chairman of the mathematics department, J. W. Addison, called this a "sudden and unexpected" resignation. [42] [43]

In 1996, reporters for the Los Angeles Times interviewed mathematicians about Kaczynski's work and concluded that Kaczynski's subfield effectively ceased to exist after the 1960s as most of its conjectures were proven. According to mathematician Donald Rung, if Kaczynski continued to work in mathematics he "probably would have gone on to some other area". [41]

After resigning from Berkeley, Kaczynski moved to his parents' home in Lombard, Illinois. Two years later, in 1971, he moved to a remote cabin he had built outside Lincoln, Montana, where he could live a simple life with little money and without electricity or running water, [44] working odd jobs and receiving significant financial support from his family. [13]

His original goal was to become self-sufficient so he could live autonomously. He used an old bicycle to get to town, and a volunteer at the local library said he visited frequently to read classic works in their original languages. Other Lincoln residents said later that such a lifestyle was not unusual in the area. [45] Kaczynski's cabin was described by a census taker in the 1990 census as containing a bed, two chairs, storage trunks, a gas stove, and lots of books. [21]

Starting in 1975, Kaczynski performed acts of sabotage including arson and booby trapping against developments near to his cabin. [46] He also dedicated himself to reading about sociology and political philosophy, including the works of Jacques Ellul. [28] Kaczynski's brother David later stated that Ellul's book The Technological Society "became Ted's Bible". [47] Kaczynski recounted in 1998, "When I read the book for the first time, I was delighted, because I thought, 'Here is someone who is saying what I have already been thinking.'" [28]

In an interview after his arrest, he recalled being shocked on a hike to one of his favorite wild spots: [48]

It's kind of rolling country, not flat, and when you get to the edge of it you find these ravines that cut very steeply in to cliff-like drop-offs and there was even a waterfall there. It was about a two days' hike from my cabin. That was the best spot until the summer of 1983. That summer there were too many people around my cabin so I decided I needed some peace. I went back to the plateau and when I got there I found they had put a road right through the middle of it . You just can't imagine how upset I was. It was from that point on I decided that, rather than trying to acquire further wilderness skills, I would work on getting back at the system. Revenge.

Kaczynski was visited multiple times in Montana by his father, who was impressed by Ted's wilderness skills. Kaczynski's father was diagnosed with terminal lung cancer in 1990 and held a family meeting without Kaczynski later that year to map out their future. [21] In October 1990, Kaczynski's father committed suicide. [49]

Between 1978 and 1995, Kaczynski mailed or hand-delivered a series of increasingly sophisticated bombs that cumulatively killed three people and injured 23 others. Sixteen bombs were attributed to Kaczynski. While the bombing devices varied widely through the years, many contained the initials "FC", which Kaczynski later said stood for "Freedom Club", [50] inscribed on parts inside. He purposely left misleading clues in the devices and took extreme care in preparing them to avoid leaving fingerprints fingerprints found on some of the devices did not match those found on letters attributed to Kaczynski. [51] [a]

Initial bombings Edit

Kaczynski's first mail bomb was directed at Buckley Crist, a professor of materials engineering at Northwestern University. On May 25, 1978, a package bearing Crist's return address was found in a parking lot at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The package was "returned" to Crist, who was suspicious because he had not sent it, so he contacted campus police. Officer Terry Marker opened the package, which exploded and caused minor injuries. [52] Kaczynski had returned to Chicago for the May 1978 bombing and stayed there for a time to work with his father and brother at a foam rubber factory. In August 1978, his brother fired him for writing insulting limericks about a female supervisor Ted had courted briefly. [53] [54] The supervisor later recalled Kaczynski as intelligent and quiet, but remembered little of their acquaintanceship and firmly denied they had had any romantic relationship. [55] Kaczynski's second bomb was sent nearly one year after the first one, again to Northwestern University. The bomb, concealed inside a cigar box and left on a table, caused minor injuries to graduate student John Harris when he opened it. [52]

FBI involvement Edit

In 1979, a bomb was placed in the cargo hold of American Airlines Flight 444, a Boeing 727 flying from Chicago to Washington, D.C. A faulty timing mechanism prevented the bomb from exploding, but it released smoke, which caused the pilots to carry out an emergency landing. Authorities said it had enough power to "obliterate the plane" had it exploded. [52] Kaczynski sent his next bomb to Percy Wood, the president of United Airlines. [56]

Kaczynski left false clues in most bombs, which he intentionally made hard to find to make them appear more legitimate. Clues included metal plates stamped with the initials "FC" hidden somewhere (usually in the pipe end cap) in bombs, a note left in a bomb that did not detonate reading "Wu—It works! I told you it would—RV," and the Eugene O'Neill one dollar stamps often used to send his boxes. [51] [57] [58] He sent one bomb embedded in a copy of Sloan Wilson's novel Ice Brothers. [52] The FBI theorized that Kaczynski's crimes involved a theme of nature, trees and wood. He often included bits of a tree branch and bark in his bombs. His selected targets included Percy Wood and Professor Leroy Wood. Crime writer Robert Graysmith noted his "obsession with wood" was "a large factor" in the bombings. [59]

Later bombings Edit

In 1981, a package that had been discovered in a hallway at the University of Utah was brought to the campus police, and was defused by a bomb squad. [52] In May of the following year, a bomb was sent to Patrick C. Fischer, a professor teaching at Vanderbilt University. Fischer was on vacation in Puerto Rico at the time and his secretary, Janet Smith, opened the bomb and received injuries to the face and arms. [52] [60]

Kaczynski's next two bombs targeted people at the University of California, Berkeley. The first, in July 1982, caused serious injuries to engineering professor Diogenes Angelakos. [52] Nearly three years later, in May 1985, John Hauser, a graduate student and captain in the United States Air Force, lost four fingers and vision in one eye. [61] Kaczynski handcrafted the bomb from wooden parts. [62] A bomb sent to the Boeing Company in Auburn, Washington, was defused by a bomb squad the following month. [61] In November 1985, professor James V. McConnell and research assistant Nicklaus Suino were both severely injured after Suino opened a mail bomb addressed to McConnell. [61]

In late 1985, a nail-and-splinter-loaded bomb placed in the parking lot of his store in Sacramento, California, killed 38-year-old computer store owner Hugh Scrutton. A similar attack against a computer store took place in Salt Lake City, Utah, on February 20, 1987. The bomb, disguised as a piece of lumber, injured Gary Wright when he attempted to remove it from the store's parking lot. The explosion severed nerves in Wright's left arm and propelled over 200 pieces of shrapnel into his body. [b] Kaczynski was spotted while planting the Salt Lake City bomb. This led to a widely distributed sketch of the suspect as a hooded man with a mustache and aviator sunglasses. [64] [65]

In 1993, after a six-year break, Kaczynski mailed a bomb to the home of Charles Epstein from the University of California, San Francisco. Epstein lost several fingers upon opening the package. In the same weekend, Kaczynski mailed a bomb to David Gelernter, a computer science professor at Yale University. Gelernter lost sight in one eye, hearing in one ear, and a portion of his right hand. [66]

In 1994, Burson-Marsteller executive Thomas Mosser was killed after opening a mail bomb sent to his home in New Jersey. In a letter to The New York Times, Kaczynski wrote he had sent the bomb because of Mosser's work repairing the public image of Exxon after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. [67] This was followed by the 1995 murder of Gilbert Brent Murray, president of the timber industry lobbying group California Forestry Association, by a mail bomb addressed to previous president William Dennison, who had retired. Geneticist Phillip Sharp at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology received a threatening letter shortly afterwards. [66]

Table of bombings Edit

Bombings carried out by Kaczynski
Date State Location Explosion Victim(s) Occupation of victim(s) Injuries
May 25, 1978 Illinois Northwestern University Yes Terry Marker University police officer Minor cuts and burns
May 9, 1979 Yes John Harris Graduate student Minor cuts and burns
November 15, 1979 American Airlines Flight 444 from Chicago to Washington, D.C. (explosion occurred midflight) Yes Twelve passengers Multiple Non-lethal smoke inhalation
June 10, 1980 Lake Forest Yes Percy Wood President of United Airlines Severe cuts and burns over most of body and face
October 8, 1981 Utah University of Utah Bomb defused N/A N/A N/A
May 5, 1982 Tennessee Vanderbilt University Yes Janet Smith University secretary Severe burns to hands shrapnel wounds to body
July 2, 1982 California University of California, Berkeley Yes Diogenes Angelakos Engineering professor Severe burns and shrapnel wounds to hand and face
May 15, 1985 Yes John Hauser Graduate student Loss of four fingers and severed artery in right arm partial loss of vision in left eye
June 13, 1985 Washington The Boeing Company in Auburn Bomb defused N/A N/A N/A
November 15, 1985 Michigan University of Michigan Yes James V. McConnell Psychology professor Temporary hearing loss
Yes Nicklaus Suino Research assistant Burns and shrapnel wounds
December 11, 1985 California Sacramento Yes Hugh Scrutton Computer store owner Death
February 20, 1987 Utah Salt Lake City Yes Gary Wright Computer store owner Severe nerve damage to left arm
June 22, 1993 California Tiburon Yes Charles Epstein Geneticist Severe damage to both eardrums with partial hearing loss, loss of three fingers
June 24, 1993 Connecticut Yale University Yes David Gelernter Computer science professor Severe burns and shrapnel wounds, damage to right eye, loss of right hand
December 10, 1994 New Jersey North Caldwell Yes Thomas J. Mosser Advertising executive Death
April 24, 1995 California Sacramento Yes Gilbert Brent Murray Timber industry lobbyist Death
References: [68] [69]

In 1995, Kaczynski mailed several letters to media outlets outlining his goals and demanding a major newspaper print his 35,000-word essay Industrial Society and Its Future (dubbed the "Unabomber manifesto" by the FBI) verbatim. [70] [71] He stated he would "desist from terrorism" if this demand was met. [10] [72] [73] There was controversy as to whether the essay should be published, but Attorney General Janet Reno and FBI Director Louis Freeh recommended its publication out of concern for public safety and in the hope that a reader could identify the author. Bob Guccione of Penthouse volunteered to publish it. Kaczynski replied Penthouse was less "respectable" than The New York Times and The Washington Post, and said that, "to increase our chances of getting our stuff published in some 'respectable' periodical", he would "reserve the right to plant one (and only one) bomb intended to kill, after our manuscript has been published" if Penthouse published the document instead of The Times or The Post. [74] The Washington Post published the essay on September 19, 1995. [75] [76]

Kaczynski used a typewriter to write his manuscript, capitalizing entire words for emphasis in lieu of italics. He always referred to himself as either "we" or "FC" ("Freedom Club"), though there is no evidence that he worked with others. Donald Wayne Foster analyzed the writing at the request of Kaczynski's defense team in 1996 and noted that it contained irregular spelling and hyphenation, along with other linguistic idiosyncrasies. This led him to conclude that Kaczynski was its author. [77]

Summary Edit

Industrial Society and Its Future begins with Kaczynski's assertion: "The Industrial Revolution and its consequences have been a disaster for the human race." [78] [79] He writes that technology has had a destabilizing effect on society, has made life unfulfilling, and has caused widespread psychological suffering. [80] Kaczynski argues that most people spend their time engaged in useless pursuits because of technological advances he calls these "surrogate activities" wherein people strive toward artificial goals, including scientific work, consumption of entertainment, political activism and following sports teams. [80] He predicts that further technological advances will lead to extensive human genetic engineering and that human beings will be adjusted to meet the needs of the social systems, rather than vice versa. [80] Kaczynski states that technological progress can be stopped, in contrast to the viewpoint of people who he says understand technology's negative effects yet passively accept it as inevitable. [81] He calls for a return to primitivist lifestyles. [80]

Kaczynski argues that the erosion of human freedom is a natural product of an industrial society because "the system has to regulate human behavior closely in order to function", and that reform of the system is impossible as drastic changes to it would not be implemented because of their disruption of the system. [82] He states that the system has not yet fully achieved control over all human behavior and is in the midst of a struggle to gain that control. Kaczynski predicts that the system will break down if it cannot achieve significant control, and that it is likely this issue will be decided within the next 40 to 100 years. [82] He states that the task of those who oppose industrial society is to promote stress within and upon the society and to propagate anti-technology ideology, one that offers the "counter-ideal" of nature. Kaczynski goes on to say that a revolution will only be possible when industrial society is sufficiently unstable. [83]

A significant portion of the document is dedicated to discussing left-wing politics, Kaczynski attributing many of society's issues to leftists. [82] He defines leftists as "mainly socialists, collectivists, 'politically correct' types, feminists, gay and disability activists, animal rights activists and the like". [84] He believes that oversocialization and feelings of inferiority primarily drive leftism, [80] and derides it as "one of the most widespread manifestations of the craziness of our world". [84] Kaczynski adds that the type of movement he envisions must be anti-leftist and refrain from collaboration with leftists, as in his view "leftism is in the long run inconsistent with wild nature, with human freedom and with the elimination of modern technology". [78] He also criticizes conservatives, describing them as fools who "whine about the decay of traditional values, yet . enthusiastically support technological progress and economic growth". [84]

Other works Edit

University of Michigan–Dearborn philosophy professor David Skrbina helped to compile Kaczynski's work into the 2010 anthology Technological Slavery, including the original manifesto, letters between Skrbina and Kaczynski, and other essays. [85] Kaczynski updated his 1995 manifesto as Anti-Tech Revolution: Why and How to address advances in computers and the internet. He advocates practicing other types of protest and makes no mention of violence. [86]

According to a 2021 study, Kaczynski's manifesto "is a synthesis of ideas from three well known academics: French philosopher Jacques Ellul, British zoologist Desmond Morris, and American psychologist Martin Seligman." [87]

Because of the material used to make the mail bombs, U.S. postal inspectors, who initially had responsibility for the case, labeled the suspect the "Junkyard Bomber". [88] FBI Inspector Terry D. Turchie was appointed to run the UNABOM (University and Airline Bomber) investigation. [89] In 1979, an FBI-led task force that included 125 agents from the FBI, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), and the U.S. Postal Inspection Service was formed. [89] The task force grew to more than 150 full-time personnel, but minute analysis of recovered components of the bombs and the investigation into the lives of the victims proved of little use in identifying the suspect, who built the bombs primarily from scrap materials available almost anywhere. Investigators later learned that the victims were chosen indiscriminately from library research. [90]

In 1980, chief agent John Douglas, working with agents in the FBI's Behavioral Sciences Unit, issued a psychological profile of the unidentified bomber. It described the offender as a man with above-average intelligence and connections to academia. This profile was later refined to characterize the offender as a neo-Luddite holding an academic degree in the hard sciences, but this psychologically based profile was discarded in 1983. FBI analysts developed an alternative theory that concentrated on the physical evidence in recovered bomb fragments. In this rival profile, the suspect was characterized as a blue-collar airplane mechanic. [91] The UNABOMB Task Force set up a toll-free telephone hotline to take calls related to the investigation, with a $1 million reward for anyone who could provide information leading to the Unabomber's capture. [92]

Before the publication of Industrial Society and Its Future, Kaczynski's brother, David, was encouraged by his wife to follow up on suspicions that Ted was the Unabomber. [93] David was dismissive at first, but he took the likelihood more seriously after reading the manifesto a week after it was published in September 1995. He searched through old family papers and found letters dating to the 1970s that Ted had sent to newspapers to protest the abuses of technology using phrasing similar to that in the manifesto. [94]

Before the manifesto's publication, the FBI held many press conferences asking the public to help identify the Unabomber. They were convinced that the bomber was from the Chicago area where he began his bombings, had worked in or had some connection to Salt Lake City, and by the 1990s had some association with the San Francisco Bay Area. This geographical information and the wording in excerpts from the manifesto that were released before the entire text of the manifesto was published persuaded David's wife to urge him to read it. [95] [96]

After publication Edit

After the manifesto was published, the FBI received thousands of leads in response to its offer of a reward for information leading to the identification of the Unabomber. [96] While the FBI reviewed new leads, Kaczynski's brother David hired private investigator Susan Swanson in Chicago to investigate Ted's activities discreetly. [97] David later hired Washington, D.C. attorney Tony Bisceglie to organize the evidence acquired by Swanson and contact the FBI, given the presumed difficulty of attracting the FBI's attention. Kaczynski's family wanted to protect him from the danger of an FBI raid, such as those at Ruby Ridge or Waco, since they feared a violent outcome from any attempt by the FBI to contact Kaczynski. [98] [99]

In early 1996, an investigator working with Bisceglie contacted former FBI hostage negotiator and criminal profiler Clinton R. Van Zandt. Bisceglie asked him to compare the manifesto to typewritten copies of handwritten letters David had received from his brother. Van Zandt's initial analysis determined that there was better than a 60 percent chance that the same person had written the manifesto, which had been in public circulation for half a year. Van Zandt's second analytical team determined a higher likelihood. He recommended Bisceglie's client contact the FBI immediately. [98]

In February 1996, Bisceglie gave a copy of the 1971 essay written by Ted Kaczynski to Molly Flynn at the FBI. [89] She forwarded the essay to the San Francisco-based task force. FBI profiler James R. Fitzgerald [100] [101] recognized similarities in the writings using linguistic analysis and determined that the author of the essays and the manifesto was almost certainly the same person. Combined with facts gleaned from the bombings and Kaczynski's life, the analysis provided the basis for an affidavit signed by Terry Turchie, the head of the entire investigation, in support of the application for a search warrant. [89]

David Kaczynski had tried to remain anonymous, but he was soon identified. Within a few days an FBI agent team was dispatched to interview David and his wife with their attorney in Washington, D.C. At this and subsequent meetings, David provided letters written by his brother in their original envelopes, allowing the FBI task force to use the postmark dates to add more detail to their timeline of Ted's activities. David developed a respectful relationship with behavioral analysis Special Agent Kathleen M. Puckett, whom he met many times in Washington, D.C., Texas, Chicago, and Schenectady, New York, over the nearly two months before the federal search warrant was served on Kaczynski's cabin. [102]

David had once admired and emulated his older brother but had since left the survivalist lifestyle behind. [103] He had received assurances from the FBI that he would remain anonymous and that his brother would not learn who had turned him in, but his identity was leaked to CBS News in early April 1996. CBS anchorman Dan Rather called FBI director Louis Freeh, who requested 24 hours before CBS broke the story on the evening news. The FBI scrambled to finish the search warrant and have it issued by a federal judge in Montana afterwards, the FBI conducted an internal leak investigation, but the source of the leak was never identified. [103]

FBI officials were not unanimous in identifying Ted as the author of the manifesto. The search warrant noted that several experts believed the manifesto had been written by another individual. [51]

Arrest Edit

FBI agents arrested an unkempt Kaczynski at his cabin on April 3, 1996. A search revealed a cache of bomb components, 40,000 hand-written journal pages that included bomb-making experiments, descriptions of the Unabomber crimes and one live bomb, ready for mailing. They also found what appeared to be the original typed manuscript of Industrial Society and Its Future. [104] By this point, the Unabomber had been the target of the most expensive investigation in FBI history at the time. [11] [105] A 2000 report by the United States Commission on the Advancement of Federal Law Enforcement stated that the task force had spent over $50 million throughout the course of the investigation. [106]

After his capture, theories emerged naming Kaczynski as the Zodiac Killer, who murdered five people in Northern California from 1968 to 1969. Among the links that raised suspicion was the fact that Kaczynski lived in the San Francisco Bay Area from 1967 to 1969 (the same period that most of the Zodiac's confirmed killings occurred in California), that both individuals were highly intelligent with an interest in bombs and codes, and that both wrote letters to newspapers demanding the publication of their works with the threat of continued violence if the demand was not met. Yet Kaczynski's whereabouts could not be verified for all of the killings. Since the gun and knife murders committed by the Zodiac Killer differed from Kaczynski's bombings, authorities did not pursue him as a suspect. Robert Graysmith, author of the 1986 book Zodiac, said the similarities are "fascinating" but purely coincidental. [107]

The early hunt for the Unabomber portrayed a perpetrator far different from the eventual suspect. Kaczynski consistently uses "we" and "our" throughout Industrial Society and Its Future. At one point in 1993 investigators sought an individual whose first name was "Nathan" because the name was imprinted on the envelope of a letter sent to the media. [57] When authorities presented the case to the public, they denied that there was ever anyone other than Kaczynski involved in the crimes. [93]

Guilty plea Edit

A federal grand jury indicted Kaczynski in June 1996 on ten counts of illegally transporting, mailing, and using bombs. [108] Kaczynski's lawyers, headed by Montana federal public defenders Michael Donahoe and Judy Clarke, attempted to enter an insanity defense to avoid the death penalty, but Kaczynski rejected this strategy. On January 8, 1998, he asked to dismiss his lawyers and hire Tony Serra as his counsel Serra had agreed not to use an insanity defense and instead promised to base a defense on Kaczynski's anti-technology views. [109] [110] [111] After this request was unsuccessful, Kaczynski tried to kill himself on January 9. [112] Sally Johnson, the psychiatrist who examined Kaczynski, concluded that he suffered from paranoid schizophrenia. [113] Forensic psychiatrist Park Dietz said Kaczynski was not psychotic but had a schizoid or schizotypal personality disorder. [114] In his 2010 book Technological Slavery, Kaczynski said that two prison psychologists who visited him frequently for four years told him they saw no indication that he suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and the diagnosis was "ridiculous" and a "political diagnosis". [115]

On January 21, 1998, Kaczynski was declared competent to stand trial by federal prison psychiatrist Johnson, "despite the psychiatric diagnoses". [116] As he was fit to stand trial, prosecutors sought the death penalty, but Kaczynski avoided that by pleading guilty to all charges on January 22, 1998, and accepting life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. He later tried to withdraw this plea, arguing it was involuntary as he had been coerced to plead guilty by the judge. Judge Garland Ellis Burrell Jr. denied his request, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld that decision. [117] [118]

In 2006, Burrell ordered that items from Kaczynski's cabin be sold at a "reasonably advertised Internet auction". Items considered to be bomb-making materials, such as diagrams and "recipes" for bombs, were excluded. The net proceeds went towards the $15 million in restitution Burrell had awarded Kaczynski's victims. [119] Kaczynski's correspondence and other personal papers were also auctioned. [120] [121] [122] Burrell ordered the removal, before sale, of references in those documents to Kaczynski's victims Kaczynski unsuccessfully challenged those redactions as a violation of his freedom of speech. [123] [124] [125] The auction ran for two weeks in 2011, and raised over $232,000. [126]

Kaczynski is serving eight life sentences without the possibility of parole at ADX Florence, a supermax prison in Florence, Colorado. [123] [127] Early in his imprisonment, Kaczynski befriended Ramzi Yousef and Timothy McVeigh, the perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, respectively. The trio discussed religion and politics and formed a friendship which lasted until McVeigh's execution in 2001. [128] In 2012, Kaczynski responded to the Harvard Alumni Association's directory inquiry for the fiftieth reunion of the class of 1962 he listed his occupation as "prisoner" and his eight life sentences as "awards". [129]

The U.S. government seized Kaczynski's cabin, which they put on display at the Newseum in Washington, D.C., until it closed at the end of 2019. [130] In October 2005, Kaczynski offered to donate two rare books to the Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies at Northwestern University's campus in Evanston, Illinois, the location of his first two attacks. The Library rejected the offer on the grounds that it already had copies of the works. [131] The Labadie Collection, part of the University of Michigan's Special Collections Library, houses Kaczynski's correspondence with over 400 people since his arrest, including replies, legal documents, publications, and clippings. [132] [133] His writings are among the most popular selections in the University of Michigan's special collections. [85] The identity of most correspondents will remain sealed until 2049. [132] [134]

Kaczynski has been portrayed in and inspired multiple artistic works in the realm of popular culture. [135] These include the 1996 television film Unabomber: The True Story, [136] the 2011 play P.O. Box Unabomber, [137] and Manhunt: Unabomber, the 2017 season of the television series Manhunt. [138] The moniker "Unabomber" was also applied to the Italian Unabomber, a terrorist who conducted attacks similar to Kaczynski's in Italy from 1994 to 2006. [139] Prior to the 1996 United States presidential election, a campaign called "Unabomber for President" was launched with the goal of electing Kaczynski as president through write-in votes. [140]

In his book The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999), futurist Ray Kurzweil quoted a passage from Kaczynski's manifesto Industrial Society and Its Future. [141] In turn, Kaczynski was referenced by Bill Joy, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, in the 2000 Wired article "Why the Future Doesn't Need Us". Joy stated Kaczynski "is clearly a Luddite, but simply saying this does not dismiss his argument". [142] [143] Professor Jean-Marie Apostolidès has raised questions surrounding the ethics of spreading Kaczynski's views. [144] Various radical movements and extremists have been influenced by Kaczynski. [87] People inspired by Kaczynski's ideas show up in unexpected places, from nihilist, anarchist and eco-extremist movements to conservative intellectuals. [50] Anders Behring Breivik, the perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, [145] published a manifesto which copied large portions from Industrial Society and Its Future, with certain terms substituted (e.g., replacing "leftists" with "cultural Marxists" and "multiculturalists"). [146] [147]

Over twenty years after Kaczynski's imprisonment, his views have inspired an online community of primitivists and neo-Luddites. One explanation for the renewal of interest in his views is the television series Manhunt: Unabomber, which aired in 2017. [148] Kaczynski is also frequently referred to by ecofascists online. [149] Although some militant fascist and neo-Nazi groups idolize him, Kaczynski described fascism in his manifesto as a "kook ideology" and Nazism as "evil", and never tried to align himself with the far right. [148]

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Ötzi’s Ancient Axe is from Tuscany, Giving Firm Evidence

  • A) It is the oldest axe found complete with the copper blade, hide strips, birch tar, and handle made of yew wood, so that it has been carefully dated by radiocarbon methods (figure from www.iceman.it, modified) b) Casting defects and deformation in the talon of the copper blade
  • The microsample here analyzed was extracted

Origin of copper from Ötzi’s axe identified ArchaeoFeed

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  • Researchers analysed the copper from Ötzi the Iceman’s axe, identifying its place of origin in central Italy
  • It seems the object made a long way from its place of mining to the place in Northern Italy, where the Bronze Age frozen body was found
  • The mummified remains and belongings of the iceman dubbed Ötzi, found in 1991, have underwent numerous analysis on the course of last years.

How to make an Otzi the Iceman Copper Axe Blade. Ancient

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  • Making an Ancient Copper Age Neolithic Weapon used by Otzi the Iceman 5000 years ago
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Ötzi the Iceman’s Axe Came From Surprisingly Far Away

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  • Ötzi the Iceman—our favorite Copper Age corpsicle—is the gift that keeps on giving
  • A recent analysis of the metal found in the Neolithic hunter’s copper axe suggests a point of origin in

Equipment Museo Archeologico dell’Alto Adige

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  • Copper was the first metal to be used to make weapons and tools
  • Mining and smelting skills spread from Asia Minor to Central Europe 4000 years BC
  • Around 3000 BC, high-ranking men owned a copper axe, which was often buried with them
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  • Green Axe Stone From Papua New Guinea 9x3" Currency Celt Massim Axe Blade Wealth Object
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Copper axe found that matches Ötzi the Iceman's blade

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  • 5,300-year-old Italian copper axe that matches the blade carried by Neolithic hunter Otzi the Iceman is found in Switzerland
  • The mummified remains of Ötzi the Iceman were found in …

Long-distance connections in the Copper Age: New evidence

The first investigations on the Iceman's copper axe mostly involved typological aspects [12–13] and only very preliminary chemical assessments [14–15].Then, about fifteen years ago, permission was granted to carry out detailed non-invasive crystallographic measurements of the metal microstructure [16–17].The neutron diffraction study clearly indicates that the Iceman blade was …

Weapons reveal how Ötzi, the 5300-year-old ice mummy lived

  • Iceman’s copper axe from Südtiroler Archäologiemuseum
  • Photo by АлександрЛаптев CC BY SA 4.0 It was also discovered that this 46-year-old man had a number of health issues, including gallstones, worn joints, a growth on his foot, as well as worms and possibly Lyme disease.

Ötzi the Iceman's Tools Shed Light on Copper Age Trade

  • Daggers like Ötzi’s may have had symbolic significance during the Copper Age
  • (Credit: South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology) Though he died 5300 years ago in the Alps near the Austrian-Italian border, the prehistoric man known as Ötzi the Iceman has had a remarkable afterlife in the sciences
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Ötzi the Iceman, Museum of Archaeology Bolzano

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  • Ötzi the Iceman Archaeologic sensation, media star, research topic, museum object: Ötzi is a glacier mummy from the Copper Age, who, thanks to extraordinary circumstances, has been preserved down to the present day
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  • Among the equipment Ötzi carried was an ax of almost pure copper, remarkable because its wooden handle and leather straps were still preserved
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Copper axe owned by Neolithic hunter Ötzi the Iceman came

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TYWKIWDBI ("Tai-Wiki-Widbee"): Otzi's copper axe

  • Otzi's copper axe Readers of this blog should already be familiar with Ötzi the Iceman (his tattoos)
  • This is what his axe looked like
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  • The axe's haft is 60 centimetres (24 in) long and made from carefully worked yew with a right-angled crook at the shoulder, leading to the blade

Otzi The Iceman: Outdoor Survival Skills

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Otzi the Iceman’s axe came from Italy: study

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Scientists have found that a copper axe carried by Otzi the Iceman — the 5,300-year-old well-preserved mummy discovered in the Austrian Alps — came from southern Tuscany in Italy.

Otzi the Iceman: Descriptions of Ötzi The Iceman

  • Otzi the Iceman Tuesday, September 1, 2009
  • This, along with Ötzi's copper axe which is 99.7% pure copper, has led scientists to speculate that Ötzi was involved in copper smelting
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Prehistoric Relic: Otzi the Iceman Shout Out Science!

  • Photo credit: The South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology
  • The most perplexing item found with the iceman was his copper axe
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Otzi the Iceman: His equippments

  • The haft of the axe, which is the handle, came from the trunk of the tree the shaft, which is the part onto which the copper blade was fitted in, came from the branch
  • This allowed maximum durability
  • Most copper age axes are made from ash wood (Otzi's was the first one to be found made from yew).

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But the Iceman with his copper axe was 5,000 years old—proof that the transition from the Neolithic to the Copper Age happened much earlier than …

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  • The mummified remains of Ötzi the Iceman

Ötzi’s Ancient Axe is from Tuscany, Giving Firm Evidence

  • A) It is the oldest axe found complete with the copper blade, hide strips, birch tar, and handle made of yew wood, so that it has been carefully dated by radiocarbon methods (figure from www.iceman.it, modified) b) Casting defects and deformation in the talon of the copper

Ötzi the Iceman’s Axe Came From Surprisingly Far Away

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  • Ötzi the Iceman—our favorite Copper Age corpsicle—is the gift that keeps on giving
  • A recent analysis of the metal found in the Neolithic hunter’s copper axe suggests a point of origin in

Origin of copper from Ötzi’s axe identified ArchaeoFeed

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  • Researchers analysed the copper from Ötzi the Iceman’s axe, identifying its place of origin in central Italy
  • It seems the object made a long way from its place of mining to the place in Northern Italy, where the Bronze Age frozen body was found
  • The mummified remains and belongings of the iceman dubbed Ötzi, found in 1991, have underwent numerous analysis on the course of last years.

Long-distance connections in the Copper Age: New evidence

The first investigations on the Iceman's copper axe mostly involved typological aspects [12–13] and only very preliminary chemical assessments [14–15].Then, about fifteen years ago, permission was granted to carry out detailed non-invasive crystallographic measurements of the metal microstructure [16–17].The neutron diffraction study clearly indicates that the Iceman blade was …

Never Yet Melted » Copper of Iceman’s Axe Came From

  • New research has shown that a copper axe carried by a Neolithic hunter known as Ötzi the Iceman came from southern Tuscany
  • The find has surprised experts because hundreds of miles separate Tuscany from the Alpine pass where the mummified body of Ötzi was discovered 25 years ago.

How to make an Otzi the Iceman Copper Axe Blade. Ancient

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  • Making an Ancient Copper Age Neolithic Weapon used by Otzi the Iceman 5000 years ago
  • Shawn Woods Bushcraft Bucketlist item: How to make an Otzi The Iceman C

Ötzi the Iceman's Tools Shed Light on Copper Age Trade

  • Daggers like Ötzi’s may have had symbolic significance during the Copper Age
  • (Credit: South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology) Though he died 5300 years ago in the Alps near the Austrian-Italian border, the prehistoric man known as Ötzi the Iceman has had a remarkable afterlife in the sciences
  • His mummified body chiseled out of ice in 1991 has undergone extensive examination, revealing details

Equipment Museo Archeologico dell’Alto Adige

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  • Copper was the first metal to be used to make weapons and tools
  • Mining and smelting skills spread from Asia Minor to Central Europe 4000 years BC
  • Around 3000 BC, high-ranking men owned a copper axe, which was often buried with them
  • A copper axe was used not only for woodworking and felling trees but was also a powerful close-combat weapon.

Copper in Ötzi the Iceman’s ax came from surprisingly far

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BLADE TRADE Copper for Ötzi the Iceman’s ax, or possibly even the finished blade, came from what’s now central Italy, an unexpectedly long way from the ancient man’s home region in …

Ax linked to ötzi the iceman found north of the alps

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  • Among the equipment Ötzi carried was an ax of almost pure copper, remarkable because its wooden handle and leather straps were still preserved
  • [ Mummy Melodrama: 9 Secrets About Otzi the Iceman ]

Copper axe owned by Neolithic hunter Ötzi the Iceman came

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  • New research has shown that a copper axe carried by a Neolithic hunter known as Ötzi the Iceman came from southern Tuscany

Ötzi The Iceman's Axe Came From Surprisingly Far Away

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  • Ötzi the Iceman — our favourite Copper Age corpsicle — is the gift that keeps on giving
  • A recent analysis of the metal found in the Neolithic hunter’s copper axe suggests a point of origin

Otzi "The Ice Man" Revealed Youngzine History

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  • Next to the body were a copper axe, a knife with flint-stone blade, a quiver full of arrows, a fire-starting kit, two baskets containing berries and other stone age tools
  • Here was the skeleton of a 5,300 year old man that had been mummified by ice and was very well preserved.

Tools and equipment of Otzi the Iceman.

  • Otzi's copper axe was of particular interest
  • The axe's haft is 60 centimetres (24 in) long and made from carefully worked yew with a right-angled crook at the shoulder, leading to the blade
  • The 9.5 centimetres (3.7 in) long axe head is made of almost pure copper, produced by a combination of casting, cold forging, polishing, and sharpening.

(PDF) Long-distance connections in the Copper Age: New

  • A) It is the oldest axe found complete of the copper blade, hide strips, birch tar, and handle made of yew wood, so that it …

The Significance of the discovery of the Iceman Essay

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  • The axe was two feet long and the handle was made from a yew tree
  • Also, this was the only axe during the Copper Age that was made from yew
  • The copper axe, and various other tools found with Otzi provided scientists with an understanding of the …

33 Copper axe ideas in 2021 ötzi, ötzi the iceman, axe

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  • May 29, 2021 - Explore Frank Dajcar's board "Copper axe" on Pinterest
  • See more ideas about ötzi, ötzi the iceman, axe.

Ice Man, Ötzi: A treacherous murder with links to Central

  • Ice Man, Ötzi: A treacherous murder with links to Central Italy
  • The copper used to make Ötzi's axe blade did not come from the Alpine region as …

Otzi Discovery & Facts Britannica

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The Iceman was equipped with a small copper-bladed ax and a flint dagger, both with wooden handles 14 arrows made of viburnum and dogwood, two of which had flint points and feathers a fur arrow quiver and a bow made of yew a grass net that may have served as a sack a leather pouch and a U-shaped wooden frame that apparently served as a

TYWKIWDBI ("Tai-Wiki-Widbee"): Otzi's copper axe

  • Readers of this blog should already be familiar with Ötzi the Iceman (his tattoos).This is what his axe looked like
  • Ötzi's copper axe was of particular interest
  • The axe's haft is 60 centimetres (24 in) long and made from carefully worked yew with a right-angled crook at …

Ötzi the Iceman: How Forensics Unveiled a Stone Age Murder

  • Ötzi’s copper axe represented rare, valuable, state-of-the-art technology for the cusp of the Bronze Age, suggesting that the Iceman was a person of high status in his culture
  • Murder! Modern forensic techniques, however, gave the Iceman a megaphone to …

Prehistoric Relic: Otzi the Iceman Shout Out Science!

  • Photo credit: The South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology
  • The most perplexing item found with the iceman was his copper axe
  • Until Otzi’s discovery, it was not believed that humans had the technology to extract ore and cast metal tools at such an early age of human development
  • This alone was a major discovery that rewrote

Wood Trekker: Tool Kit of Otzi the Iceman

  • The axe blade was 3.7 in long, and was secured to a yew handle
  • The blade was attached using birch tar and string, and more than half of the blade was inserted within the handle
  • The blade was made of almost pure copper and was worked using cold-hammering after casting.

Correction: Long-distance connections in the Copper Age

  • Citation: Artioli G, Angelini I, Kaufmann G, Canovaro C, Dal Sasso G, Villa IM (2017) Correction: Long-distance connections in the Copper Age: New evidence from the Alpine Iceman's copper axe

Iceman Died After Sneak Attack From Behind

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Although the most important piece in the Iceman's equipment is a copper-bladed axe (tests have shown it could have chopped down a yew tree in …


Jean Smart has already given HBO a number of wonderful performances in original series like Watchmen and Mare of Easttown, but she takes center stage in Hacks. Smart plays Deborah Vance, a world-famous comedian who rules the roost in Las Vegas. But when Vance’s stage dates start getting canceled and the popularity of social media comedy starts chipping away at her throne, the queen of Vegas sees her reign coming to an end. To help make the inevitable become the impossible, Vance takes on the young writer Ava (Hannah Einbinder) in what HBO Max’s official description for the series calls “a dark mentorship.”

Created by: Paul W. Downs, Lucia Aniello, Jen Statsky
Cast: Jean Smart, Hannah Einbinder, Carl Clemons-Hopkins
Number of seasons: 1


Blunt was born in Bournemouth, in Hampshire at that time but currently in Dorset, the third and youngest son of a vicar, the Revd (Arthur) Stanley Vaughan Blunt (1870–1929), and his wife, Hilda Violet (1880–1969), daughter of Henry Master of the Madras civil service. [5]

He was also a third cousin of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother: his mother was the second cousin of Elizabeth's father Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. He was fourth cousin once removed of Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley (1896–1980) 6th Baronet of Ancoat, leader of the British Union of Fascists, both being descended from John Parker Mosley (1722–1798).

Blunt's father, a vicar, was assigned to Paris with the British embassy chapel, and moved his family to the French capital for several years during Anthony's childhood. The young Anthony became fluent in French and experienced intensely the artistic culture available to him there, stimulating an interest which lasted a lifetime and formed the basis for his later career. [8]

He was educated at Marlborough College, a boys' public school in Marlborough, Wiltshire. At Marlborough, Blunt joined the college's secret 'Society of Amici', [9] in which he was a contemporary of Louis MacNeice (whose unfinished autobiography The Strings Are False contains numerous references to Blunt), John Betjeman and Graham Shepard. He was remembered by historian John Edward Bowle, a year ahead of Blunt at Marlborough, as "an intellectual prig, too preoccupied with the realm of ideas". Bowle thought Blunt had "too much ink in his veins and belonged to a world of rather prissy, cold-blooded, academic puritanism". [8]

Blunt won a scholarship in mathematics to Trinity College, Cambridge. At that time, scholars at Cambridge University were allowed to skip Part I of the Tripos examinations and complete Part II in two years. However, they could not earn a degree in less than three years, [10] hence Blunt spent four years at Trinity and switched to Modern Languages, eventually graduating in 1930 with a first class degree. He taught French at Cambridge and became a Fellow of Trinity College in 1932. His graduate research was in French art history and he travelled frequently to continental Europe in connection with his studies. [8]

Like Guy Burgess, Blunt was known to be homosexual, [11] which was a criminal offence at the time in Britain. Both were members of the Cambridge Apostles (also known as the Conversazione Society), a clandestine Cambridge discussion group of 12 undergraduates, mostly from Trinity and King's Colleges who considered themselves to be the brightest minds. Through the Apostles, he met the future poet Julian Bell (son of Vanessa Bell) and took him as a lover. [12] Many others were homosexual and also Marxist at that time. Amongst other members were Victor Rothschild and the American Michael Whitney Straight, the latter also later suspected of being part of the Cambridge spy ring. [13] Rothschild later worked for MI5 [14] and also gave Blunt £100 to purchase the painting Eliezar and Rebecca by Nicolas Poussin. [15] The painting was sold by Blunt's executors in 1985 for £100,000 (totalling £192,500 with tax remission [16] ) and is now in Cambridge University's Fitzwilliam Museum. [17]

There are numerous versions of how Blunt was recruited to the NKVD. As a Cambridge don, Blunt visited the Soviet Union in 1933, and was possibly recruited in 1934. In a press conference, Blunt claimed that Guy Burgess recruited him as a spy. [18] The historian Geoff Andrews writes that he was "recruited between 1935 and 1936", [19] while his biographer Miranda Carter says that it was in January 1937 that Burgess introduced Blunt to his Soviet recruiter, Arnold Deutsch. [20] Shortly after meeting Deutsch, writes Carter, Blunt became a Soviet "talent spotter" and was given the NKVD code name 'Tony'. [21] Blunt may have identified Burgess, Kim Philby, Donald Maclean, John Cairncross and Michael Straight – all undergraduates at Trinity College (except Maclean at the neighbouring Trinity Hall), a few years younger than he – as potential spies for the Soviets. [22]

Blunt said in his public confession that it was Burgess who converted him to the Soviet cause, after both had left Cambridge. [23] Both were members of the Cambridge Apostles, and Burgess could have recruited Blunt or vice versa either at Cambridge University or later when both worked for British intelligence.

With the invasion of Poland by German and Soviet forces, Blunt joined the British Army in 1939. During the Phoney War he served in France in the Intelligence Corps. When the Wehrmacht drove British forces back to Dunkirk in May 1940, he was part of the Dunkirk evacuation. During that same year he was recruited to MI5, the Security Service. [8] Before the war, MI5 employed mostly former members of the Indian Imperial Police. [24]

In MI5, Blunt began passing the results of Ultra intelligence (from decrypted Enigma intercepts of Wehrmacht radio traffic on the Eastern Front) to the Soviets, as well as details of German spy rings operating in the Soviet Union. Ultra was primarily working on the Kriegsmarine naval codes, which eventually helped win the Battle of the Atlantic, but as the war progressed Wehrmacht army codes were also broken. Sensitive receivers could pick up transmissions, relating to German war plans, from Berlin. There was great risk that, if the Germans discovered their codes had been compromised, they would change the settings of the Enigma wheels, blinding the codebreakers.

Full details of the entire Operation Ultra were fully known by only four people, only one of whom routinely worked at Bletchley Park. Dissemination of Ultra information did not follow usual intelligence protocol but maintained its own communications channels. Military intelligence officers gave intercepts to Ultra liaisons, who in turn forwarded the intercepts to Bletchley Park. Information from decoded messages was then passed back to military leaders through the same channels. Thus, each link in the communications chain knew only one particular job and not the overall Ultra details. Nobody outside Bletchley Park knew the source. [25]

John Cairncross, another of the Cambridge Five, was posted from MI6 to work at Bletchley Park. Blunt admitted to recruiting Cairncross and may well have been the cut-out between Cairncross and the Soviet contacts. For although the Soviet Union was now an ally, Russians were not trusted. Some information concerned German preparations and detailed plans for the Battle of Kursk, the last major German offensive on the Eastern Front. Malcolm Muggeridge, himself a wartime British agent, recalls meeting Kim Philby and Victor Rothschild, a friend of Blunt since Trinity College, Cambridge. He reported that at the Paris meeting in late 1955 Rothschild argued that much more Ultra material should have been given to Stalin. For once, Philby reportedly dropped his reserve, and agreed. [26]

During the war, Blunt attained the rank of major. [8] After WWII, Blunt's espionage activity diminished, but he retained contact with Soviet agents and continued to pass them gossip from his former MI5 colleagues and documents from Burgess. This continued until the defection of Burgess and Maclean in 1951. [27]

In April 1945, Blunt, who had worked part-time at the Royal Library, was offered and accepted the job of Surveyor of the King's Pictures. His predecessor, Kenneth Clark, had resigned earlier that year. The Royal Librarian, Owen Morshead, who had become friends with Blunt during the two years he worked in the Royal Collection, recommended him for the job. Morshead had been impressed with Blunt's "diligence, his habitual reticence, and his perfect manners." [28] Blunt often visited Morshead's home in Windsor. [29] Blunt's student Oliver Millar, who would become his successor as Surveyor, said, "I think Anthony was happier there than many other places". [30] Miranda Carter, Blunt's biographer, writes: "The royal family liked him: he was polite, effective and, above all, discreet." [31]

In the final days of World War II in Europe, King George VI asked Blunt to accompany Morshead on a trip in August 1945 to Friedrichshof Castle near Frankfurt, Germany, to retrieve letters (almost 4,000 of them) written by Queen Victoria to her daughter, Empress Victoria, the mother of Kaiser Wilhelm. The account of the trip in the Royal Archives states that the letters, as well as other documents, "were exposed to risks owing to unsettled conditions after the war." [32] According to Morshead, he needed Blunt, because Blunt knew German and would make it easier to identify the desired material. There was a signed agreement made at the time, since the royal family did not own the documents. [32] The letters rescued by Morshead and Blunt were deposited in the Royal Archives [33] and were returned in 1951. [32]

Miranda Carter mentions that other versions of the story, which claim that the trip was to retrieve letters from the Duke of Windsor to Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse, the owner of Friedrichshof, in which the Duke knowingly revealed Allied secrets to Hitler, have some credibility, given the Duke's known Nazi sympathies. [34] Variants of this version have been published by several authors. [10] [35] [36] Carter allows that, while George VI may have also asked Blunt and Morshead to be on the alert for any documents relating to the Duke of Windsor, "it seems unlikely that they found any." [37] Much later Queen Victoria's letters were edited and published in five volumes by Roger Fulford, and it was revealed they contained numerous "embarrassing and 'improper' comments about the awfulness of German politics and culture." [37] Hugh Trevor-Roper remembered discussing the trip with Blunt at MI5 in the autumn of 1945 and recalled (in Carter's retelling): "Blunt's task had been to secure the Vicky correspondence before the Americans found it and published it." [38]

Blunt made three more trips to other locations over the following eighteen months, mainly "to recover royal treasures to which the Crown did not have an automatic right." [39] On one trip he returned with a twelfth-century illuminated manuscript and the diamond crown of Queen Charlotte, wife of George III. [40] The king had good reason to worry. The senior American officers at Friedrichshof Castle, Kathleen Nash and Jack Durant, were later arrested for looting and put on trial. [41]

Some people knew of Blunt's role as a Soviet spy long before his public exposure. According to MI5 papers released in 2002, Moura Budberg reported in 1950 that Blunt was a member of the Communist Party, but this was ignored. According to Blunt himself, he never joined because Burgess persuaded him that he would be more valuable to the anti-fascist crusade by working with Burgess. He was certainly on friendly terms with Sir Dick White, the head of MI5 and later MI6, in the 1960s, and they used to spend Christmas together with Victor Rothschild in Rothschild's Cambridge house. [42]

His KGB handlers had also become suspicious at the sheer amount of material he was passing over and suspected him of being a triple agent. Later, he was described by a KGB officer as an "ideological shit". [42]

With the defection of Burgess and Maclean to Moscow in May 1951, Blunt came under suspicion. He and Burgess had been friends since Cambridge. Maclean was in imminent danger due to decryptions from Venona as the messages were decrypted. Burgess returned on the Queen Mary to Southampton after being suspended from the British Embassy in Washington for his conduct. He was to warn Maclean, who now worked in the Foreign Office but was under surveillance and isolated from secret material. Blunt collected Burgess at Southampton Docks and took him to stay at his flat in London, although he later denied that he had warned the defecting pair. Blunt was interrogated by MI5 in 1952, but gave away little, if anything. [8] Arthur Martin and Jim Skardon had interviewed Blunt eleven times since 1951, but Blunt had admitted nothing.

Blunt was greatly distressed by Burgess's flight and, on 28 May 1951, confided in his friend Goronwy Rees, a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, who had briefly supplied the NKVD with political information in 1938–39. Rees suggested that Burgess had gone to the Soviet Union because of his violent anti-Americanism and belief that America would involve Britain in a Third World War, and that he was a Soviet agent. Blunt suggested that this was not sufficient reason to denounce Burgess to MI5. He pointed out that "Burgess was one of our oldest friends and to denounce him would not be the act of a friend." Blunt quoted E. M. Forster's belief that country was less important than friendship. He argued that "Burgess had told me he was a spy in 1936 and I had not told anyone." [43]

In 1963, MI5 learned of Blunt's espionage from an American, Michael Straight, whom he had recruited. Blunt confessed to MI5 on 23 April 1964, and Queen Elizabeth II was informed shortly thereafter. [10] He [ clarification needed ] also named Jenifer Hart, Phoebe Pool, John Cairncross, Peter Ashby, Brian Symon and Leonard Henry (Leo) Long as spies. Long had also been a member of the Communist Party and an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge. During the war he served in MI14 military intelligence in the War Office, with responsibility for assessing German offensive plans. He passed analyses but not original material relating to the Eastern Front to Blunt. [44]

According his obituary in The New York Times [45]

Blunt acknowledged that he had recruited spies for the Soviet Union from among young radical students at Cambridge, passed information to the Russians while he served as a high-ranking British intelligence officer during World War II, and had helped two of his former Cambridge students who had become Soviet moles inside the British Foreign Service, Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean, escape to the Soviet Union in 1951 just as their activities were about to be exposed.

He was convinced that the confession would be kept secret. "I believed, naively, that the security service would see it, partly in its own interest, that the story would never become public," he wrote. [46] Indeed, in return for a full confession, the British government agreed to keep his spying career an official secret, though only for fifteen years, and granted him full immunity from prosecution. [47] Blunt was not stripped of his knighthood until the PM officially announced his treachery in 1979. [48]

According to the memoir of MI5 officer Peter Wright, Wright had regular interviews with Blunt from 1964 onwards for six years. Prior to that, he had a briefing with Michael Adeane, the Queen's private secretary, who told Wright: "From time to time you may find Blunt referring to an assignment he undertook on behalf of the Palace – a visit to Germany at the end of the war. Please do not pursue this matter. Strictly speaking, it is not relevant to considerations of national security." [49]

For unknown reasons, Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home was not advised of Anthony Blunt's spying, although the Queen and Home Secretary Henry Brooke had been fully informed. In November 1979, then PM Margaret Thatcher formally advised Parliament of Blunt's treachery and the immunity deal that had been arranged. [50]

Blunt's life was little affected by the knowledge of his treachery. In 1966, two years after his secret confession, Noel Annan, provost of King's College, Cambridge, held a dinner party for Labour Home Secretary Roy Jenkins, Ann Fleming, widow of James Bond author Ian Fleming, and Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild and his wife Tess. The Rothschilds brought their friend and lodger – Blunt. All had had wartime connections with British Intelligence Jenkins at Bletchley Park. [51]

In 1979, Blunt's role was represented in Andrew Boyle's book Climate of Treason, in which Blunt was given the pseudonym 'Maurice', after the homosexual protagonist of E. M. Forster's novel of that name. In September 1979, Blunt had tried to obtain a typescript before the publication of Boyle's book. "Technically there was no defamation, and Boyle's editor, Harold Harris, refused to cooperate." [52] Blunt's request was reported in the magazine Private Eye and drew attention to him. [53] In early November excerpts were published in The Observer, and on 8 November Private Eye revealed that 'Maurice' was Blunt. In interviews to publicise his book, Boyle refused to confirm that Blunt was 'Maurice' and asserted that was the government's responsibility. [54] [55]

Based on an interview with Blunt's solicitor, Michael Rubinstein, who had met with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's Cabinet Secretary, Sir Robert Armstrong, Blunt's biographer Miranda Carter states that Thatcher, "personally affronted by Blunt's immunity, took the bait. . she found the whole episode thoroughly reprehensible, and reeking of Establishment collusion." [56] On Thursday 15 November 1979, Thatcher revealed Blunt's wartime role in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom [57] and in more detail on 21 November. [58]

In a statement to the news media on 20 November, Blunt claimed the decision to grant him immunity from prosecution was taken by the then prime minister, Sir Alec Douglas-Home. [59]

For weeks after Thatcher's announcement, Blunt was hunted by the press. Once found, he was besieged by photographers. Blunt had recently given a lecture at the invitation of Francis Haskell, Oxford University's professor of art history. Haskell had a Russian mother and wife and had graduated from King's College, Cambridge. To the press this made him an obvious suspect. They repeatedly telephoned Haskell's home in the early hours of the morning, using the names of his friends and claiming to have an urgent message for "Anthony". [60]

Although Blunt was outwardly calm, the sudden exposure shocked him. His former pupil, art critic Brian Sewell, said at the time, "He was so businesslike about it he considered the implications for his knighthood and academic honours and what should be resigned and what retained. What he didn't want was a great debate at his clubs, the Athenaeum and the Travellers. He was incredibly calm about it all." [42] Sewell was involved in protecting Blunt from the extensive media attention after his exposure, and his friend was spirited away to a flat within a house in Chiswick. [61]

In 1979, Blunt said that the reason for his betrayal of Britain could be explained by the EM Forster adage "if asked to choose between betraying his friend and betraying his country, he hoped he would have the guts to betray his country". In 2002 the novelist Julian Barnes asserted that "Blunt exploited, deceived, and lied to far more friends than he was loyal to . if you betray your country, you by definition betray all your friends in that country. " [62]

Queen Elizabeth II stripped Blunt of his knighthood, [59] and in short order he was removed as an Honorary Fellow of Trinity College. [63] Blunt resigned as a Fellow of the British Academy after a failed effort to expel him three fellows resigned in protest against the failure to remove him. [64] He broke down in tears in his BBC Television confession at the age of 72. [59]

Blunt died of a heart attack at his London home, 9 The Grove, Highgate, in 1983, aged 75. Jon Nordheimer, the author of Blunt's obituary in The New York Times, wrote: "Details of the nature of the espionage carried out by Mr. Blunt for the Russians have never been revealed, although it is believed that they did not directly cause loss of life or compromise military operations." [65]

Blunt withdrew from society after he was officially exposed and seldom went out, but continued his work on art history. His friend Tess Rothschild suggested that he occupy his time writing his memoirs. Brian Sewell, his former pupil, said they remained unfinished because he had to consult the Newspaper Library in Colindale, North London, to check facts but was unhappy at being recognised.

"I do know he was really worried about upsetting his family," said Sewell. "I think he was being absolutely straight with me when he said that if he could not verify the facts there was no point in going on." Blunt stopped writing in 1983, leaving his memoirs to his partner, John Gaskin, who kept them for a year and then gave them to Blunt's executor, John Golding, a fellow art historian. Golding passed them on to the British Library, insisting that they not be released for 25 years. They were finally made available to readers on 23 July 2009 and can be accessed through the British Library catalogue. [66]

In the typed manuscript, Blunt conceded that spying for the Soviet Union was the biggest mistake of his life. [67]

What I did not realise is that I was so naïve politically that I was not justified in committing myself to any political action of this kind. The atmosphere in Cambridge was so intense, the enthusiasm for any anti-fascist activity was so great, that I made the biggest mistake of my life. [11]

The memoir revealed little that was not already known about Blunt. When asked whether there would be any new or unexpected names, John Golding replied: "I'm not sure. It's 25 years since I read it, and my memory is not that good." Although ordered by the KGB to defect with Maclean and Burgess to protect Philby, in 1951 Blunt realised "quite clearly that I would take any risk in [Britain], rather than go to Russia." [67] After he was publicly exposed, he claims to have considered suicide but instead turned to "whisky and concentrated work". [67]

The regret in the manuscript seemed to be because of the way that spying had affected his life and there was no apology. The historian Christopher Andrew felt that the regret was shallow, and that he found an "unwillingness to acknowledge the evil he had served in spying for Stalin". [68] [69]

Royal Collections Edit

Throughout the time of his activities in espionage, Blunt's public career was as an art historian, a field in which he gained eminence. In 1940, most of his fellowship dissertation was published under the title of Artistic Theory in Italy, 1450–1600, which remains in print. In 1945, he was given the distinguished position of Surveyor of the King's Pictures, and later the Queen's Pictures (after the death of King George VI in 1952), in charge of the Royal Collection, one of the largest and richest collections of art in the world. He held the position for 27 years, was knighted as a KCVO in 1956 for his work in the role, and his contribution was vital in the expansion of the Queen's Gallery at Buckingham Palace, which opened in 1962, and organizing the cataloguing of the collection.

University of London and Courtauld Institute Edit

In 1947, Blunt became both Professor of the History of Art at the University of London, and the director of the Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London, where he had been lecturing since the spring of 1933, [70] and where his tenure in office as director lasted until 1974. This position included the use of a live-in apartment on the premises, then at Home House in Portman Square. [71] During his 27 years at the Courtauld Institute, Blunt was respected as a dedicated teacher, a kind superior to his staff. His legacy at the Courtauld was to have left it with a larger staff, increased funding, and more space, and his role was central in the acquisition of outstanding collections for the Courtauld's Galleries. He is often credited for making the Courtauld what it is today, as well as for pioneering art history in Britain, and for training the next generation of British art historians. [55] While at the Courtauld, Blunt contributed photographs to the Conway Library of art and architecture, which are currently being digitised. [72] [73]

Research and publications Edit

In 1953, Blunt published his book Art and Architecture in France, 1500–1700 in the Penguin History of Art (later taken over by Yale UP), and he was in particular an expert on the works of Nicolas Poussin, writing numerous books and articles about the painter, and serving as curator for a landmark exhibition of Poussin at the Louvre in 1960, which was an enormous success. [8] He also wrote on topics as diverse as William Blake, Pablo Picasso, the Galleries of England, Scotland, and Wales. He also catalogued the French drawings (1945), G. B. Castiglione and Stefano della Bella drawings (1954) Roman drawings (with H. L. Cooke, 1960) and Venetian (with Edward Croft-Murray, 1957) drawings in the Royal Collection, as well as a supplement of Addenda and Corrigenda to the Italian catalogues (in E. Schilling's German Drawings). [55]

Blunt attended a summer school in Sicily in 1965, leading to a deep interest in Sicilian Baroque architecture, and in 1968 he wrote the only authoritative and in-depth book on Sicilian Baroque. From 1962 he was engaged in a dispute with Sir Denis Mahon regarding the authenticity of a Poussin work which rumbled on for several years. Mahon was shown to be correct. Blunt was also unaware that a painting in his own possession was also by Poussin. [8]

After Margaret Thatcher had exposed Blunt's espionage, he continued his art history work by writing and publishing a Guide to Baroque Rome (1982). He intended to write a monograph about the architecture of Pietro da Cortona but he died before realising the project. His manuscripts were sent to the intended co-author of this work, German art historian Jörg Martin Merz by the executors of his will. Merz published a book, Pietro da Cortona and Roman Baroque Architecture in 2008 incorporating a draft by the late Anthony Blunt. [55]

Many of his publications are still seen today by scholars as integral to the study of art history. His writing is lucid, and places art and architecture in their context in history. In Art and Architecture in France, for example, he begins each section with a brief depiction of the social, political and/or religious contexts in which works of art and art movements are emerging. In Blunt's Artistic Theory in Italy, 1450–1600, he explains the motivational circumstances involved in the transitions between the High Renaissance and Mannerism. [55]

Notable students Edit

Notable students who have been influenced by Blunt include Aaron Scharf, photography historian and author of 'Art and Photography' (whom Blunt assisted, along with Scharf's wife, in escaping McCarthy condemnation for their support of communism), Brian Sewell (an art critic for the Evening Standard), [74] Ron Bloore, Sir Oliver Millar (his successor at the Royal Collection and an expert on Van Dyck), Nicholas Serota, Neil Macgregor, the former editor of the Burlington magazine, former director of the National Gallery and former director of the British Museum who paid tribute to Blunt as "a great and generous teacher", [75] John White (art historian), Sir Alan Bowness (who ran the Tate Gallery), John Golding (who wrote the first major book on Cubism), Reyner Banham (an influential architectural historian), John Shearman (the "world expert" on Mannerism and the former Chair of the Art History Department at Harvard University), Melvin Day (former Director of National Art Gallery of New Zealand and Government Art Historian for New Zealand ), Christopher Newall (an expert on the Pre-Raphaelites), Michael Jaffé (an expert on Rubens), Michael Mahoney (former Curator of European Paintings at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., and former Chair of the Art History Department at Trinity College, Hartford), Lee Johnson (an expert on Eugène Delacroix), Phoebe Pool (art historian), and Anita Brookner (an art historian and novelist).

Honorary positions Edit

Among his many accomplishments, Blunt also received a series of honorary fellowships, became the National Trust's picture adviser, curated exhibitions at the Royal Academy, edited and wrote numerous books and articles, and sat on many influential committee in the arts.

A festschrift, Studies in Renaissance and Baroque Art presented to Anthony Blunt on his 60th Birthday, Phaidon 1967 (introduction by Ellis Waterhouse), contains a full list of his writings up to 1966.

  • Blunt, Artistic Theory in Italy, 1450–1600, 1940 and many later editions
  • Anthony Blunt, François Mansart and the Origins of French Classical Architecture, 1941.
  • Blunt, Art and Architecture in France, 1500–1700, 1953 and many subsequent editions.
  • Blunt, Philibert de l'Orme, A. Zwemmer, 1958.
  • Blunt, Nicolas Poussin. A Critical Catalogue, Phaidon 1966
  • Blunt, Nicolas Poussin, Phaidon 1967 (new edition Pallas Athene publishing, London, 1995).
  • Blunt, Sicilian Baroque, 1968 (ed. it. Milano 1968 Milano 1986).
  • Blunt, Picasso's Guernica, Oxford University Press, 1969.
  • Blunt, Neapolitan Baroque and Rococo Architecture, London 1975 (ed. it. Milano 2006).
  • Blunt, Baroque and Rococo Architecture and Decoration, 1978.
  • Blunt, Borromini, 1979 (ed. it. Roma-Bari 1983).
  • Blunt, L'occhio e la storia. Scritti di critica d'arte (1936–38), a cura di Antonello Negri, Udine 1999.

Important articles after 1966:

  • Anthony Blunt, 'French Painting, Sculpture and Architecture since 1500,' in France: A Companion to French Studies, ed. D.G. Charlton (New York, Toronto and London: Pitman, 1972), 439–492.
  • Anthony Blunt, 'Rubens and architecture,' Burlington Magazine, 1977, 894, pp. 609–621.
  • Anthony Blunt, 'Roman Baroque Architecture: the Other Side of the Medal,' Art history, no. 1, 1980, pp. 61–80 (includes bibliographical references).

A Question of Attribution is a play written by Alan Bennett about Blunt, covering the weeks before his public exposure as a spy, and his relationship with Queen Elizabeth II. After a successful run in London's West End, it was made into a television play directed by John Schlesinger and starring James Fox, Prunella Scales and Geoffrey Palmer. It was aired on the BBC in 1991. This play was seen as a companion to Bennett's 1983 television play about Guy Burgess, An Englishman Abroad.

Blunt: The Fourth Man is a 1985 television film starring Ian Richardson, Anthony Hopkins, Michael Williams, and Rosie Kerslake, covering the events of 1951 when Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean went missing. [76]

The Untouchable, a 1997 novel by John Banville, is a roman à clef based largely on the life and character of Anthony Blunt the novel's protagonist, Victor Maskell, is a loosely disguised Blunt. [77]

"I.M. Anthony Blunt" is a poem by Gavin Ewart, cleverly attempting a humane corrective to the hysteria over Blunt's fall from grace. Published in Gavin Ewart, Selected Poems 1933–1993, Hutchenson, 1996 (reprinted Faber and Faber, 2011).

A Friendship of Convenience: Being a Discourse on Poussin's "Landscape With a Man Killed by a Snake", is a 1997 novel by Rufus Gunn set in 1956 in which Blunt, then Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, encounters Joseph Losey, the famous film director fleeing McCarthyism. [78]

Blunt was portrayed by Samuel West in Cambridge Spies, a 2003 four-part BBC television drama concerning the lives of the Cambridge Four from 1934 to the defection of Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean to the Soviet Union. West reprised the role in The Crown (2019), in "Olding", the premiere episode of the third season. [79] [80] [81] At the end of episode, a series of on-screen titles simply say, “Anthony Blunt was offered complete immunity from prosecution. He continued as Surveyor of the Queen’s Pictures until his retirement in 1972. The Queen never spoke of him again.” No mention is made of the Queen stripping him of his knighthood or his removal as an Honorary Fellow of Trinity College.

Liberation Square, Gareth Rubin's alternative history of the UK, published in 2019, makes Blunt First Party Secretary of a 1950s Britain divided by US and Russian forces. [82] [83]

Titanic and Liverpool: New 2012 Exhibition to Mark Centenary of Sinking

The only known surviving Titanic First Class ticket and other rarely-seen items linked to the disaster will be displayed in Liverpool in 2012 to mark the 100th anniversary of the sinking.

The ticket belonged to Reverend Stuart Holden, vicar of St Paul ’s Church, Portman Square , London . His wife became ill the day before the Titanic sailed, forcing him to cancel his voyage. Reverend Holden had the ticket mounted and kept it above his desk until his death in 1934.

A compelling new exhibition explores little-known links between Titanic and Liverpool , the city that inspired the biggest ship in the world doomed to be most notorious shipwreck in history.

The exhibition opens at Merseyside Maritime Museum in March 2012 in time for the 100th anniversary of the sinking on 15 April 1912 when more than 1,500 people lost their lives.

It explores Liverpool ’s central role in the Titanic story. Told from perspectives of key personalities in the drama, it gives a unique insight into events surrounding the launch, voyage, the sinking and its aftermath. This is an incredible story told from a new angle.

The year-long show draws on Merseyside Maritime Museum ’s previously unseen unique collections of international significance including material from the museum’s extensive archives.

It complements Merseyside Maritime Museum ’s existing display, the hugely-popular Titanic, Lusitania and the Forgotten Empress featuring the original 20 ft long Titanic builder’s model.

Dr Alan Scarth, exhibition curator and author of Titanic and Liverpool ( Liverpool University Press), says: “Titanic was built as a result of Liverpool ’s leading position as a major world port. The city and its people are at the heart of the story.

“Not only was the Titanic’s sinking a major world event, the tragedy was a bitter blow to the port and the people of Liverpool . The new exhibition lifts the lid on this largely-overlooked turmoil in the wake of the sinking which resounds to this day.”

Visitors in the new gallery will experience dark atmospheric spaces forming the backdrop to a series of dramatically-lit areas, each telling a part of the powerful story.

Among the many featured personalities are:

• J Bruce Ismay, chairman of the White Star Line, who controversially survived the disaster in one of the last lifeboats to leave the stricken liner.

• Captain Edward Smith, the veteran master approaching retirement when he went down with his ship.

• Survivor Lily Bonnell, a First Class passenger who was visiting the USA with American relatives.

• Joseph Fynney, a rubber merchant who died on his voyage in Second Class to see his widowed mother in Canada .

• Sea man Thomas Storey was travelling Third Class with five other American Line employees. He and four of the others died.

• Fred Clarke, a member of the ship’s specially-hired band who all died after they heroically played on as the ship sank.

• First Class stewardess Elizabeth Leather slept through the impact but escaped in a lifeboat.

• Fred Fleet, abandoned as a child in Liverpool , was the lookout who spotted the iceberg. He survived after taking charge of a lifeboat

As well as the First Class ticket, exhibits include the Ismay Testimonial Silver– a stunning parcel-gilt dinner service presented to White Star founder Thomas Ismay, father of J Bruce Ismay. This is the first time the majority of the table service has been on public display.

There are letters from passengers, many photos including J Bruce Ismay and crew survivors returning to Liverpool , an original copy of the British inquiry proceedings, postcards from passengers and crew plus items salvaged from the wreck.

A Titanic launch pamphlet recalls the pride and confidence in the new liner while telegrams from the rescue ship Carpathia reflect emotions after the disaster.

Merseyside Maritime Museum already has a permanent Titanic exhibition. Titanic, Lusitania and the Forgotten Empress opened in 2007. As well as the Titanic model, there are personal things belonging to those on board, a lifejacket, lifeboat items and many other exhibits including probably the only clothing worn on the night of the disaster in a public display.

For more interesting topics related to archaeology , visit archaeology excavations .

Iceman Mummy Finds His Closest Relatives

SAN FRANCISCO — Ötzi the Iceman, an astonishingly well-preserved Neolithic mummy found in the Italian Alps in 1991, was a native of Central Europe, not a first-generation émigré from Sardinia, new research shows. And genetically, he looked a lot like other Stone Age farmers throughout Europe.

The new findings, reported Thursday (Nov. 8) here at the American Society of Human Genetics conference, support the theory that farmers, and not just the technology of farming, spread during prehistoric times from the Middle East all the way to Finland.

"The idea is that the spread of farming and agriculture, right now we have good evidence that it was also associated with a movement of people and not only technology," said study co-author Martin Sikora, a geneticist at Stanford University.

In what may be the world's oldest cold case, Ötzi was pierced by an arrow and bled to death on a glacier in the Alps between Austria and Italy more than 5,000 years ago. [Album: A New Face for Otzi the Iceman]

Scientists sequenced Ötzi's genome earlier this year, yielding a surprising result: The Iceman was more closely related to present-day Sardinians than he was to present-day Central Europeans.

But the researchers sequenced only part of the genome, and the results didn't resolve an underlying question: Did most of the Neolithic people in Central Europe have genetic profiles more characteristic of Sardinia, or had Ötzi's family recently emigrated from Southern Europe?

"Maybe Ötzi was just a tourist, maybe his parents were Sardinian and he decided to move to the Alps," Sikora said.

That would have required Ötzi's family to travel hundreds of miles, an unlikely prospect, Sikora said.

"Five thousand years ago, it's not really expected that our populations were so mobile," Sikora told LiveScience.

To answer that question, Sikora's team sequenced Ötzi's entire genome and compared it with those from hundreds of modern-day Europeans, as well as the genomes of a Stone Age hunter-gatherer found in Sweden, a farmer from Sweden, a 7,000-year-old hunter-gatherer iceman found in Iberia, and an Iron Age man found in Bulgaria.

The team confirmed that, of modern people, Sardinians are Ötzi's closest relatives. But among the prehistoric quartet, Ötzi most closely resembled the farmers found in Bulgaria and Sweden, while the Swedish and Iberian hunter-gatherers looked more like present-day Northern Europeans.

The findings support the notion that people migrating from the Middle East all the way to Northern Europe brought agriculture with them and mixed with the native hunter-gatherers, enabling the population to explode, Sikora said.

While the traces of these ancient migrations are largely lost in most of Europe, Sardinian islanders remained more isolated and therefore retain larger genetic traces of those first Neolithic farmers, Sikora said.

The findings add to a growing body of evidence showing that farming played a major role in shaping the people of Europe, said Chris Gignoux, a geneticist at the University of California San Francisco, who was not involved in the study.

"I think it's really intriguing," Gignoux said. "The more that people are sequencing these ancient genomes from Europe, that we're really starting to see the impact of farmers moving into Europe."

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‘Bless This Mess’ (Canceled)

“Bless This Mess” has also been canceled at ABC after just two seasons. The comedy starred Dax Shepard and Lake Bell as a couple who relocates from New York to Nebraska when he inherits his great-aunt’s farm. Shepard took to Instagram to address the cancellation, writing in part, “Man oh man. What a wonderful two seasons we had. I’m sad I won’t be seeing this wonderful group of people on a daily basis anymore. I don’t think I’ve ever had more fun watching a cast perform.”

Watch the video: Museum Tour: Ötzi the Iceman (December 2021).