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What are the contributions of Professor Hans List?

What are the contributions of Professor Hans List?

Considering his academic titles, what are the contribution of the automotive engineer, Professor Dr Dr h.c.mult. Hans List? What did he invent? I could not find anything except a brief obituary.

I think his honors are described in the bio you cite. He spent 50 years in academia, and as the title states,

The appellation "Dr Dr h.c.mult." shortens the Latin honoris causa multitudo - roughly "many honorary doctorates" - the first for his original Doctorate of Technical Science at Graz, the second for four other university honours.

If you need details on the specific university honors, I would suggest checking with the University of Graz, where he spent the majority of his academic career. Alternatively state university of Tongji, Woosung, in China

On the other hand, I'm willing to give him respect for being 100 years old and coming in to work the day before he died.

Hans Bethe

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Hans Bethe, in full Hans Albrecht Bethe, (born July 2, 1906, Strassburg, Ger. [now Strasbourg, France]—died March 6, 2005, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.), German-born American theoretical physicist who helped shape quantum physics and increased the understanding of the atomic processes responsible for the properties of matter and of the forces governing the structures of atomic nuclei. He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1967 for his work on the production of energy in stars. Moreover, he was a leader in emphasizing the social responsibility of science.

John James Audubon: Naturalist and artist (1785&ndash1851)

John James Audubon was born in Saint Domingue (now known as Haiti) and grew up in Nantes, France. He was sent to America in 1803 at the age of 18, to avoid conscription into the French army.

Audubon investigated and documented observations of the natural world, showing a special interest in birds. He identified 25 bird species and 12 new subspecies, but he is perhaps best known for his extraordinarily lifelike drawings and paintings of birds in their natural habitats, drawn with careful attention to anatomical detail. His crowning achievement was the book, "Birds of America," which compiled 435 watercolor prints and is considered a landmark of wildlife illustration.

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Hans Krebs

S ir Hans Adolf Krebs was born at Hildesheim, Germany, on August 25th, 1900. He is the son of Georg Krebs, M.D., an ear, nose, and throat surgeon of that city, and his wife Alma, née Davidson.

Krebs was educated at the Gymnasium Andreanum at Hildesheim and between the years 1918 and 1923 he studied medicine at the Universities of Göttingen, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, and Berlin. After one year at the Third Medical Clinic of the University of Berlin he took, in 1925, his M.D. degree at the University of Hamburg and then spent one year studying chemistry at Berlin. In 1926 he was appointed Assistant to Professor Otto Warburg at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology at Berlin-Dahlem, where he remained until 1930.

In I930, he returned to hospital work, first at the Municipal Hospital at Altona under Professor L. Lichtwitz and later at the Medical Clinic of the University of Freiburg-im-Breisgau under Professor S. J. Thannhauser.

In June 1933, the National Socialist Government terminated his appointment and he went, at the invitation of Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, to the School of Biochemistry, Cambridge, where he held a Rockefeller Studentship until 1934, when he was appointed Demonstrator of Biochemistry in the University of Cambridge.

In 1935, he was appointed Lecturer in Pharmacology at the University of Sheffield, and in 1938 Lecturer-in-Charge of the Department of Biochemistry then newly founded there.

In 1945 this appointment was raised to that of Professor, and of Director of a Medical Research Council’s research unit established in his Department. In 1954 he was appointed Whitley Professor of Biochemistry in the University of Oxford and the Medical Research Council’s Unit for Research in Cell Metabolism was transferred to Oxford.

Professor Krebs’ researches have been mainly concerned with various aspects of intermediary metabolism. Among the subjects he has studied are the synthesis of urea in the mammalian liver, the synthesis of uric acid and purine bases in birds, the intermediary stages of the oxidation of foodstuffs, the mechanism of the active transport of electrolytes and the relations between cell respiration and the generation of adenosine polyphosphates.

Among his many publications is the remarkable survey of energy transformations in living matter, published in 1957, in collaboration with H. L. Kornberg, which discusses the complex chemical processes which provide living organisms with high-energy phosphate by way of what is known as the Krebs or citric acid cycle.

Krebs was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1947. In 1954 the Royal Medal of the Royal Society, and in 1958 the Gold Medal of the Netherlands Society for Physics, Medical Science and Surgery were conferred upon him. He was knighted in 1958. He holds honorary degrees of the Universities of Chicago, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Paris, Glasgow, London, Sheffield, Leicester, Berlin (Humboldt University), and Jerusalem.

He married Margaret Cicely Fieldhouse, of Wickersley, Yorkshire, in 1938. They have two sons, Paul and John, and one daughter, Helen.

From Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1942-1962, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1964

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.

Hans Krebs died on November 22, 1981.

Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1953

To cite this section
MLA style: Hans Krebs – Biographical. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Media AB 2021. Wed. 16 Jun 2021. <https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1953/krebs/biographical/>

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Twelve laureates were awarded a Nobel Prize in 2020, for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.

Their work and discoveries range from the formation of black holes and genetic scissors to efforts to combat hunger and develop new auction formats.

What are the contributions of Professor Hans List? - History

Hans Asperger is famous for giving his name to “Asperger syndrome,” or high-functioning autism. Asperger described this syndrome in 1944, one year after Leo Kanner published his iconic article on autism. Asperger, an Austrian physician, presented case studies, just as Kanner had, about “a particularly interesting and highly recognisable type of child.” In 1950, Asperger visited the United States to meet other pioneers in child psychiatry and autism research. He wrote in German, however, so his influence outside of continental Europe was limited to specialized professional circles during his lifetime. He did not live to see the global impact of his ideas or his name.

Asperger’s work was brought to wider attention in the English-speaking world by British autism researcher Lorna Wing in the early 1980s, who wrote about Asperger’s concept of “autistic psychopathy.” His 1944 article was translated into English in 1991 by Uta Frith, a German-born autism researcher who worked in England. Asperger syndrome was included in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) for the first time in 1993 and in the DSM for the first time in 1994.

After that, Aspeger was often portrayed as a champion of neurodiversity far ahead of his time. Recent scholarship, however, has revealed Asperger’s ties to the genocidal medicine of the German Third Reich. Asperger did not belong to the Nazi Party, but he referred disabled children to the Am Spiegelgrund clinic in Vienna’s Am Steinhof psychiatric hospital, where almost 800 children were murdered between 1940 and 1945 as part of the regime’s euthanasia program. This discovery has provoked debate about the degree of Asperger’s complicity and questions about why his involvement remained secret for so long.

Born and educated in Vienna, Asperger spent virtually his entire career there. He held a chair in pediatrics at the University of Vienna and also taught at the University of Innsbruck. Toward the end of World War II, during the Nazi occupation, he ran a clinic for children with autism at the University Pediatric Clinic it doubled as a residential school. In this setting, Asperger collaborated with Sister Viktorine Zak, a talented nurse. Zak may have been among the first to devise customized therapies—incorporating music, movement, and speech—for children with autism. (Interestingly, there is some evidence that a Dutch nun, Ida Frye, known as Sister Gaudia, worked with autistic children almost a decade earlier at the Catholic University in Nijmegen.) Zak was killed and the clinic destroyed when the clinic building was bombed in 1944.

Asperger in his Vienna Clinic (courtesy of Maria Asperger Felder source: npr.org)

Asperger’s interest in the developmental characteristics he documented was autobiographical, and he scattered tidbits about his own experience throughout his writing. As a child, Asperger was solitary, found it challenging to make friends, and was so interested in the poems of Franz Grillparzer that he recited them obsessively, alienating many of the children and adults around him. By the time he was nine, he had read all of Grillparzer’s plays. Asperger referred to himself in the third-person.

In spite of these eccentricities, Asperger achieved educational and professional success as an adult. He married and had four children. But his own childhood surely helped him empathize with the children he wrote about in 1944. His article described four boys in detail but noted that he had seen more than 200 cases of autistic psychopathy over a ten-year period. It was possible “to consider such individuals both as child prodigies and as imbeciles with ample justification,” he commented at the outset. Two of the boys were exceptionally gifted at math and two had unusual verbal facility, but all of them found simple daily routines, easily comprehended by most young children, mysterious. That they were eventually able to master any of them indicated their “delightful” originality, Asperger wrote, since they could not rely on conventional methods of social learning that were second nature to most children. The implications for education were clear. Children who had to learn from their own experiences rather than by imitating others explained why some very smart students performed poorly in school.

Indeed, “extraordinary levels of performance in certain areas” were characteristic even as “the special abilities and disabilities of autistic people are interwoven.” Unlike Leo Kanner, Asperger believed that autism could be present either in highly intelligent children or in children with mental retardation. Social disabilities could be so profound in some individuals with autism that they made independence literally impossible, regardless of intellectual ability. Others, however, could hope for independent lives. It was precisely their autistic characteristics that would help these fortunate individuals achieve educational and occupational success. Autism spared them from ordinary distractions and allowed them to focus their efforts single-mindedly on artistic, scientific, or other pursuits.

Autistic psychopathy was a permanent condition, Asperger believed, and probably a genetic one. Although he lived in the same city that made Sigmund Freud famous, Asperger had little use for psychoanalysis. Instead of delving into dreams or memories, he emphasized children’s inability to maintain direct eye contact or understand others’ facial expressions, their linguistic abnormalities, and their variety of strange fixations. He noticed that they were often hypersensitive to taste, touch, and sound. He also noticed that these children were frequently born to parents who displayed milder versions of the same behaviors. All of these pointed toward hereditary factors.

So too did autism’s gender gap. Many more boys have always been categorized as autistic and several of the syndrome’s telltale symptoms resemble caricatures of conventional masculinity. Decades before neuroscientists began thinking about gendered brains, Asperger wrote that “the autistic personality is an extreme variant of male intelligence.” Logical and abstract thinking came easily to the boys he worked with, where it lived uncomfortably alongside great voids of social competence and emotional intelligence. Asperger appreciated that autism might be a highly exaggerated expression of typical gendered behavior.

Asperger’s own experience, combined with the fact that he encountered autism in children who functioned exceptionally well in specific areas, such as math or literature, provided him with an insight we continue to wrestle with seventy-five years later. If autism shapes behavior in ways that are different in degree rather than kind, isn’t it also likely that autism is not at all rare, that all persons exist on an autism spectrum that spans humanity?

    – professor of molecular and cell biology at UC Berkeley (1985-2004) director of the Cancer Research Laboratory (1985-2004) [1] Nobel laureate (2018, Physiology or Medicine) for the "discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation"[2] – Professor of Economics Nobel laureate (2001, economics) for the "analyses of markets with asymmetric information"[3] – Professor of Physics, Nobel laureate (1968, physics) "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogenbubble chamber and data analysis"[4] – Professor of Physics and Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology, [5] Nobel laureate (2014, chemistry),"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy."[6] – University Professor of Chemistry, discovered Calvin Cycle Nobel laureate (1961, chemistry), "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[7] – Professor of Physics Nobel laureate (1959, physics) for the "discovery of the antiproton"[8]
  • Steven Chu (Ph.D. 1976) – Professor of Physics, Director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, former Secretary of Energy Nobel laureate (1997, physics), "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"[9] – Professor of Economics and of Mathematics Nobel laureate (1983, economics) "for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"[10]
  • William F. Giauque (B.S. 1920, Ph.D. 1922) – Nobel laureate (1949, Chemistry) "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"[11] – Professor of Molecular Biology and of Physics Nobel laureate (1950, physics) "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[12] – Nobel laureate (1994, economics) for "pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"[13] – Nobel laureate (1939, physics) "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"[14]
  • Yuan T. Lee (Ph.D. 1962) – Professor of Chemistry, Principal Investigator, Materials and Molecular Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Nobel laureate (1986, Chemistry) for "contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"[15]
  • Willard Libby (B.S. 1931, Ph.D. 1933) – Professor of Chemistry, Nobel laureate (1960, Chemistry) "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"[16] – Nobel laureate (2000, economics) "for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice"[17] – Professor of Physics, and former Director of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Nobel laureate (1951, chemistry) for "discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"[18] – Professor of Slavic Languages and Literature, Emeritus Nobel laureate (1980, literature) "who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"[19] – Nobel laureate (1946, chemistry) for "preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[20]
  • Saul Perlmutter, Ph.D. 1986 – Professor of Physics at UC Berkeley co-discoverer of Dark Energy as head of the Supernova Cosmology Project recipient of the Shaw Prize in Astronomy in 2006 Nobel laureate (2011, Physics) [21]"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae" – Professor of Virology in Residence (1984–present), [22] Nobel laureate (1997, Physiology or Medicine) "for his discovery of Prions, a new biological principle of infection"[23] (known as the mechanism powering mad cow disease) recipient of the 1996 Wolf Prize in Medicine [24]"for discovering prions, new class of pathogens that cause important neurodegenerative disease by inducing changes in protein structure" – professor (1990-1996) Nobel laureate (2018, Economics) "for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis"[25][26] – Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at UC Berkeley, Nobel laureate (Physiology or Medicine, 2013) for "discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[27]
  • Glenn T. Seaborg (Ph.D. 1937) – University Professor of Chemistry, Associate Director, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Chancellor, Berkeley campus (1958–1961) Nobel laureate (1951, Chemistry) for "discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"[18] – Professor of Physics, Emeritus Nobel laureate (1959, physics) for the "discovery of the antiproton"[8] – Nobel laureate (2006, Physics) for the "discovery of the black body form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"[28] – Nobel laureate (1946, chemistry) for the "preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[20] – University Professor of Physics Nobel laureate (1964, physics) "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"[29] – professor at UC Berkeley's Haas School of Business (1988 to present) Nobel laureate (2009, Economics), for "work in economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"[30]
    – Professor of Computer Science (1995-2001) and recipient of the 1995 Turing Award, for "his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking" [31] – Professor of mathematics (1966–1970), recipient of the 1982 Turing Award "for his advancement of our understanding of the complexity of computation in a significant and profound way" [32] – professor (1960-1965), recipient of the 1994 Turing Award "for pioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology"[33] – Professor of Mathematics and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (1968–present), primary architect behind the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point computation, and recipient of the 1989 Turing Award, for "his fundamental contributions to numerical analysis. Kahan has dedicated himself to "making the world safe for numerical computations" [34] – Professor of Computer Science, Mathematics, and Operations Research (1968–present), and recipient of the 1985 Turing Award For "his continuing contributions to the theory of algorithms including the development of efficient algorithms for network flow and other combinatorial optimization problems, the identification of polynomial-time computability with the intuitive notion of algorithmic efficiency, and, most notably, contributions to the theory of NP-completeness. Karp introduced the now standard methodology for proving problems to be NP-complete which has led to the identification of many theoretical and practical problems as being computationally difficult. " [35] – professor of computer science (1976-2016) and Pardee Professor of Computer Scientist, Emeritus, at UC Berkeley distinguished engineer at Goggle [36] pioneer of RISC computer design and RAID storage systems 2017 Turing Award "for pioneering a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry." [37]
  • Dana Scott, B.S. 1954 – computer scientist, co-recipient of the 1976 Turing Award with Michael O. Rabin, for "the joint paper (with Rabin) "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem", which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field" former Associate Professor of Math at UC Berkeley (1960-1962) professor emeritus at Carnegie Mellon University[38] – director 1939–1942, [39][40] co-recipient of the 1975 Turing Award [41] for "basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing", [42] and Nobel laureate (1978, Economics) [41]"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations" – professor at UC Berkeley for 29 years, recipient of the 2014 Turing Award "for fundamental contributions to the concepts and practices underlying modern database systems"[43] – Visiting Scholar in Computer Science (2005-2008), recipient of the 1988 Turing Award "for his pioneering and visionary contributions to computer graphics, starting with Sketchpad, and continuing after"[44][45] – computer scientist, professor at UC Berkeley [46] (1973–1975), recipient of the 1986 Turing Award "for fundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures" [47] – professor of Computer Science at UC Berkeley (1981-1982) [48][49] 2014 Visiting Scientist at the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing at UC Berkeley [50] currently Distinguished Professor at Large at the Chinese University of Hong KongTuring Award (2000) "in recognition of his fundamental contributions to the theory of computation, including the complexity-based theory of pseudorandom number generation, cryptography, and communication complexity"[48]
    , B.A. 1964 – recipient of four Academy Awards for sound mixing and adjunct professor at UC Berkeley [51] – staff researcher (c. 1973-1975) at UC Berkeley's Institute of Urban and Regional Development, which developed computer-controlled cameras and associated technologies that were later adapted for the groundbreaking special effects in Star Wars and later films [52][53][54] ) Academy Award for Best Visual Effects for Star Wars (1977) 1978 Academy Award for Technical Achievement "for the development of the Dykstraflex Camera" for Star Wars (1977) Academy Award for Best Visual Effects for Spider-Man 2 (2004) , B.A. 1968 – nominated twice for the Academy Award (for the documentaries The Day After Trinity and Arthur and Lillie), cinematographer on the Academy Award-winning Who Are the DeBolts? And Where Did They Get Nineteen Kids? Prix Italia recipient (The Day After Trinity), recipient of four Emmy Awards, [55] 1999 winner of the Sundance Film Festival Filmmaker's Trophy, MacArthur Genius Grant Fellow, professor of journalism at UC Berkeley
  • James O'Brien – professor of computer science recipient of Scientific and Technical Academy Award for research on finite element methods[56] used in Avatar, Prometheus, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Guardians of the Galaxy[57]
  • Jerry Jeffress – staff researcher (c. 1973-1975) at UC Berkeley's Institute of Urban and Regional Development 1978 Academy Award for Technical Achievement "for the development of the Dykstraflex Camera" for Star Wars(1977) [54][52]
  • Alvah J. Miller – staff researcher (c. 1973-1975) at UC Berkeley's Institute of Urban and Regional Development 1978 Academy Award for Technical Achievement "for the development of the Dykstraflex Camera" for Star Wars(1977) [54][52]
    – Fields medalist (1998), Professor of Mathematics – mathematician, winner of the Fields Medal in 1986 – Fields medalist (1990), Professor of Mathematics – Fields medalist (1990), Professor of Mathematics – Fields medalist (2006), Assistant Professor of Mathematics – Fields medalist (1966), Professor Emeritus of Mathematics
    – Acting Professor of Reporting at the Graduate School of Journalism (2018-present). 2003 Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting[58] – Dean (1985-1988) of the Graduate School of Journalism. 1953 Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting – Reva and David Logan Distinguished Chair in Investigative Journalism at the Graduate School of Journalism. 2004 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service, 2009 Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting, 2013 Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting, 2019 Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting. [59] – Emeritus Reva and David Logan Distinguished Chair in Investigative Journalism at the Graduate School of Journalism. 2004 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service. [60] – Professor of English. 2008 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for Time and Materials[61]
  • Leon Litwack (BA [62] 1951, PhD 1958) – Professor emeritus of history, Pulitzer Prize for History for his book Been In the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery[63] – Professor. 1986 Pulitzer Prize for History. [64]
  • T. Christian Miller (BA 1992) – lecturer at the Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism. 2016 Pulitzer Prize in Exploratory Journalism [65][66][67] – Professor emeritus of sociology whose work won the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service
  • Thomas Peele – lecturer at the Graduate School of Journalism. 2017 Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting[68]
  • Paul Alivisatos (Ph.D. 1986) – Professor of Chemistry and Materials Science and Professor of Nanotechnology recipient of the 2012 Wolf Prize in Chemistry, [69] for the development of "the colloidal inorganic nanocrystal as a building block of nanoscience making fundamental contributions to controlling the synthesis of these particles, to measuring and understanding their physical properties, and to utilizing their unique properties for applications ranging from light generation and harvesting to biological imaging"[70] – professor at UC Berkeley (1985-2004) 2017 Wolf Prize in Medicine"for sparking a revolution in cancer therapy through (his) discovery of immune checkpoint blockade"[71] – professor of chemistry (1977–present) at UC Berkeley [72] 2017 Wolf Prize in Chemistry"for the discovery of the activation of C-H bonds of hydrocarbons by soluble transition metal complexes"[73] – recipient of the Wolf Prize (1993, Agriculture) "for his pioneering studies on the mode of action of insecticides, design of safer pesticides and contributions to the understanding of nerve and muscle function in insects" [74] – recipient of the Wolf Prize (1983, Mathematics), "'for outstanding contributions to global differential geometry, which have profoundly influenced all mathematics" [75] – professor (1969-1996) of quantum physics at UC Berkeley, [76] known for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and the first observations of quantum entanglement, recipient of the 2010 Wolf Prize in Physics [77] for "fundamental conceptual and experimental contributions to the foundations of quantum physics, specifically an increasingly sophisticated series of tests of Bell's inequalities or extensions there of using entangled quantum states" (professor 1962-1967) – mathematician, recipient of the Wolf Prize (2008, Mathematics), "for his work on variations of Hodge structure the theory of periods of abelian integrals and for his contributions to complex differential geometry" [78] former professor at UC Berkeley [79] – recipient of the Wolf Prize (1983/1984, Physics) "for his discovery of nuclear spin echoes and for the phenomenon of self-induced transparency" [80]
  • John F. Hartwig, PhD 1990 – 2019 Wolf Prize in Chemistry "for the development of efficient transition-metal catalysts that have revolutionized drug manufacturing, leading to breakthroughs in molecule and synthetics design" [81][82] Henry Rapoport Professor of Chemistry at UC Berkeley (2011-present)
  • Carl Huffaker – recipient of the Wolf Prize (1994/1995) for " contributions to the development and implementation of environmentally beneficial integrated pest management systems for the protection of agricultural crops" [74]
  • George C. Pimentel, Ph.D. 1949 – professor at UC Berkeley (1949–1989) inventor of the chemical laser [83] Wolf Prize (Chemistry, 1982) "for development of matrix isolationspectroscopy and for the discovery of photodissociation lasers and chemical lasers"[84] – recipient of the Wolf Prize (Chemistry, 1991), "for his revolutionary contributions to NMR spectroscopy, especially multiple-quantum and high-spin NMR"" [85] – Professor of Virology in Residence (1984-present), [22] Nobel laureate (1997, Physiology or Medicine) "for his discovery of Prions, a new biological principle of infection"[23] (known as the mechanism powering mad cow disease) recipient of the 1996 Wolf Prize in Medicine [24]"for discovering prions, new class of pathogens that cause important neurodegenerative disease by inducing changes in protein structure" – professor of chemistry (1985-1999) at UC Berkeley [86] 1994 Wolf Prize in Chemistry "for converting antibodies into enzymes, thus permitting the catalysis of chemical reactions considered impossible to achieve by classical chemical procedures"[87] – recipient of the Wolf Prize (2007, Mathematics)"for his groundbreaking contributions that have played a fundamental role in shaping differential topology, dynamical systems, mathematical economics, and other subjects in mathematics" [75] – recipient of the Wolf Prize (Chemistry, 1998) for "outstanding contributions to the field of the surface science in general, and for. elucidation of fundamental mechanisms of heterogeneous catalytic reactions at single crystal surfaces in particular" [85] – recipient of the Wolf Prize (Medicine, 2004) "for his seminal contribution to the design and biological application of novel fluorescent and photolabile molecules to analyze and perturb cell signal transduction" (also listed in Nobel laureates) [88] – The James and Neeltje Tretter Professor of Chemistry (2012-present) and Senior Faculty Scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory recipient of the Wolf Prize (Chemistry, 2018) for "“pioneering reticular chemistry via metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs).”"[89]
  • David Zilberman, PhD 1979 – 2019 Wolf Prize in Agriculture[90]"for developing economic models that address fundamental issues in agriculture, economics and policymaking" [82] Professor (holder of the Robinson Chair) in the Agricultural and Resource Economics Department at UC Berkeley (1979-present) [91]
    – professor of mathematics at UC Berkeley mathematician of the topology of three-dimensional manifolds 2016 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics "for spectacular contributions to low dimensional topology and geometric group theory, including work on the solutions of the tameness, virtual Haken, and virtual fibering conjectures" [92] – professor at UC Berkeley (1985-2004) [93] 2014 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences "for the discovery of T cell checkpoint blockade as effective cancer therapy" [94] , PhD 1997 – theoretical physicist, faculty member of the Institute for Advance Study (Princeton, New Jersey), director of the Center For Future High Energy Physics in Beijing, China professor (1999-2001) at UC Berkeley [95]Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics"for original approaches to outstanding problems in particle physics, including the proposal of large extra dimensions, new theories for the Higgs boson, novel realizations of supersymmetry, theories for dark matter, and the exploration of new mathematical structures in gauge theory scattering amplitudes"[96] – mathematician Visiting Scholar (2012-2014) at UC Berkeley [97] 2017 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics"for multiple transformative contributions to analysis, combinatorics, partial differential equations, high-dimensional geometry and number theory"[98] – professor at UC Berkeley co-inventor of the DNA-editing tool CRISPR2015 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences "for harnessing an ancient mechanism of bacterial immunity into a powerful and general technology for editing genomes, with wide-ranging implications across biology and medicine" [99] – Miller Professor of Physics at UC Berkeley (2001-present) 2016 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics"for the fundamental discovery and exploration of neutrino oscillations, revealing a new frontier beyond, and possibly far beyond, the Standard Model of particle physics"[100]
    – 1963 National Medal of Science"for his inspiring leadership in experimental high energy physics, continuing development of the bubble chamber, discovery of many states of elementary particles, and his contributions to National defense"[101] (also listed in §Nobel laureates)
  • Paul Alivisatos, Ph.D. 1986 – Samsung Distinguished Professor in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research [102] and Professor of Chemistry and Materials Science & Engineering National Medal of Science "for his foundational contributions to the field of nanoscience for the development of nanocrystals as a building block of nanotechnologies and for his leadership in the nanoscience community."[103] – Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at UC Berkeley [104] and Director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Center 1998 National Medal of Science "for changing the direction of basic and applied research on mutation, cancer and aging by devising a simple, inexpensive test for environmental and natural mutagens, by identifying causes and effects of oxidative DNA damage, and by translating these findings into intelligible public policy recommendations on diet and cancer risk for the American people"[105] – Professor of Biochemistry (1936-1975) [106] 1968 National Medal of Science "for his profound study of the chemical activities of microorganisms, including the unraveling of fatty acid metabolism and the discovery of the active coenzyme form of vitamin B12"[107] – University Professor of Physics [108] 2001 National Medal of Science "for his creation and application of a quantum theory for explaining and predicting properties of real materials, which formed the basis for semiconductor physics and nanoscience"[109] – University Professor of Chemistry (1937-1980) [110] 1989 National Medal of Science "for his pioneering studies in the mechanism of photosynthesis and bioenergetics, and for the application of scientific theory toward the solution of the most fundamental problems of the age-energy, food, chemical and viral carcinogenesis, and the origin of life"[111] (also listed in §Nobel laureates) – Professor of Mathematics at UC Berkeley(1960-1979) founder and inaugural director (1981-1984) of the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute at UC Berkeley namesake of Chern Hall, the Chern Medal, and the Chern Prize( [112] 1975 National Medal of Science "for developing and extending techniques that led to profound discoveries in geometry and topology"[113] (also listed in §Wolf Prize) – Professor of Structural Engineering at UC Berkeley (1949-1987) [114] 1994 National Medal of Science "for his outstanding contributions in the fields of finite element analysis, structural dynamics, and earthquake engineering which had extraordinary influence in the development of modern engineering"[115] – 1990 Miller Professorship at UC Berkeley [116] 1995 National Medal of Science "for his profound and lasting contributions to planetary sciences and astrophysics, providing fundamental theoretical insights for understanding the rotation of planets, the dynamics of planetary rings, pulsars, astrophysical masers, the spiral arms of galaxies, and the oscillations of the Sun"[117] – professor (now emerita) UC Berkeley since 1984 [118] 1997 National Medal of Science "for her discovery of primordial plutonium in nature and the symmetric spontaneous fission of heavy nuclei for pioneering studies of elements 104, 105, and 106, and for her outstanding service to education of students in nuclear chemistry and as director of the Seaborg Institute for Transactinium Science of the University of California"[119] – member of the Chemical Faculty at UC Berkeley (1959-1963) [120] 1991 National Medal of Science "for his seminal contributions to the fundamental understanding of reactions of atoms and molecules, collision by collision"[121] – Visiting Professor(1976–1977) at UC Berkeley 1990 National Medal of Science "for his pioneering work on the theory of modern decentralized allocation mechanisms"[122] (also listed in List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley) – professor of chemistry (1957-1991) at UC Berkeley and dean of the College of Chemistry at UC Berkeley (1966-1970) [123] 1997 National Medal of Science "for his major contributions to the chemical sciences in the areas of kinetics and photochemistry, and for his pivotal role in providing understanding and conservation of the Earth's atmospheric environment"[124] – professor (1968-1994 and 1999–present) of EECS at UC Berkeley [125] 1996 National Medal of Science "for his pioneering research in theoretical computer science and the development of NP-Completeness, a concept having an important role in the theory and the practice of computation"[126] - professor (1978–present) [127] 2012 National Medal of Science "for her discoveries of fundamental chemical and physical principles underlying enzyme catalysis and her leadership in the community of scientists.""[128] , BA 1941 – professor of biochemistry (1965-2007) [129] at UC Berkeley 1990 National Medal of Science "for profoundly influencing the understanding of how proteins function through his induced-fit model of enzyme actrion. His incisive analysis of bacterial chemotaxis has led to a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of memory and adaptation."[130]
  • Yuan T. Lee, Ph.D. 1965 – professor of chemistry at UC Berkeley 1986 National Medal of Science "for his world leadership in the development of molecular beam techniques and their application to the study of chemical dynamics. His work has had an enormous impact on many areas of physical chemistry, especially building up a quantitative bridge between the laws of mechanics and complex macroscopic phenomena"[131] (also listed in §Nobel laureates) – professor (1972-1986) at UC Berkeley [132] 1991 National Medal of Science "for his contribution to the hydromechanics of rivers for influencing the direction and content of physical geography, and for outstanding service to the field of water resources"[133] – Professor of Physics (1945-1974) [134] 1990 National Medal of Science "for his scientific achievements including the identification of the first transuranic element (neptunium) and the invention of the phase stability principle incorporated in the synchrotron"[135] (also listed in §Nobel laureates) – Professor of Mathematics (1938-1981) [136] 1968 National Medal of Science "for laying the foundations of modern statistics and devising tests and procedure that have become essential parts of the knowledge of every statistician"[137][138] – professor (1946-1951) of physics at UC Berkeley [139] 1969 National Medal of Science "for classic experiments probing the elementary particles of matter and for contributions to advancing the means of experimentation in this challenging field"[140] , PhD 1937 – lecturer and professor (1935-1964 and 1971-1984) and dean (1951-1960) of the College of Chemistry at UC Berkeley [141] 1974 National Medal of Science "for his pioneering application of statistical thermodynamics and spectroscopy to our understanding of the properties of organic and inorganic materials"[142]
  • George C. Pimentel, Ph.D. 1949 – inventor of the chemical laser Director, Laboratory of Chemical Biodynamics at UC Berkeley 1983 National Medal of Science "for his varied and ingenious use of infrared spectroscopy to study chemical bonding and molecular dynamics, and for his discovery of the first chemically pumped laser, which has had strong scientific impact as well as practical applications"[143] (also listed in §Wolf Prize) – professor of chemical engineering at UC Berkeley 2003 National Medal of Science "for his development of engineering-oriented molecular thermodynamics, which provides a scientific method for the design, construction, and operation of chemical manufacturing plants toward economic efficiency, safety, minimum energy consumption, and environmental protection"[144] – professor of virology (1984–present) at UC Berkeley [145] 2009 National Medal of Science "for his discovery of prions, the causative agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and other related neurodegenerative diseases, and his continuing efforts to develop effective methods for detecting and treating prion diseases"[146] (also listed in §Nobel laureates)
  • Gabor A. Somorjai, Ph.D. 1960 – professor of chemistry at UC Berkeley (1964–present) [147] 2001 National Medal of Science "for molecular studies of surfaces through the use of single crystals and the development of new techniques that served as foundations of new surface technologies including heterogeneous catalysis"[148] (also listed in §Wolf Prize) – researcher (1939-1941) [149] 1964 National Medal of Science for his "profound work on the fundamental problems of quantum field theory, and for many contributions to and lucid expositions of nuclear physics and electrodynamics"[150] (also listed in List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley) , PhD – professor (1945-1979) [151] 1991 National Medal of Science "for his outstanding work as a chemist, scientist and teacher in the field of nuclear chemistry"[152] (also listed in §Nobel laureates) – Professor of Civil Engineering (1950-1989) [153] 1989 National Medal of Science "for his pioneering contributions to the art and science of civil engineering, to the practice of civil engineering at the frontiers of knowledge, to the general understanding of civil engineering methods at all levels, and to the safety and welfare of people throughout the world"[154] – 1986 National Medal of Science "for his fundamental contributions to our understanding of human problem-solving behavior and decision making, particularly in organizations"[155] – Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 1996 National Medal of Science "for his pioneering contributions to mathematics in the fields of differential topology and dynamical systems, and for applications to physics, biology, economics, and the theory of computation"[156] (also listed in §Wolf Prize) – professor (1935-1951) [157] 1979 National Medal of Science "for his outstanding contributions to the synthesis of an evolutionary theory, particularly as it applies to plants"[158] – Professor (1986-1994) of psychology at UC Berkeley [159] 2011 National Medal of Science "for a 50-year career of penetrating originality and depth that has led to the understanding of fundamental attentional limits in the human mind and brain"[160] – researcher of physics (1959-1966) at UC Berkeley [161] 1997 National Medal of Science "for his contribution to the identification of cellular oncogenes and their role in cancer, which led to a better understanding of the molecular basis for cancer and its diagnosis and therapy"[162] (also listed in List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley) , BS EE 1937 PhD 1948 – lecturer and professor(1946-2007) and dean (1959-1963) of the EECS Department at UC Berkeley [163] 1992 National Medal of Science "for his research contributions to microwaves, lasers, and quantum electronics for his excellence as a teacher and author and for his extensive services to government and professional organizations"[164]
    , MS, PhD [165] – professor emeritus of EECS at UC Berkeley [166] 2014 National Medal of Technology and Innovation"for pioneering innovations in microelectronics including reliability technologies, the first industry-standard model for circuit design, and the first 3-dimensional transistors, which radically advanced semiconductor technology"[167] – professor of physics (1954-2017) 2011 National Medal of Technology and Innovation"for extraordinary leadership in the development of energy-efficient building technologies and related standards and policies"[168]

The MacArthur Fellowship is also known as the "Genius Grant" [169] or "Genius Award". [170]

10 Asian American contributions that need more recognition

On Oct. 5, 1978, President Jimmy Carter signed a law that designated the first seven days of May as "Asian Pacific American Heritage Week," to acknowledge America's first Japanese immigrants and the Chinese immigrants who helped build the railroads.

The proclamation came a year after U.S. Representatives Frank Horton of New York and Norman Y. Mineta of California, along with Senators Daniel K. Inouye and Spark Matsunaga of Hawaii, introduced separate joint resolutions that failed to pass.

In 1992, under President George H.W. Bush's administration, the U.S. Congress finally passed a law that extended the weeklong celebration to a month-long one. In truth, the move was overdue.

Low on supplies? We’re regularly updating our list of retailers that are still selling household essentials, including toilet paper and hand sanitizer.

As the Japanese American Citizens League notes, the arrival of the first Asians in central North America, in fact, predates the founding of the U.S. In the late 18th century, the first Asian settlers were Filipino migrants — who arrived at what is now New Orleans and Acapulco, Mexico to escape Spanish colonial rule. The Chinese later followed in huge waves during the mid-19th century, in search of gold and other fortunes in California.

Since then, Asian Americans have endured both xenophobia and racism — from the mass lynching of Chinese people in 1871 to the excessive portrayal of South Asians as terrorists — without being duly appreciated for the contributions they have made. With the exception of a few lines dedicated to the 20,000 Chinese workers who constructed the transcontinental railroads, Asian Americans have largely been erased from the history books used in elementary and secondary education, as Pacific Standard's Ellen Lee points out.

In an effort to raise awareness, we've compiled a list of 10 underappreciated contributions that Asians and Asian Americans have made in the U.S. over the last 200 years.

1. Birthright citizenship

In 1898, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that children born in America to foreigners were U.S. citizens. The decision came after a yearlong battle between Wong Kim Ark — who was born in San Francisco to Chinese immigrants — and the U.S. Justice Department.

At the time, the Chinese Exclusion Act, which had been passed in 1885 and denied citizenship to all Chinese laborers, was still in place. That meant Wong’s parents, who were considered subjects of the Emperor of China, could not be naturalized.

The U.S. Supreme Court
Credit: Getty Images

In its argument before the high court, the Justice Department claimed that Wong himself was also not under the lawful jurisdiction of California because he was “by reason of his race, language, color and dress, a Chinese person, and now is, and for some time last past has been, a laborer by occupation.” By that very description, Wong was supposedly not allowed to return to the U.S. from China following a short trip, even though he had been born on American soil.

In response, Wong filed a writ of habeas corpus, and the Supreme Court ultimately sided him. In a 6-2 majority ruling, Justice Horace Gray, writing on behalf of the court, pointed out that the Citizenship Clause in the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution automatically made Wong a citizen. Today, activists have cited the landmark decision in their criticism of Trump’s effort to deny citizenship to children of undocumented immigrants.

2. Postwar, New Formalism and modern architecture

Some of the nation’s most iconic buildings — from the John F. Kennedy Memorial Library to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame and Museum — were designed by Chinese American I.M. Pei, who was widely considered to be one of the greatest modern architects alongside Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson and Frank Gehry.

Pei, who famously designed the Pyramid at the Louvre in Paris but initially faced backlash for being selected over French firms, left behind a legacy that “combined high design and corporate success with international impact,” according to architecture critic Carter Wiseman. Some of the architect’s other notable buildings include the East Building of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the Mesa Laboratory in Colorado and the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art in New York.

John F. Kennedy Library by I.M. Pei
Credit: Getty Images

Pei, however, wasn’t the only Asian American architect to leave his mark. Lesser-known Chinese American architects like Eugene Choy, Gilbert Leong, Gin Wong and Helen Liu Fong were instrumental in shaping the cityscape of Los Angeles in the postwar era. In New York, Japanese American Minoru Yamasaki, one of the masters of an architectural style called New Formalism, was best known for designing the original World Trade Center.

3. Advancements in cancer detection

Since immigrating to the U.S. from Vietnam in 1975, Dr. Tuan Vo-Dinh, a biomedical engineering professor at the Duke University Pratt School of Engineering, has built himself an impressive résumé. In addition to authoring more than 200 publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals and receiving more than 20 awards, honors and distinctions, Dr. Vo-Dinh also holds more than 20 U.S. patents, according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

One of those patents is the development of new gene probes that can detect cancer earlier than usual. Dr. Vo-Dinh’s other patents include a new method of treating metastatic bladder and breast cancer and another that targets cell proliferation disorders.

4. Web portals, email and video-sharing

Chances are you wouldn’t be able to search for the hottest item or check your email if it weren’t for several Asian American pioneers. In 1994, Taiwanese American Jerry Yang co-founded the web portal Yahoo! with David Filo, after ditching a doctoral program at Stanford University.

Originally called “Jerry and David’s Guide to the World Wide Web,” the portal was renamed Yahoo!, an acronym for “Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle.” Incorporated in 1995 and later sold to Verizon Communications in 2016, the web portal has expanded its services to include a search engine, e-mail and news. Yahoo Mail, alone, now has more 200 million users.

Yahoo co-founder Jerry Yang
Credit: Getty Images

Yang wasn’t the only Asian American to have a successful breakthrough in the tech industry. In 1996, Indian American businessman Sabeer Bhatia co-founded Windows Live Hotmail, a webmail service. Several years later, Microsoft acquired it for nearly $400 million and turned it to what is now Microsoft Outlook.

In 2005, Taiwanese American Steven Chen, along with Bangladeshi-German American Jawed Karim and Pennsylvania native Chad Hurley, founded the widely popular video-sharing platform YouTube. Today, the Google-owned service has 2 billion users worldwide.

5. Rights for sexual assault survivors

In 2013, Amanda Nguyen, the daughter of Vietnamese refugees, was raped while studying at Harvard University. While trying to access information on her rights as a sexual assault survivor, the then-college student ran into tremendous roadblocks. At the time, Nguyen still had to pay a significant amount of money every six months to make sure her rape kit wasn’t destroyed, even though rape kits in Massachusetts were supposed to be kept for 15 years, according to Money magazine.

Amanda Nguyen
Credit: Getty Images

That challenge led Nguyen to found Rise, a nonprofit organization that supports fellow sexual assault survivors, and write the Sexual Assault Survivors’ Rights Act. The bill, which passed in 2016, gives survivors access to a forensic medical examination at no cost and allows them to preserve their rape kits without having to regularly request an extension. For her work, Nguyen was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize in 2018.

6. Mixed martial arts

The popularity of mixed martial arts in the U.S. has grown largely due to MMA promotion companies Bellator and UFC. But many widely credit the birth of the contact combat sport to none other than Bruce Lee, a Hong Kong American actor, mixed martial artist and philosopher who, in 1965, developed Jeet Kune Do — a form of martial arts that combined kung fu, fencing, boxing and his own techniques.

“Use only that which works, and take it from any place you can find it,” Lee once said.

Although Lee never participated in professional fights, he trained several celebrities, including Steve McQueen, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Chuck Norris. He was also well-known for his physical prowess, from performing two-finger push-ups to executing his legendary one-inch punch. As an actor, he was best known for his roles in “Enter the Dragon,” “Fist of Fury,” “Return of the Dragon,” “Game of Death” and “The Green Hornet.”

7. Fashion

Some of the most celebrated designers who helped shape New York’s fashion industry in the 1980s and 1990s are Asian American: Anna Sui, Vivienne Tam, Vera Wang and Kimora Lee Simmons. Wang, for example, established herself at the forefront of bridal wear with her modern but elegant designs, while Simmons made a statement in streetwear with her apparel brand Baby Phat.

Bibhu Mohapatra
Credit: Getty Images

Today, the number of prominent Asian American fashion designers has grown to include the likes of Prabal Gurung, Phillip Lim, Jason Wu, Derek Lam, Bibhu Mohapatra, Dao-Yi Chow, Alexander Wang, Carol Lim and Humberto Leon. As the New York Times interestingly notes, their presence in (and dominance of) the industry is most likely due to the fact that “fashion values the concept of presentation.” In other words, many Asian Americans may see design as “a way to connect to the cultural values of craftsmanship and use of luxury materials so historically prevalent in East and South Asian countries.”

8. Fair labor practices for farmers

On September 6, 1965, Filipino American grape workers organized a nonviolent strike (alongside Cesar Chavez and his Latino farmworkers union, the National Farm Workers Association) against table and wine grape growers in Delano, Calif. It represented the first time a boycott was used in a major labor dispute. It also resulted in the merger of Cesar’s union and the Filipino workers’ Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee, which together became known as the United Farm Workers.

Over the course of five years, members of the union relayed their message to fellow poor farmworkers and middle-class families that lived in the cities. In 1970, the table grape growers finally caved in to the union’s demands, promising the workers better pay, benefits and protections. To date, the United Farm Workers has more than 10,000 members, making it the country’s largest farmworker union.

9. Evolution of “American” cuisine

Over the last several decades, Asian food has essentially become the lifeblood of “American” cuisine. As the New York Times Style Magazine points out, the country’s infatuation with Asian food dates back to the late 19th century, when Cantonese restaurants were a hit in New York. At the time, the food was cheap and quickly prepared, making it especially attractive to non-Chinese customers.

Over the years, Chinese chefs capitalized on the popularity of their food by tailoring it for the Western palette. Today, two of the largest restaurant chains in the U.S. serve “American-Chinese” food: P.F. Chang’s China Bistro and Panda Express.

Other versions of contemporary Asian American cuisine have seen their fair share of success. In 2004, Korean American chef David Chang, for instance, opened New York City ramen shop Momofuku Noodle Bar, which one New York Times critic glowingly called “a plywood-walled diamond in the rough.” Four years later, fellow Korean American Roy Choi founded Kogi, a Korean barbecue taco truck company in California that has since turned into a food empire.

10. The ice cream cone

Although the invention of the ice cream cone is credited to Italian immigrant Italo Marchiony, Syrian concessionaire Ernest A. Hamwi was perhaps the first to popularize it. While working at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair, Hamwi noticed an ice cream vendor who ran out of dishes to serve the dessert. The Syrian, who was selling a waffle-like confection called zalabia, decided to help the vendor out by rolling his waffles to use as cones.

Ice cream cones
Credit: Getty Images

The waffle cone immediately became a huge hit in Missouri, where multiple entrepreneurs started their own ice cream cone businesses. In 1910, Hamwi himself founded the Missouri Cone Company, which was later renamed the Western Cone Company.

Florence Augusta Merriam Bailey (Aug. 8, 1863-Sept. 22, 1948)

A nature writer and ornithologist, Florence Bailey popularized natural history and wrote a number of books about birds and ornithology, including several popular bird guides.

Katherine Johnson (born August 26, 1918) made major contributions to the United States space program in the field of digital electronic computers. The book and movie Hidden Figures feature the significance of her work.