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Timeline: 1821 to 1830
1821 The stability for Europe sought at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 is coming undone. Following Serb rebellions against Ottoman rule in previous years, the Greeks in March rise simultaneously against Ottoman rule, including in Macedonia, Crete and Cyprus. The Turks respond by hanging the Patriarch of Constantinople, Gregorios V. The Greeks liberate the Peloponnesian Peninsula in September. There, in the city of Tripolitsa, a center of Turkish authority, Muslims in the thousands are massacred for three days and nights.
1821 Napoleon Bonaparte dies at the age of fifty-one under British authority on the island of St. Helena, the reported cause: stomach cancer. The English poet, John Keats, dies of tuberculosis at the age of twenty-six.
1821 A treaty is signed between the United States and the declining power of Spain. The US buys Florida for 5 million dollars, money the US government gives to US citizens with claims against Spain. Spain receives an established line separating the US from its territory in North America.
1821 Caracas falls to Bolivar's force. Venezuela is now free of Spanish rule. Peru and Mexico declare independence. In Guatemala independence is declared for its provinces: Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, San Salvador and Chiapas.
1821 Michael Faraday, son of a blacksmith, has overcome the conceit of aristocrats and, as a scientist, has been promoted in Britain's Royal Institution. His interest in a unified force in nature and work in electro-magnetism produces the foundation for electric motors and contributes to what will be "field theory" in modern physics, which includes its most basic formula: E=MC2.
1822 A member of Portugal's royal family is in power in Brazil. He has lifted duties paid on the importation of books, abolished censorship and ordered the teaching of law at the universities of Sáo Paula and Olinda. His rule is being challenged from Portugal, and from his royal palace he declares "Independence or death!" At the age of 24 he his proclaimed Emperor of Brazil: Pedro I.
1822 Officials of the American Colonization society have purchased a strip of land they call Christopolis, at Cape Mesurado on the Atlantic Coast in western Africa. Eighty-six freed blacks have arrived.
1822 In Vienna the accordion is invented.
1822 In Britain, fewer crimes are capital offenses.
1822 The Ottoman Turks respond to rebellion on the island of Chios by slaughtering five-sixths of the islands 120,000 inhabitants.
1823 Austria, Russia and Prussia authorize French troops to enter Spain to destroy the liberal revolution there and re-establish the rule of Ferdinand VII. Ferdinand begins revenge killings that will revolt those who returned him to power.
1823 Steam powered shipping begins between Switzerland and France on Lake Geneva.
1823 Mexico, interested in populating Texas, allows Stephen F. Austin to sell plots of land to settlers so long as they are of good character.
1824 The Frenchman, Eugène Delacroix, paints The Massacre of Chios. Britain's romantic poet, Lord Byron, who has written "We are all Greeks," has gone to Greece and dies of "marsh fever."
1824 Britain and the US negotiate a treaty establishing procedures for suppressing the slave trade, but the US Senate undercuts the treaty's powers and the British refuse to sign.
1824 In Britain, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is founded, the first animal protection organization in the world.
1825 Louis XVIII has died and is succeeded by his reactionary brother,
1825 Russian military officers, who had been exposed to the Enlightenment during Russia's occupation of France, attempt to replace authoritarian rule with a representative democracy. Their coup, called the Decembrist Rising, fails and they are crushed.
1826 In Spain the Inquisition had been ended by the Revolution in 1820 that had overthrown King Ferdinand VII, but with Ferdinand's return it is revived. A Jew is burned at the stake, also a Spanish Quaker schoolmaster who replaced "Hail Mary" with "Praise be to God" in school prayer. It has been described as the last of such executions.
1827 Britain, Russia and France break with Austria regarding the Greek war of independence &ndash Austria still feeling threatened by any revolt against empire while the Russians want to protect their fellow Orthodox Christians. Egypt, a part of the Ottoman Empire, is helping the Turks, but a combined British, French and Russian fleet sink an Egyptian and Turkish fleet at Navarino Bay, on the west coast of the Peloponnesian Peninsula. This weakens Ottoman power in Greece and in Arabia.
1827 In Vienna, Austria, over 10,000 mourners attend the burial of Beethoven.
1827 New York passes a state law emancipating slaves.
1829 In London, parliament extends tolerance, passing the Catholic Emancipation Bill, making it possible for Catholics to hold public office.
1829 The Treaty of Adrianople ends war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire grants Greece independence. Russian authority in Georgia is recognized. The Russians are allowed access through the narrow straits from the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea. Autonomy is extended to Serbia and to the Romanians of Moldavia and Walachia, under Russian protection.
1829 Scotch tape is invented.
1829 Mexico abolishes slavery in its territories, hoping to discourage migration into Texas from the United States.
1830 With China's great population growth, unemployment has risen and there has been a shortage of land, creating peasant unrest. China is still the leader in manufacturing output (real rather than per capita), but its share is slipping from 32.8 percent in 1750 to 29.8 percent. India's share since 1750 has fallen from 24.5 percent to 17.6 percent. Britain, with a fraction of the population of either China or India, has increased its share in this period from 1.9 to 4.3 percent. The US share is 2.4 percent.
1830 France has reneged in paying its bill for wheat bought from Algeria. A new era of European imperialism begins with Charles X sending an invasion force of 36,000 troops to Algeria, claiming that he was responding to the insult to his ambassador. The invasion is described as a civilizing mission and a mission to abolish slavery and piracy &ndash a response to Algeria's reputation in France for having attacked the ships of Christian nations during past centuries and for an estimated 25,000 European slaves in Algeria, including women in the harems.
1830 Businessmen and common people loathe Charles X, who has returned to absolutism, including dissolving parliament. The barricades go up in the streets of Paris. Charles X is frightened and rather than fight goes into exile, back to Britain. Parliament returns, creates a constitutional monarchy and elects a new king, Louis-Philippe.
1830 Violence erupts across Germany. Rent, tax and military records are burned. People want bread or are annoyed by higher prices for food, military conscription and in places by feudal dues. In Brunswick, Grand Duke Karl flees and a liberal constitution is created. The king of Saxony grants his subjects a liberal constitution. In Hesse-Kassel a constitution and a unicameral legislature are created.
1830 In Britain, the first edition of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology is published and will revolutionize the age-of-earth concepts.
1830 The first railway station opens in the United States &ndash in Baltimore Maryland.
1830 President Andrew Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act, which rips the Cherokee and other eastern tribes from their homes and banishes them to areas west of the Mississippi River.
1830 Joseph Smith Jr. of New York organizes the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
1830 In England the lawn mower is invented.
1830 A Frenchman patents a sewing machine.
1830 Simón Bolivar dies disappointed and regretting that Spain did not allow people in its American colonies to develop self-government within a framework of institutions as had Britain with its colonists.
1831-1840 - History
A Remarkable Deliverance. - Capt. W. Jones, of Cleveland, in 1878 related the following wonderful deliverance in 1833 of a passenger from a wrecked schooner New Connecticut, and the facts were then remembered and vouched by a number of the older vessel men. Said Captain Jones:
"In the autumn of 1833 Capt. Gilman Appleby, of Conneaut, Ohio, was captain and part owner of the schooner New Connecticut. A steamboat was then being built at Conneaut (the North American), of which Captain Appleby had charge and was for many years her master. An aunt of his then residing at Black Rock, below Buffalo, was visiting a brother at Erie. The lady went to Conneaut in company with a nephew to visit a brother there. After remaining there some time she became exceedingly anxious to get home. Captain Appleby, who was busy with the steamboat, endeavored to dissuade her from taking the home journey until he should be going out with his vessel, when he would take her home. His efforts, however, in that direction were unavailing, and he had her taken on board the schooner to go to Buffalo in charge of the crew. Everything passed off quietly until after the vessel passed Erie, when a sudden squall struck her and roller her over on her side. She nearly filled with water, but continued to float. The crew, lowering the vessel's yawl, jumped in and pulled for the shore, leaving the woman in the cabin, as they supposed, drowned. The party landed at or near Portland, Chautauqua Co., N.Y., and made their was as best they could to Conneaut.
"Three days after the accident Captain Wilkins, of the steamboat William Peacock, in coming down from Detroit, was besought by Captain Appleby to board the wreck if he saw it, and if possible get the body of his aunt out of the cabin and convey it to Buffalo. Captain Wilkins discovered the disabled vessel drifting down the lake, and, after coming alongside, Capt. Wm. Henton (then first mate of the Peacock) boarded the wreck and made search. The schooner lay upon her side, and, to all appearances, was full of water. A pole was employed, and it was supposed every part of the cabin was touched, and as no object in the shape of a human body was reached, the conclusion was, that the body had floated out of the cabin into the lake hence further search was given up. Two days afterward Captain Appleby came down with a vessel with facilities to right the schooner and tow her into the nearest port.
"When the vessel had nearly reached a level position, the woman walked through the water and came up the stairs to the deck. She was caught by Captain Appleby and supported, while her son, who was present, wept and the sailors screamed. Five days and nights had she been in the water, a portion of the time up to her armpits. She could not lie down, and what sleep she obtained was while standing. All the food she had was a solitary cracker and an onion, which floated on the water. She stated that after the vessel capsized, and was abandoned by the crew, she found herself alone in water waist deep. The cabin door was open, but the water was two feet above it, and the sea made constant changes in her position. While Captain Wilkins stopped, she could hear the boarding party talk, and walk on the vessel, and although she used her voice to the utmost to attract attention she could not make them hear. She saw the pole thrust into the cabin door by Captain Henton, and asked if she should hold on it and be pulled out, but no answer came.
"This event occurred 45 years ago," continued Captain Jones, "and I never heard of a parallel case, either on the lake or other waters, and her salvation from drowning may be regarded as little less than a miracle."
New Vessels. -- The new steamer Uncle Sam commenced plying between Detroit and Buffalo, calling at intermediate landings, early in the spring of 1833, commanded by Capt. L. Stiles. She was 280 tons burden, low pressure, with walking-beam engine.
In 1833, the steamer Britannia, of 200 tons, was built at Kingston, Canada, and launched, as were also the Cobourg, of 500 tons, the Kingston, and the Brockville, each being named after the place at which she was built.
Some Events of 1833. -- The first steamer that arrived at Saginaw is said to have been the Governor Marcy, of 161 tons, commanded by Capt. R.G. Mackenzie. She went upon a regular route to that port about 1837. In March, 1833, a revenue cutter of 62 tons was landed at Erie, and the Collector gave it the name of Lewis McLane, but the Secretary changed it to Erie.
Other Events of 1833. -- April: Navigation open at Cleveland April 7. Congress appropriates $31,700 for the improvement of Buffalo harbor. July: Schooner John Q. Adams, Capt. B. Stanard, struck by lightning near Fort Gratiot three lives lost. September: Schooner New Connecticut capsized on Lake Erie and sunk one life lost. October: Steamboat George Washington, Captain Walker, wrecked near Long Point loss about $60,000 no insurance. Steamboat Governor Marcy launched at Black Rock. Schooner Utica, of Detroit, capsized near Erie, and drifted ashore at Elk creek. Schooner Alert, Captain Randall, ashore near Buffalo. Schooner Eagle, Captain Wilkinson, aground at Buffalo. Schooner Louisa Jenkins, Capt. Royal Pember, wrecked at Point Albino. Schooner America, Captain Foster, lost deck- load during a storm on Lake Erie 17, schooners Young Amaranth, Bolivar and Recovery damaged during the storm on Lake Erie. Oswego packet ashore near Point Frederick. Schooner John C. Spencer launched at Buffalo. November: Steamboat General Porter launched at Black Rock. Steamboat Oswego launched at Oswego. December: 2,975 arrivals and departures at Buffalo during the season.
Some of the transcription work was also done by Brendon Baillod, who maintains an excellent guide to Great Lakes Shipwreck Research.
1831-1840 - History
Blackhawk's War, and Cholera. - The year 1832 was notable in lake history for the transportation of troops to Chicago to quell Blackhawk's war, and for the simultaneous and destructive breaking out of cholera. In 1832 the first steamboat visited Chicago. There were few traces of civilization after passing the Straits of Mackinac, not a single village, town or city being in the whole distance. Four steamers, the Henry Clay, Superior, Sheldon Thompson and William Penn, were chartered by the United States Government for the purpose of transporting troops, provisions, etc., to Chicago during the Black Hawk war but owing to the fearful ravages made by the breaking out of the Asiatic cholera among the troops and crews on board, two of these boats, the Henry Clay and the Superior, were compelled to abandon their voyage, proceeding no farther than Fort Gratiot. On the Henry Clay nothing like discipline could be maintained. As soon as the steamer came to the dock each man sprang on shore, hoping to escape from a scene so terrifying and appalling. Some fled to the woods, some to the fields, while others lay down in the streets, and under the covert of the river bank, where most of them died, unwept and alone.
On the Sheldon Thompson, commanded by Capt. A. Walker, with General Scott aboard, 88 deaths occurred from the pestilence. Not one officer of the army nor any officer of the boat was attacked with such violence as to result in death, though nearly one-fourth of the crew fell a prey to the disease while on the passage from Detroit to Buffalo.
The Thompson reached Chicago, July 10, 1832, also the Asiatic cholera. At that time there was a fleet of vessels at anchor in the offing. Some eight days after the arrival of the Sheldon Thompson, the William Penn appeared in Chicago harbor, with troops and supplies.
The first visitation of cholera to this country made its appearance in 1832, first at Quebec, June 11, on which date 34 deaths occurred, principally among emigrants just landed many had died on the passage. Its next appearance was in New York City, Albany and Buffalo the forepart of July, and it gradually worked westward.
The steamboat Henry Clay, on her arrival in Cleveland had five deaths on board, and the steamer Superior two deaths. The schooner Benjamin Rush also arrived with three dead on board, and like instances were not unfrequent on the lakes.
Wreck of the Ogden. - The Martha Ogden, built at Sacket's Harbor, in 1819, was wrecked at Stony Point November 12, 1832. William Vaughan was her Captain. She left Oswego for Sacket's Harbor, but having sprung a leak, her fires were put out, and her sails spread, but the wind, which in the afternoon was southwest, veered to west- northwest, then to the northwest, and finally to the north, and pre- vented her from doubling Stony Point. Both anchors were thrown in eight and a half fathoms of water, and they held her fast from 4 P.M. to 11 P.M., when they were successfully parted, and she soon struck and bilged in ten feet of water. The crew consisted of six hands, and there were 22 passengers on board. With much peril a man succeeded in reaching the shore, eight rods distant, aroused the inhabitants, built fires, and in the morning a line was passed to the shore, and the whole company on board was safely drawn ashore in a three-bushel basket rigged upon a line with a Dutch harness. Captain Vaughan was the last man to leave the vessel, which went to pieces during the day. She was owned by S. and L. Denison, of Sacket's Harbor, and she was wrecked at Nutting's bay, on the coast of Henderson.
Troubles of the Schooner Supply. - The schooner Supply, Captain Campbell, owned by the mission at Mackinac, was wrecked in the month of November, this year, by getting ashore on a bar at or near Gorse island, where she bilged and sunk. Her cargo, consisting of supplies, was saved, except 150 barrels of salt. A short time prior to her loss she was driven ashore on the Canada side of Lake Huron, and was with difficulty rescued. She had on board a quantity of furs, which were saved in a damaged condition. The cause of her troubles, which were several that season, was attributed to the inefficiency of the crew, who had but little or no experience.
Evergreen from Green Bay. - Steamers visiting the upper lakes during this period of navigation, and more especially Green Bay, would, on the return voyage, arrived decked out with evergreen, tied to flag- staff, masthead and bowsprit, as an indication of the far-off regions they had visited.
Old Hulks at Kingston, Etc. - In 1832 there were yet several hulls of vessels at Kingston that had been begun during the war of 1812, but never completed, on account of the closing of the war. One 74-gun ship was sold for L26, and some time later, during the same year, a heavy rainstorm accompanied by thunder and lightning occurred, and split the St. Lawrence down the center the props giving way, she broke into a thousand pieces and fell to the ground in heaps of ruins. This year there were built three new Canadian steamers: the John By, of 100 tons, at Kingston the William IV, of 450 tons, at Gananoque and the Transit, of 350 tons, at Oakville, the latter having at first been named the Constitution.
Some New Vessels. - On Lake Ontario the new steamer Great Britain (Canadian) was commissioned, commanded by Capt. Joseph Whitney and plied between Prescott and Niagara, calling at way landings and occasionally at Oswego. She had two low-pressure, walking-beam engines of 90-horse power each. The steamer Canada, Capt. Hugh Richardson, was also plying in Canadian waters during that period and previously, but was finally wrecked near Oswego by going ashore and breaking up. On the American side, beside others previously noted, the steamer United States commenced plying in July, 1832, commanded by Capt. Elias Trowbridge. She had two beam engines, 40-inch cylinders, 8 foot stroke, with boilers on the guards.
The First Lightship. - Located at the head of Mackinaw Straits, was the Louis McLean, of 60 tons, built at Detroit in 1832. She served as a beacon to warn vessels of the dangers of Waugoschance.
During this year there were a hundred vessels navigating Lake Erie and westward with a total of 2,740 tons.
Other Events of 1832. - Navigation opened April 11 at Erie, by departure of schooner Mary of Milan, Capt. Z. Phillips, Detroit. Schooner Buffalo, 161 tons burden, launched at Huron, Ohio. Navigation opened April 27, at Buffalo, by schooner Gov. Cass, cleared for Sandusky. Schooner Atlanta, 100 tons burden, launched at Fairport owned by Geauga Iron Company and H. Phelps. May: Schooner John Q. Adams, Capt. B. Stanard, capsized off Grand river crew rescued by schooner Comet. Schooner Guerierre capsized at the mouth of the Detroit river five lives lost. July: Steamboat Pennsylvania, launched at Erie owned and built by Col. Charles M. Reed largest boat on the lakes. Schooner Jesse Smith, of Oswego, filled and sunk in the Niagara river, near Black Rock. September: Steamboat General Brady launched at Detroit intended to ply on the Detroit river. Schooner Elisha Whittlesey, Capt. William Hecox, capsized and sunk off Salem, Ohio eight passengers and two of the crew drowned captain and remaining members of the crew rescued by the schooner Huron, Captain Perkins. November: Schooner Andrew, owned by Captain Belden, of Cleveland, stranded near Buffalo. Canadian schooner Lord Nelson ashore at Dunkirk. Schooner Supply ashore at Goose island, near Detroit. 12, steamboat Martha Ogden, Captain Vaughn, wrecked at Stony Point crew and passengers saved boat owned by L. and S. Denison. Steamboat New York launched at Black Rock. Schooner Governor Cass aground near Detroit river. December: Schooner Caroline capsized between the Ducks and Galoe islands crew saved.
Some of the transcription work was also done by Brendon Baillod, who maintains an excellent guide to Great Lakes Shipwreck Research.
Revolutions of 1830
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Revolutions of 1830, rebellions against conservative kings and governments by liberals and revolutionaries in different parts of Europe in 1830–32.
The movement started in France, prompted by Charles X’s publication on July 26 of four ordinances dissolving the Chamber of Deputies, suspending freedom of the press, modifying the electoral laws so that three-fourths of the electorate lost their votes, and calling for new elections to the Chamber in September. Strikes and protests were followed by armed confrontations. The royal forces were unable to contain the insurrection and, after three days of fighting (July 27–29), Charles abdicated the throne and soon afterward fled to England. The radicals wanted to establish a republic, and the aristocracy were loyal to Charles, but the upper-middle class were victorious in their decision to offer the crown to the Duke of Orléans, Louis-Philippe, who had fought for the French Republic in 1792. Louis-Philippe agreed to be “King of the French.” When the “July Revolution” was over, the Chamber of Peers had been transformed from a hereditary body into a nominated house, special tribunals were abolished, the alliance of the monarchy and the Roman Catholic church was ended, and the white flag of the Bourbons was replaced by the tricolour. (See also July Revolution.)
Liberals throughout Europe were encouraged to hope for a general social revolution, but most were disappointed. Louis-Philippe did not want a war and, contrary to expectations, did not support the Poles, who had revolted against the Russian tsar. Their revolt was ruthlessly suppressed, and Poland was incorporated into the Russian Empire. Revolts in Italy and the German kingdoms were equally unsuccessful. Belgium declared its independence from the Netherlands, and it was recognized in 1831 as a separate nation. For several years the Greeks had been fighting for their independence from the Ottoman Empire, and in 1832 the European powers recognized Greece as an independent sovereign state.
This article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Albert, Research Editor.
1831-1840 - History
Terrific Storm of November, 1835. -- The season of 1835, wound up with one of the most terrific gales that ever visited the lake region, and, in proportion to the number of vessels employed, caused a greater destruction of life and property than ever before. It occurred November 11. The wind was west-southwest and, it is said, announced its approach like the sound of an immense train of cars. At Buffalo the creek rose to a height of 20 feet, floating steamers and vessels into some of the main streets, crushing canal boats under bridges, while on the west side of the harbor dwellings were swept away and the occupants drowned.
A vessel called the Free Trader, with 13 passengers on board beside the crew, took her departure from Fort Burwell, Canada, for Cleveland, and was struck by the gale and twice capsized, righting each time. After the storm she was discovered drifting off Dunkirk, and was taken into that port with one sailor still alive and clinging to the tiller. Among the passengers was Mr. Richardson, owner of the cargo.
The schooner Comet, of Buffalo, left Madison dock, below Fairport, with fifteen tons of iron and five tons of ashes. The crew consisted of six sailors, and there was one passenger. She is supposed to have foundered off Dunkirk as two topmasts were afterward seen in that locality, and several articles, recognized as belonging to them, floated ashore.
The steamboat North America was driven on the beach at Erie. She was commanded by Capt. G. Appleby. The steamers Sandusky, Henry Clay and Sheldon Thompson were floated on the bank in Buffalo harbor and seriously damaged. The North America, prior to going ashore, had let go her anchors and attempted to ride out the gale at Erie, but the wind, increasing in its fury, soon parted her cables, while the passengers and crew gave themselves up as lost, but it was suggested to scuttle the boat to prevent her jumping over the pier, and to this action the salvation of the boat may be ascribed. The schooner Two Brothers was landed on top of the Buffalo pier and became a total loss.
Vessels which were outside, as soon as the cyclone set in, tried to reach the nearest port, and when forced to Buffalo, on entering the harbor an immense amount of damage was done, as the creek at that time was crowded with vessels. Boats were run into and sunk, while the whole extent of the loss of life ranged far into the hundreds. Among the schooners ashore at Buffalo were the Tecumseh and the Col. Benton. The flood was the highest known since 1816 and the most destructive. Wharves and piers at various lake ports were demolished, and scarcely a vestige left. At Portland harbor two persons were drowned from the pier on account of the sudden approach of high water. The schooner Godolphin, freighted with salt, was wrecked at Fairport and crew lost.
The schooner Lagrange, a fine vessel, commanded by Captain Chanchois, with a full cargo of merchandise from Buffalo for Detroit, was capsized near Point Pelee and sunk about seven miles from shore. All perished except a man and boy, who were taken off the mast next morning, nearly frozen to death. The vessel was never recovered.
The storm on Lake Ontario was very severe, and the casualties large. On that lake the schooner Robert Bruce, which left Kingston, Canada, for some port up the Bay of Quinte, in ballast, was wrecked and all on board were lost. The wreck, after the storm, drifted ashore on Henderson Point, and the coat of a passenger, Elias Everett, was found hanging to a nail, and his wallet, containing $719, was recovered. The schooner Medora, owned in Oswego, from up the lake, laden with wheat and walnuts, went ashore at the mouth of Big Sandy creek, and all hands were lost.
Among the vessels lost on Lake Michigan during that storm were the schooners Chance, Bridget, Sloan and Delaware. On the Chance seven lives were lost on the Bridget, 16 on the Sloan, six. The Bridget was wrecked near St. Joseph.
Schoolcraft bears testimony to the skill of the old-time captain during this storm. He embarked November 2, 1835, at Mackinac for Detroit, "on board a schooner under command of an experienced navi- gator (Captain Ward) just on the eve, unknown to us, of a great tempest, which rendered that season memorable in the history of wrecks on the Great Lakes. We had scarcely well cleared the lighthouse, when the wind increased to a gale. We soon went on furiously. Sails were reefed and every preparation made to keep on our way, but the wind did not admit of it. The captain made every effort to hug the shore, and finally came to anchor in great peril, under the highlands of Sauble. Here we pitched terribly, and were momently in peril of being cast on shore. In the effort to work the ship, one of the men fell from the bowsprit, passed under the vessel and was lost. It was thought that our poor little craft must go to the bottom, but owing to the skill of the old lake mariner we eventually triumphed. He never faltered in the darkest exigency. For a day and night he struggled against the elements, and finally entered the strait at Fort Gratiot, and he brought us safely into the port of our destination."
Other Events of 1835 -- On July 21, 1835, at a meeting of the directors of the Grand River Navigation Company, it was ordered that the first steamboat of not less than 15-horse power that should ply on the Grand river from Dunnville to the head of navigation when opened, should be allowed to pass toll free through the locks of this canal as long as she should ply thereon. The steamboat Commodore Perry exploded twice at Buffalo and on Lake Erie, killing six persons. Business gradually increased, emigration continued to assume a lively aspect, moving to the Far West, while sail vessels as well as steamers carried a fair share of that class of travelers. Five steamers were added to the lake tonnage. January: Steamboat Daniel Webster damaged by fire to the extent of $8,000, at Buffalo owned by Pratt, Taylor & Co. March: Steamboat General Porter sunk at Black Rock. April: Navigation opened between Detroit and Cleveland. April 1: schooner Agnes Barton launched at Buffalo, 110 tons burden, owned by J. L. Barton: schooner La Porte launched at Buffalo, 150 tons burden, owned by A. Eaton: steamboat Susquehannah launched at Oswego: steamboat Great Britain driven ashore near Toronto during a storm. June: Steamer Wm. Peacock ashore during a severe gale near Dunkirk: steamboat Commodore Perry disabled by explosion of steam pipes near Buffalo. September: Steamboat Commodore Perry disabled by bursting her boiler near Detroit, taken in tow by steamboat Daniel Webster five lives lost: steamboat Michigan stranded at mouth of Detroit river, released sloop Express, Capt. Wm. Cornwall, wrecked at Dunkirk during a severe gale. November: Steamboat Columbus, Captain Walker, ashore near Erie: steamboat Daniel Webster damaged by collision with piers at Grand River.
Some of the transcription work was also done by Brendon Baillod, who maintains an excellent guide to Great Lakes Shipwreck Research.
History of sports medicine - 1831-1840
English physiologist Marshall Hall (1790-1857), who was one of the first neurologists, published in 1831 his 'Experimental Essay on the Circulation of the Blood in the Capillary Vessels', in which he was the first to demonstrate that capillaries are intermediary channels between the arteries and the veins that bring the blood into contact with biological tissues.
His most important work in physiology was concerned with the theory of reflex action, of which he introduced the concept in 1833 in his work 'On the Reflex Function of the Medulla Oblongata and the Medulla Spinalis', which in 1837 was supplemented by 'On the True Spinal Marrow, and the 'Excito-engine System of Nerves'. In this theory he stated that the spinal cord is formed by a series of units that function as an independent reflex arc, and their activity integrates sensory and motor nerves on the segment of the spinal cord from which these nerves originate. He also suggested that these bows are connected and interact in the production of coordinated movements.
German physician Karl Ignaz Lorinser (1795-1853) published in the 'Medizinische Zeitschrift für Heilkunde van Vereins in Preussen' the critical essay 'Zum Schutze der Gesundheit in den Schulen', in which he described the unacceptable situations in schools as a result of the study load in various disciplines and he asked to include physical activities and exercises in educational programs. As a result, Bavaria reduced the number of hours spent on scientific subjects at secondary schools. In Prussia, doctors and pedagogues were called to give expert advice, and in 1842 a decree of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1795-1861) introduced physical education in schools again.
In 1934, German Professor of Physiology Johannes Peter Müller (1801-1858) published precise physiological observations and measurements in his 'Handbuch der Physiologie'.
It was the start of scientific physiology, which was continued by his students Theodor Schwann (1810-1882), Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902), Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) and Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) .
American physician Charles Caldwell (1772-1853) is best known for his rise to the University of 'Louisville School of Medicine'. After graduating from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine as a physician, he settled in Philadelphia and became a lecturer at Penn. With 'Port Folio' he published one of the first medical journals and he published over two hundred medical publications. In 1834 he published his 'Thoughts on Physical Education'.
The prison treadmill had also reached Jamaica. The image clearly shows how the prisoners worked on the treadmill and how they were lashed in case of bad results.
Berlin physicist and chemist Heinrich Magnus (1802-1870) discovered that blood contains large amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide, which he believed supported the earlier theory that a large amount of heat was generated during the combustion of carbon and hydrogen in the lungs. He assumed that oxygen dissolved in the blood and that the production of carbon dioxide and water was caused by oxidation in the blood.
German gymnast teacher Johann Adolf Ludwig Werner (1794-1866) published the book 'Medicinische Gymnastik'. He was also the first to introduce gymnastics for girls.
A hand-operated massage device from 1840 consisting of a black lacquered wooden handle, a U-shaped metal casing engraved with the words 'Idéal Masseur - Bain', which enclosed a series of eight box sheaves.
Anatomist and physiologist Sauveur Henri Victor Bouvier (1799-1877) was one of the pioneers of orthopedics in France. He performed orthopedic treatments for foundlings and opened an orthopedic institute in 1840.
Andrew Jackson had long been an advocate of what he called “Indian removal.” As an Army general, he had spent years leading brutal campaigns against the Creeks in Georgia and Alabama and the Seminoles in Floridampaigns that resulted in the transfer of hundreds of thousands of acres of land from Indian nations to white farmers. As president, he continued this crusade. In 1830, he signed the Indian Removal Act, which gave the federal government the power to exchange Native-held land in the cotton kingdom east of the Mississippi for land to the west, in the “Indian colonization zone” that the United States had acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase. (This “Indian territory” was located in present-day Oklahoma.)
The law required the government to negotiate removal treaties fairly, voluntarily and peacefully: It did not permit the president or anyone else to coerce Native nations into giving up their land. However, President Jackson and his government frequently ignored the letter of the law and forced Native Americans to vacate lands they had lived on for generations. In the winter of 1831, under threat of invasion by the U.S. Army, the Choctaw became the first nation to be expelled from its land altogether. They made the journey to Indian Territory on foot (some 𠇋ound in chains and marched double file,” one historian writes) and without any food, supplies or other help from the government. Thousands of people died along the way. It was, one Choctaw leader told an Alabama newspaper, a “trail of tears and death.”
An American widow&rsquos account of her travels in Ireland in 1844&ndash45 on the eve of the Great Famine:
Sailing from New York, she set out to determine the condition of the Irish poor and discover why so many were emigrating to her home country.
Mrs Nicholson&rsquos recollections of her tour among the peasantry are still revealing and gripping today.
The author returned to Ireland in 1847&ndash49 to help with famine relief and recorded those experiences in the rather harrowing:
Annals of the Famine in Ireland is Asenath Nicholson's sequel to Ireland's Welcome to the Stranger. The undaunted American widow returned to Ireland in the midst of the Great Famine and helped organise relief for the destitute and hungry. Her account is not a history of the famine, but personal eyewitness testimony to the suffering it caused. For that reason, it conveys the reality of the calamity in a much more telling way. The book is also available in Kindle.
The Ocean Plague: or, A Voyage to Quebec in an Irish Emigrant Vessel is based upon the diary of Robert Whyte who, in 1847, crossed the Atlantic from Dublin to Quebec in an Irish emigrant ship. His account of the journey provides invaluable eyewitness testimony to the trauma and tragedy that many emigrants had to face en route to their new lives in Canada and America. The book is also available in Kindle.
The Scotch-Irish in America tells the story of how the hardy breed of men and women, who in America came to be known as the &lsquoScotch-Irish&rsquo, was forged in the north of Ireland during the seventeenth century. It relates the circumstances under which the great exodus to the New World began, the trials and tribulations faced by these tough American pioneers and the enduring influence they came to exert on the politics, education and religion of the country.
1831-1840 - History
"Great" Polish political Emigration (1831 - 1870) Since the end of the 18th century, a major role in the Polish political life was played by people who carried out their activities outside the country, as emigres. Their fate was a consequence of the fact that their state, annexed by and divided between Russia, Prussia, and Austria was no longer in existence. For this reason in Poland, unlike in many other countries, political and ideological activity carried out abroad, by people in exile, enjoyed wide recognition in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Most of those Polish political emigres were based in France. The most important wave of emigration was that after the November Rising (1830 - 1831), supplied with new quota of emigres after the 1848 - 1849 revolutions and after the January Rising (1863-1864). The 1831 emigres played a major role in preparations for the 1846 and 1848 revolutions in Poland and also supported, and frequently fought, in revolutions of 1848 - 1849 in France, German and Italian lands, Austria, Hungary, and the Danube principalities.
After the November Rising had fallen in the part of Poland ruled by Russia, a wave of emigres spilled out, bound for western Europe. The emigration consisted of politically compromised persons such as members of the insurrectionary government, envoys, activists and publicists, generals and junior officers (particularly volunteers), and also some subalterns and privates. The Polish emigration of 1831 was, in the 19th century terms, a massive one, but its importance lies predominantly in the fact that, in intelectual terms, it played a paramount role in the history of post-Partition Poland. The emigration assumed, for at least several years, a number of functions of the non-existent Polish state and became a center of the literary, artistic, and to some extent scientific life as well as the hub of the growing free political and social thought. Having all this in mind, the early 20th century historians dubbed it the "Great Emigration" to emphasize its overall impact.
As of mid-December 1831, those of the military interned by Prussians and Austrians who decided to emigrate headed, mostly in groups, for France, following some pre-determined routes. As they were passing through western German territories, they were enthusiastically greeted by the local people. Larger groups or the so-called columns, crossed the French border between 16 January and 19 March 1832. Once in France and greeted with a friendly welcome, they were directed to some provincial towns where the so-called depots, organized after a military fashion, had been set up. Those politically most active sought to stay in Paris. Besides France, the post-November emigres settled in Great Britain, Belgium, Switzerland, USA, and Algeria, some of them living temporarily in German and Italian lands, Spain, Portugal, and in the Osman territories. Smaller waves of political refugees from Poland were reaching France past spring 1832. In the second half of 1833, the large French cities accepted 4042 ex-insurgents a total of about 6000 emigres arrived in France from 1831 - 1837. Until 1863, at least 20 thousand Poles were in exile. After 1863, that number was augmented by a further 10 thousands,which adds up to at least 30 thousands for the entire period of 1831 - 1871. The social roots of most post-November emigres were in the nobility which subsequently transformed into "intelligentsia". An important part among the non-noble minority was played by people originating from urban proletariat. With time, many of them learned new trades. Within 1832 - 1847 in France, 754 Poles entered universities and more than 250 were attending other schools. Out of 5472 emigres in France in 1839, 3004 were professionally active: more than 45% were office workers and students, while businessmen, merchants, and artisans constituted 30%, menial workers made up 16%, and farm workers contributed 2.5%. The number of menial workers increased after 1848. After 1863, the number of noblemen among the emigres decreased, while the burgeoisie, intelligentsia, along with menial and farm workers grew in number (20 - 25% and 15 - 20%, respectively, for the last two groups).
In spite of financial difficulties and personal sacrifices, the "Great Emigration" led a life rich in organisational forms, publications, and to some extent also in art. Between 1831 and 1870, there were more than 50 political committees and associations and about 70 scientific, educational, cultural, welfare, military and social societies. Apart from numerous bulletins, brochures, and literary and scientific works, about 150 journals were published, mostly political and ideological. Most of them were ephemeral, but some lasted longer, e.g. Demokrata Polski (Polish Democrat) (1837 - 1863) Nowa Polska (New Poland) (1833 - 1837, 1839 - 1845] Orzel Bialy (White Eagle) (1830 - 1848) Trzeci Maj (The Third of May) (1839 - 1848) Przeglad Rzeczy Polskich (Review of Polish Affairs) (1857 - 1863) Glos Wolny (Free Voice) (1863 - 1870). Most of the journals were published in Paris. The ideological and political heritage of the "Great Emigration" encompassed various directions, from ultra-montanism to liberal-conservative to democratic-republican to totalitarian, agrarian and revolutionary early socialism. Political writers among the emigration focused on developing ways to regain independence of Poland (armed fight) and on the shape of the government system of the future liberated Poland. Democratic ideologues formulated, finally in mid-thirties of the 19th century, the principle stating that the national insurrection in Poland has to be coupled with full social and political emancipation of peasants. The concept that both individual and national freedom are undeniable was particularly forcefully expressed in the works of Polish romantic writers in exile. Political history of the Great Emigration can be divided into a number of stages. Stage I, beginning in late autumn 1831, involved - on the one hand - a concentration, for more than 2 years, of most of the refugees in Avignon, Besançon, Bourges, Chateauroux, then in Lunel, Le Puy, and Bergerac. On the other hand, characteristic of the period were abortive attempts to create in Paris an authority that would have a power over the entire mass of emigres. In the order of appearance, these were: the so-called Komitet Tymczasowy Emigracji (Emigration's Temporary Committee) of Bonawentura Niemojowski , Komitet Narodowy Polski (Polish National Committee) of the historian Joachim Lelewel, and Komitet Narodowy Emigracji Polskiej (National Committee of Polish Emigration) of General Jozef Dwernicki. There were also attempts to gather in Paris envoys to the insurrectionary Sejm (parliament). Besides, Towarzystwo Demokratyczne Polskie (Polish Democratic Society) was active in Paris within 1832 - 1862, while the circle of Prince Adam J. Czartoryski formed the secret Zwiazek Jednosci Narodowej (Association for National Unity). Moreover, active was also a revolutionary and secret Polish carbonari movement headed by Namiot Polski Narodowy (Polish National Pavilion) associated with the carbonarisme universelle démocratique of F.Buonarroti.
Stage II of the Great Emigration's history covers the period of late 1834 until the summer of 1837. The French authorities dispersed the emigres from the large depots to numerous smaller localities. Alongside Paris, Poitiers became soon another center of political life. Moreover, emigration centers in London and Brussels grew in importance, as were - albeit temporarily - those in Switzerland, Portsmouth, and on the Isle of Jersey. At that time, following organizational and program-oriented changes, the system of political options became stabilized. That system included carbonari, the quasi-secret Mloda Polska (Young Poland) along with Zwiazek Dzieci Ludu Polskiego (Union of the Polish People's Children). England witnessed formation of Ogol Londynski (London Assembly) (since 1834) and early-socialist Gromady Ludu Polskiego (Assemblies of Polish People) (1835 - 1846). The Polish Democratic Society's membership grew rapidly in 1834, the Society moved its governing body to Poitiers and elected the First Centralization, i.e., the executive committee which worked out, in 1836, the Society's fundamental ideological and program document, the "Great Manifesto". A conviction that liberation of Poland was not readily forthcoming and that the fight for freedom should be based on national resources rather than on a pan-European revolution became firmly implanted in the minds of most emigres.
Stage III in the history of the Great Emigration covers the period of autumn 1837 - spring 1846. The political scene was at that period dominated by the Polish Democratic Society, transformed into a modern, albeit an elite political party called Zjednoczenie Emigracji Polskiej (United Polish Emigration), formed in 1837 and moderately democratic, and the liberal-conservative group of Prince Adam J. Czartoryski, the group known since 1843 as the Hotel Lambert. Within it, in 1837, a secret leading Zwiazek Insurekcyjno-Monarchiczny (Insurrectionary-Monarchic Union) was formed. In 1843, the Hotel Lambert group spawned Stowarzyszenie Monarchiczne Fundatorow i Przyjaciol "Trzeciego Maja" ("Third of May" Monarchic Association of Founders and Friends). Isolated from all other movements were the Polish People's Assemblies in Portsmouth, the Humanin St. Helier on Jersey, and the Praga (since 1841 in London). A group of deeply religious emigrants founded in Rome, in 1842, Zgromadzenie Zmartwychwstania Panskiego (Assembly of Lord's Resurrection). In that year, too, people gathered around Andrzej Towianski and Adam Mickiewicz formed Kolo Slug Sprawy Bozej (Circle of Servants of God's Cause), a sectarian group of mystics. The major political parties of the emigration carried out propaganda activities directed to the fellow countrymen in the divided Poland as well as organized and supported, through special agents, underground liberation movements. In addition, the Hotel Lambert was involved in para-diplomatic activities in some European countries, the group's agents reaching even to the then Turkish Balkans and Middle East.
The abortive attempt to wage an all-nation revolution in Poland in February 1846, inspired by the Democratic Society, opened up Stage IV of the emigration history. The stage lasted until the end of revolutionary fightings in Europe, i.e., until 1849. In 1846, the majority of membership of the United Polish Emigration, the Assemblies, and other smaller parties accepted the principles of the National Government's Cracow manifesto and joined the Democratic Society. When the February revolution broke out in 1848, those refugees staying outside the organized formed Komitet Emigracji Polskiej (Polish Emigration Committee), headed initially by Jozef Dwernicki. Groups of emigres, the so-called columns, set off in spring 1848 to Poland where they were active in the political life and fought in Cracow, in the region of Poznan, and in the East Galicia. Groups of volunteers as well as organized Polish military formations, under the command of officers in exile fought in Italy, Hungary, in German lands, and in Danube principalities. Both the Democratic Society and the Hotel Lambert were canvassing with governments and revolutionary movements. Stage V covers the period between the defeat of the Springtime of Nations and the January Rising. The intensity of political activity of the emigres weakened, except for the period of the Crimean war. New refugees arriving to France in 1848 and 1849 set up Komitet Nowej Emigracji (New Emigration Committee) most of the Polish participants of the Hungarian revolution, however, chose emigration, via the then Turkish Bulgaria, to Great Britain and the United States. The French police forced the Centralization to move to London (1849), which weakened the Democratic Society. In 1853 in Paris, Kolo Polskie (Polish Circle), factional with respect to the Centralization, was formed and headed by Ludwik Mieroslawski and Jozef Wybicki. In 1853 the Democrats, and the Hotel Lambert even more so, began diplomatic actions in Istanbul, London, and Paris. Michal Czajkowski (Sadik-Pasha) and Wladyslaw Zamoyski succeeded in forming volunteer formations of sultan Kossacks in the Balkans, under command of emigre officers. Diplomatic actions carried out by Adam J.Czartoryski during the Paris Congress (1856) brought little to Poland the indirect effect of that action was the limited amnesty declared in Russia by Tsar Alexander the Second, the amnesty being of importance predominantly for the Poles deported to Siberia. Adherents of socialism formed Gromada Rewolucyjna Londyn Ludu Polskiego (Polish People's London Revolutionary Assembly). Its activity, however, was undermined (1859/1860) by a provocation of the Prussian police, carried out from the region of Poznan. The emigration's political scene became enlivened by a wave of young refugees who arrived in western Europe from Poland in the late fifties. In 1861, Towarzystwo Mlodziezy Polskiej (Society of Polish Youth) was formed in Paris. The Society was initially influenced by L. Mieroslawski. Military courses were set up in Paris, the courses developing subsequently into a Polish military school in Genova and Cuneo in Italy. The school educated about 200 officers of the January Rising of 1863. The growing tension in Poland prompted numerous emigres to try to unite, which led to the formation of the Polish Emigration Committee in Paris (July 1862). Numerous younger refugees actually fought in the January Rising, while Prince Wladyslaw Czartoryski, leader of the Hotel Lambert after his father's death, was within May 1864 - February 1864 responsible for diplomatic actions of the Polish secret National Government. The history of Polish emigration after the 1863-1864 rising can be divided into a number of stages as well. During the first several months after the fall of the Rising no new political organization emerged. The Hotel Lambert focused on leading its associated parties as well as on welfare, scientific and educational institutions. On the other hand, L. Mieroslawski, in the tradition of the former Democratic Society, announced in July 1865 the formation of Towarzystwo Demokratyczne Polskie (Polish Democratic Society) in Paris. His autocratic style of leadership, however, inhibited any growth of the organization. Eventually in January 1870, the majority of the new Society's membership decided to remove Mieroslawski from office.
Tensions in international relations and the Austrian-Prussian- Italian war in 1866 activated the Polish emigration anew and gave rise to a new stage in its history. A democratic Zjednoczenie Emigracji Polskiej (Union of Polish Emigration) was founded, its communities existing in numerous localities of Europe and United States. The Union was headed by an elected Representative Committee, and its leaders were mostly the former "reds" of the Rising: Jaroslaw Dabrowski, Stanislaw Jarmund, Jozef Tokarzewicz, Walery Wroblewski, and also Zygmunt Milkowski. A group of moderates succeeded, in autumn 1867, in forming a factional Organizacja Ogolu (Organization of All), existing until 1869. Having returned from the United States, Ludwik Bulewski founded in Geneva in 1867 Ognisko Republikanckie Polskie (Polish Republican Heath), the Heath being the Polish Department of the International Republican Alliance. The Heath had for some time General Jozef Hauke-Bosakas its collaborator. The Heath expounded an extremely radical social program in the tradition of Ognisko Rewolucyjne Polskie (Polish Revolutionary Heath) formed by Bulewski in 1884 in London and linked with the European Democracy's Central Committee. All those organizations, with the exception of the Hotel Lambert, were terminated by the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 - 1871. On 8 August 1870, a Temporary Commission was formed with the idea for the Commission to represent interests of Polish emigres during the war. The Commission was active until April 1871. Polish emigres, although distrustful with respect to the government of the Second Empire, volunteered to fight in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 - 1871 some of them (a total of 450, including Jaroslaw Dabrowski and Walery Wroblewski) were also active in the Paris Commune. The French burgeoisie-influenced public opinion overemphasized the role of Poles in the Commune, which - among other things - contributed to aggravation of the emigres' situation in France during the Third Republic. This difficult situation as well as a possibility of returning to liberalized Galicia (the Polish part of Austro-Hungary) resulted in repatriation of numerous emigres and dwindling of the emigration's political scene. It was only the Hotel Lambert and some welfare and educational institutions that continued their activities, limited in scope, until 1878. On the other hand, Komisja Posredniczaca miedzy Krajem a Wychodzstwem (Liaison Commission between the Homeland and Emigration) was appointed in France. It was only in Great Britain that an utopian-socialist party was reborn for the third time, this time named Zwiazek Ludu Polskiego (Polish People's Union) (1872 - 1877) earlier the Polish Section of the First Workers' International was active in Britain as well.
The final quarter of the 19th century witnessed a massive economic emigration of peoples from Polish territories (Poles, Ukrainians, Jews). In addition, a new phenomenon appeared then which took the form of a "partisan" emigration resulting from the fact that activities of social-democratic parties and, in fact, of all other Polish political parties were prohibited in the part of Poland governed by Russia.
H. H. Hahn, "Die Organisation der polnischen 'Grossen Emigration' 1831-1847," in Nationale Bewegung und Soziale Organization , Munich-Vienna, 1978.
S. Kalembka, "Emigracje polityczne w powiedenskiej Europie" in Europai swiat w epoce restauracji i rewolucji 1815-1850 , Warsaw 1990.
S. Kalembka, "Polskie wychodzstwo popowstaniowe i inne emigracje polityczne w Europie XIX wieku" in Polska XIX wieku, Panstwo - spoleczenstwo - kultura , 3d.ed, Warsaw 1986
S. Kalembka, Wielka Emigracja. Polskie Wychodzstwo polityczne w latach 1831-1862 Warsaw 1971.
F. Stasik, Polska emigracja polityczna w Stanach Zjednoczonych Ameryki 1831-1864 Warsaw 1973.