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Terracotta Lamp from Essex

Terracotta Lamp from Essex

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The Earl of Essex in Ireland

With the death of Dudley, Elizabeth transferred some of her affection to his stepson, and Essex continued the courtier's role of currying favour with the Queen through flattery and flirtation, despite being 34 years her junior. Elizabeth indulged him and put him in charge of a number of important military operations. Essex was tall, handsome and hungry for martial success. He was also arrogant, ambitious and temperamental.

In April 1599 Essex was sent to Ireland as Lieutenant and Governor General, with an army of 17,000 men and explicit instructions to crush the Earl of Tyrone's rebellion and bring Ireland under control. Instead of following orders, Essex had a secret meeting with Tyrone, made a truce in Elizabeth's name and abandoned his post to return to London and explain his decision to the Queen.

Elizabeth was furious and had him put under house arrest while an inquiry into his behaviour was held. He was found guilty of disobedience and dereliction of duty, stripped of most of his positions, and banished from court as punishment. In August 1600 Essex was released and determined to regain his position as favourite and councillor. He wrote Elizabeth many pleading and outraged letters.


February 10, 1916: Acceptance of Honorary Membership by Thomas Alva Edison presented by John Lieb, an associate of Edison, with Mrs. Edison attending.

Most of the men who were the organizers, founders and early members of the Illuminating Engineering Society were born as the American Civil War was ending, or not long after. Their parents raised families in a society transformed by war. Most of the men involved came from Northern families and so with the post-war prosperity were able to obtain good educations. Louis B. Marks, for example, was educated at City College of New York and at Cornell, Louis Bell at Dartmouth and Van Rensselaer Lansingh at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. They had among the best of the technical educations that could be acquired in the U.S. at the end of the 19th century.

For many, their entry into business and professional practice was marked by the Panic of 1893 and the serious economic depression that followed. Sparked by a run on treasury gold and the failure of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, there was wide-spread panic. Bank failures resulted, followed by other railroad bankruptcies and stock price collapses. The resulting economic depression lasted more than five years it was by far the most serious financial crisis to have hit the U.S. up to that time, and the lighting industry was not above this turmoil.

But recovery began near the end of the decade. One mark of this was the increase in construction activity. By the turn of the century, many major American cities were in the midst of a construction boom that would transform urban skylines and many industries—lighting among them.


Lighting in the five years just before the founding of the Illuminating Engineering Society was provided by technologies as varied as would ever be available. Depending on locale, construction and availability, any of these lighting sources might be found in use:

  • Kerosene lighting
  • Gas lighting
  • Incandescent gas lighting with mantles
  • Arc lighting
  • Flame-arc lighting
  • Incandescent electric lighting
  • Moore tube discharge lighting
  • Cooper-Hewitt mercury-vapor discharge lighting
  • Acetylene lighting

The competition between gas lighting and electric incandescent lighting was fierce and produced improvements that had fueled the see-saw of dominance for 20 years. It was not clear at the time what would become the dominant form of “artificial light” and the question of the most efficacious and economical source was far from settled. But as competitive as other forms of lighting were, incandescent electric lighting was growing the fastest. In 1905, 40 million incandescent lamps were sold in the U.S., and the total spent on electric lighting for the year was greater than $120 million.

This state of lighting technology meant that the men involved in lighting needed to have a command of and experience with a wide range of technologies.

At the turn of the 20th century, electricity was provided by so called central stations: buildings housing dynamos powered by steam engines and the necessary gear to control the electric power. Central stations owned the wiring that distributed the electric power and sold the final electric appliances to customers that used the electricity. The first central station in the U.S. was built in San Francisco in 1879 and powered the Brush arc lighting system. Companies owned central stations and were usually given an exclusive license by a manufacturer of lighting equipment for a territory. Lamps were not purchased from manufacturers they were not available from retailers or wholesalers. Lamps were sold by the major lamp manufacturers almost exclusively to central station operators.

The group that founded the Society and helped it flourish consisted of men from five areas of lighting. The men who operated central stations and those who worked for the lamp manufacturers constituted two groups of professionals involved in lighting.

Gas companies had been shocked into renovating their product and service as the competition from electric lighting grew. The men of these companies formed a third, entirely separate group involved in lighting.

A fourth group was those that worked for the many companies that manufactured lighting appliances. The Holophane Glass Company and its licensees made the refractive glass globes that had become widely used and critically important to electric lighting. Metal reflectors made by companies such as the Federal Electric Company, Benjamin Electric Manufacturing Company, and I. P. Frink, were even more widely used. A few men from companies that made combination fixtures—a gas burner and a socket for an incandescent lamp—were also involved.

The fifth and certainly smallest group was consultants and designers of lighting systems, academics and other scientists. Not surprisingly, these were among the most instrumental in founding the Society. The most prominent men in this group were Louis Marks, Louis Bell, Norman Macbeth, Clayton Sharp and Herbert Ives.

The professional societies most having to do with lighting at that time were the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the American Gas Light Association. In many ways their inattention to lighting prompted the perceived need for a professional organization devoted exclusively to lighting. Both groups had been distracted by the tremendous growth in their industries—growth in areas other than lighting—and lighting was not getting leadership from either organization. A bellwether of this was the inability of either group to agree on a single standard of luminous intensity to be used in photometry.

First Meeting and Officers

In October of 1905, Louis Marks, then an independent consultant, contacted his colleague Van Rensselaer Lansingh at the Holophane Glass Company about forming a new society devoted to lighting. Their conversations eventually included E. Leavenworth Elliott who was about to begin publishing what he called “a technical journal devoted to the use of artificial light,” The Illuminating Engineer. They wanted to determine whether there was enough interest to form such a society, and so from Lansingh’s Holophane office the three issued the following letter to about 30 men in New York City and the surrounding area that they knew were interested in lighting. Responses were to be directed to Marks.

227 Fulton Street.
New York,
December 13, 1905.

Dear Sir:-
It has been proposed to form a Society of Illuminating Engineers, composed of those people who are especially interested in the question of light and its distribution. For this purpose, the undersigned have asked a number of those most prominently interested in such questions to meet at the Hotel Astor, 44th Street and Broadway, this city, on Thursday evening, December 21, at 6:30 o’clock, to talk over the formation of such a society and to discuss whatever is necessary to accomplish this purpose. We trust you will be able to attend this meeting and would ask that you kindly let Mr. L. B. Marks, 202 Broadway, New York City, know beforehand so that arrangements for an informal dinner may be made. The price of this dinner will be $1.00 each.

Trusting that we may have the pleasure of meeting you at that time, we are,

Very truly yours,
L. B. Marks,
E. Leavenworth Elliott,
Van Rensselaer Lansingh.

P.S.-The dinner will be purely informal and business suits will be in order.

Among the list of those contacted were Prof. Charles P. Matthews Prof. Edward L. Nichols Proctor Dougherty Albert Spies John W. Lieb and W.D. Weaver.

Charles P. Matthews was teaching at Purdue University and was very active in photometry, having developed one of the first flux integrators. He had published extensively on lighting topics and his interest in a new organization would have been natural.

Prof. Edward L. Nichols had been one of Marks’ instructors while he was at Cornell University earning his master’s degree. He was a nationally recognized leader in physics and an important figure in electrical engineering and lighting. His status and influence made him an obvious person to invite. Though Nichols was unable to attend the meeting, he was enthusiastic.

Lansingh knew Proctor Dougherty from his days at MIT and Dougherty’s connection with the federal government must have been considered promising.

The response from Albert Spies, editor of The Electrical Age, was measured but supportive.

At the time of Mark’s invitation, John W. Lieb was an important veteran of electric incandescent lighting, president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the most famous central station engineer in the lighting industry and immensely influential. He would become vice president and general manager of the New York Edison Company. Lieb had been sent to Milan, Italy, to oversee the technical aspects of establishing Edison Central Stations. Lieb stayed 10 years, becoming well known throughout Europe. He returned in 1894 to work in the New York Edison Company. Lieb was enthusiastic but was aware of potential political problems.

The response from W.D. Weaver, editor of Electrical Word, was considerably more measured and reserved than any other arguing that it was premature to form a new organization, and describing several political problems that would likely arise should a new organization be formed. Weaver predicted a turf war between the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and any new organization that promoted the idea that specialists should be doing the lighting work that was then be done by electrical engineers. As it happened, though his letter stated he would not be able to attend, he did attend—indicating perhaps the importance of the development.

Twenty-five men gathered at the Astor Hotel in response to the invitation of Marks, Elliott and Lansingh. At that meeting, called to order by Lansingh, Marks’s position as instigator and leader was recognized and he was elected as temporary chairman. Elliott was elected to serve as temporary secretary. This later appointment was fortunate, for the details about this and subsequent meetings appeared in Elliott’s The Illuminating Engineer. Marks stated that the purpose of the meeting should be to determine the object of the proposed society and its relation to what he referred to as “its sister institution, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers.”

That there was a need for a new organization appears to have been obvious to all present. Three of the response letters that Marks received talked of a movement to establish illuminating engineering. The “Illuminating Engineering Movement” would soon become something that professionals discussed and later historians recognized. Work that was clearly recognized as illuminating engineering—separate from electrical engineering—was growing and all indications were that growth would be maintained. W. D’Arcy Ryan, one of the meeting’s attendees, stated:

“Five years ago it was almost impossible for a consulting illuminating engineer to get into an architect’s office. Three years ago the work had increased to such an extent that I was obliged to drop all other work and follow illuminating engineering exclusively. I have now six assistant engineers and every one of us is on the go…”

The most difficult question discussed that evening was the matter of the organization’s name. Not everyone was convinced that it should contain the word “engineer”—the thought being that it was elite and would antagonize the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Elliott and Otis Mygatt, founder of the Holophane Glass Company, argued that part of the purpose of the new organization was to further the movement to establish lighting specialists—illuminating engineers—and the name of the organization should reflect that.

The meeting ended with all present agreeing that a Committee on Organization, consisting of seven of those present, would draft a constitution and by-laws and propose a name for the new organization. Evidently, everyone involved considered the matter of establishing a new organization appropriate and timely, not needing a great deal of research: the committee was to have its report ready in two weeks and the next meeting was scheduled to take place at that time.

On Wednesday evening, January 10, 1906, at the Hotel Astor, another meeting was convened “to complete the formation of a society devoted to the Science and Art of Illumination.” The report of the Committee on Organization was read and adopted without change. The contents had evidently been vetted by many interested parties and changes made before the meeting. Officers were then elected: L.B. Marks president, A.A. Pope and C.H. Sharp vice presidents, V.R. Lansingh treasurer and E.L. Elliott secretary. Tellingly, Marks was elected by acclamation, while the other offices had several candidates and required balloting. In addition to officers, a board of managers was also elected: W.D. Weaver, A.H. Elliott. W.S. Kellogg, E.C. Brown, F.N. Olcott and W. D’Arcy Ryan. The meeting ended with the agreement that the next meeting would take place on Tuesday evening, February 13, again at the Astor Hotel.

First Meeting, First Year

Original IES 1906 Insignia

The meeting scheduled for February 13, 1906 took place at the Hotel Astor and was the first full technical meeting of the Illuminating Engineering Society. In the intervening month, more than 150 members were enrolled in the new organization, and interest in establishing branches in other American cities was immediate.

At this meeting L.B. Marks delivered his presidential address, outlining “the present state of the science and art of illumination,” the scope of the new Society, its aims and objects, and the relation of the new society to other organizations. Marks summary of the present state of lighting focused on two issues: the problem of discomfort glare and providing better value for the consumer’s dollar. On discomfort glare he noted that:

“Though much attention has recently been given to the subject of globes, shades and reflectors, the fact still remains that unshaded or inadequately shaded lamps are the rule rather than the exception. In considering the present status of the science and art of illumination there is perhaps no question that is in need of more immediate attention than this one. The practice of placing lights of excessive intrinsic brightness within the ordinary field of vision is so common as to cause great apprehension among those who have studied the question from a physiological point of view that our eyesight is suffering permanent injury.”

Marks had done research with current U.S. Census Reports, Union Carbide (Acetylene) and Standard Oil, and listed the following consumer costs of lighting for 1905:

  • Electric light $120 million
  • Coal and water gas $40 million
  • Natural gas $1.7 million
  • Acetylene $2.5 million
  • Oil $60 million

The total, about $220 million, was probably an underestimate. About the scope of the society, Marks noted that:

“The term ‘engineering,’ as used in the name of this Society, unless viewed in its broad sense, is to a certain extent a misnomer, as the Society will deal with some phases of illumination that may not properly be said to come within the distinct field of engineering, such for instance as the physiological side of the question. The Society will be interested in every phase of the subject of illumination whether from an engineering point of view or otherwise, and will throw its doors quite as wide open to the layman as to the professional. It will not, however, deal with questions relating to the production or distribution of the energy from which the light produced.”

The discussion of Marks presidential address was long and detailed. Those present included representatives from all sectors of the lighting industry: electric and gas suppliers, equipment manufacturers, consultants and academics. Enthusiasm arose from every corner. The meeting and its participants drew the attention of the press. The following morning an editorial appeared in the New York Tribune entitled The Art of Lighting.

On January 28, 1907, the headquarters was moved from the temporary space that had been provided by the Holophane Glass Company, to an office in the Engineering Societies’ Building, at 29 West 39th Street. The first annual meeting was held on January 7, 1907. By then the organization had established itself nationally, with sections in New England, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and New York. Membership stood at 815 at the time of that first anniversary meeting and the first year’s budget had been $4000.

The Society began publishing immediately. Volume 1, Number 1 of the Transactions of the Illuminating Engineering Society appeared in February 1906. In the 11 months of its first publication year, the Society printed more than 400 pages of technical presentations and discussions dealing with all aspects of lighting. It has done so continuously for 100 years.


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Terracotta Lamp from Essex - History

The lamps of the ancients, sometimes called "candles" in our Bible, were cups and vessels of many convenient and graceful shapes and might be carried in the hand, or set upon a stand. See CANDLESTICK. The lamp was fed with vegetable oils, tallow, wax, etc., and was kept burning all night. The poorest families, in some parts of the East, still regard this as essential to health and comfort. A darkened house therefore forcibly told of the extinction of its former occupants, Job 18:5,6 Proverbs 13:9 20:20 Jeremiah 25:10,11 while a constant light was significant of prosperity and perpetuity, 2 Samuel 21:17 1 Kings 11:36 Psalm 132:17. Lamps to be carried in the streets presented a large surface of wicking to the air, and needed to be frequently replenished from a vessel of oil borne in the other hand, Matthew 25:3,4. Torches and lanterns, John 18:3, were very necessary in ancient cities, the streets of which were never lighted.

(1.) That part of the candle-sticks of the tabernacle and the temple which bore the light (Exodus 25:37 1 Kings 7:49 2 Chronicles 4:20 13:11 Zechariah 4:2). Their form is not described. Olive oil was generally burned in them (Exodus 27:20).

(2.) A torch carried by the soliders of Gideon (Judges 7:16, 20). (R.V., "torches.")

(3.) Domestic lamps (A.V., "candles") were in common use among the Hebrews (Matthew 5:15 Mark 4:21, etc.).

(4.) Lamps or torches were used in connection with marriage ceremonies (Matthew 25:1).

This word is also frequently metaphorically used to denote life, welfare, guidance, etc. (2 Samuel 21:17 Psalm 119:105 Proverbs 6:23 13:9).

2. ( n. ) A light-producing vessel, instrument or apparatus especially, a vessel with a wick used for the combustion of oil or other inflammable liquid, for the purpose of producing artificial light.

3. ( n. ) Figuratively, anything which enlightens intellectually or morally anything regarded metaphorically a performing the uses of a lamp.

4. ( n. ) A device or mechanism for producing light by electricity. See Incandescent lamp, under Incandescent.

lamp'-stand (nir, ner, lappidh, Phoenician lampadh, whence lampas luchnos is also used): Ner or nir is properly "light" or "a light-giving thing," hence, "lamp," and is so rendered in the Revised Version (British and American), but often "candle" in the King James Version. Its use in connection with the tabernacle and the temple (Exodus 25:37 2 Chronicles 4:20 f), where oil was employed for light (Exodus 35:14 Leviticus 24:2), shows that this is its proper meaning. Lappidh is properly "a torch" and is thus rendered generally in the Revised Version (British and American), but "lamp" in Isaiah 62:1, where it is used as a simile. the King James Version renders it "lamp" usually, but "torch" in Nahum 2:3 Zechariah 12:6. In Job 12:5 the Revised Version (British and American) renders it "for misfortune," regarding it as composed of the noun pidh, and the preposition l-. Lampas in Greek corresponds to it, but luchnos is also rendered in the Revised Version (British and American) "lamp," while the King James Version gives "candle," as in Matthew 5:15 and corresponding passages in the other Gospels.

Lamps were in use in very remote times, though we have few allusions to them in the early history of Egypt. There are indications that they were used there. Niches for lamps are found in the tombs of Tell el-Amarna (Archaeological Survey of Egypt, Tell el-Amarna Letters, Part IV, 14). Lampstands are also represented (ibid., Part III, 7). Torches were of course used before lamps, and are mentioned in Genesis (15:17 the Revised Version (British and American)), but clay lamps were used in Canaan by the Amorites before the Israelites took possession. The excavations in Palestine have furnished thousands of specimens, and have enabled us to trace the development from about 2000 B.C. onward. The exploration carried out at Lachish (Tell Hesy) and Gezer (Tell Jezer) by the Palestine Exploration Fund has given ample material for the purpose, and the numerous examples from tombs all over Palestine and Syria have supplied a great variety of forms.

"Lamp" is used in the sense of a guide in Psalm 119:105 Proverbs 6:23, and for the spirit, which is called the lamp of Yahweh in man (Proverbs 20:27), and it of course often signifies the light itself. It is used also for the son who is to succeed and represent his father (1 Kings 15:4), and it perhaps is employed in this sense in the phrase, "The lamp of the wicked shall be put out" (Job 21:17 Proverbs 13:9 and perhaps Job 18:6).

The early Canaanite or Amorite lamp was a shallow, saucer-like bowl with rounded bottom and vertical rim, slightly pointed or pinched on one side where the lighted end of the wick was placed. This form continued into Jewish times, but was gradually changed until the spout was formed by drawing the rim of the sides together, forming a narrow open channel, the remainder of the rim being rolled outward and flattened, the bottom being also flattened. This was the early Hebrew pattern and persisted for centuries. The open bowl was gradually closed in, first at the spout, where the rim of one side was lapped over the other, and finally the whole surface was closed with only an orifice in the center for receiving the oil, and at the same time the spout was lengthened. This transformation is seen in lamps of the Seleucid period, or from around 300 B.C. These lamps have usually a circular foot and sometimes a string-hole on one side. The next development was a circular bowl with a somewhat shorter spout, sometimes being only a bulge in the rim, so that the orifice for the wick falls in the rim, the orifice for filling being quite small at the bottom of a saucer-like depression in the center of the bowl. There is sometimes a loop handle affixed on the side opposite to the spout. Sometimes the handle is horizontal, but commonly vertical. This form is called Roman, and the bowl is often ornamented with mythological human or animal figures (Fig. 5). Other forms are elongated, having numerous wick holes (Fig. 6). The mythological and animal forms were rejected by the Jews as contrary to their traditions, and they made lamps with various other designs on the bowl, such as vine leaves, cups, scrolls, etc. (Figs. 7-11). One very marked Jewish design is the seven-branched candlestick (Exodus 25:32) of the temple (Fig. 12). The lamps of the parable of the Ten Virgins were probably similar to these (Matthew 25:1). The latest form of the clay lamp was what is called Byzantine, the bowl of which has a large orifice in the center and tapers gradually to the spout (Fig. 13) they are ornamented commonly with a palm branch between the central orifice and the wickhole, or with a cross. Sometimes there is an inscription on the margin (Fig. 13). The words on this read Phos ku(riou) pheni pasin kale,"The light of the Lord shines to all (beautifully?)." Others read, "The Lord is my light" "beautiful light," etc. These inscriptions determine the period as being Christian. In Roman times, and earlier also, bronze was much used for the finer lamps, often with covers for the orifice and sometimes with chain and ring for hanging. Very elaborate designs in this material occur.

These terra-cotta lamps are found in the tombs and burial places throughout Palestine and Syria, and they were evidently deposited there in connection with the funeral rites. Very few are found in Canaanite tombs, but they become numerous in later times and especially in the early Christian centuries. The symbolism in their use for funeral purposes is indicated by the inscriptions above mentioned (see PEFS, 1904, 326 Explorations in Palestine, by Bliss. Maclister and Wunsch, 4to, published by the Palestine Exploration Fund). These lamps were used by the peasants of the country down to recent times, when petroleum has superseded olive oil for lighting. The writer has seen lamps of the Jewish and Roman period with surface blackened with recent usage. Olive oil was commonly used, but terebinth oil also (Thomson, LB, III, 472).

2985. lampas -- a torch
. a torch. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: lampas Phonetic Spelling:
(lam-pas') Short Definition: a torch, lamp, lantern Definition: a torch, lamp .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2985.htm - 6k

3087. luchnia -- a lampstand
. a lampstand. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: luchnia Phonetic Spelling:
(lookh-nee'-ah) Short Definition: a lamp-stand Definition: a lamp-stand. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3087.htm - 6k

5215a. nir -- a lamp
. nir. 5215b . a lamp. Transliteration: nir Short Definition: lamp. Word Origin
from the same as ner Definition a lamp NASB Word Usage lamp (5). 5215, 5215a. .
/hebrew/5215a.htm - 5k

5374. Neriyyah -- "lamp of Yah," father of Baruch
. Neriyyah or Neriyyahu. 5375 . "lamp of Yah," father of Baruch. Transliteration:
Neriyyah or Neriyyahu Phonetic Spelling: (nay-ree-yaw') Short Definition: Neriah .
/hebrew/5374.htm - 6k

74. Abner -- "my father is a lamp," an Israelite name
. 73, 74. Abner. 75 . "my father is a lamp," an Israelite name. Transliteration:
Abner Phonetic Spelling: (ab-nare') Short Definition: Abner. .
/hebrew/74.htm - 6k

5215. niyr -- a lamp
. 5214, 5215. niyr. 5215a . a lamp. Transliteration: niyr Phonetic Spelling:
(neer) Short Definition: ground. fallow ground, plowing, tillage .
/hebrew/5215.htm - 5k

3940. lappid -- a torch
. firebrand, burning lamp, lightning, torch. Or lappid from
an unused root probably meaning to shine a flambeau, lamp .
/hebrew/3940.htm - 6k

1160. Beor -- "a burning," father of an Edomite king, also the .
. Beor. From ba'ar (in the sense of burning) a lamp Beor, the name of the father
of an Edomitish king also of that of Balaam -- Beor. see HEBREW ba'ar. .
/hebrew/1160.htm - 6k

5369. Ner -- father of Abner, also the father of Kish
. Usage Ner (16). Ner. The same as niyr lamp Ner, an Israelite -- Ner. see
HEBREW niyr. 5368, 5369. Ner. 5370 . Strong's Numbers.
/hebrew/5369.htm - 6k

The Lamp.
. DEATH. XLIX. THE LAMP. I. . A weary pilgrim sat,. Above a gloomy stream,. A lamp he
firmly held. Shed round a cheerful gleam: It showed that river's farther banks, .
//christianbookshelf.org/morris/favourite welsh hymns/xlix the lamp.htm

The Lamp and the Bushel
. ST. MATTHEW Chaps. I to VIII THE LAMP AND THE BUSHEL. 'Ye are the light of the world. .
'When you light your lamp you put it on the stand, do you not? .
/. /maclaren/expositions of holy scripture a/the lamp and the bushel.htm

The Red Lamp.
. XX. THE RED LAMP. . We should not think much of the wisdom of any one who said of
the Red Lamp, "Why take any notice of that old-fashioned thing? .
//christianbookshelf.org/champness/broken bread/xx the red lamp.htm

A Burning and Shining Lamp.
. XIII. A Burning and Shining Lamp. (John 5:35.) "Men as men Can reach no higher
than the Son of God, The Perfect Head and Pattern of Mankind. .
//christianbookshelf.org/meyer/john the baptist/xiii a burning and shining.htm

Chapter: 4:21-25 Lamp and Stand
. Mark CHAPTER: 4:21-25 LAMP AND STAND. "And He said unto them, Is the lamp brought
to be put under the bushel, or under the bed? and not to be put on the stand? .
/. /chadwick/the gospel of st mark/chapter 4 21-25 lamp and stand.htm

To Keep the Lamp Alive,
. The Treasury of Sacred Song. Book First CCXXXII To keep the lamp alive,. With
oil we fill the bowl 'Tis water makes the willow thrive,. .
/. /palgrave/the treasury of sacred song/ccxxxii to keep the lamp.htm

Is Your Lamp Still Burning? PM
. 421 Is Your Lamp Still Burning? PM. Waiting His Coming. . Cho."Oh, brother, is your
lamp trimmed and burning? Is the world made brighter by its cheering ray? .
//christianbookshelf.org/lorenz/the otterbein hymnal/421 is your lamp still.htm

Lamp of Our Feet, Whereby we Trace
. II. THE CHRISTIAN YEAR Advent 60. Lamp of our feet, whereby we trace. CM . Bernard
Barton, 1826. Lamp of our feet, whereby we trace. Our path when wont to stray .
/. /advent 60 lamp of our.htm

The virgin's Lamp.
. THE VIRGIN'S LAMP. 9,7,9,9,9,9,7,7 Brenne hell du Lampe meiner Seele. [330]Albertini.
trans. by Catherine Winkworth, 1869. Lamp within me! brightly burn and glow .
/. /winkworth/christian singers of germany/the virgins lamp.htm

John Chapter v. 19-40
. He did clearly bear witness, but as a lamp not to satisfy friends, but to confound
enemies: for it had been predicted long before by the person of the Father .
/. /augustine/homilies on the gospel of john/tractate xxiii john chapter v.htm

Lamp-stand (17 Occurrences)
Lamp-stand. Lampstand, Lamp-stand. Lampstands . Multi-Version
Concordance Lamp-stand (17 Occurrences). Matthew 5:15 .
/l/lamp-stand.htm - 11k

Lamp-stands (5 Occurrences)
Lamp-stands. Lampstands, Lamp-stands. Lance . Multi-Version
Concordance Lamp-stands (5 Occurrences). Revelation 1:12 .
/l/lamp-stands.htm - 7k

Candle (16 Occurrences)
. Hebrews ner, Job 18:6 29:3 Psalm 18:28 Proverbs 24:20, in all which places the
Revised Version and margin of Authorized Version have "lamp," by which the .
/c/candle.htm - 15k

Candlestick (34 Occurrences)
. Easton's Bible Dictionary The lamp-stand, "candelabrum," which Moses was commanded
to make for the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. .
/c/candlestick.htm - 27k

Extinguished (14 Occurrences)
. (WBS). 1 Samuel 3:3 And the lamp of God is not yet extinguished, and Samuel is lying
down in the temple of Jehovah, where the ark of God 'is', (YLT). .
/e/extinguished.htm - 10k

Lampstand (38 Occurrences)
. Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia LAMP LAMPSTAND. lamp'-stand (nir, ner,
lappidh, Phoenician lampadh, whence lampas luchnos is also .
/l/lampstand.htm - 24k

Bowl (44 Occurrences)
. being elsewhere rendered "cup" (Genesis 44:2, 12, 16), and wine "pot" (Jeremiah
35:5). The reservoir for oil, from which pipes led to each lamp in Zechariah's .
/b/bowl.htm - 26k

Lighting (9 Occurrences)
. Luke 8:16 And no one having lighted a lamp doth cover it with a vessel, or under
a couch doth put 'it' but upon a lamp-stand he doth put 'it', that those .
/l/lighting.htm - 9k

Lighted (36 Occurrences)
. Lighted (36 Occurrences). Matthew 5:15 Nor is a lamp lighted to be put under a bushel,
but on the lampstand and then it gives light to all in the house. (WEY). .
/l/lighted.htm - 16k

Matthew 5:15
Neither do you light a lamp , and put it under a measuring basket, but on a stand and it shines to all who are in the house.

Matthew 6:22
"The lamp of the body is the eye. If therefore your eye is sound, your whole body will be full of light.

Mark 4:21
He said to them, "Is the lamp brought to be put under a basket or under a bed? Isn't it put on a stand?

Luke 8:16
"No one, when he has lit a lamp , covers it with a container, or puts it under a bed but puts it on a stand, that those who enter in may see the light.

Luke 11:33
"No one, when he has lit a lamp , puts it in a cellar or under a basket, but on a stand, that those who come in may see the light.

Luke 11:34
The lamp of the body is the eye. Therefore when your eye is good, your whole body is also full of light but when it is evil, your body also is full of darkness.

Luke 11:36
If therefore your whole body is full of light, having no part dark, it will be wholly full of light, as when the lamp with its bright shining gives you light."

Luke 15:8
Or what woman, if she had ten drachma coins, if she lost one drachma coin, wouldn't light a lamp , sweep the house, and seek diligently until she found it?

John 5:35
He was the burning and shining lamp , and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light.

Hebrews 9:2
For a tabernacle was prepared. In the first part were the lampstand, the table, and the show bread which is called the Holy Place.

2 Peter 1:19
We have the more sure word of prophecy and you do well that you heed it, as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until the day dawns, and the morning star arises in your hearts:

Revelation 2:5
Remember therefore from where you have fallen, and repent and do the first works or else I am coming to you swiftly, and will move your lampstand out of its place, unless you repent.

Revelation 18:23
The light of a lamp will shine no more at all in you. The voice of the bridegroom and of the bride will be heard no more at all in you for your merchants were the princes of the earth for with your sorcery all the nations were deceived.

Revelation 21:23
The city has no need for the sun, neither of the moon, to shine, for the very glory of God illuminated it, and its lamp is the Lamb.

Revelation 22:5
There will be no night, and they need no lamp light for the Lord God will illuminate them. They will reign forever and ever.

Genesis 15:17
And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp that passed between those pieces.

Exodus 27:20
"You shall command the children of Israel, that they bring to you pure olive oil beaten for the light, to cause a lamp to burn continually.

Leviticus 24:2
"Command the children of Israel, that they bring to you pure olive oil beaten for the light, to cause a lamp to burn continually.

Numbers 3:31
Their duty shall be the ark, the table, the lamp stand, the altars, the vessels of the sanctuary with which they minister, and the screen, and all its service.

Numbers 4:9
"They shall take a blue cloth, and cover the lampstand of the light, and its lamps, and its snuffers, and its snuff dishes, and all its oil vessels, with which they minister to it.

Numbers 4:16
And the oversight of Eleazar, son of Aaron the priest, 'is' the oil of the lamp , and the spice-perfume, and the present of continuity, and the anointing oil, the oversight of all the tabernacle, and of all that 'is' in it, in the sanctuary, and in its vessels.'

1 Samuel 3:3
and the lamp of God hadn't yet gone out, and Samuel had laid down to sleep, in the temple of Yahweh, where the ark of God was

2 Samuel 21:17
But Abishai the son of Zeruiah helped him, and struck the Philistine, and killed him. Then the men of David swore to him, saying, "You shall go no more out with us to battle, that you don't quench the lamp of Israel."

2 Samuel 22:29
For you are my lamp , Yahweh. Yahweh will light up my darkness.

1 Kings 11:36
To his son will I give one tribe, that David my servant may have a lamp always before me in Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen me to put my name there.

1 Kings 15:4
Nevertheless for David's sake did Yahweh his God give him a lamp in Jerusalem, to set up his son after him, and to establish Jerusalem

2 Kings 4:10
Let us make, please, a little chamber on the wall. Let us set for him there a bed, a table, a chair, and a lamp stand. It shall be, when he comes to us, that he shall turn in there."

2 Kings 8:19
However Yahweh would not destroy Judah, for David his servant's sake, as he promised him to give to him a lamp for his children always.

2 Chronicles 21:7
However Yahweh would not destroy the house of David, because of the covenant that he had made with David, and as he promised to give a lamp to him and to his children always.

Job 12:5
He that is ready to slip with his feet is as a lamp despised in the thought of him that is at ease.

Job 18:6
The light shall be dark in his tent. His lamp above him shall be put out.

Job 21:17
"How often is it that the lamp of the wicked is put out, that their calamity comes on them, that God distributes sorrows in his anger?

Job 29:3
when his lamp shone on my head, and by his light I walked through darkness,

Psalms 18:28
For you will light my lamp , Yahweh. My God will light up my darkness.

Psalms 119:105
Your word is a lamp to my feet, and a light for my path.

Psalms 132:17
There I will make the horn of David to bud. I have ordained a lamp for my anointed.

Proverbs 6:23
For the commandment is a lamp , and the law is light. Reproofs of instruction are the way of life,

Proverbs 13:9
The light of the righteous shines brightly, but the lamp of the wicked is snuffed out.

Proverbs 20:20
Whoever curses his father or his mother, his lamp shall be put out in blackness of darkness.

Proverbs 20:27
The spirit of man is Yahweh's lamp , searching all his innermost parts.

Proverbs 21:4
A high look, and a proud heart, the lamp of the wicked, is sin.

Proverbs 24:20
for there will be no reward to the evil man and the lamp of the wicked shall be snuffed out.

Proverbs 31:18
She perceives that her merchandise is profitable. Her lamp doesn't go out by night.

Isaiah 62:1
For Zion's sake will I not hold my peace, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until her righteousness go forth as brightness, and her salvation as a lamp that burns.

Jeremiah 25:10
Moreover I will take from them the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the lamp .

Display case locations on the ground floor [ UK ] 1 st  floor [ US ] .

Display case 22 is updated once by giving simple pottery to the archaeologists.

The ground floor [ UK ] 1 st  floor [ US ] is the main floor of the museum and is dedicated to artefacts from the Digsite. The southern end of the ground floor [ UK ] 1 st  floor [ US ] is partitioned off for the processing of incoming samples from the Digsite. Players can earn kudos in this section by helping the archaeology staff clean off incoming samples. Players wishing to participate in specimen cleaning must have completed The Dig Site quest. Additionally, the player must be wearing leather boots and leather gloves and must also be holding a trowel, rock pick and specimen brush. All of these items are available from the tool rack on the south wall of the museum.

Uncleaned finds can be taken from the Dig Site specimen rocks pile. They can then be cleaned by using them on an empty specimen table while wearing the leather boots and gloves and having the three tools from the tool rack in your inventory. You can carry as many uncleaned finds as you like, as long as they fit in your inventory. Upon clicking on the pile, you will automatically begin picking up finds. However, you can click the pile repeatedly to pick these items up faster.

Once a player finds something interesting, they may show it to one of the six archaeologists in the room, who will then tell them what case to put the object in. Putting a sample in the correct case results in a reward of 10 kudos. Some samples have no value and are not of interest to the archaeologists. These samples can be disposed of in one of the storage crates found in the south-east corner of the area. Disposing of a sample will give a player a random reward from the storage crate, usually of very small value.

A special rare specimen is the clean necklace, which appears the same as a ruby necklace. Instead of recommending the player to place a clean necklace in a display case, the archaeologist will teach the player how to enchant a ruby necklace into a Digsite pendant. If it's taking an unusually long time to find the clean necklace, you may have already found it. To check this, talk to Curator Haig Halen and ask "How do I get a medallion?" If you haven't found the necklace yet, a game message will say "You need to have discovered the Digsite pendant."

In total, 50 kudos can be earned in the Dig Site cleaning area (five possible finds).

Earning XP lamps through this method can grant a steady amount of XP. If you want to level up a low level skill quickly, consider grinding for lamps.

Display cases [ edit | edit source ]

O horizon - The top layer of soil is made up mostly of leaves and decomposed organic matter.

A horizon (topsoil) - Plants grow in this dark-coloured layer, which is made up of decomoposed organic matter mixed with mineral particles.

E horizon - This eluviation (leaching) layer has a light colour and is made up of sand and silt. We often find significant archaeological artefacts in this layer.

B horizon (subsoil) - Contains clay and mineral deposits it receives from layers above, when water drips through.

C horizon - Regolith consists of slightly broken up bedrock. Plant roots do not penetrate this layer.

R horizon - The bedrock layer that is beneath all other layers.

Friezes, Sunlight Chambers, Essex Quay, Dublin 2

There’s a lot going on with Sunlight Chambers. Situated on the corner of Parliament Street and Essex Quay and , it’s a colourful landmark, designed by Edward Ould and built for Lever Bros between 1899 and 1901. The building was restored and brightened in the late 1990s during conservation work by Gilroy McMahon, with colour consultation from NCAD. Though the terracotta tiles, the deep eaves or the arcades might draw attention on another building, they’re pushed into the background here by the friezes.

At the base of the first and second floors, a series of brightly-coloured scenes represent the story of soap, including what Christine Casey memorably describes as ‘shiny naked children’. There’s also men ploughing fields and women doing various aspects of laundry.

As ‘The Hidden Holocaust’ in Rabble #3 by Paul Reynolds explores, there’s a fairly macabre contrast between the shiny soap-clean scenes and the extensive human rights abuses Lord Leverhulme was responsible for in the Congo. I think there’s always a difficulty in examining architecture and the forces behind it – being slightly reductive, buildings are most often built for people with money and power, and there’s a rich history of awful things being done in the pursuit of money and power, and examining architecture requires a bit of separation when this is the case. Separation, not absolution – I think an adult human being is capable of positive thoughts about one aspect of a thing and negative thoughts about another, and even beyond that. That said, it’s grisly and difficult not to think of forced labour for palm oil extraction as part of soap production when you’re faced with a bright illustration of soap production.

Edward Ould was also responsible for housing at Port Sunlight, Lever’s model village for Merseyside factory workers. Of all the buildings associated with Lever Bros, the Lever House in New York (1951-2, by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill) is by far my favourite – an International Style skyscraper that manages extremely elegant massing and a very successful example of curtain walling.

Sunlight Chambers had the honour of being called “one of the ugliest buildings in Ireland” by The Irish Builder at the time it was built, and even after that separation thing, I can see their point. It’s certainly a curiosity, but there’s also a real Disney aspect to it, the heavy Italian merchant prince aesthetic landed on a quayside in Dublin and the colours sitting like a sticky-sweet shell. For me, the building is extremely interesting, but it’s not one I can love.

Local History

Forty three ancient Chinese terracotta figures have come to Colchester as part of a festival to celebrate Essex's 20 year partnership with Jiangsu Province in China.

As the figures were carefully unpacked one by one a small part of Chinese history was revealed at Colchester Castle.

They are called Guardians to the King and are going on display as part of a festival celebrating Essex's 20 year link with Jiangsu Province.

Tom Hodgson is Community History Manager of Colchester and Ipswich Museum Service and he travelled to China to help bring the figures back to Essex:

The figures are around 2100-years-old

"Chinese culture has essentially been developing relatively unhindered over 4000-5000 years, and so the things we've got on display in the showcases here, are still reproduced in China today."

This exhibition is different to the famous Terracotta Army but almost as old - they date back about 2100 years and are about one to two feet tall.

So what was the purpose of these miniature people?

"What the Chinese believed at the time was when you died the afterlife was a mirror of real life.

"So if you were king in real life when you died you needed soldiers to protect you, servants to give you food, and so what they did was made these pottery figurines so when the person was buried in the tomb these figures were there to serve them in the after life," Tom says.

The exhibition opens on Saturday, 19, July and runs until Sunday, 2, November 2008.

Listen to Tom Hodgson talking to BBC reporter Felicity Simper by clicking on the link below.

last updated: 15/07/2008 at 17:05
created: 15/07/2008

Explore Layer Marney Tower


The building is principally the creation of Henry 1st Lord Marney, who died in 1523. As an incomplete palace it was of no interest to the Duke of Norfolk who was given care of Marney’s Granddaughter two years later in 1525. The house was sold and has been the home of 11 families over the 500 years. Each family have stories to contribute to the fascinating history of Layer Marney Tower.


An old building needs constant attention if it is to survive. They also need to keep up with the times. At the turn of the twentieth Century running water, central heating and electricity were installed . At the end of the twentieth century Visitor Lavatories were added, new areas were opened up and facilities were upgraded and we continue to make sure the place will have a long and happy Future.


Tymperleys is another Tudor building in central Colchester owned by the Charrington family. It is a wonderful Town house in its own walled garden and is now a Restaurant Tearoom. Once home to William Gilberd, scientist and physician to Elizabeth I is was more recently the Clock Museum, housing a fine collection of Colchester Clocks gifted to the town by Bernard Mason.

Layer Marney Tower has a fantastic team of people who help keep this place alive. Depending on how you come into contact with us depends on who you meet. Some people you will never see but they are just as vital in ensuing that this place works well and is buzzing and is delighted to welcome you.

One home trend that seems to be ongoing is terracotta. Suitable for both indoors and outdoors, this warm rusty orange is everywhere.

But aside from looking great, it&rsquos worth delving into the history of terracotta and why it&rsquos proven to be so well loved in India in both the past and the present.

Terracotta throughout history in India

Terracotta has been used in India for centuries. Traditionally, it is seen as a mystical material due to its combination of four of the five vital elements &ndash air, earth, fire and water.

It has been a mainstay of Indian construction and culture since the Indus Valley Civilisation, which existed between 3300 and 1700 BC. Many ancient terracotta artefacts have been found in India, often depicting deities.

Due to its extensive background, it&rsquos no wonder India has some prominence when it comes to terracotta. Most famously, the largest terracotta sculpture ever made was the Ayanaar horse - created in Tamil Nadu.

Today, terracotta is still used in pottery and art for the home and beyond. Areas such as Rajasthan and Gujarat are famous for their white painted terracotta jars, while Madhya Pradesh is known for embellished terracotta rooftops.

Why use terracotta today?

© Praditkhorn Somboonsa/Shutterstock.com

In addition to being a mainstay throughout Indian history, terracotta is a great element to use in its own right. For one thing, it is surprisingly versatile and can complement a wide range of interiors. In a more contemporary setting, the colour can be used to break up and add warmth to modern, monochromatic themes. In a more traditional home, it can look great in the form of ornaments and embellishments.

You&rsquoll also find that terracotta comes across as warm and welcoming in your home, which is an important part of Indian culture both then and now.

Terracotta as a colour

If you&rsquore simply in love with the colour itself, your job of integrating it into your home will be easy!

You could choose terracotta coloured textiles, switch up your carpets or even paint your walls in this warm, inviting shade.

As many designers (and paint companies) will be familiar with PANTONE colours, here are a few that perfectly capture that signature terracotta hue:

  • PANTONE 16 - 1526 TPX Terra Cotta- This is a traditional terracotta shade.
  • PANTONE 17 - 1540 TPX Apricot Brandy- This shade is darker than the Terra Cotta shade listed above. However, its tone is very similar.
  • PANTONE 16 - 1720 TPX Strawberry Ice- A more pink toned shade that reflects the rosier tones sometimes found in terracotta pottery.
  • PANTONE 14 &ndash 1313 TPX Rose Cloud- A warm beige with pink undertones that&rsquos ideal for a paler look of terracotta.
  • PANTONE 18 - 1438 TPX Marsala &ndash Colour of the Year 2015- A darker shade from the rusty red family, reminiscent of terracotta tones and known for its popularity as Colour of the Year.

Anywhere with customisable paint options will be able to match these colours perfectly!

In addition to terracotta coloured paint, you could also consider other items, features or materials in the same colour family.

For example, exposed brick is a trending interior look, and often resembles a warm, terracotta tone. Get creative you&rsquoll be surprised at how often you see the colour pop up!

Traditional Terracotta Pottery

© Tatjana Kabanova/Shutterstock.com

One of the most iconic terracotta items is the traditional terracotta pot, usually used to house plants or small trees. They come in a vast variety of shapes and sizes and can be either plain or embellished with ornate details.

The style you choose will be completely up to you as you choose a piece that suits your style. Although they are usually marketed as outdoor pots and planters, smaller pieces can make a strong statement inside the home too.

Terracotta Ornaments

Although they are sometimes harder to find and are often more expensive due to the significant amount of additional work that goes into making them, you can also purchase terracotta ornaments.

From small patterned decorative plates to unique ornamental statues, this is yet another way to add terracotta to your interior.

Terracotta Crockery

If you prefer to add things to your home that you can use rather than just look at, consider terracotta crockery. Bowls, plates and dishes can all be made from terracotta &ndash in fact, they&rsquore known for their heat resistance, making them oven safe.

When in use (or even displayed permanently as serving dishes), they add an authentic, rustic feel to your kitchen or dining room.

Terracotta Tiles

© AdpePhoto/Shutterstock.com

While stone and linoleum may be the most popular choices, terracotta makes a great choice for flooring. They are the perfect way to create a home that encapsulates both old and new styles, as well as adding a splash of colour to your interior.

There&rsquos Even Terracotta Furniture

Sometimes, you&rsquoll even find furniture made from terracotta &ndash especially furniture that&rsquos designed for outdoor use. These usually include benches and small tables, although more complex pieces can be found from time to time.

Where can you buy terracotta?

Being such an important part of India, it is relatively easy to find terracotta across the nation, as long as you know where to look!

Take a look at some local craft stores for smaller pieces, as well as larger companies that may deal in flooring and tiles. Another option is to take a look at a garden centre, as they are likely to have terracotta pots for sale.

If you really want to try something new, you could even try making your own terracotta pottery at home with a basic kit!

If you&rsquove been inspired by all the ways you can feature terracotta in your home, it may be something to consider for your next redesign &ndash or even as a simple new addition to your existing interior theme.

Watch the video: Plant Pot with price. Terracotta pots, Ceramic Pots, Uruli, Decorative items, mitti ke bartan, Diya (July 2022).


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