Frank Church was born in Boise, Idaho on 25th July, 1924. While at school Church became a strong supporter of William Borah. At Boise High School, Church won the 1941 American Legion National Oratorical Contest with a speech titled "The American Way of Life."
In 1942 Church became a student at Stanford University but the following year he joined the United States Army and during the Second World War served as a military intelligence officer in Burma.
After the war he returned to Stanford University and after graduating in 1950 he began work as a lawyer in Boise. Church joined the Democratic Party and in 1956 he was elected to the Senate. He was only 32 years old and was the fifth youngest member ever to sit in the Senate.
In 1959, Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson appointing Church to the Foreign Relations Committee. Church, like his idol, William Borah, held independent political views and in 1965, Church began to criticize U.S. involvement in Vietnam. In 1969, he joined with Senator John Sherman Cooper to sponsor an amendment prohibiting the use of ground troops in Laos and Thailand. The two men also joined forces in 1970 to limit the power of the president during a war.
Church served on several Senate committees including the Special Committee on Aging, Special Committee on Termination of the National Emergency and Select Committee on Government Intelligence Activities. In 1975, Church became the chairman of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. This committee investigated alleged abuses of power by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Federal Bureau of Intelligence.
The committee looked at the case of Fred Hampton and discovered that William O'Neal, Hampton's bodyguard, was a FBI agent-provocateur who, days before the raid, had delivered an apartment floor-plan to the Bureau with an "X" marking Hampton's bed. Ballistic evidence showed that most bullets during the raid were aimed at Hampton's bedroom.
Church's committee also discovered that the Central Intelligence Agency and Federal Bureau of Investigation had sent anonymous letters attacking the political beliefs of targets in order to induce their employers to fire them. Similar letters were sent to spouses in an effort to destroy marriages. The committee also documented criminal break-ins, the theft of membership lists and misinformation campaigns aimed at provoking violent attacks against targeted individuals.
One of those people targeted was Martin Luther King. The FBI mailed King a tape recording made from microphones hidden in hotel rooms. The tape was accompanied by a note suggesting that the recording would be released to the public unless King committed suicide.
In 1975 Church's committee interviewed Johnny Roselli about his relationship with the secret services. It emerged that in In September 1960, Roselli and fellow crime boss, Sam Giancana, took part in talks with Allen W. Dulles, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), about the possibility of murdering Fidel Castro.
In its final report the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities concluded: “Domestic intelligence activity has threatened and undermined the Constitutional rights of Americans to free speech, association and privacy. It has done so primarily because the Constitutional system for checking abuse of power has not been applied.”
According to the Congress report published in 1976: "The CIA currently maintains a network of several hundred foreign individuals around the world who provide intelligence for the CIA and at times attempt to influence opinion through the use of covert propaganda. These individuals provide the CIA with direct access to a large number of newspapers and periodicals, scores of press services and news agencies, radio and television stations, commercial book publishers, and other foreign media outlets." Church argued that the cost of misinforming the world cost American taxpayers an estimated $265 million a year.
Church showed that it was CIA policy to use clandestine handling of journalists and authors to get information published initially in the foreign media in order to get it disseminated in the United States. Church quotes from one document written by the Chief of the Covert Action Staff on how this process worked (page 193). For example, he writes: “Get books published or distributed abroad without revealing any U.S. influence, by covertly subsidizing foreign publicans or booksellers.” Later in the document he writes: “Get books published for operational reasons, regardless of commercial viability”. Church goes onto report that “over a thousand books were produced, subsidized or sponsored by the CIA before the end of 1967”. All these books eventually found their way into the American market-place. Either in their original form (Church gives the example of the Penkovskiy Papers) or repackaged as articles for American newspapers and magazines.
In another document published in 1961 the Chief of the Agency’s propaganda unit wrote: “The advantage of our direct contact with the author is that we can acquaint him in great detail with our intentions; that we can provide him with whatever material we want him to include and that we can check the manuscript at every stage… (the Agency) must make sure the actual manuscript will correspond with our operational and propagandistic intention.”
Church quotes Thomas H. Karamessines as saying: “If you plant an article in some paper overseas, and it is a hard-hitting article, or a revelation, there is no way of guaranteeing that it is not going to be picked up and published by the Associated Press in this country” (page 198).
By analyzing CIA documents Church was able to identify over 50 U.S. journalists who were employed directly by the Agency. He was aware that there were a lot more who enjoyed a very close relationship with the CIA who were “being paid regularly for their services, to those who receive only occasional gifts and reimbursements from the CIA” (page 195).
Church pointed out that this was probably only the tip of the iceberg because the CIA refused to “provide the names of its media agents or the names of media organizations with which they are connected” (page 195). Church was also aware that most of these payments were not documented. This was the main point of the Otis Pike Report. If these payments were not documented and accounted for, there must be a strong possibility of financial corruption taking place. This includes the large commercial contracts that the CIA was responsible for distributing. Pike’s report actually highlighted in 1976 what eventually emerged in the 1980s via the activities of CIA operatives such as Edwin Wilson, Thomas Clines, Ted Shackley, Raphael Quintero, Richard Secord and Felix Rodriguez.
Church also identified E. Howard Hunt as an important figure in Operation Mockingbird. He points out how Hunt arranged for books to be reviewed by certain writers in the national press. He gives the example of how Hunt arranged for a “CIA writer under contract” to write a hostile review of a Edgar Snow book in the New York Times (page 198).
Church concluded that: “In examining the CIA’s past and present use of the U.S. media, the Committee finds two reasons for concern. The first is the potential, inherent in covert media operations, for manipulating or incidentally misleading the American public. The second is the damage to the credibility and independence of a free press which may be caused by covert relationships with the U.S. journalists and media organizations.”
The committee also reported that the Central Intelligence Agency had withheld from the Warren Commission, during its investigation of the assassination of John F. Kennedy, information about plots by the Government of the United States against Fidel Castro of Cuba; and that the Federal Bureau of Investigation had conducted a counter-intelligence program (COINTELPRO) against Martin Luther King and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
The Mafia boss, Sam Giancana was ordered to appear before the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. However, before he could appear, on 19th June, 1975, Giancana was murdered in his own home. He had a massive wound in the back of the head. He had also been shot six times in a circle around the mouth. At the same time Jimmy Hoffa, another man the committee wanted to interview, also disappeared. His body was never found.
Johnny Roselli was also due to appear before Church's committee when he was murdered and in July 1976 his body was found floating in an oil drum in Miami's Dumfoundling Bay. Jack Anderson, of the Washington Post, interviewed Roselli just before he was killed. On 7th September, 1976, the newspaper reported Roselli as saying : "When Oswald was picked up, the underworld conspirators feared he would crack and disclose information that might lead to them. This almost certainly would have brought a massive U.S. crackdown on the Mafia. So Jack Ruby was ordered to eliminate Oswald."
As a result of Church's report and the deaths of Sam Giancana, Jimmy Hoffa and Johnny Roselli, Congress established the House Select Committee on Assassinations in September 1976. The resolution authorized a 12-member select committee to conduct an investigation of the circumstances surrounding the deaths of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King.
In 1976 Church sought the nomination for the Democratic candidacy for president. He won primaries in Nebraska, Idaho, Oregon and Montana, but eventually decided to withdraw in favor of Jimmy Carter.
Church's outspoken views made him a lot of enemies and in 1980 was defeated in his attempt to be elected to the Senate for a fifth term.
Church was appointed United States delegate to the 21st General Assembly of the United Nations. Afterwards he worked in Washington for the international law firm of Whitman and Ransom. Frank Church died from a pancreatic tumor on 7th April, 1984.
The Covert Use of Books and Publishing Houses: The Committee has found that the Central Intelligence Agency attaches a particular importance to book publishing activities as a form of covert propaganda. A former officer in the Clandestine Service stated that books are "the most important weapon of strategic (long-range) propaganda." Prior to 1967, the Central Intelligence Agency sponsored, subsidized, or produced over 1,000 books; approximately 25 percent of them in English. In 1967 alone, the CIA published or subsidized over 200 books, ranging from books on African safaris and wildlife to translations of Machiavelli's The Prince into Swahili and works of T. S. Eliot into Russian, to a competitor to Mao's little red book, which was entitled Quotations from Chairman Liu.
The Committee found that an important number of the books actually produced by the Central Intelligence Agency were reviewed and marketed in the United States:
* A book about a young student from a developing country who had studied in a communist country was described by the CIA as "developed by (two areas divisions) and, produced by the Domestic Operations Division... and has had a high impact in the United States as well as in the (foreign area) market." This book, which was produced by the European outlet of a United States publishing house was published in condensed form in two major U.S. magazines."
* Another CIA book, The Penkorsky Papers, was published in United States in 1965. The book was prepared and written by omitting agency assets who drew on actual case materials and publication rights to the manuscript were sold to the publisher through a trust fund which was established for the purpose. The publisher was unaware of any US Government interest.
In 1967, the CIA stopped publishing within the United States. Since then, the Agency has published some 250 books abroad, most of them in foreign languages. The CIA has given special attention to publication and circulation abroad of books about conditions in the Soviet Bloc. Of those targeted at audiences outside the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, a large number has also been available in English.
Domestic "Fallout": The Committee finds that covert media operations can result in manipulating or incidentally misleading the American public. Despite efforts to minimize it, CIA employees, past and present, have conceded that there is no way to shield the American public completely from "fallout" in the United States from Agency propaganda or placements overseas. Indeed, following the Katzenbach inquiry, the Deputy Director for Operations issued a directive stating: "Fallout in the United States from a foreign publication which we support is inevitable and consequently permissible."
The domestic fallout of covert propaganda comes from many sources: books intended primarily for an English-speaking foreign audience; CIA press placements that are picked up by an international wire service; and publications resulting from direct CIA funding of foreign institutes. For example, a book written for an English-speaking foreign audience by one CIA operative was reviewed favorably by another CIA agent in the New York Times. The Committee also found that the CIA helped create and support various Vietnamese periodicals and publications. In at least one instance, a CIA supported Vietnamese publication was used to propagandize the American public and the members and staff of both houses of Congress. So effective was this propaganda that some members quoted from the publication in debating the controversial question of United States involvement in Vietnam.
The Committee found that this inevitable domestic fallout was compounded when the Agency circulated its subsidized books in the United States prior to their distribution abroad in order to induce a favorable reception overseas.
The Covert Use of 11.5. Journalists and Media Institutions on, February 11, 1976, CIA Director George Bush announced new guidelines governing the Agency's relationship with United States media organizations: "Effective immediately, CIA will not enter into any paid or contractual relationship with any full-time or part-time news correspondent accredited by any U.S. news service, newspaper, periodical, radio or television network or station."
Agency officials who testified after the February 11, 1976, announcement told the Committee that the prohibition extends to non-Americans accredited to specific United States media organizations.
The CIA currently maintains a network of several hundred foreign individuals around the world who provide intelligence for the CIA and at times attempt to influence opinion through the use of covert propaganda. These individuals provide the CIA with direct access to a large number of newspapers and periodicals, scores of press services and news agencies, radio and television stations, commercial book publishers, and other foreign media outlets.
Approximately 50 of the assets are individual American journalists or employees of US media organizations. Of these, fewer than half are "accredited" by US media organizations and thereby affected by the new prohibitions on the use of accredited newsmen. The remaining individuals are non-accredited freelance contributors and media representatives abroad, and thus are not affected by the new CIA prohibition.
More than a dozen United States news organizations and commercial publishing houses formerly provided cover for CIA agents abroad. A few of these organizations were unaware that they provided this cover.
The Committee notes that the new CIA prohibitions do not apply to "unaccredited" Americans serving in media organizations such as representatives of US media organizations abroad or freelance writers. Of the more than 50 CIA relationships with United States journalists, or employees in American media organizations, fewer than one half will be terminated under the new CIA guidelines.
The Committee is concerned that the use of American :journalists and media organizations for clandestine operations is a threat to the integrity of the press. All American journalists, whether accredited to a United States news organization or just a stringer, may be suspects when any are engaged in covert activities.
In examining the CIA’s past and present use of the U.S. journalists and media organizations.
In 1953, Joseph Alsop, then one of America’s leading syndicated columnists, went to the Philippines to cover an election. He did not go because he was asked to do so by his syndicate. He did not go because he was asked to do so by the newspapers that printed his column. He went at the request of the CIA.
Alsop is one of more than 400 American journalists who in the past twenty-five years have secretly carried out assignments for the Central Intelligence Agency, according to documents on file at CIA headquarters. Some of these journalists’ relationships with the Agency were tacit; some were explicit. There was cooperation, accommodation and overlap. Journalists provided a full range of clandestine services - from simple intelligence gathering to serving as go-betweens with spies in Communist countries. Reporters shared their notebooks with the CIA. Editors shared their staffs. Some of the journalists were Pulitzer Prize winners, distinguished reporters who considered themselves ambassadors-without-portfolio for their country. Most were less exalted: foreign correspondents who found that their association with the Agency helped their work; stringers and freelancers who were as interested it the derring-do of the spy business as in filing articles, and, the smallest category, full-time CIA employees masquerading as journalists abroad. In many instances, CIA documents show, journalists were engaged to perform tasks for the CIA with the consent of the managements America’s leading news organizations.
The history of the CIA’s involvement with the American press continues to be shrouded by an official policy of obfuscation and deception . .
Among the executives who lent their cooperation to the Agency were William Paley of the Columbia Broadcasting System, Henry Luce of Time Inc., Arthur Hays Sulzberger of the New York Times, Barry Bingham Sr. of the Louisville Courier-Journal and James Copley of the Copley News Service. Other organizations which cooperated with the CIA include the American Broadcasting Company, the National Broadcasting Company, the Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, Newsweek magazine, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the Miami Herald and the old Saturday Evening Post and New York Herald-Tribune.
By far the most valuable of these associations, according to CIA officials, have been with the New York Times, CBS and Time Inc....
The Agency's dealings with the press began during the earliest stages of the Cold War. Allen Dulles, who became director of the CIA in 1953, sought to establish a recruiting-and-cover capability within America’s most prestigious journalistic institutions. By operating under the guise of accredited news correspondents, Dulles believed, CIA operatives abroad would be accorded a degree of access and freedom of movement unobtainable under almost any other type of cover.
American publishers, like so many other corporate and institutional leaders at the time, were willing us commit the resources of their companies to the struggle against “global Communism.” Accordingly, the traditional line separating the American press corps and government was often indistinguishable: rarely was a news agency used to provide cover for CIA operatives abroad without the knowledge and consent of either its principal owner; publisher or senior editor. Thus, contrary to the notion that the CIA era and news executives allowed themselves and their organizations to become handmaidens to the intelligence services. “Let’s not pick on some poor reporters, for God’s sake,” William Colby exclaimed at one point to the Church committee’s investigators. “Let’s go to the managements. They were willing”. In all, about twenty-five news organizations (including those listed at the beginning of this article) provided cover for the Agency....
Many journalists who covered World War II were close to people in the Office of Strategic Services, the wartime predecessor of the CIA; more important, they were all on the same side. When the war ended and many OSS officials went into the CIA, it was only natural that these relationships would continue. Meanwhile, the first postwar generation of journalists entered the profession; they shared the same political and professional values as their mentors. “You had a gang of people who worked together during World War II and never got over it,” said one Agency official. “They were genuinely motivated and highly susceptible to intrigue and being on the inside. Then in the Fifties and Sixties there was a national consensus about a national threat. The Vietnam War tore everything to pieces - shredded the consensus and threw it in the air.” Another Agency official observed: “Many journalists didn’t give a second thought to associating with the Agency. But there was a point when the ethical issues which most people had submerged finally surfaced. Today, a lot of these guys vehemently deny that they had any relationship with the Agency.”
The CIA even ran a formal training program in the 1950s to teach its agents to be journalists. Intelligence officers were “taught to make noises like reporters,” explained a high CIA official, and were then placed in major news organizations with help from management. “These were the guys who went through the ranks and were told, “You’re going to be a journalist,” the CIA official said. Relatively few of the 400-some relationships described in Agency files followed that pattern, however; most involved persons who were already bona fide journalists when they began undertaking tasks for the Agency...
At the headquarters of CBS News in New York, Paley’s cooperation with the CIA is taken for granted by many news executives and reporters, despite the denials. Paley, 76, was not interviewed by Salant’s investigators. “It wouldn’t do any good,” said one CBS executive. “It is the single subject about which his memory has failed.”
Time and Newsweek magazines. According to CIA and Senate sources, Agency files contain written agreements with former foreign correspondents and stringers for both the weekly news magazines. The same sources refused to say whether the CIA has ended all its associations with individuals who work for the two publications. Allen Dulles often interceded with his good friend, the late Henry Luce, founder of Time and Life magazines, who readily allowed certain members of his staff to work for the Agency and agreed to provide jobs and credentials for other CIA operatives who lacked journalistic experience.
At Newsweek, Agency sources reported, the CIA engaged the services of several foreign correspondents and stringers under arrangements approved by senior editors at the magazine...
After Colby left the Agency on January 28th, 1976, and was succeeded by George Bush, the CIA announced a new policy: “Effective immediately, the CIA will not enter into any paid or contract relationship with any full-time or part-time news correspondent accredited by any U.S. news service, newspaper, periodical, radio or television network or station.” ... The text of the announcement noted that the CIA would continue to “welcome” the voluntary, unpaid cooperation of journalists. Thus, many relationships were permitted to remain intact.
FRANK CHURCH OF IDAHO, WHO SERVED IN THE SENATE FOR 24 YEARS, DIES AT 59
Frank Church of Idaho, a member of the Senate for 24 years and for a time the chairman of its Foreign Relations Committee, died today at his home in suburban Bethesda, Md. He was 59 years old and had been suffering from pancreatic cancer.
The White House issued a statement from President Reagan praising Mr. Church for ''his abiding interest in foreign policy'' that he said made 'ɺn important intellectual contribution to our country.''
A Senate colleague, Edward M. Kennedy, Democrat of Massachusetts, said Mr. Church was a 'ɼourageous leader against the war in Vietnam.''
A memorial service will be held at 11 A.M. Tuesday at the National Cathedral. The speakers will be Senator Kennedy, Senator Claiborne Pell, Democrat of Rhode Island, former Senator George A. McGovern of South Dakota, Cecil D. Andrus, a former Secretary of the Interior and Governor of Idaho, and one of Mr. Church's sons, the Rev. F. Forrest Church, minister of the Unitarian Church of All Souls in New York City.
Frank Church, at one time the 'ɻoy orator'' of the United States Senate, had two major ambitions. He wanted to be President of the United States and he wanted to be chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
In the spring of 1976, he waged a three-month campaign for the Democratic Presidential nomination, making a surprisingly strong initial showing by winning primaries in Idaho, Nebraska, Oregon and Montana. He eventually withdrew, however, and endorsed former Gov. Jimmy Carter of Georgia, who went on to become President.
But Mr. Church achieved his other goal, becoming chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 1979. He lost his Senate seat to Steven D. Symms, a Republican, in the l980 landslide election of Ronald Reagan.
In his 24 years in the Senate, starting in 1957, when he was 32 years old, Frank Church became a leading, often eloquent voice of liberalism, strongly supporting civil rights protection, expanded benefits for the elderly, other social service programs and equal rights for women. He was a leading conservationist and a strong supporter of statehood for Alaska and Hawaii. Active in Foreign Affairs
But it was primarily in foreign affairs that he made his mark, both before and after his chairmanship of the Foreign Relations Committee. He strongly supported the 1963 nuclear test ban treaty with the Soviet Union. In 1966, concerned over increasing American involvement in Vietnam, he broke with the Johnson Administration by urging a halt in bombing.
''No nation,'' he said that year, ''not even our own, possesses an arsenal so large or a treasury so rich as to damp down the fires of smoldering revolution throughout the whole awakening world.''
As the war in Southeast Asia continued to widen, he stepped up his opposition. In 1970, he co-sponsored a Senate measure to prohibit continued deployment of United States ground troops in Cambodia, touching off a six-month Senate debate. Two years later, he and Senator Clifford P. Case, Republican of New Jersey, sought to end all American military activities in Southeast Asia.
But it was in the field of trying to curb 'ɼriminal activity'' by United States intelligence agencies that he made perhaps his most important contribution, praised by some, criticized by others. The vehicle for examining activities of the Central Intelligence Agency and the Federal Bureau of Investigation was the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, established in 1975 under Mr. Church's chairmanship. Panel Made Many Proposals
In its final report, the committee made nearly 100 recommmendations for curbing such abuses as illegal wiretaps, break-ins, surveillance, harassment of political dissidents, assassination plots against foreign leaders and campaigns to smear civil rights activists.
While the inquiry resulted in only a limited amount of legislation, it was clear as time passed that the disclosures of illegal activities by the agencies led to curbs of such abuses.
Senator Church had just completed work on the intelligence investigation when he traveled to the little mountain community of Idaho City to announce his candidacy for the Democratic Presidential nomination. It was something of a nostalgic choice of sites it was in Idaho City that his grandfather settled in a gold rush after the Civil War.
But home to Frank Forrester Church was not Idaho City. He was born July 25, 1924, in Boise, the son of a sporting goods dealer. The family was strongly Republican. It was years later that Mr. Church became a Democrat.
As a student in Boise High School, he developed a love for oratory, winning first prize in the American Legion's national Americanism oratorical contest. A year later, after graduating from high school, he entered Stanford University.
His stay at Stanford was brief, for he enlisted in the Army in late 1942 and was sent to Officers' Candidate School at Fort Benning, Ga. On his 20th birthday, he was commissioned a second lieutenant and served as a military intelligence officer in China, Burma and India in World War II. Graduation and Marriage in ❇
Returning to Stanford after the war, he won a Phi Beta Kappa key and was graduated in 1947. He was married that summer to Jean Bethine Clark, whose father had once been a Democratic Governor of Idaho.
That fall, he entered Harvard Law School but switched to Stanford after suffering severe back pains he thought a warmer climate might ease his back. However, doctors discovered that he had cancer and told him he had six months to live. After undergoing surgery to have a testicle removed, and radiation treatments, he returned to Stanford Law School, winning his degree in 1950.
Moving back to Boise, he began practicing law and teaching public speaking in the Boise Junior College. A Democrat by that time, he ran for a seat in the Idaho Legislature, but lost.
He set his sights higher, this time on the United States Senate. In 1956, at 32, he won the election, defeating an incumbent Republican, Herman Welker.
In 1960, Senator Church gained national prominence when he delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention. His speech was appraised by commentators as long on rhetorical flourishes but short on substance. Years later, admitting he had been something less than a smashing success with the speech, he said: 'ɺll I can say in my defense is, I didn't know any better.''
When he entered the race for the Presidential nomination in the spring of 1976, he conceded that he was a ''long shot'' but that ''it's never too late to try.'' A Meeting With Castro
After his unsuccessful effort, he resumed his role as an important voice on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. In the summer of 1977, he met in Cuba with Fidel Castro, which led to the Cuban leader agreeing to allow 84 American citizens and their families to leave that country. Senator Church also served as floor leader for ratification of the Panama Canal treaties in 1978.
But in the final years of the Carter Administration, he found himself at odds with the President as his own time for Senate re-election approached. In 1979, he demanded immediate withdrawal of Soviet combat troops from Cuba before allowing a Senate vote on ratification of the second treaty with the Soviet Union on limitation of strategic arms.
Years later, Jimmy Carter wrote in his book, ''Keeping Faith,'' that Senator Church had been '➫solutely irresponsible'' in disclosing 'ɼonfidential information'' about the Soviet presence in Cuba, ascribing the move as an effort by the Senator to fend off conservative opposition to his re-election. Senator Church later denied the Carter allegations. There were clear indications, however, that Senator Church had sought to mute his liberal image in other ways as the 1980 election neared. He was one of six Democratic Senators selected for defeat by conservative political organizations. The campaign was both bitter and expensive. It cost Mr. Church's organization $4 million and was the most expensive political campaign in Idaho's history.
After his defeat by Mr. Symms, Mr. Church practiced international law as a Washington-based partner in the New York law firm of Whitman & Ransom. He wrote occasional articles, including one published in The New York Times Magazine, criticizing the the Reagan Administration for anti-Soviet ideology.
In addition to his wife and son F. Forrest, he is survived by another son, Chase Clark of Bethesda, and two grandchildren.
The Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness is a generous tract of designated public land that stretches throughout the heart of the state of Idaho. It exists as the second largest wilderness area in the continental United States (second to the Death Valley Wilderness in California and Nevada) and is ripe with steep canyon walls, clear, billowing creeks, flourishing plant and animal species and fresh alpine air. Across the northern half of its almost 2.4 million acres runs the Wild and Scenic Salmon River, and to the south flows the highly popular Middle Fork of the Salmon River on which countless rafters, kayakers and other recreationists spend the summer months.
The "Frank" is truly one of the nation's most valuable treasures, stellar in its size and captivating in its beauty, and although many know of its physical existence, what is known of the man for which it is named? Without the diligence and political effort of Frank Forrester Church III, the "Frank" and many other wild places across the lower forty-eight may not be in existence today.
Frank Church III was born on July 25, 1924 in Boise, Idaho to Frank Forrester Church Jr. and his wife Laura. The third to be bestowed with his given name, he also entered the world as the Church family's third generation to be born in Idaho. This multi-generational existence in the state gave the family considerable clout, and Church was raised in a modest, yet well-respected and politically conservative, home. In his eighth grade year, Church developed an admiration for Senator William Borah (R-ID) and decided early in life that he wanted to pursue a career in politics. That same year the local newspaper published a letter written by Church about Borah's foreign policy stance on its front page. This led to community-wide recognition of young Church's intelligence and political savy.
In Church's junior year at Boise High School he won the American Legion National Oratorical Contest by giving a speech titled, "The American Way of Life." This was a pivotal experience in Church's life because the prize money was enough to pay for four years at the college of his choice. After completing his senior year as class president, Church enrolled at Stanford University in 1942.
In 1943, Church set aside his formal education and enlisted in the U.S. Army, serving as an intelligence officer in China, Burma and India. Upon his discharge in 1946, he returned to Stanford to complete his bachelor's degree, graduating in 1947. That same year he married Bethine Clark, daughter of the former governor of Idaho. Together the couple had two sons, Frank Forrester Church IV and Chase Clark Church.
Church spent the following year studying at Harvard Law School, but decided to return to Stanford Law School, due to New England's cold climate. While at Harvard, he experienced a bout of chronic pain in his lower back, which doctor's in California eventually diagnosed as cancer. Amazingly, after being given only several months to live, Church recovered from his illness and was given a second chance at life. Later he would state that this second opportunity is what inspired him to live life to its fullest, "…life itself is such a chancy proposition that the only way to live is by taking great chances."
After graduating from Stanford Law School in 1950, Church returned to his hometown of Boise to practice law with the Federal Price Control Agency.
As an independent teen-ager, Church had strayed from his family's support of the Republican Party, becoming interested in Democratic views on political issues. This individuality continued into his adult life, and after being defeated in a 1952 run for the state legislature, Church ran on the Democratic ballot for the United States Senate in 1956. Church defeated Republican opponent Herman Welker to become, at 32, the fifth youngest member in history to serve in the U.S. Senate.
In his political career Church primarily focused on issues concerning American foreign policy and wilderness preservation. During the 1960s he staunchly opposed the war in Vietnam and would continue to oppose U.S. involvement in the conflict throughout three re-elections in 1962, 1968 and 1974. Despite his somewhat liberal stance in a conservative state, Church became the only Democrat in Idaho's history to win re-election to the U.S. Senate.
During his career Church was a vital part of the wilderness preservation movement. In 1964 he acted as the floor sponsor of the National Wilderness Act and in 1968 sponsored the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. He also played a prominent role in establishing recreation areas such as the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area bordering Oregon, Washington and Idaho and the Sawtooth Wilderness and National Recreation Area in central Idaho.
Church received several honors for his preservation work. In 1965 he became the chairman of the Subcommittee on Public Lands, was voted Conservationist of the Year by the Idaho Wildlife Federation and in 1966 received the National Conservation Legislative Award.
On March 19, 1976 in Idaho City, Idaho, Church announced his candidacy for President of the United States, going on to win primaries in Nebraska, Idaho, Oregon and Montana. In support of Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter, however, Church ultimately withdrew from the race, though he is still the only Idahoan to win a major party primary election.
During his last year in office, 1980, Church played a large role in the formation of Idaho's River of No Return Wilderness, at the time, the largest wilderness area outside of Alaska. Though he ran for re-election that same year, he was defeated by Republican congressman Steve Symms by only one percent of the vote. After a twenty-four year stint in office, Church went on to practice law with the Washington D.C. firm of Whitman and Ransom. Aside from his law practice, he spent the next several years writing, traveling and lecturing on international affairs.
On January 12, 1984 Church was hospitalized for a pancreatic tumor. Four months later on April 7, he passed away at his home in Bethesda, Maryland at the age of 59. In honor of his political work in the realm of wilderness preservation, President Ronald Reagan signed Public Law 98-231, designating the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness as the new name for the former River of No Return Wilderness.
By the early years of the 1970s, a series of troubling revelations had appeared in the press concerning intelligence activities. First came the revelations by Army intelligence officer Christopher Pyle in January 1970 of the U.S. Army's spying on the civilian population   and Senator Sam Ervin's Senate investigations produced more revelations.  Then on December 22, 1974, The New York Times published a lengthy article by Seymour Hersh detailing operations engaged in by the CIA over the years that had been dubbed the "family jewels". Covert action programs involving assassination attempts on foreign leaders and covert attempts to subvert foreign governments were reported for the first time. In addition, the article discussed efforts by intelligence agencies to collect information on the political activities of US citizens. 
The creation of the Church Committee was approved on January 27, 1975, by a vote of 82 to 4 in the Senate.  
The Church Committee's final report was published in April 1976 in six books. Also published were seven volumes of Church Committee hearings in the Senate. 
Before the release of the final report, the committee also published an interim report titled "Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders",  which investigated alleged attempts to assassinate foreign leaders, including Patrice Lumumba of Zaire, Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic, Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, Gen. René Schneider of Chile and Fidel Castro of Cuba. President Gerald Ford urged the Senate to withhold the report from the public, but failed,  and under recommendations and pressure by the committee, Ford issued Executive Order 11905 (ultimately replaced in 1981 by President Reagan's Executive Order 12333) to ban U.S. sanctioned assassinations of foreign leaders.
In addition, the committee produced seven case studies on covert operations, but only the one on Chile was released, titled "Covert Action in Chile: 1963–1973".  The rest were kept secret at CIA's request. 
According to a declassified National Security Agency history, the Church Committee also helped to uncover the NSA's Watch List. The information for the list was compiled into the so-called "Rhyming Dictionary" of biographical information, which at its peak held millions of names—thousands of which were US citizens. Some prominent members of this list were Joanne Woodward, Thomas Watson, Walter Mondale, Art Buchwald, Arthur F. Burns, Gregory Peck, Otis G. Pike, Tom Wicker, Whitney Young, Howard Baker, Frank Church, David Dellinger, Ralph Abernathy, and others. 
But among the most shocking revelations of the committee was the discovery of Operation SHAMROCK, in which the major telecommunications companies shared their traffic with the NSA from 1945 to the early 1970s. The information gathered in this operation fed directly into the Watch List. In 1975, the committee decided to unilaterally declassify the particulars of this operation, against the objections of President Ford's administration. 
Together, the Church Committee's reports have been said to constitute the most extensive review of intelligence activities ever made available to the public. Much of the contents were classified, but over 50,000 pages were declassified under the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992.
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The Church Committee learned that, beginning in the 1950s, the CIA and Federal Bureau of Investigation had intercepted, opened and photographed more than 215,000 pieces of mail by the time the program (called "HTLINGUAL") was shut down in 1973. This program was all done under the "mail covers" program (a mail cover is a process by which the government records—without any requirement for a warrant or for notification—all information on the outside of an envelope or package, including the name of the sender and the recipient). The Church report found that the CIA was careful about keeping the United States Postal Service from learning that government agents were opening mail. CIA agents moved mail to a private room to open the mail or in some cases opened envelopes at night after stuffing them in briefcases or in coat pockets to deceive postal officials. 
On May 9, 1975, the Church Committee decided to call acting CIA director William Colby. That same day Ford's top advisers (Henry Kissinger, Donald Rumsfeld, Philip W. Buchen, and John Marsh) drafted a recommendation that Colby be authorized to brief only rather than testify, and that he would be told to discuss only the general subject, with details of specific covert actions to be avoided except for realistic hypotheticals. But the Church Committee had full authority to call a hearing and require Colby's testimony. Ford and his top advisers met with Colby to prepare him for the hearing.  Colby testified, "These last two months have placed American intelligence in danger. The almost hysterical excitement surrounding any news story mentioning CIA or referring even to a perfectly legitimate activity of CIA has raised a question whether secret intelligence operations can be conducted by the United States." 
On August 17, 1975 Senator Frank Church appeared on NBC's Meet the Press, and discussed the NSA, without mentioning it by name:
In the need to develop a capacity to know what potential enemies are doing, the United States government has perfected a technological capability that enables us to monitor the messages that go through the air. (. ) Now, that is necessary and important to the United States as we look abroad at enemies or potential enemies. We must know, at the same time, that capability at any time could be turned around on the American people, and no American would have any privacy left: such is the capability to monitor everything—telephone conversations, telegrams, it doesn't matter. There would be no place to hide.
If this government ever became a tyranny, if a dictator ever took charge in this country, the technological capacity that the intelligence community has given the government could enable it to impose total tyranny, and there would be no way to fight back because the most careful effort to combine together in resistance to the government, no matter how privately it was done, is within the reach of the government to know. Such is the capability of this technology. (. )
I don't want to see this country ever go across the bridge. I know the capacity that is there to make tyranny total in America, and we must see to it that this agency and all agencies that possess this technology operate within the law and under proper supervision so that we never cross over that abyss. That is the abyss from which there is no return.  
As a result of the political pressure created by the revelations of the Church Committee and the Pike Committee investigations, President Gerald Ford issued Executive Order 11905.  This executive order banned political assassinations: "No employee of the United States Government shall engage in, or conspire to engage in, political assassination." Senator Church criticized this move on the ground that any future president could easily set aside or change this executive order by a further executive order.  Further, President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Order 12036, which in some ways expanded Executive Order 11905. 
In 1977, the reporter Carl Bernstein wrote an article in the Rolling Stone magazine, stating that the relationship between the CIA and the media was far more extensive than what the Church Committee revealed. Bernstein said that the committee had covered it up, because it would have shown an "embarrassing relationships in the 1950s and 1960s with some of the most powerful organizations and individuals in American journalism." 
R. Emmett Tyrrell, Jr., editor of the conservative magazine The American Spectator, wrote that the committee "betrayed CIA agents and operations." The committee had not received names, so had none to release, as confirmed by later CIA director George H. W. Bush. However, Senator Jim McClure used the allegation in the 1980 election, when Church was defeated. 
The Committee's work has more recently been criticized after the September 11 attacks, for leading to legislation reducing the ability of the CIA to gather human intelligence.     In response to such criticism, the chief counsel of the committee, Frederick A. O. Schwarz Jr., retorted with a book co-authored by Aziz Z. Huq, denouncing the Bush administration's use of 9/11 to make "monarchist claims" that are "unprecedented on this side of the North Atlantic". 
One Of The Largest Wilderness Areas In The Country Is Hiding In Idaho And It’s Absolutely Stunning
One of the most spectacular parts about Idaho living is knowing that true wilderness exists just a short drive away from anywhere in the state.It’s amazing to think that we share this state with so many totally unspoiled natural areas. For many people, an image of rugged backcountry is what first comes to mind when they think of Idaho, and they’re partially right. One of the most amazing facts about our state is that the largest wilderness area in the continental United States resides right here in Idaho. Many Idahoans know this area by name, but don’t realize the enormity of the region itself, or its history. In fact, this region is incredible for a variety of reasons, and you’re about to find out why.
On the eastern side of the Middle Fork of the Salmon are the Bighorn Crags, which form towering rugged summits some of which are at least 10,000 feet high in elevation.
There's truly nothing else like this area in the world. The Frank Church Wilderness is truly one of Idaho's most immense, yet hidden, treasures.
Have you seen at least part of the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness? Isn’t this massive region absolutely gorgeous? Tell us your thoughts in the comments!
Did you know that Idaho is home to a canyon deeper than the Grand Canyon? You can read all about it here!
The Death of Frank Olson
Frank Olson was a scientist who worked for the CIA. At a 1953 CIA retreat, Olson drank a cocktail that had been secretly spiked with LSD.
A few days later, on November 28, 1953, Olson tumbled to his death from the window of a New York City hotel room in an alleged suicide.
The family of Frank Olson decided to have a second autopsy performed in 1994. A forensics team found injuries on the body that had likely occurred before the fall. The findings sparked conspiracy theories that Olson might have been assassinated by the CIA.
After prolonged legal proceedings, Olson’s family was awarded a settlement of $750,000, and received a personal apology from President Gerald Ford and then-CIA Director William Colby.
Church History, Volume Two: From Pre-Reformation To The Present Day
Church history tells story of the greatest movement in world history. Yet, just as the biblical record of the people of God is the story of a mixed people with great acts of faith and great failures in sin and unfaithfulness, so is the history of the people who have made up the church for 2,000 years.
Frank A. James III and John D. Woodbridge’s Church History, vol. 2: From Pre-Reformation to the Present Day recounts these triumphs and struggles of the Christian movement from just before the Reformation to today. It offers a unique contextual view of how the Christian church spread and developed in the modern day. Woodbridge and James look closely at the integral link between the history of the world and that of the church, detailing the times, cultures, and events that influenced—and were influenced by—the church.
Don’t miss the companion volume by Everett Ferguson: Church History, Volume 1: From Christ to Pre-Reformation.
- Provides a balanced view of the church’s triumphs and struggles from the Reformation to today
- Details the times, cultures, and events that influenced the modern Christian church
- Covers 500 years of Christian history in the West, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
- Examines the intellectual and social history of the church since the Reformation
- European Christianity in an Age of Adversity, Renaissance, and Discovery (1300–1500)
- The Renaissance and the Christian Faith
- Luther’s Reformation: A Conscience Unbound
- The Swiss Reformations: The Maturation of International Calvinism (Sixteenth Century)
- Radicals and Rome: Responses to the Magisterial Reformation (Sixteenth Century)
- Reformations in England: The Politics of Reform (Sixteenth Century)
- Refining the Reformation: Theological Currents in the Seventeenth Century
- Christianity in an Age of Fear, Crisis, and Exploration (Seventeenth Century)
- Christianity and the Question of Authority (Seventeenth Century)
- Christianity under Duress: The Age of Lights (1680–1789)
- Christianity in the Age of Lights (1): The British Isles (1680–1789)
- Christianity in the Age of Lights (2): The Kingdom of France (1680–1789)
- Christianity in the Age of Lights (3): The Continent of Europe (1680–1789)
- Christianity in an Age of Revolutions (1770–1848)
- Adjusting to Modernization and Secularism: The Rise of Protestant Liberalism (1799–1919)
- Nineteenth-Century Christianity in the British Isles: Renewal, Missions, and the Crisis of Faith
- The Christian Churches on the European Continent (1814–1914)
- Global Christianity: A Re-Centered Faith (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
- Modern Theological Trajectories: Spiraling into the Third Millennium (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
- Catholicism and Orthodoxy: Collision to Collegiality (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
- Contemporary American Evangelicalism: Permutations and Progressions (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
- Christianity and Islam: The Challenge of the Future (Twenty-first Century)
Praise for the Print Edition
- Title : Church History, Volume 2: From Pre-Reformation to the Present Day
- Authors : John D. Woodbridge, Frank James
- Volume: 2
- Publisher : Zondervan
- Print Publication Date: 2013
- Logos Release Date: 2015
- Pages: 864
- Language : English
- Resources: 1
- Format : Digital › Logos Research Edition
- Subject : Church history
- ISBNs : 9780310527152, 9780310257431
- Resource ID: LLS:ZPHCHRHISTV02
- Resource Type: text.monograph.church-history
- Metadata Last Updated: 2021-04-26T18:00:57Z
Benefits of Logos Edition
In the Logos edition, this volume is enhanced by amazing functionality. Important terms link to dictionaries, encyclopedias, and a wealth of other resources in your digital library. Perform powerful searches to find exactly what you’re looking for. Take the discussion with you using tablet and mobile apps. With Logos Bible Software, the most efficient and comprehensive research tools are in one place, so you get the most out of your study.
About the Authors
John D. Woodbridge is research professor of church history and history of Christian thought at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois, where he has taught since 1970. He was previously a senior editor of Christianity Today and is the author of numerous books, including A God-Sized Vision: Revival Stories that Stretch and Stir. He is also the coeditor, with D.A. Carson, of Scripture and Truth and Hermeneutics, Authority, and Canon. Woodbridge is the recipient of four Gold Medallion Awards.
Frank A. James III is the president of Biblical Seminary in Hatfield, Pennsylvania. Prior to taking his current post, he taught and served as president at Reformed Theological Seminary in Orlando, FL, and served as provost and taught at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. Additionally, he has been on the teaching faculties of Villanova University and Westmont College, and was a visiting professor at the Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies at Oxford University.
James is the author or editor of numerous works on the Reformation and has been a consultant and script writer for a historical documentary film series. He is the author of Peter Martyr Vermigli and Predestination: The Augustinian Inheritance of an Italian Reformer and the professor for Logos Mobile Ed’s Introducing Church History I and II.
Edward Snowden is the 21st Century's Frank Church
Kristie Macrakis, a Professor of History, Technology and Society at Georgia Tech, is the author or editor of five books. Her book on the "Stasi: Seduced by Secrets," just came out in paperback and one on secret writing was released last April: "Prisoners, Lovers, and Spies."
NSA/CSS Georgia Cryptologic Center
Admiral Michael Rogers was in Georgia last week. He has an impressive title: Director of the NSA/CSS and Commander, U.S. Cyber Command. Despite over a year of public discussion about reining in the NSA’s powers, Rogers was here, in essence, to recruit young people and to inaugurate the national security state’s unbridled expansion at Fort Gordon. The balance between privacy and security is not the only issue to consider regarding the NSA. Our next public debate should be about shrinking the enormous and expanding post-9/11 national security state and its intelligence bureaucracies.
Georgia’s new NSA/CSS Cryptologic Center is across the street from Fort Gordon’s Bingo Palace. Located in Augusta, GA, Fort Gordon is the new Fort Meade of the South.
Fort Meade, NSA headquarters in Maryland
The new NSA Georgia building opened in March 2012 and is part of the Intelligence Community’s building and spending spree in the wake of 9/11. It developed along with:
Of course NSA Utah, a facility in excess of 1 million square feet.
Rogers was in Georgia to present a keynote lecture at the Education Cyber Summit. He was also at Georgia Tech talking to students and faculty. He skipped down the auditorium steps dressed in Admiral Navy white. He bristled when I stated that Washington, DC seems to be in a state of damage control. “We are not in damage control,” he said defensively. Well, if discussions about how to prevent a future Edward Snowden, isn’t damage control, I don’t know what is.
Maybe it’s time to think: “Maybe we did something wrong, maybe we overstepped our boundaries. How can we reform ourselves?” As a historian of intelligence and technology, I wanted to know what reforms had been instituted in the wake of the Snowden revelations. I pointed out that almost forty years ago, Senator Frank Church oversaw in-depth investigations and reviews about decades of intelligence abuse and its reform. One of the results was the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA).
Edward Snowden is the new Frank Church. And reporters Glenn Greenwald and Barton Gellman are the investigative staffers. In the absence of real congressional oversight, whistleblowers and the media have had to step in.
The current congressional intelligence committees are in bed with the Intelligence Community. They are no longer watchdogs but sleeping hounds. Intelligence oversight committees have become part of the entrenched bureaucracies. Saxby Chambliss from the Senate Intelligence Committee sponsored the new NSA Georgia expansion. The committees have become part of the intelligence bureaucracies, not overseers of it.
Bureaucracy and secrecy are a toxic mix. Forty years is a long time in the life cycle of a governmental bureaucracy. It is time for renewal, a time for re-thinking who will do the oversight. The only report the public has seen is from the Washington insiders on the Presidential Review Committee with its bewildering 47 recommendations. The government has been slow in telling us which of the specific recommendations will be accepted.
Many of the issues raised by the voluminous Church Committee reports are surprisingly similar to those of today. Church and his committee were prescient. Aside from preserving first and fourth amendment rights, staffers warned against Orwellian technologies of surveillance. One worry was that “some government organization by the expenditure of enough money could have the capability to “know everything about everyone” at any time.” Well, here we are. The new national security state has received more money for intelligence than ever in the history of the world and the NSA has the capability to know everything about everyone. The Stasi could only have dreamed of such capabilities.
As James Risen has recounted in his new book Pay any Price, Diane Roarck, a staffer responsible for the NSA on the Senate Intelligence Committee was rebuffed, harassed and ostracized when she brought her concerns about NSA’s domestic surveillance program to other committee members and leaders.
Technology always moves faster than laws and society. This is true also for surveillance technologies. In the absence of congressional oversight, it is good we have whistleblowers like Thomas Drake, Bill Binney and Edward Snowden. It is too bad it had to take the most dramatic one of all—Snowden—to jolt Washington into frenzy. Let’s hope that frenzy turns to action not just damage control.
There are many variations of this story, but here is the best timeline we’ve been able to piece together about the Frank Holton & Co. instrument manufacturing company.
Frank E. Holton
born Mar. 10, 1858
Source: 1860 US Census
Heath Township, Allegan, MI June 23, 1860
Father: Otis M. ? or L.? Holton (Born 1827: New York) Farmer
Mother: Hanna A. Holton (Born 1829: Michigan)
Leona (? spelling)
Source: 1870 US Census
Allegan Village, June 10, 1870
Frank Holton official roster of John Philips Sousa Band (age 33-34)
John Philip Sousa official website
Sousa Band Roster
York briefly participated in two partnerships, Smith & York (1883) and York & Holton (1885) before naming the company J.W. York and Company.
Lars Kilmer York Serial Number List
York Serial Number list
Frank Holton began his company in Chicago.
source : Music Trades Database, G. Leblanc Company
“Frank Holton was a professional trombonist with the famous Sousa band and associate of the leading musicians of the late 19th century. He was a business manager and trombone soloist a theatre musician and entrepreneur. The legacy of Frank Holton continues to this day, over 100 years later, focusing on providing musicians with the finest tools on which to perform their craft.
Holton began his company in 1896 in Chicago, after numerous engagements as a trombonist in many leading performing groups. As a former member of Sousa’s great band, and an associate and friend of trombonist Arthur Pryor and cornetist Herbert L. Clarke, Holton enjoyed wide renown. At forty year’s of age, Frank Holton created his own recipe for trombone slide oil. He soon took on the sale of used band instruments. H. A. Vander Cook (who later started the Vander Cook School of Music) stated that, “The present factory is the result of his perseverance and his making one good tone at a time, which method he applied to overcome the obstacles as they arose before him. Holton’s contacts and friendships made in his professional musician days served him well during these years. Many of his friends in the theatre and dance band circuits had made their way to top symphony jobs, bringing their Holton instruments to Boston, New York, Philadelphia and other highly respected orchestras.
One interesting note is that the first trumpet player with the Boston Symphony, Vincent Bach, used and endorsed the Holton trumpet at that time. In 1917, Holton had completed tooling for a complete line of saxophones, in order to meet with the saxophone craze that was just beginning. His factory, though, was at capacity and needed to grow. One of his early customers and friend suggested that Holton combine his love of Wisconsin farms with his work and set up a new factory in Elkhorn, Wisconsin. The citizens of Elkhorn built him a factory of over 35,000 square feet and, while bringing in or training a workforce proved difficult, the first profits for the Wisconsin-based company showed themselves in 1920. The organization of school bands and the promise of ?a playing band within twelve weeks, brought Holton good sales results, but this growth in student instrument demand was not a good fit for the higher-priced professional instruments that Holton was producing. The company introduced lower-priced outsourced instruments under such names as Pertin and Beaufort until it could introduce its own ?Collegiate? line in the early 1930’s. Mr. Holton retired at age 82 and sold his controlling shares to longtime associate, William Kull. Frank Holton died on April 16, 1942. Kull remained the CEO until his death in 1944, but the Frank Holton Company was essentially run by the sales manager, Elliott Kehl, a long-time Holton employee. Kehl found war work to keep the factory open during a time when all brass was directed to the war effort. Over the next several years, Kehl was allowed to purchase a majority share in the company as he led a program of re-engineering and improving the line of instruments. Kehl also revived work with key artists, including Phillip Farkas, first horn player of the Chicago Symphony. In 1956, the Holton Farkas model French horn was introduced to great acclaim. That same year, new tooling for saxophones brought Holton into the modern saxophone world.
In 1962, the decision to sell the Frank Holton Company to the G. Leblanc Corporation was made. G. Leblanc brought its strength in woodwind instruments together with Holton brass expertise, creating a much more formidable competitor in the band instrument industry. Through the remainder of the century, Holton continued to produce student and professional brass instruments. Its work with international star Maynard Ferguson and his “Superbone” continued Frank Holton’s commitment to working with the finest artists. Development with key educators such as Chicago’s Ethel Merker keeps Holton French horn development moving even beyond what Phillip Farkas has envisioned. Efforts to help young people progress included the introduction of a child-size single horn. In 2005, the company introduced the new Holton Collegiate line of low brass instruments. Like its predecessor in the 1930’s, this high-quality, lower-priced instrument line provides the ideal combination of performance and value for school music programs. The second century of Holton continues to be written, however, the purchase of Leblanc and Holton by Steinway Musical Instruments bodes well for the company. Working with key artists, serving amateur musicians, and developing exciting new opportunities were key to Frank Holton’s vision. Now as part of Steinway Musical Instruments and its band and orchestra division, Conn-Selmer, Inc., Holton instruments continue to excite the musical mind and provide today’s musicians with the finest instruments on which to experience the joy of music.”
First Christian Church is a Real Frank Lloyd Wright
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I'd always assumed that the peculiar church on Seventh Avenue was a Frank Lloyd Wright knockoff, one of dozens of acclaimed buildings around town that are politely referred to as "homages" because they ape Wright's trademark concrete-and-stone stylings. But it turns out that this prettily peculiar building is that rarest of things: a sanctioned, official Wright design, albeit one built from retired plans that languished on a shelf for more than two decades.
Even if the name First Christian Church (6750 North Seventh Avenue) doesn't ring a bell with you, the building itself &mdash and especially the soaring, triangular bell tower blasting out of its lawn and towering over the property like a giant finger pointing to the sky &mdash likely will. Anyone who's ever traveled through Central Phoenix on Seventh Avenue knows this church it's the only place of worship in town with a 77-foot-tall roof and spire, held aloft by 23 willowy concrete and steel pillars surrounding walls made mostly of glass and capped by what Wright called a "lantern" that extends from one side of the building to the next. Both the lantern and the church's dramatic spire are chockablock with stained glass imported from France, Belgium, and Italy and assembled in Tempe.
Wright's philosophy was that a triangular building reflected an attitude of prayer, but this diamond (or double-triangle) shaped design was not originally intended for First Christian. Wright's plans were commissioned in 1949 by Southwest Christian Seminary, a Bible college that went belly-up the following year. The drawings for the 80-acre university were made public in 1950 and included a chapel, administrative buildings, seminar rooms, library, Greek theater, and faculty housing. When the seminary folded, the plans were returned to Wright, who shelved them.
Got a least-favorite building you want to see covered here? Want to praise a Phoenix design element, new or old, that you've admired? Write to [email protected]
"Dr. Boyce was our minister in the early '70s, and he knew of the plans on file at Taliesin West," remembers First Christian's administrative assistant Sandra Morgan, who's been a member of the church for 30 years. "Dr. Boyce went and talked to Mrs. Wright and convinced her to let him buy the design for the chapel part of the university."
Boyce's save was an auspicious one. The lost plans were transformed into a building that has become a local landmark and has been called "one of the 10 best church buildings ever built in America" by the Church Architects Guild of America. It's certainly among Wright's more unusual designs &mdash and that's saying a lot &mdash and one that proved challenging to the phalanx of engineers hired to erect it.
First Christian, which had been hunkering in smaller, more humble homes since its founding in 1952, broke ground in 1971. By 1973, it resided in a classically Wrightian building of rough concrete and native stone, the famed architect's favored building materials. The low-ceilinged lobby and sanctuary entrance are hung with 20 tons of rock mined from the Arizona desert, and the four-sided spire that caps the worship center appears from every angle to be a triangle. (Try this: Ogle the spire during the daytime while walking the church's grounds or driving through its parking lot, and you'll notice that the spire appears to be turning. It's not it's designed to catch sunlight on each of its sides, any two of which are equal to the others, in such a way that it always appears as a triangle against the sky.)
The church's free-standing, 120-foot bell tower offers the same optical illusion as the roof spire, but with four sides each unequal to the other three. The tower, capped with a 22-foot-tall cross, has no inward supporting structure steel detailer Frank Grossman (a Phoenician who'd built the suspension mechanism for the blue whale that's still hanging in the American Museum of Natural History) created an alloy skeleton that supports the tower's 304 tons of concrete, stone, and steel, materials specified in Wright's notes on the original design, which the widow Wright reportedly insisted be followed to the letter.
If she hadn't, and if the leadership of First Christian Church hadn't gone after her husband's unused plans, Central Phoenix and Seventh Avenue would be a whole heck of a lot less interesting to look at. And while Wright brought a ton of spiritual subtlety to his design (it's even built on 23 triangular pillars of concrete and steel that somehow represent the Holy Trinity), this rustic house of worship is so wonderfully eccentric to look at that even a cranky old atheist like me has fallen in love with it.
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