History Podcasts

Louis Farrakhan

Louis Farrakhan

Louis Walcott Farrakhan was born in New York on 11th May, 1933. After attending Winston-Salem Teachers College he worked as calypso singer.

In 1955 Farrakhan joined the Nation of Islam (sometimes known as Black Muslims), a black nationalist and religious organization that had been founded by Wallace Fard.

Adopting the Arabic name, Farrakhan, he recorded a song, A White Man's Heaven is a Black Man's Hell, for the movement and wrote two plays that were performed in Black Muslim mosques.

Farrakhan moved to New York where he worked closely with the two main leaders of the Nation of Islam, Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X.

After Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam to form Organization of Afro-American Unity in March, 1964, Farrakhan replaced him as minister of Mosque Number Seven in Harlem, New York City.

When Elijah Muhammad died in Chicago on 25th February, 1975, the Nation of Islam split. Farrakhan now became leader of the Black Muslims but Muhammad's son led another faction, the Muslim American Community.

Farrakhan supported Jessie Jackson in 1983 during his campaign to win the presidency. However, he was asked to leave the campaign after upsetting Jewish votes with his comments on Adolf Hitler.

In 1995 Qubilah Shabazz, the daughter of Malcolm X, was accused of plotting to murder Farrakhan. Later that year he organised the highly successful Million Man March of African American men to Washington.


Louis Farrakhan - History

First of all, if you have never read anything I have published before, first check out the score of op-eds I have published on these pages. Do yourself that favor before reporting me to the ADL (which won&rsquot do you much good anyway because, ever since they replaced Abe Foxman with Jonathan Greenblatt, they have become an Obama operation, not an organization focused on fighting Jew-hatred). And, certainly, that opening sentence is eerily reminiscent of the apocryphal question never really asked at Ford&rsquos Theater: &ldquoYes, but other than that, Mrs. Lincoln, how did you like the play?&rdquo

But here&rsquos the thing. My careers &mdash serving as a congregational rav (Orthodox rabbi), practicing high-stakes litigation and as a law professor, and writing opinions &mdash all require a Will Rogers-like commitment to understanding &ldquowhere the other person is coming from.&rdquo A good rav should not only be preaching but should be listening to and understanding how each of his congregants came to be what and who they now are. A litigator, whether in deposition or in jury summation, has got to go beyond his own mindset and understand the mindset of other people.

And an opinion column writer does best by approaching each subject beyond tunnel vision. So it behooves me to grasp why some clearly ignorant fools like a DeSean Jackson of the NFL&rsquos Philadelphia Eagles or an NBA former basketball star like a Stephen Jackson would have the remarkable blind spots they have in extolling a Louis Farrakhan and even parroting his Jew-hatred and quoting Hitler or defending others who do.

It is less challenging, and therefore less time-worthy, to wonder why a Madonna or a Chelsea Handler would support a Jew-hater who admires Hitler. Those are easy: Celebrities like them are idiots in the first instance. Madonna has a gifted singing voice apparently, though I never have heard her except when she told her public that she would like to blow up the White House. She wouldn&rsquot know how, so big deal. And Handler promised to leave America if Trump would be elected in 2016, a public vow she did not understand as she spoke the words. So she also is an idiot. Or, as Minister Farrakhan would say, they both are White Trash.

But what about those Black athletes or the Ice Cube or Nick Cannon-type celebrity who, like 99 percent of the populace, can think deeper than Madonna and Chelsea?

In broad terms, there seem to have unfolded two approaches to the unmistakable data that confirm that Black Americans are situated socially below many others in such areas as economic standing, employment figures, education, health, and so many other areas.

One approach is taken by the race hustlers &mdash the Jesse Jacksons and Al Sharptons &mdash who have made themselves fabulously, incalculably wealthy over the years by preaching a ministry built on demanding Government programs, ranging from cash hand-outs to extending special reparative advantages. So there emerged the Lyndon Johnson, et al. &ldquoGreat Society&rdquo of welfare, food stamps, Section 8 housing, public school community control, college open enrollment and guaranteed admission, &ldquoaffirmative action,&rdquo and such.

Moreover, now &mdash after it seems that a half-century of all that has not achieved racial justice successfully and in many ways has set Black Americans even further back &mdash the new era of Societal Greatness would be expanded to defund the police, open the nation&rsquos borders, open the prisons, and pay Reparations to LeBron James, Beyoncé, and Ice Cube.

Alas, with more than 50 years having passed since the mid-1960&rsquos, there no longer is much point in debating the theory of whether such programs will work because we see manifestly they did not. By and large, with exceptions &mdash because there always are exceptions to everything &mdash it appears quite demonstrably that the &ldquoGreat Society&rdquo approach has failed the Black community horribly, although it has benefited the likes of Jesse Jackson and Al Sharpton very handsomely and has moved the African American vote away from the Republican Party and into the pockets of the Democrats lock, stock, and barrel.

If those Welfare State programs actually had worked, we today would not be hearing calls for newer and more intensified hand-outs, including the ultimate hand-outs: &ldquoReparations&rdquo in 2020 for actions taken before 1865, to be paid by people whose progenitors were not even living in the &ldquoNew World&rdquo of the Americas back then but instead were themselves desperately struggling to survive persecutions or economic hardships in Europe.

The Italians, Irish, Poles, Germans, Jews, Asians, and others who came to America during the Nineteenth Century were not slave-owners nor even well-to-do but were the desperately downtrodden &ldquowretched refuse&rdquo of Europe and Asia who themselves were fleeing potato famines, pogroms, political turmoil during the Age of Metternich, and chaos and poverty. They not only had their own hands full trying to survive once they arrived at Ellis Island or California and eventually made their ways to Boston, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and White ethnic ghettos in New York City, along with West Coast Chinatowns, but many soon found themselves conscripted to fight for the Union and even gave their lives warring against the Confederacy and slavery.

In the end, Great Society &ldquowelfare&rdquo broke up the American Black family as nothing before had done. Newly disrupted and fragmented one-parent families found themselves condemned to a new poverty, with boys particularly damaged by growing up without fathers at home as role models. The schools, by being ever-increasingly &ldquocompassionate&rdquo and lowering normative standards, inadvertently deprived new generations of their competitive edge going forward.

It all is so tragic. But that half century of failed Government &ldquolargesse&rdquo has fueled the race hucksters magnificently, as they continue to build on their failed model for success, reaping their own personal gains from federal, state, and municipal Governments that pay them off handsomely along with their organizations, while leaving their minions behind, generation after generation. Meanwhile, they obfuscate those minions on the narrative that the Democrats &mdash the so-called &ldquoprogressives&rdquo &mdash are the ones ready to help, doling out tokens from the public bourse, and their public then dutifully reelect Democrats, decade after decade after decade, to dominate the governments and legislatures of their inner failed cities: the lists we all know that include Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, St. Louis, Memphis, and so many more.

It never has worked for Black America until now, and there comes a point where one shakes his or her head and wonders when the victims of the &ldquolargesse&rdquo will realize it never will, and there needs to be a better way.

Which brings us to Farrakhan. Farrakhan actually promotes the better way. He really does. He accurately does not trust White &ldquolargesse&rdquo and &ldquocompassion&rdquo and charity. Indeed, he simply does not trust Whites. Well, more bluntly, he despises Whites as trash. OK, fine, no offense taken &mdash &ldquosticks and stones,&rdquo and all that. Thus, instead, Farrakhan promotes Black self-help:

Don&rsquot expect the White man (or &ldquoKaren&rdquo) to do &ldquosquat&rdquo for you you have to do it for yourself. You have to get a job and go to work. You have to stay out of jail by living lawfully, honorably, modestly, with dignity. You have to be an example for your kids. The women have to dress modestly and tastefully if they want to be taken seriously and stay out of trouble. Men should wear dignified clothing, even suits with bow ties. It is not about dressing expensively with men&rsquos suits from Harrods and women&rsquos outfits from Armani. It simply is about dressing and comporting oneself gracefully with modesty and dignity.

Farrakhan in that sense is the anti-Sharpton. He does not expect a thing from the Government rather, he believes Blacks can be and inherently are better than White people. Fine with me &mdash and we all have met quite the number of Blacks in our lives who indeed are better than some Whites we have met in our lives. Farrakhan, then, promotes a vision of self-help, hard work, and self reliance. He distrusts government. Don&rsquot expect help from others, and don&rsquot blame them for your own failings. Instead, look in the mirror. And live right so that you stay out of jail.

It is an excellent message. That is why he finds so much support, for example, among certain Black athletes. What do Black professional athletes uniformly have in common that sets them apart from some others in the greater society? Give up?

OK: Black professional athletes make it by self-reliance, hard work, and meeting the highest expectations in their fields of endeavor without getting a break. They are capitalism&rsquos greatest beneficiaries, multi-millionaires, and no one gave it to them by virtue of anything other than their own uniformly hard work. The NBA may be in lockstep with Communist China, and the NFL may be polluted by the toxin of fabulously successful people disrespecting the American flag and failing to love the country that has given them what no other country would. But they all have in common that they had to make it in without affirmative action.

If &ldquothere&rsquos no crying in baseball,&rdquo there likewise is no affirmative action in professional football or basketball. If there were, every team would have to include at least two percent Jews. The New York teams would have to be 10 or 20 percent Jews. For those who follow the NFL and NBA, it is doubtful that the New York Giants, New York Jets, and New York Knicks could have had a more miserable decade just past if half their teams simply had been comprised of Orthodox rabbinical students anyway. At least they would have had more people on the field praying for miracles, and fewer of their players would have been arrested or suspended during the off-season for beating up women, rape, and other such NFL-type infringements.

But there is no affirmative action in the NFL or NBA. Drop enough passes, throw enough interceptions, miss enough free throws, miss enough field goals &mdash and you are gone, with no one giving a flying hoot about your rough childhood, your disadvantages growing up, or &ldquoyour rights.&rdquo Otherwise, again, dozens of Jewish and Chinese young men would be explaining to football and basketball team general managers and coaches that they simply never had a chance, growing up athletically underprivileged, that while other kids were on the playground butting heads and dribbling and shooting and passing and running, their Chinese and Jewish mothers were forcing them to stay indoors and practice the violin, then the piano, then to do their math homework, then their spelling words, then memorize their latest lesson about what the spleen does, and then memorize that in 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue, and that some silversmith supposedly galloped all night yelling &ldquoone if by land and two if by sea.&rdquo And those poor kids from India with the spelling words &mdash of course they are underrepresented in the NFL and NBA. No affirmative action in the NBA and NFL.

So Black professional athletes work darned hard to get what they have. They work long hours. They encounter enormous physical demands. To succeed, they risk terrible injuries, and sometimes they even have had to sustain them and then to work incredibly hard for months, even for a year or more, to return from such devastating injuries to peak form. They understand and relate to Farrakhan&rsquos message of self-reliance and hard work. They know first-hand that the greatest success in life comes from earning on your own, not from depending on others for a hand-out.

The Paradox of Farrakhan is that, while mas of sense in one area, he is a very sick, Hitler-like, Jew-hater. It is what it is. It is not going to chanking lotge It is built into his very Muslim ideology. There is no point in trying to change his mind because that would be like trying to change Hitler&rsquos mind. And, frankly, he never has been and never will be anything in America other than a circus act. So let him compare Jews to termites, and let him just be careful when he stands on wood stages.

But how shall we explain his followers among professional Black athletes, rappers, entertainers? Are they really that hateful towards Jews?

In some cases, presumably yes. After all, if there are some White neo-Nazis, there are going to be some Black Nazis. In that regard, all people are created equal. But to posit something radical, the deeper shame is something more fundamental:

Along their way to excelling in sports or rapping or entertaining, although they are nobly self-made in their one area of excellence by virtue of their own hard work, these Black American success stories who quote and defend and retweet Farrakhan seem never to have learned the high school or college subject of actual history.

Not only do highly rated and recruited football and basketball athletes in college typically side-step getting an academic education, but nowadays even regular college students in America manage to walk out of four undergraduate years of 120 credit hours without knowing any real history, not American history and not world history.

When they tear down monuments, they do not even know who those people were. So they even tear down statues of Teddy Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln, and even abolitionists who died fighting slavery, even a monument in Los Angeles of Raoul Wallenberg of Sweden who gave his life opposing Hitler, because they have absolutely no education in basic history to show for their $160,000 in taxpayer-funded college loans.

Here is the thing: They also do not have a clue who Hitler is or was. Two-thirds of American millennials never even have heard of Auschwitz. This is documented. For all the obsessive spending of tens of millions of dollars by American secular Jews to build Holocaust museums instead of to fund Torah education, the bottom line is that the vast majority of the past two generations of American college &ldquograduates&rdquo would not know the difference between Adolph Hitler, Bette Midler, Batman&rsquos Riddler, and Tevye&rsquos Fiddler.

And that is why so many successful Black athletes love Farrakhan&rsquos message of self-reliance and re-tweet his quotes of Hitler without understanding who Hitler was.

So, for now, I offer a very quick one-minute history lesson to DeSean Jackson, Stephen Jackson, Nick Cannon, and Ice Cube: On page 430 of my 1962 paperback Sentry Publishing edition of the 1943 copyrighted Houghton Mifflin edition of Mein Kampf by Mr. Adolf Hitler, the author describes all Black people as &ldquoborn half apes.&rdquo

Look it up. Just look up in the index the ten references to &ldquoNegroes&rdquo in Mr. Hitler&rsquos book that you and Minister Farrakhan like to quote and retweet. You are quoting from a book that says that each of you &mdash Minister Farrakhan, too &mdash was born genetically a &ldquohalf ape,&rdquo and Mr. Hitler says that is all you ever can be because you are Black, so it is in your blood when you are born. He writes that, even if you learn German and vote for a German party, it still is in your blood, so you remain a &ldquohalf ape.&rdquo Id. at 388-89.

On page 188, Mr. Hitler writes of his WWI experience: &ldquoIn these months, I felt for the first time the whole malice of Destiny which kept me at the front in a position where every ni - - - r might accidentally shoot me to bits . . . .&rdquo (You will have to look it up yourself, Messrs. Jackson, Mr. Cannon, and Mr. Cube to see the full word. It is spelled out fully by Mr. Hitler.)

So if you want to quote Hitler as an authority, be aware that in the same breath and on the same pages he likewise presented himself as an authority that all Black people &mdash and that means you &mdash are genetically &ldquohalf apes.&rdquo Look it up. Any questions?


‘Shark Tank’ investor blasted for praising Louis Farrakhan speech

It was all smiles when Louis Farrakhan strode into a weekly luncheon for the Congressional Black Caucus in Washington DC, where he had been invited to address the most powerful black lawmakers in the country.

The year was 2005, and the Nation of Islam boss was greeted by a new up-and-comer among their ranks, a senator from Illinois — Barack Obama.

“He is much better looking than I am,” Obama said, according to Askia Muhammad, a photographer who snapped an image of the future president glad-handing the divisive, anti-Semitic minister.

Muhammad — recognizing the potentially dangerous impact the photo could have on Obama’s well-known White House ambitions — kept the picture buried for 13 years before releasing the image in his book “The Autobiography of Charles 67X” in 2018.

Obama has repeatedly denounced Farrakhan when asked about him.

Muhammad — a Nation of Islam member — was probably right to be worried. In his decades in public life, Farrakhan has attacked Jewish people as “satanic” publicly questioned the Holocaust blamed Jews for the African slave trade condemned Judaism as a “dirty religion” and praised Hitler as a “great man” — financed by Jews.

He has called white people “potential humans” and accused the “white right” of trying to have Obama assassinated. Nation of Islam theology holds that white people are a creation of an evil black scientist named Yakub. Gay marriage is also “satanic” and was only introduced to Africa by whites.

He also denies Osama bin Laden planned the 9/11 attacks, calling it a “false flag operation” meant to divert American attention away from President Bush “stealing” the 2000 election.

His decades of virulent bigotry towards Jews, whites and the LGBT community has been documented at length by the Anti-Defamation League. Even the far-left Southern Poverty Law Center has declared him a “deeply racist, antisemitic and anti-gay” extremist who leads an organized hate group.

Nevertheless, the 87-year-old minister has wormed his way into the highest echelons of political and celebrity culture and created a fresh round of controversy for sports stars DeSean Jackson and Allen Iverson and actor Nick Cannon, who publicly embraced him or his ideas in recent days.

On a recent episode of his YouTube talk show “Cannon’s Class,” the “The Masked Singer” host plugged Farrakhan and promoted a number of bizarre anti-Semitic and racial theories. Jackson praised Farrakhan and shared a quote, falsely attributed to Hitler, warning that Jews were planning to “blackmail” and “extort” America. Iverson posted a photo of him meeting Farrakhan with the hashtag “bucket list.”

Jackson, Cannon and Iverson all apologized, but the record shows these celebs are far from alone in promoting the Bronx-born hatemonger.

In 2015 Kanye West and wife Kim Kardashian met with Farrakhan and stood for a happy photo, posted to Instagram by rapper CyHi da Prynce.

“Me [Kanye] and @kimkardashian went to see the Minister @louisfarrakhan and I was honored the words he spoke to us were very encouraging,” da Prynce wrote, adding that West asked him to drop some beats for the minister, which he did.

Nick Cannon Tiffany Rose/Getty Images for Lupus LA

Farrakhan has been a guest on Charlamagne Tha God’s radio show “The Breakfast Club” — which also hosted multiple 2020 Democratic presidential candidates. In one 2016 appearance, Farrakhan praised the show for having him on because it allowed his message to reach younger audiences.

“The Honorable Minister Louis Farrakhan discusses why women should dress conservatively to not attract evil men [and] black men being feminized,” read a YouTube description of the interview’s contents.

Farrakhan has also been embraced by black media. In 2015, BET ran a fawning photo series commemorating the 20th anniversary of the hate boss’ Million Man March on Washington. Images featured a who’s who of musicians with the minister, including Killer Mike, Young Thug, Mos Def and Jay Electronica.

When Aretha Franklin died in 2018, a somber Farrakhan was photographed mourning alongside Al Sharpton, Jesse Jackson and Bill Clinton. Farrakhan said he and the queen of soul had a decades-long relationship.

The Bronx-born Farrakhan also has white celebrity fans like Chelsea Handler and Jessica Chastain, who both approvingly posted decades-old videos of him debating audience members on the “Phil Donahue Show” to their Instagram accounts.

“I learned a lot from watching this powerful video,” Handler — who is Jewish — said at the time. She later apologized.

The minister himself is active on social media, particularly Twitter, where his hateful sermons are broadcast to more than 348,000 followers. The tech giant — known for kicking off users for woke transgressions like “misgendering” — has refused countless calls over the years to ban his account.

Many elected officials have found Farrakhan alluring as well. Powerful members of Congress like Reps. Maxine Waters (D-CA) and Al Green (D-TX) have been seen hugging the minister. Noted “Squad” Rep. Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) penned an Op-Ed for the Nation of Islam blog in 2006.

Rep. Danny K. Davis (D-IL) — who has served in the House since 1997 — praised Farrakhan in 2018. “I personally know him. I’ve been to his home, done meetings, participated in events with him,” he told the Daily Caller, adding Farrakhan is an “outstanding human being.”

Even former Secretary of State Colin Powell has posed with Farrakhan, in 2002 at an independence celebration in Jamaica.

The minister’s reach extends deep into New York City. Public Advocate Jumaane Williams, Rep. Yvette Clarke (D-Brooklyn) and Assemblyman Charles Barron (D-Brooklyn) reportedly met with him behind closed doors in 2015 when he visited the Big Apple as part of a multi-city tour. The confab was denounced by the ADL.

“We are extremely disturbed that any elected representative, particularly those with strong records of condemning anti-Semitism and racism, could turn a blind eye to the bigotry of Minister Louis Farrakhan,” Evan R. Bernstein, then-ADL New York regional director said at the time.


Tag: Minister Louis Farrakhan

Delegates, including Reverend Jesse Jackson, marching into the National Black Political Convention, courtesy of Gene Pesek/Chicago Sun-Times, accessed wbez.org.

They agreed that black prisoners should receive fair trials, that black Americans should not die years earlier than white counterparts, that black workers should be afforded a living wage, and that black candidates should be given opportunities to craft legislation that affected their communities. They shared a collective outrage. In 1972, organizers asked them – Americans of color affiliated with Socialists, Democrats, Republicans, Nationalists, and the Black Panthers- if they could overcome differing ideologies to channel this outrage into political action at the National Black Political Convention (NBPC) held in Gary, Indiana. Black poet and activist Amiri Baraka (formerly LeRoi Jones) advocated for the gathering to practice “unity without conformity.”

According to an essay in Major Problems in African American History, the Gary convention was the culmination of a series of uprisings in protest of discrimination, which historians refer to collectively as the Black Revolt. Black Americans were emboldened by tragic events, such as the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965, as well as legislative progress, like the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In an interview, North Carolina convention delegate Ben Chavis recalled:

I had gotten tired of going to funerals. . . . so much of the Movement had been tragic. You know. And I have to emphasize [Rev. Martin Luther] King’s assassination was a tragic blow to the Movement. And so four years later, March of 󈨌, for us to be gathering up our wherewithal to go to Gary, Indiana–hey, that was a good shot in the arm for the Movement.

Historian Stephen Grant Meyer identified 1968, when King was assassinated, as the year in which the modern civil rights movement began to diverge. No longer was integration the primary means to make political and economic gains. This fracture gave rise to a Nationalist faction, which sought to promote black identity and improve living conditions through a separate black nation. The polarization was reminiscent of the late-19th and early-20th century debates between reformer Booker T. Washington and intellectual W.E.B. Du Bois, who both worked to ease the economic and social plight of African Americans. Washington believed this was best achieved by earning the respect of white citizens through hard work and self-help. Du Bois, on the other hand, believed white oppression should be cast off by protests and political activism, in large part through the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), an organization he co-founded.

Black Panther co-founder Bobby Seale. According to the NWI Times, he declared “all black people, involved in any way with survival programs for the black community, [to be] revolutionaries at the National Black Political Convention,” AP Photo, courtesy of the NWI Times. NBPC organizers, who had begun planning the conference in 1970, struggled to find a city willing to accommodate an influx of politically-engaged black Americans. Gary Mayor Richard G. Hatcher, an advocate of civil rights and minorities and one of the first African American mayors of a major U.S. city, volunteered his predominantly black city. Not since the 1930s, with the first meeting of the National Negros Congress in Chicago, had such a massive and diverse gathering of people of color convened to advance their rights. Approximately 3,000 official delegates and 7,000 attendees from across the United States met at Gary’s West Side High School from March 10 to March 12. The attendees included a prolific group of black leaders, such as Reverend Jesse Jackson, Coretta Scott King, Amiri Baraka, Muslim leader Minister Louis Farrakhan, Black Panther co-founder Bobby Seale, and Malcolm X’s widow Betty Shabazz. Organizers sought to create a cohesive political strategy for black Americans by the convention’s end.

Television crews waiting for convention to start, courtesy of the NWI Times.

A bomb threat was called into convention headquarters at the Holiday Inn and a local gang reportedly deposited guns in school lockers. These threats to disrupt the convention necessitated additional security. Uniformed and plainclothes policemen reinforced the northwestern Indiana city. Armed civil defense personnel supplemented the police presence and boxer-turned-activist Muhammad Ali served as sergeant-at-arms.

The high school, decorated with red, white, and blue bunting, thrummed with activity. As vendors sold books, banners, and souvenirs, a band prompted snapping and feet-tapping with “gutsy,” drum-driven music. The Munster Times reported “Two or three white reporters, their faces split with grins, were lost somewhere with the music. A policeman absentmindedly slapped the butt of his pistol to the beat.” Delegates ranging from “pinstripe-suited conservatives to youngsters in colorful flowing robe-type shirts [dashikis] and mod fashions to the black-uniformed para-military” milled about the gym waiting for the delayed convention to finally start. Organizers scrambled to respond to complaints that the elevated platform for journalists blocked the stage.

Welcome poster, courtesy of the NWI Times.

Entertainers like James Brown and Harry Belafonte lent their support to the convention by performing. Comic and civil rights activist Dick Gregory, weighing 90 pounds as a result of fasting to protest the Vietnam War, addressed the audience about issues of policing and drug access and asked, “‘[H]ow can a black kid in Harlem find a heroin pusher and the FBI can’t?'”

State delegations, national organizations, and individuals proposed resolutions in the creation of “A National Black Agenda” (Muncie Evening Press). This agenda would extend the movement beyond the convention. As convention attendee and Distinguished Lecturer at York College City University of New York Dr. Ron Daniels noted, the Black Agenda was “integral to holding candidates, who would seek Black votes, accountable to the interests and aspirations of Black people.”

Delegates from Illinois suggested fines and prison sentences for businessmen found guilty of discriminatory practices. North Carolina attendees proposed a bill of prisoners’ rights that included humane treatment and fair trials. Delegates from Indiana and other states demanded that the U.S. dedicate resources to the plight of black Americans rather than the Vietnam War and end the conflict immediately. North Carolina representatives also urged that black men receive Social Security benefits earlier than white men since their life expectancy was eight years shorter. The Muncie Evening Press noted that “Politicking was intense . . . as state delegations tried to compromise their own views with positions they felt other delegations could support.” Tensions ran so high that part of the Michigan delegation walked out of the convention.

Muncie Evening Press, March 11, 1972, 1, accessed Newspapers.com.

Keynote speakers Reverend Jackson, executive director of P.U.S.H. and Operation Breadbasket, and Mayor Hatcher ignited the crowd and “stoked rhetorical fires aimed at molding the diverse black communities represented here into a solid unit that can tip the political balance this presidential election year and from now on” (Munster Times).

While similar in many aspects, the men’s speeches hinted at the divergence in philosophies pervading the convention. Hatcher believed change could come from within the existing two-party system, so long as the parties responded to the needs of African Americans. However, if legislators continued to neglect black constituents, black Americans would create a third party and, he told attendees, “we shall take with us the best of White America . . . many a white youth nauseated by the corrupt values rotting the innards of this society . . . many of the white poor . . . many a White G.I. . . . and many of the white working class, too.” The party would also welcome “chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Indians [and] Orientals” (Indianapolis Recorder).

However, Jackson, appealing to Nationalists, urged the immediate formation of a black party, potentially called the “Liberation Party.” He asserted “‘Without the option of a black political party, we are doomed to remain in the hip pocket of the Democratic party and in the rumble seat of the Republican party'” (Kokomo Tribune). Jackson also called for the establishment of black institutions to oversee black educational, economic, and judicial matters. He asked the crowd “what time is it?” and the audience, electrified, shouted “It’s Nation Time!”

Harry Williams, “Convention Raps Busing,” The Republic (Columbus, Indiana), March 13, 1972, accessed Newspapers.com.

Jackson’s proposal drew criticism from some black organizations, like the NAACP, which believed that continued segregation, albeit black-led, would impede progress. According to Major Problems in African American History, the NAACP circulated a memo at the convention denouncing the proposal of a separate nationhood for African Americans and criticizing the rhetoric for being “‘that of revolution rather than of reform.'” An Indianapolis Recorder editorial articulated this point, noting “The only road to nationwide achievement by a minority is through cooperation with the majority.”

Presidential campaign poster courtesy of the Library of Congress, accessed BBC.com.

Another contentious issue in the 1970s: school desegregation through the forced busing of black children to white schools. The Jackson faction opposed busing and defined successful black education not as being able to attend white schools, but rather as children attending black-led schools. The endorsement of the presidential candidate that would best represent black interests also generated conflict at the convention. Some delegations supported Democrat Shirley Chisholm, America’s first black Congresswoman, while many Nationalists wanted a leader from a black party.

After intense debate, a steering committee tentatively adopted a National Black Agenda. The committee officially published the 68-page document on May 19, Malcolm X’s birthday. The resolutions included black representation in Congress proportionate to the U.S. black population, a guaranteed minimum income of $6,500 for four-person households, a 50% cut in the defense and space budgets, and an end to national trade with countries that supplied the U.S. drug market. The resolutions, designed to move black Americans towards “self-determination and true independence,” represented major, yet tenuous compromise among the black community.

Image courtesy of NWI Times.

The steering committee also formed the National Black Political Assembly, a body tasked with implementing the Black Agenda. Dr. Daniels noted that, although many of the agenda’s resolutions never materialized, “thousands of Black people left Gary energized and committed to making electoral politics a more relevant/meaningful exercise to promote Black interests.” He attributed the quadrupling of elected black officials by the end of the 1970s, in large part, to the Gary convention and the “audacity of Black people to . . . defend black interests.” The NBPC was notable too for its inclusion of black Americans from all walks of life, rather than just prominent black figures, in formulating how to ease the struggles of the black community. The Recorder also noted that Mayor Hatcher’s reputation “has been considerably burnished in the white community as well as the black by the success of the historic event” (Indianapolis Recorder).

In 2012, Gary hosted the 40th anniversary of the National Black Political Convention. Speakers discussed the issues that had prevailed into the 21st century, such as a disparity in prison sentencing and poverty. One speaker remarked that without Shirley Chisholm, America’s first black president Barack Obama would not have occupied the White House. Another speaker, who ran for mayor of Baltimore, lamented that forty years after the convention “we’re still asking what to do instead of how to do it.” When asked if it was still “nation time” one speaker responded “it’s muted nation time.” Black Americans, they agreed, needed to “have the audacity.”

Contact: [email protected]

SOURCES USED:

“Black Convention Split Over Separation,” Terre Haute Tribune, March 11, 1972, accessed Newspapers.com.

“Black Meet Without Incident Bodyguards, Police Vigilant,” Munster Times, March 12, 1972, accessed Newspapers.com.

“Black Political Movement Born in Gary,” Lafayette Journal and Courier, March 13, 1972, accessed Newspapers.com.

“Creation of ‘The National Assembly’ Concludes Black Political Convention,” Kokomo Tribune, March 13, 1972, accessed Newspapers.com.

Harry Williams, “Convention Raps Busing,” Columbus Republic, March 13, 1972, accessed Newspapers.com.

“Hatcher to Keynote Black Convention,” Indianapolis Recorder, March 11, 1972, accessed Hoosier State Chronicles.

Jay Harris, “Black Political Agenda Hit on Busing, Israel,” Wilmington (DE) Evening Journal, May 19, 1972, accessed Newspapers.com.

John Hopkins, “Leaders Mold Black Power: Warn Parties” and James Parker, “Blacks Marching to Different Drums,” Munster Times, March 12, 1972, accessed Newspapers.com.

“Keeping Watch,” Lafayette Journal and Courier, March 10, 1972, accessed Newspapers.com.

Major Problems in African American History: Documents and Essays, Second Edition, eds. Barbara Krauthamer, Chad Williams, and Thomas G. Paterson (Cengage Learning, 2016): 510-515.


Who is Louis Farrakhan? 10 things to know about the Nation of Islam leader, black activist

Louis Farrakhan, a prominent African-American religious leader and black activist has drawn both scorn for his anti-Semitic comments and praise for his advocacy for the black community throughout his life.

This week, Farrakhan is facing backlash for another string of anti-Semitic comments on Twitter comparing Jews to termites.

He posted a clip of a Sunday speech he gave in Detroit during a 23rd anniversary event for the 1995 Million Man March in which the minister said he supports rapper Kanye West's controversial remarks about repealing the 13th Amendment, then joked about being “anti-Termite” after an anti-Semitic rant.

Twitter told BuzzFeed News in a statement that it will not suspend Farrakhan's account because the platform's recent policy changes have not yet taken effect, so Farrakhan's language is not quite in violation "of any extant policy."

Twitter stripped Farrakhan of his verification status in May after he ranted about “satanic Jews” in a separate speech.

Here are 10 things to know about Louis Farrakhan:

He is the leader of the Nation of Islam.

In 1955, Louis Farrakhan joined the Nation of Islam, an African-American movement and organization rooted in elements of traditional Islam and black nationalism.

In 1964, Farrakhan condemned his rival Malcolm X, a prominent figure in the Nation of Islam at the time. But when Malcolm X broke with the Nation of Islam over political and personal differences with then leader Elijah Muhammad, Farrakhan took his place as minister of Harlem’s Temple No. 7.

When Malcolm X was assassinated, Farrakhan replaced him as the organization's national spokesman. In 2000, Farrakhan appeared on "60 Minutes" with Malcolm X's daughter, Qubilah Bahiyah Shabazz, and said he regretted that his writing may have influenced others to assassinate him, CNN reported.

Farrakhan was disappointed when he was not named Elijah Muhammad’s successor following his death. He instead led a breakaway group in 1978, which he also called the Nation of Islam. Farrakhan’s group preserved the original teachings of Muhammad, unlike his successor, the fifth of Muhammad’s six sons.

He was born in New York.

The 84-year-old religious figure was born Louis Eugene Walcott on May 11, 1933, in the Bronx, New York. He and his family eventually moved from the Bronx to the Roxbury neighborhood in Boston.

He studied music as a youth and eventually became a playwright and film producer.

According to Brittanica, Farrakhan studied music while attending Winston-Salem Teachers College, but dropped out after three years to pursue a career in music.

He went on to perform on the Boston nightclub circuit and was known as “The Charmer.” Farrakhan was a violinist, guitarist and singer. He often sang political lyrics to Caribbean music.

According to CNN, Farrakhan wrote two plays, "The Trial" and "Orgena," which is "a Negro" spelled backwards.

He married his wife Khadijah in 1953, and they have nine children.

Farrakhan (then Walcott) married Betsy Ross in 1953. She’s since changed her name to Khadijah. The pair has four sons and five daughters together.

He’s known for his controversial anti-Semitic, anti-white and anti-homosexual comments.

Farrakhan came into the American public light when he began supporting Rev. Jesse Jackson’s bid for the presidency. However, when he praised Adolf Hitler, calling him “a very great man,” Farrakhan set off conflict with American Jewish voters. He would eventually withdraw his support. He’s denied being anti-Semitic.

He was also active in the fight against drugs and crime, advocating for clean living and black self-help.

Farrakhan often blamed the American government for conspiring to destroy black people with AIDS and addictive drugs, according to Brittanica.

Under his leadership, the Nation of Islam created a clinic for AIDS patients in Washington, D.C., forcing drug dealers out of public housing projects and private apartment buildings. The Farrakhan-led movement also worked with gang members in Los Angeles to do the same.

He continued to advocate for African-American economic independence.

He came into the political realm when supporting Jesse Jackson's bid for the presidency.

Farrakhan also later filed a lawsuit against President Ronald Reagan, claiming his administration’s sanctions actions against Libya and travel ban violate freedom to worship and freedom of speech.

He’s been critized for his early association with anti-American leaders like Libya's Moammar Gadhafi and Cuba's Fidel Castro, but has dialed back his rhetoric in recent years.

In 1991, Farrakhan was diagnosed with prostate cancer.

After his diagnosis, Farrakhan toned down on the racial rhetoric. He suffered a reoccurrence in 2007, but after a long surgery, the prostate and cancerous tissue were removed.

He co-organized the Million Man March in 1995.

One of largest demonstrations in Washington, D.C. history, the Million Man March (or the Day of Atonement) involved 12 hours of speeches directed at black men to promote self-improvement and encouraged them to take responsibility for their families and communities.

He gave what was known as a farewell speech in 2007.

An aging and ailing 73-year-old Farrakhan delivered a "last public address" on the Nation of Islam's annual Saviours' Day in February 2007, calling for Christian-Muslim unity.

He said Jesus and Mohammed "are brothers who come from the same eternal God."

"How dare us try to split up the prophets and make them enemies of each other to justify our being enemies. If Jesus and Mohammed were on this stage, they would embrace each other with love. If Moses and the prophets and Abraham the father would be on this podium with all the prophets, they would embrace each other,” he said.

Farrakhan later spoke at the Justice or Else rally in Washington, D.C. in 2015 and at a Tehran, Iran, rally marking the 37th anniversary of Iran's Islamic revolution, CNN reported.

In 2017, Farrakhan strongly criticized President Donald Trump’s foreign policy agenda involving the Middle East and North Korea.

In 2018, Farrakhan made headlines, again.

According to the Daily Caller, a new photo of Farrakhan and former President Barack Obama at a Congressional Black Caucus meeting in 2005 emerged last week. "The journalist who took the photo said he suppressed its publication to protect Obama's presidential aspirations," the Caller reported.

And on Monday, Democratic Illinois Rep. Danny Davis defended him for being an "outstanding human being," inviting harsh criticism.


FARRAKHAN’S SON IS BEATEN AND SHOT

CHICAGO – Two mystery gunmen burst into a home early yesterday and beat and shot the 42-year-old son of Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan, police said.

Joshua Farrakhan was in fair condition last night at Christ Hospital and Medical Center in suburban Oak Lawn.

A 35-year-old woman who was with Farrakhan at a friend’s residence when the violence erupted at 1:19 a.m., and who was also beaten, did not require hospital treatment.

“We have no idea what motive prompted the attack,” said Pat Camden, a spokesman for the Chicago Police Department. “There’s no indication of drugs.”

The elder Farrakhan, who has been suffering from prostate cancer, had no comment about the shooting, and had not been seen visiting his son as of early last night.

Camden said Farrakhan and the woman were visiting the home of another acquaintance on the South Side when two men burst in, “battered him, battered his friend, and then shot him twice, once in each leg.”

Nation of Islam official Leonard Muhammad said he knew few details of the attack, and that the organization would conduct its own investigation of the shooting. He told The Post it hadn’t been determined whether the organization would cooperate with police.

In 1988, Farrakhan – who has nine children – revealed that his son, then 29, was in a Muslim-inspired program for alcohol and cocaine abuse.


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His mother moved in with Louis Walcott from Barbados, who became his stepfather. After his stepfather died in 1936, the Walcott family moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where they settled in the West Indian neighborhood of Roxbury.

Few know Farrakhan to be a pianist and violinist, but he received his first violin at the age of five and by the time he was 12 years old, he had been on tour with the Boston College Orchestra. It marks his early years as an entertainer. In 1946, he was one of the first black performers to appear on the Ted Mack Original Amateur Hour, where he also won an award. Walcott and his family were active members of the Episcopal St. Cyprian’s Church in Roxbury making Farrakhan a Christian at this stage.

Walcott attended the Boston Latin School, and later the English High School, from which he graduated. He completed three years at Winston-Salem Teachers College, where he had a track scholarship.

A far cry from his fiery speeches denouncing acts of the white race as demonic, Farrakhan in the 1950s worked as a professional musician billed as “The Charmer”. Falling on his Caribbean roots, Farrakhan recorded and released tunes in the mixed mento/calypso style, including “Ugly Woman”, “Stone Cold Me” and calypso standards like “Zombie Jamboree”, “Hol ‘Em Joe”, “Mary Ann” and “Brown Skin Girl”.

His life would take a monumental turn when in February 1955, as a headline act in Chicago, Illinois, his friend and saxophonist Rodney Smith invited him to the Nation of Islam’s annual Saviours’ Day address by Elijah Muhammad.

That same year, Farrakhan became a registered Muslim receiving his “X” placeholder, used to indicate that Nation of Islam members’ original African family names had been lost. Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation he inherited from Wallace D. Fard Muhammad eventually replaced his “X” with the “holy name” Farrakhan, an Arabic name meaning “The Criterion”.

Soon after his conversion, Elijah Muhammad stated that all musicians in the NOI had to choose between music and the Nation of Islam. Many folks couldn’t lose their income source so left the Nation, but Farrakhan although uncertain stayed on. The move ended his professional music and dancing career.

A test of character came for Farrakhan, who had previously served as the minister of mosques in Boston and Harlem and had been appointed National Representative of the Nation of Islam when its leader Elijah Muhammad died in 1975.

Farrakhan was stunned when he was not named Muhammad’s successor following his death. Instead a son of Elijah, Warith Deen Muhammad was settled upon. He reorganized the original NOI into the orthodox Sunni Islamic group American Society of Muslims, with the aim of moving American Muslims into traditional Islam as practiced in the Orient. Meanwhile, he wanted to retain the ‘Americaness’ of their version of Islam so led a breakaway group in 1978, which he also called the Nation of Islam.

He began to rebuild the NOI as “Final Call”. In 1981, he officially adopted the name “Nation of Islam”, reviving the group and establishing its headquarters at Mosque Maryam. Farrakhan’s group preserved the original teachings of Muhammad, unlike his successor, the fifth of Muhammad’s six sons.

Louis and Khadijah Farrakhan via Wikipedia Commons

In October 1995, he organized and led the Million Man March in Washington, D.C. Due to health issues, he reduced his responsibilities with the NOI in 2007. However, Farrakhan has continued to deliver sermons at NOI events. In 2015, he led the 20th Anniversary of the Million Man March: Justice or Else.

He was also active in the fight against drugs and crime, advocating for clean living and black self-help.

In 1991, Farrakhan was diagnosed with prostate cancer. After his diagnosis, he toned down on the racial rhetoric. He suffered a reoccurrence in 2007, but after a long surgery, the prostate and cancerous tissues were removed.

In 1953, he married Betsy Ross (later known as Khadijah Farrakhan) while he was in college. They share nine children in total, four sons and five daughters together.


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During World War II, NOI founder Elijah Muhammad was jailed in the US for encouraging pro-Japanese sedition, based on his vision that the Yellow Race would humble the White. Elijah Muhammad’s racism was rooted in his Southern Baptist upbringing, together with his scapegoating of Jewish merchants as “bloodsuckers” of black people. Race riots in Harlem in 1935 and 1943 — as well as Elijah Muhammad’s adopted home of Detroit — resonated with these themes. Later, Muhammad also saw Israel’s existence as a direct affront to Allah and his own, racist version of Islam.

Starting in the 1960s, Farrakhan gave the NOI’s hateful creed a new reach in an America convulsed by race riots and anti-war protests. In the 1970s, Farrakhan (whom Malcolm X’s widow, Betty Shabazz, accused of inciting and maybe orchestrating his assassination) wrested control of the Nation of Islam from Elijah Muhammad’s son, W. Deen Muhammad, who wanted to lead the NOI into a more orthodox Islamic, less anti-white, and anti-Jewish direction.

In the 1980s, Farrakhan hitched his star as “security chief” to Jesse Jackson’s 1984 and 1988 Democratic presidential primary campaigns. This was when Farrakhan became notorious for calling Hitler “a great man,” and Judaism “a gutter religion.”

In the early 1990s, the NOI’s anonymous Historical Research Department concocted the notorious The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews, alleging that a handful of Jewish merchants “dominated” the Atlantic slave trade and (in later elaborations) that “Jewish rabbis invented racism.”

Farrakhan’s seeming apex was in 1995, when he organized the Million Man March on Washington, promising to rebuild African-American communities from the male grassroots. Very little positive came of this. But in the 21st century, Farrakhan’s relentless gospel of hating whites and Jews — and Korean and Arab ghetto merchants, and gays and lesbians — has survived and even been mainstreamed.

The answer is the rampant, divisive identity politics fracturing the US along racial, religious, ethnic, and gender lines. White racist separatists like Richard Spencer and David Duke consider Farrakhan a soul brother across the racial divide. But some of his greatest support, as documented recently in Tablet magazine, comes from Tamika Mallory and Linda Sarsour, “progressive” co-leaders of the Women’s March, and other figures such as recently-elected Democratic Congresswoman Rashida Tlaib.

In the 1930s, ultra-conservative Germans around President Hindenburg thought they could manipulate Hitler. They were wrong. So too are progressives of all colors and creeds who think that in our divided, frightened country, they can manipulate Louis Farrakhan.

Historian Harold Brackman has tracked Louis Farrakhan since the 1960s.


The Nation of Islam and the House

Louis Farrakhan speaks at the Nation of Islam’s Savior’s Day convention in Detroit, Feb. 19, 2017.

Donald Trump has repeatedly faced calls to disavow anti-Semites, but Democrats have their own anti-Semitism problem. The new House majority leadership includes several lawmakers with ties to the nation of Islam’s Louis Farrakhan:

James Clyburn of South Carolina. Mr. Clyburn, first elected in 1992, will hold the No. 3 post, majority whip, as he did in 2007-11. Mr. Clyburn is also a member of the Congressional Black Caucus, which in September 1993 entered what then-CBC Chairman Kweisi Mfumecalled a “sacred covenant” with the Nation of Islam. The pact was ostensibly dissolved in February 1994, after it emerged that Farrakhan aide Khalid Abdul Muhammad had given a speech in which he called Jews the “bloodsuckers of the black nation.” But in July 2000, Mr. Clyburn, then CBC chairman, formed a partnership with Mr. Farrakhan’s Million Family March.

In 2005 Mr. Clyburn became chairman of the Democratic Caucus. The same year, photojournalist Askia Muhammad reported that “practically all 43 CBC members” (including then-Sen. Barack Obama) met Mr. Farrakhan in preparation for the 10th anniversary of the Million Man March. In 2011 Mr. Clyburn again joined Mr. Farrakhan, for a town-hall gathering in Pittsburgh titled “The Disappearing Black Community.” Mr. Clyburn told the Final Call, the Nation of Islam’s newspaper, that he was “not bothered in the least bit” by criticism of the appearance.

Barbara Lee of California. New York’s Rep. Hakeem Jeffries narrowly defeated Ms. Lee to become chairman of the Democratic Caucus, the No. 4 leadership position. Mrs. Pelosi then named Ms. Lee a co-chairman of the Democratic Steering and Policy Committee. Ms. Lee was at the 2005 CBC meeting with Farrakhan, where she posed for a group photo. In January 2006, she and other CBC members met privately with Mr. Farrakhan in New Orleans. A video shows Ms. Lee embracing Mr. Farrakhan, who calls her “my sister.” Not until March 2018 did Ms. Lee say: “I unequivocally condemn Minister Farrakhan’s anti-Semitic and hateful comments.”

Maxine Waters of California. The new chairman of the Financial Services Committee was also a member of the CBC delegation that met Mr. Farrakhan in 1993 and announced the “sacred covenant.” Ms. Waters appeared at 1997’s Million Women March and attended Mr. Farrakhan’s February 2002 Savior’s Day address, in which he expressed sympathy for Palestinian suicide bombers.

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Louis Farrakhan: 5 of the Nation of Islam leader’s most controversial quotes

An inside look at the controversial Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan.

Louis Farrakhan, who has led the Nation of Islam since the late 1970s, has stirred controversy for his anti-Semitic remarks and anti-white theology.

Among other things he preaches, the 86-year-old minister has led a chant of “death to America” and called for a separate state for black Americans. Last year, Farrakhan was among several far-right or “hate” figures that Facebook permanently banned.

Religious leader Louis Farrakhan gives the keynote speech at the Nation of Islam Saviours' Day convention in Detroit, Michigan, U.S. February 19, 2017. (Reuters)

But his hate-filled views long predate the Facebook ban. Here is a list of Farrakhan’s top five most controversial quotes.

1. “Hitler was a very great man.”

During a 1984 interview broadcast on a Chicago radio station, Farrakhan reacted to Nathan Pearlmutter, then chair of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), who called the minister “Black Hitler” for his anti-Semitic views.

“Here come the Jews don’t like Farrakhan, so they call me Hitler. Well, that’s a good name. Hitler was a very great man. He wasn’t great for me as a black person, but he was a great German. Now I’m not proud of Hitler’s evil against Jewish people, but that’s a matter of record. He rose Germany up from nothing,” Farrakhan said.

2. “I’m not an anti-Semite” but…

During a 2018 speech in Detroit marking the 23rd anniversary of the Million Man March, Farrakhan addressed members of the Jewish community who weren’t fond of him. In a video of the speech posted on Twitter, Farrakhan wrote the caption: “I’m not an anti-Semite. I’m anti-Termite.”


Watch the video: Фаррахан критикует Трампа за убийство Сулеймани (November 2021).