History Podcasts

Martin Shackelford

Martin Shackelford

Martin Shackelford obtained a B.A. degree in history from the University of Michigan, followed by some graduate work in the field. After leaving university he became a delinquency social worker in Michigan. He is currently retired from that position.

Shackelford has investigated the assassination of John F. Kennedy for over 30 years. His primary focus has been on the photographic evidence. He has a large collection of books, slides, documents, videotapes, DVDs and audio recordings relating to the case.

He has also written a large number of articles on the case and for many years was a major contributor to Fair Play Magazine. His JFK work has also appeared in The Continuing Inquiry, The Third Decade, The Fourth Decade, The Assassination Chronicles, The Investigator, Real Crime Book Digest and Review Magazine. His articles appear on the websites The Assassination Web, JFK Place, JFK Lancer and JFK Assassination Research.

He has contributed to books by other researchers, including Ian MacFarlane, Harrison Livingstone and Michael Benson, and has attended many JFK research conferences, including those in Fredonia New York, Providence Rhode Island, Washington DC, Dallas Texas, Chicago Illinois, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, Grand Rapids and Ann Arbor Michigan, and Sudbury Ontario, presenting papers at some of these.

I'm not sure I have a specific theory, as I'm trying to keep as open a mind as I can as new evidence comes out. Some things which look possible, given what I've seen so far:

1. Some intelligence people (David Atlee Phillips, George DeMohrenschildt, etc.) were involved at some stage with Oswald; whether they were involved with the assassination remains obscure.

2. Lyndon Johnson appears to have had some degree of advanced knowledge of the assassination, according to his mistress; his former crony, Billy Sol Estes, says LBJ, his aide Cliff Carter and their "machine" assassin Mac Wallace were involved (Wallace murdered Agriculture Dept. inspector Henry Marshall in 1962; Marshall was investigating Billy Sol Estes; political maneuvers got the death declared a suicide).

3. Anti-Castro activists may have played a role; attention has focused on the DRE, a group with ties in Miami (including to E. Howard Hunt), New Orleans (Carlos Bringuier and INCA, which was involved in publicizing Oswald's activities there) and Dallas (Sarita Odio, a group that met on Harlandale, etc.); Guy Banister, who employed Oswald in New Orleans, was involved in anti-Castro gun-running.

4. Mob figures appear to have played some role (Jack Ruby obviously included); advance knowledge of the assassination was circulating in Mob circles (Santos Trafficante, Carlos Marcello), including at lower levels where it blended with anti-Castroites (Rose Cheramie, a prostitute traveling with an anti-Castro leader, almost gave the plot away two days before the assassination when arrested in rural Louisiana).

5. There is much evidence pointing to the involvement of Texas oil: (the gathering held the night before the assassination by oilman Clint Murchison, which included LBJ, J. Edgar Hoover, John McCloy--later of the Warren Commission, and others, and after which LBJ told his mistress the Kennedy's wouldn't be bothering him after Nov. 22; the involvement of oil industry people throughout (George DeMohrenchildt was an oil geologist with high-level oil industry ties, who worked for a top LBJ backer in 1963; many of the Dallas White Russians who befriended the Oswalds were oil-connected, or tied to defense industry-- like the Paines, where Oswald's wife lived; DeMohrenschildt told friends that oilman H.L. Hunt was behind it).

The confusion enters in because many of these groups blend together:

Oil man Hunt had ties to the Chicago Mob; Murchison had joint business ventures in Louisiana with Carlos Marcello. Oilman DeMohrenschildt worked with the CIA.

The Mob guys and the oil guys put much money into the anti-Castro cause.

The CIA used oil industry jobs as cover, worked with the Mob, and heavily supported anti-Castro groups like the DRE (and worked hard to keep it a secret, even later).

Even with all this, however, this trend toward a blended theory of the assassination is much more coherent than the literally dozens of exclusive theories of past years.

Files said he first met Lee Harvey Oswald in early 1963, in connection with gun-running, in Clinton, Louisiana, via David Atlee Phillips. Both were doing CIA work at the time. There was obviously some government involvement in the assassination, as otherwise they wouldn't have gotten the Secret Service identifications Ruby gave them. Phillips had given him the Remington Fireball for an earlier job.

Files said he saw Frank Sturgis among the crowd of people on Elm Street. He also saw Eugene Brading, whom he had seen at the Cabana with Nicoletti and Rosselli. Files knew Sturgis from anti-Castro activities, as did Rosselli. Files didn't see Oswald at all that day. He and Oswald never discussed the assassination plan.

He would not comment on the murder of J.D. Tippit, except to say that Oswald didn't kill Tippit, and the man who did was still alive at the time of the interview (a later reference possibly referring to the same man indicated he is now in his '80s), and had originally been assigned to kill Oswald. The man came to see Files in Mesquite after the assassination, saying there was a screwup and he had killed a cop...

Problems with the James Files "Confession":

(1) David Atlee Phillips, CIA propaganda expert, would seem an unlikely case officer for a Mob driver and hit man on No Name Key. This seems to be an attempt to tie Files credibly in with Oswald (the Veciana sighting in Dallas of Oswald and Phillips, as Bishop, together), but is doubtful. Also, although John Rosselli was active in Florida preparations for the Bay of Pigs, it is likely that someone other than Phillips introduced him to Files, if Files was at No Name Key. The only thing that sounds much like the real Phillips is the quote near the end about the power of the typewriter.

(2) Lee Harvey Oswald as tour guide.

(3) The plaid reversible coat and the bitten shell casing seem, on the surface, to provide confirmation, but both were details known prior to Files telling his story to anyone. I had heard about the shell well before Files says the fact that it was bitten was discovered (he says 1994). Some people seem to have confused the bitten casing found in the Plaza with the dented casing found in the Depository - these are two separate shell casings.

(4) In connection with Oswald, Clinton and gun-running, David Atlee Phillips again seems inserted artificially into the story here. Oswald and Ruby were both connected to New Orleans people involved in gun-running, but inserting Phillips into the Clinton story is, again, highly doubtful. This is not to say Phillips' role was an innocent one, just that Files seems to be inventing things, or perhaps he was fed inventions.

(5) Files overlooks the fact that the Elm Street crowd was well-photographed. Frank Sturgis was not among the crowd; nor at that point was Eugene Brading in that area; nor was Jack Ruby on the sidewalk below the knoll. None of this is difficult to check. All the relevant photos are in Groden and Trask.

(6) The Secret Service man on the knoll now becomes two men in suits turning people away. There were men turning people away in the area BEFORE the assassination, but not after. It sounds as though Files flubbed some of his borrowed details.

(7) He had documentary evidence, but he destroyed most of it. How convenient.

(8) My guess is that Files was, indeed, Charles Nicoletti's driver, and was involved in the preparations for the Bay of Pigs, but that he is also a good con artist, skillled at blending fact and fiction, which is what I believe he has done here.

The Zapruder film was viewed on the day of the assassination by lab employees after it was processed. It wasn't sold to LIFE until the following day, after being viewed by Secret Service agents and media representatives.

Although Time-LIFE didn't allow public showings of the film, it was available for viewing at the National Archives following the Warren Commission Report's publication, and many researchers viewed it there.

The film was also repeatedly publicly shown in 1969 at the Clay Shaw trial in New Orleans, after which bootleg copies circulated widely. The film was also shown at JFK conferences beginning in 1973.

The idea that anyone had 12 years to "work on" the film is, of course, untenable. No one who saw in on November 22 or 23, 1963 has alleged alteration, and the film was readily viewable by researchers by late 1964, which would be a maximum of 12 months, not 12 years. Many of us had seen the film before it was shown on television in March 1975.

I have examined the arguments alleging alteration of the film, and have found nothing convincing in them. I have also examined the Zavada Report, which seems to firmly establish the film at the Archives is the camera original. The two Secret Service copies of the film are also at the Archives (no missing frames).

Although the limousine slowed considerably, it didn't stop. Witnesses alongside the limousine mostly support this - and most witnesses who report a stop were viewing the limo from behind. I don't recall any early statement by Moorman, Hill or the motorcycle officers that the limo stopped. Some confusion has resulted from the fact that the Warren Commission used an average speed, when the limo went both faster and slower than the average at various points.


Martin Shackelford - History

If, as Martin Shackelford claims, Judyth Baker never discussed Oswald or
the assassination with any friends or family between 1963 and the 1990s
out of concern for her own safety, why did she write a letter to Bertrand
Russell ?

He died in February of 1970. At that time she had been busy raising small
children for several years.

If Mr. Russell sent Judyth a reply and she saved it, why wasn't she afraid
that "they" would monitor her mail from the U. S. Post Office -- before it
became the Postal Service -- and kill her? By contacting Mr. Russell,
Judyth was violating the orders David Ferrie had given her in late 1963.
She says tearfully to the camera in her History Channel interview that she
obeyed his orders for thirty years "because I didn't want to die."
Somebody is lying.

My source on Judyth contacting Bertrand Russell is a September 6, 2006
post in John Simkin's "education forum."

On 22 Dec 2006 23:20:17 -0500, "Patting Wig" <***@valoreventures.com>
wrote:

I'm sure Martin is perfectly sincere, if badly misguided on this
issue.

>If, as Martin Shackelford claims, Judyth Baker never discussed Oswald or
>the assassination with any friends or family between 1963 and the 1990s
>out of concern for her own safety, why did she write a letter to Bertrand
>Russell ?
>
>He died in February of 1970. At that time she had been busy raising small
>children for several years.
>
>If Mr. Russell sent Judyth a reply and she saved it, why wasn't she afraid
>that "they" would monitor her mail from the U. S. Post Office -- before it
>became the Postal Service -- and kill her?

Perhaps because there was no "they."

And Judyth had no part in any plot.

And the plot she cribbed from Haslem simply didn't happen.

>By contacting Mr. Russell,
>Judyth was violating the orders David Ferrie had given her in late 1963.

Except that she never in fact knew David Ferrie.

>She says tearfully to the camera in her History Channel interview that she
>obeyed his orders for thirty years "because I didn't want to die."
>Somebody is lying.
>
>My source on Judyth contacting Bertrand Russell is a September 6, 2006
>post in John Simkin's "education forum."
>
>

Are the folks on the Simkin forum finally catching on to Judyth?

Kinda behind the curve, aren't they?

The Kennedy Assassination Home Page
http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/home.htm

"Are the folks on the Simkin forum finally catching on to Judyth?"

"Kinda behind the curve, aren't they?"

The Kennedy Assassination Home Page
http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/home.htm
__________________________________

I am a member of Simkins Forum (among others). There has been no Judyth
discussions in a very long time there.

Once in awhile someone will bring forward an old Judyth thread from when
she was there posting herself. However, it gets very little if any at
all responses.

Sometimes a new member will mention something about her, but usually no
one even replies.

Also, shortly after her book came out, an attempt was made to start a
discussion, but it really didn't go anywhere at all.

It is my opinion that the Simkins forum is divided on Judyth.

Most just don't know anything about her and really don't care or have
any interest about her or her book. Their interssts are in other areas.

Others do believe her, even though only a few actually read her book.
Perhaps they did see her in TMWKK Segment before it got sacked, and
found her to be credible.
More like just blind-faith though.

A majority though, do not believe her at all and apparenty no longer
even want to discuss her there.

So, I conclude that Judyth is just a non-issue at Simkins forum!

On 23 Dec 2006 13:21:50 -0500, ***@webtv.net (Dixie M Dea)
wrote:

>
>
>John McAdams Quote
>
>"Are the folks on the Simkin forum finally catching on to Judyth?"
>
>"Kinda behind the curve, aren't they?"
>
>http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/judyth.htm
>John
>
>The Kennedy Assassination Home Page
>http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/home.htm
>__________________________________
>
>Hi John
>
>I am a member of Simkins Forum (among others). There has been no Judyth
>discussions in a very long time there.
>
>Once in awhile someone will bring forward an old Judyth thread from when
>she was there posting herself. However, it gets very little if any at
>all responses.
>
>Sometimes a new member will mention something about her, but usually no
>one even replies.
>
>Also, shortly after her book came out, an attempt was made to start a
>discussion, but it really didn't go anywhere at all.
>
>It is my opinion that the Simkins forum is divided on Judyth.
>
>Most just don't know anything about her and really don't care or have
>any interest about her or her book. Their interssts are in other areas.
>
>Others do believe her, even though only a few actually read her book.
>Perhaps they did see her in TMWKK Segment before it got sacked, and
>found her to be credible.
>More like just blind-faith though.
>
>A majority though, do not believe her at all and apparenty no longer
>even want to discuss her there.
>
>So, I conclude that Judyth is just a non-issue at Simkins forum!
>
>I just wanted to clarify!
>

OK, thanks for the information, and Merry Christmas!

The Kennedy Assassination Home Page
http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/home.htm

Although in the past I've been very hard on Martin, as well as
supportive. I don't now or have I ever considered him a liar. He has in
the past done excellent work, and provide a great deal of assistance to
many. myself included.

The supportive evidence for her story, expected to be in Baker's book,
just was not there. Martin was not the only victim of supporting her
story.

I have yet to see any post by any supporter, having had plenty of time to
read and evaluate her book, come forward with anything of "value" gained
by reading it.

"John McAdams" <***@marquette.edu> wrote in message news:***@mcadams.posc.mu.edu.
> On 22 Dec 2006 23:20:17 -0500, "Patting Wig" <***@valoreventures.com>
> wrote:
>
> I'm sure Martin is perfectly sincere, if badly misguided on this
> issue.
>
>
>>If, as Martin Shackelford claims, Judyth Baker never discussed Oswald or
>>the assassination with any friends or family between 1963 and the 1990s
>>out of concern for her own safety, why did she write a letter to Bertrand
>>Russell ?
>>
>>He died in February of 1970. At that time she had been busy raising small
>>children for several years.
>>
>>If Mr. Russell sent Judyth a reply and she saved it, why wasn't she afraid
>>that "they" would monitor her mail from the U. S. Post Office -- before it
>>became the Postal Service -- and kill her?
>
>
> Perhaps because there was no "they."
>
> And Judyth had no part in any plot.
>
> And the plot she cribbed from Haslem simply didn't happen.
>
>
>>By contacting Mr. Russell,
>>Judyth was violating the orders David Ferrie had given her in late 1963.
>
> Except that she never in fact knew David Ferrie.
>
>
>>She says tearfully to the camera in her History Channel interview that she
>>obeyed his orders for thirty years "because I didn't want to die."
>>Somebody is lying.
>>
>>My source on Judyth contacting Bertrand Russell is a September 6, 2006
>>post in John Simkin's "education forum."
>>
>>
>
> Are the folks on the Simkin forum finally catching on to Judyth?
>
> Kinda behind the curve, aren't they?
>
> http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/judyth.htm
>
> .John
>
> The Kennedy Assassination Home Page
> http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/home.htm

On 23 Dec 2006 13:38:15 -0500, "James K. Olmstead"
<***@neo.rr.com> wrote:

>
>Although in the past I've been very hard on Martin, as well as
>supportive. I don't now or have I ever considered him a liar. He has in
>the past done excellent work, and provide a great deal of assistance to
>many. myself included.

I've also taken a hard line on the Judyth affair. She has attacked me
personally on the Simkins group. (I am a member of that group but have
only contributed a few posts.)

If Martin was still posting here, the subject header would have been
disallowed, but sometime along the way (I believe when I was on
vacation earlier this year), Martin decided to stop participating
here. So he is not protected like other posters both LN and CT.

Having said that, I think the name-calling is a "low road" approach to
this whole debate.

Agree or disagree at will . but I see no need to call other people
liars.

>
>The supportive evidence for her story, expected to be in Baker's book,
>just was not there. Martin was not the only victim of supporting her
>story.
>
>I have yet to see any post by any supporter, having had plenty of time to
>read and evaluate her book, come forward with anything of "value" gained
>by reading it.
>
>jko
>
>"John McAdams" <***@marquette.edu> wrote in message news:***@mcadams.posc.mu.edu.
>> On 22 Dec 2006 23:20:17 -0500, "Patting Wig" <***@valoreventures.com>
>> wrote:
>>
>> I'm sure Martin is perfectly sincere, if badly misguided on this
>> issue.
>>
>>
>>>If, as Martin Shackelford claims, Judyth Baker never discussed Oswald or
>>>the assassination with any friends or family between 1963 and the 1990s
>>>out of concern for her own safety, why did she write a letter to Bertrand
>>>Russell ?
>>>
>>>He died in February of 1970. At that time she had been busy raising small
>>>children for several years.
>>>
>>>If Mr. Russell sent Judyth a reply and she saved it, why wasn't she afraid
>>>that "they" would monitor her mail from the U. S. Post Office -- before it
>>>became the Postal Service -- and kill her?
>>
>>
>> Perhaps because there was no "they."
>>
>> And Judyth had no part in any plot.
>>
>> And the plot she cribbed from Haslem simply didn't happen.
>>
>>
>>>By contacting Mr. Russell,
>>>Judyth was violating the orders David Ferrie had given her in late 1963.
>>
>> Except that she never in fact knew David Ferrie.
>>
>>
>>>She says tearfully to the camera in her History Channel interview that she
>>>obeyed his orders for thirty years "because I didn't want to die."
>>>Somebody is lying.
>>>
>>>My source on Judyth contacting Bertrand Russell is a September 6, 2006
>>>post in John Simkin's "education forum."
>>>
>>>
>>
>> Are the folks on the Simkin forum finally catching on to Judyth?
>>
>> Kinda behind the curve, aren't they?
>>
>> http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/judyth.htm
>>
>> .John
>>
>> The Kennedy Assassination Home Page
>> http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/home.htm
>
>

Peter Fokes wrote:
> On 23 Dec 2006 13:38:15 -0500, "James K. Olmstead"
> <***@neo.rr.com> wrote:
>
> >
> >Although in the past I've been very hard on Martin, as well as
> >supportive. I don't now or have I ever considered him a liar. He has in
> >the past done excellent work, and provide a great deal of assistance to
> >many. myself included.
>
> I'll vouch for that, Jim.
>
> I've also taken a hard line on the Judyth affair. She has attacked me
> personally on the Simkins group. (I am a member of that group but have
> only contributed a few posts.)
>
> If Martin was still posting here, the subject header would have been
> disallowed, but sometime along the way (I believe when I was on
> vacation earlier this year), Martin decided to stop participating
> here. So he is not protected like other posters both LN and CT.
>
> Having said that, I think the name-calling is a "low road" approach to
> this whole debate.
>
> Agree or disagree at will . but I see no need to call other people
> liars.

I said Judyth could be the liar if Martin isn't. She lied on camera for
the History Channel. She said she obeyed David Ferrie's orders to keep
absolutely quiet about Oswald between the time of their conversation in
late 1963 and the exit from home of her youngest child.

If "liar" is the wrong word for Judyth, then please explain how she could
obey David Ferrie's orders AND correspond with Bertrand Russell through
international mail, which Judyth knew was vulnerable to eavesdroppers.

She said on camera that Mr. Ferrie wasn't the only person looking for
signs that she was drawing attention to herself. She said that Mr. Ferrie
said that Santos Trafficante would be looking for signs of attention
seeking. Mr. Ferrie supposedly didn't even want Judyth to achieve
anything else in science or cancer research because that could make her a
magnet for people who might express interest in what she had in New
Orleans and with whom. If she obeyed that order, then why correspond with
an internationally famous mathematician, placing her name, address and
handwriting in the possession of a foreign government ? Judyth lied on
camera for the History Channel.

>
> PF
>
>
> >
> >The supportive evidence for her story, expected to be in Baker's book,
> >just was not there. Martin was not the only victim of supporting her
> >story.
> >
> >I have yet to see any post by any supporter, having had plenty of time to
> >read and evaluate her book, come forward with anything of "value" gained
> >by reading it.
> >
> >jko
> >
> >"John McAdams" <***@marquette.edu> wrote in message news:***@mcadams.posc.mu.edu.
> >> On 22 Dec 2006 23:20:17 -0500, "Patting Wig" <***@valoreventures.com>
> >> wrote:
> >>
> >> I'm sure Martin is perfectly sincere, if badly misguided on this
> >> issue.
> >>
> >>
> >>>If, as Martin Shackelford claims, Judyth Baker never discussed Oswald or
> >>>the assassination with any friends or family between 1963 and the 1990s
> >>>out of concern for her own safety, why did she write a letter to Bertrand
> >>>Russell ?
> >>>
> >>>He died in February of 1970. At that time she had been busy raising small
> >>>children for several years.
> >>>
> >>>If Mr. Russell sent Judyth a reply and she saved it, why wasn't she afraid
> >>>that "they" would monitor her mail from the U. S. Post Office -- before it
> >>>became the Postal Service -- and kill her?
> >>
> >>
> >> Perhaps because there was no "they."
> >>
> >> And Judyth had no part in any plot.
> >>
> >> And the plot she cribbed from Haslem simply didn't happen.
> >>
> >>
> >>>By contacting Mr. Russell,
> >>>Judyth was violating the orders David Ferrie had given her in late 1963.
> >>
> >> Except that she never in fact knew David Ferrie.
> >>
> >>
> >>>She says tearfully to the camera in her History Channel interview that she
> >>>obeyed his orders for thirty years "because I didn't want to die."
> >>>Somebody is lying.
> >>>
> >>>My source on Judyth contacting Bertrand Russell is a September 6, 2006
> >>>post in John Simkin's "education forum."
> >>>
> >>>
> >>
> >> Are the folks on the Simkin forum finally catching on to Judyth?
> >>
> >> Kinda behind the curve, aren't they?
> >>
> >> http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/judyth.htm
> >>
> >> .John
> >>
> >> The Kennedy Assassination Home Page
> >> http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/home.htm
> >
> >

Patting Wig wrote:
> Peter Fokes wrote:
>> On 23 Dec 2006 13:38:15 -0500, "James K. Olmstead"
>> <***@neo.rr.com> wrote:
>>
>>> Although in the past I've been very hard on Martin, as well as
>>> supportive. I don't now or have I ever considered him a liar. He has in
>>> the past done excellent work, and provide a great deal of assistance to
>>> many. myself included.
>> I'll vouch for that, Jim.
>>
>> I've also taken a hard line on the Judyth affair. She has attacked me
>> personally on the Simkins group. (I am a member of that group but have
>> only contributed a few posts.)
>>
>> If Martin was still posting here, the subject header would have been
>> disallowed, but sometime along the way (I believe when I was on
>> vacation earlier this year), Martin decided to stop participating
>> here. So he is not protected like other posters both LN and CT.
>>
>> Having said that, I think the name-calling is a "low road" approach to
>> this whole debate.
>>
>> Agree or disagree at will . but I see no need to call other people
>> liars.
>
> I said Judyth could be the liar if Martin isn't. She lied on camera for
> the History Channel. She said she obeyed David Ferrie's orders to keep
> absolutely quiet about Oswald between the time of their conversation in
> late 1963 and the exit from home of her youngest child.
>

You are not allowed to call other posters here liars. Knock it off.

> If "liar" is the wrong word for Judyth, then please explain how she could
> obey David Ferrie's orders AND correspond with Bertrand Russell through
> international mail, which Judyth knew was vulnerable to eavesdroppers.
>
> She said on camera that Mr. Ferrie wasn't the only person looking for
> signs that she was drawing attention to herself. She said that Mr. Ferrie
> said that Santos Trafficante would be looking for signs of attention
> seeking. Mr. Ferrie supposedly didn't even want Judyth to achieve
> anything else in science or cancer research because that could make her a
> magnet for people who might express interest in what she had in New
> Orleans and with whom. If she obeyed that order, then why correspond with
> an internationally famous mathematician, placing her name, address and
> handwriting in the possession of a foreign government ? Judyth lied on
> camera for the History Channel.
>
>> PF
>>
>>
>>> The supportive evidence for her story, expected to be in Baker's book,
>>> just was not there. Martin was not the only victim of supporting her
>>> story.
>>>
>>> I have yet to see any post by any supporter, having had plenty of time to
>>> read and evaluate her book, come forward with anything of "value" gained
>>> by reading it.
>>>
>>> jko
>>>
>>> "John McAdams" <***@marquette.edu> wrote in message news:***@mcadams.posc.mu.edu.
>>>> On 22 Dec 2006 23:20:17 -0500, "Patting Wig" <***@valoreventures.com>
>>>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>> I'm sure Martin is perfectly sincere, if badly misguided on this
>>>> issue.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>> If, as Martin Shackelford claims, Judyth Baker never discussed Oswald or
>>>>> the assassination with any friends or family between 1963 and the 1990s
>>>>> out of concern for her own safety, why did she write a letter to Bertrand
>>>>> Russell ?
>>>>>
>>>>> He died in February of 1970. At that time she had been busy raising small
>>>>> children for several years.
>>>>>
>>>>> If Mr. Russell sent Judyth a reply and she saved it, why wasn't she afraid
>>>>> that "they" would monitor her mail from the U. S. Post Office -- before it
>>>>> became the Postal Service -- and kill her?
>>>>
>>>> Perhaps because there was no "they."
>>>>
>>>> And Judyth had no part in any plot.
>>>>
>>>> And the plot she cribbed from Haslem simply didn't happen.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>> By contacting Mr. Russell,
>>>>> Judyth was violating the orders David Ferrie had given her in late 1963.
>>>> Except that she never in fact knew David Ferrie.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>> She says tearfully to the camera in her History Channel interview that she
>>>>> obeyed his orders for thirty years "because I didn't want to die."
>>>>> Somebody is lying.
>>>>>
>>>>> My source on Judyth contacting Bertrand Russell is a September 6, 2006
>>>>> post in John Simkin's "education forum."
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>> Are the folks on the Simkin forum finally catching on to Judyth?
>>>>
>>>> Kinda behind the curve, aren't they?
>>>>
>>>> http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/judyth.htm
>>>>
>>>> .John
>>>>
>>>> The Kennedy Assassination Home Page
>>>> http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/home.htm
>>>
>
>

Anthony Marsh wrote:
> Patting Wig wrote:
> > Peter Fokes wrote:
> >> On 23 Dec 2006 13:38:15 -0500, "James K. Olmstead"
> >> <***@neo.rr.com> wrote:
> >>
> >>> Although in the past I've been very hard on Martin, as well as
> >>> supportive. I don't now or have I ever considered him a liar. He has in
> >>> the past done excellent work, and provide a great deal of assistance to
> >>> many. myself included.
> >> I'll vouch for that, Jim.
> >>
> >> I've also taken a hard line on the Judyth affair. She has attacked me
> >> personally on the Simkins group. (I am a member of that group but have
> >> only contributed a few posts.)
> >>
> >> If Martin was still posting here, the subject header would have been
> >> disallowed, but sometime along the way (I believe when I was on
> >> vacation earlier this year), Martin decided to stop participating
> >> here. So he is not protected like other posters both LN and CT.
> >>
> >> Having said that, I think the name-calling is a "low road" approach to
> >> this whole debate.
> >>
> >> Agree or disagree at will . but I see no need to call other people
> >> liars.
> >
> > I said Judyth could be the liar if Martin isn't. She lied on camera for
> > the History Channel. She said she obeyed David Ferrie's orders to keep
> > absolutely quiet about Oswald between the time of their conversation in
> > late 1963 and the exit from home of her youngest child.
> >
>
> You are not allowed to call other posters here liars. Knock it off.

Does Judyth still post to Dr. McAdams' group? I can pop in her History
Channel DVD and listen to her say she kept quiet for thirty years under
orders from David Ferrie, then I can read about her blabbing to Bertrand
Russell and her own sister. The DVD is my property, and so is my
computer. That means I can call Judyth a liar. I have evidence, and so
do you.

If you can't call Judyth Baker a liar, then you can't call me a liar.
Alright then, a police officer visited my junior high school in December
of 1963 and told all the kids never to say that someone other than Oswald
shot Kennedy. The officer said if we did make that allegation, a scary -
looking man named David Ferrie would kill us.


IBEX, TEXAS

Ibex has no 19th Century history, appearing in 1921 with the discovery of oil by the Colorado oil company Ibex (hence the name). Eager to exploit the reserves, a huge and costly ($300,000) refinery was constructed. Ibex became a boom town - a magnet for unemployed roughnecks and roustabouts plus their families.

A post office opened in 1923 although it's lifespan was brief. Ibex had the necessary businesses for longevity, including civilizing amenities like a four room school that saw triple duty as a church and meeting house.

Ibex's death was the result of a fire in 1925. Production decreased to a fraction of its previous output and people fled, seeking work in other boomtowns or cities with a more stable economy.

Enough people remained for 48 people to be counted in 1948, but by 1960, it had dropped to a mere 35 residents - a figure it has retained for the 1970, 1980 and 1990 census. It has transformed into an agricultural community but its brief "golden years" are in the distant past. In the mid 1990s the population was somewhere around 25.


Dr. Jesse Martin Shackelford, MD 1869-1941

Dr. Shackelford was born and reared in Irisburg, Virginia, the son of William George and Pattie Martin Shackelford, a direct descendent of General Joseph Martin.

He was educated in the public schools of his community and then attended Virginia Polytechnic Institute at Blacksburg, later preparing for the practice of medicine at the Baltimore Medical College.

Upon completing his degree in medicine, Dr. Shackelford returned to his native community to practice medicine. He bought property in Irisburg and built a home, a wing of which was used as a hospital from 1895 to 1899.

Five years later, he moved to Martinsville where he remained. On April 29, 1921, Dr. Shackelford purchased the Teague residence on Church Street and created a hospital there. The Shackelford Hospital was established in 1921.

“A great humanitarian, surgeon and humorist.”

Dr. Jesse Shackelford originated the Hospital Association of Virginia and also started the Henry County Medical Society.

Dr. Shackelford married Fannie Gardner Armstrong, born July 2, 1869 and died February 26, 1937.


Martin Shackelford - History

MARTIN SHACKLEFORD RESCUE ASSOCIATION

I am forming a society of well meaning people who wish to get together to
assist in any way possible with the rescue & rehabilitation of well known
JFK Assassination Martin Shackleford.

Martin was known to us for years as collaborator with Harrison Livingstone
on such seminally interesting books as High Treason 2 and 3 too if I'm not
mistaken.

A figure of moderation and a voice of fair minded CT reason here on aajfk,
he never bottom posted when a free top was available, and kept his replies
short & to the point, but I think we can all agree he was one of the good
guys who never swore at people or said anything too dogmatic. However -
and here's the main point - since Martin's soul was captured by a low
flying demon of the species Imaginativus Totalis, he has been imprisoned
in a far tower & forced to spew the most abominable verbal garbage all day
every day proclaiming the excellence & wonder of his monstrous captor.
Rather in the fashion of the well known Lord of the Rings story, I propose
a Fellowship of the Green Glass, to be composed of persons of all ranks,
to organise & carry out a flanking mission into Imaginativus Totalis Land
& attempt a rescue. All those willing and eligible to conjoin in such an
exploit should sign with their names or their mark below, and we will be
in touch with you by carrier pigeon

Trulye
Ye Burgomeister Seatonne

Very funny (sort of), but why not simply drop the subject altogether,
now and forever, Amen! - prw (Canuck)

##PS says : With that kind of attitude, Mordor would never have been
liberated.

In the past, when I've stopped posting for a time, the attack group has
posted
a flurry of messages suggesting that I no longer believed Judyth's account,
and declaring victory--I couldn't let that nonsense stand, so things would
resume.

Well, I’m loathe to jump in here because I have expressed my opinion
re Shackelford on more than one occasion and might rightfully be
accused of bias. But I don’t think you can just jump into this thing
willy nilly. You need a structured program like the AA 12-step thing
as Shackelford has been in denial for more than nine years (signed on
to Team Judyth in May ‘99) and has refused to give an inch on anything
that might undermine Judyth’s (and his own) claim to credibility such
as the 60 Minutes fiasco, the Cancun disaster and, now again, the Mary
Ferrell email. He needs to make a clean breast of things. Moreover,
the program should be open to others as well. For example, you
mention Harry Livingstone, who was the faux publisher of Judyth’s
vanity book, and who told the AARP that the medical evidence in the
JFK inquiry "is a fraud and a lie" (forgery all over the place).
Shackelford repeatedly has expressed his admiration for Livingstone’s
medical analysis so you see the connection. I have a list of other
possible candidate as well but first maybe we had better work on the
issue at hand. In medical circles, I think they call that triage.

The really sad thing is that the NEXT time Martin comes forward to promote
a self-proclaimed Oswald mistress/CIA bioweapons engineer/ solution to all
things mysterious about the JFK assassination/ eyewitness to the genesis
of the AIDS epidemic/etc., etc., etc., no one is going to believe the poor
guy.

Always good to have the "expert" opinion of someone who can't tell the
difference between the AARP (Am. Assoc. of Retired Persons) and the
ARRB (Assass. Records Review Board).
Glass houses, Leyden.

Well, I’m loathe to jump in here because I have expressed my opinion
re Shackelford on more than one occasion and might rightfully be
accused of bias. But I don’t think you can just jump into this thing
willy nilly. You need a structured program like the AA 12-step thing
as Shackelford has been in denial for more than nine years (signed on
to Team Judyth in May ‘99) and has refused to give an inch on anything
that might undermine Judyth’s (and his own) claim to credibility such
as the 60 Minutes fiasco, the Cancun disaster and, now again, the Mary
Ferrell email. He needs to make a clean breast of things. Moreover,
the program should be open to others as well. For example, you
mention Harry Livingstone, who was the faux publisher of Judyth’s
vanity book, and who told the AARP that the medical evidence in the
JFK inquiry "is a fraud and a lie" (forgery all over the place).
Shackelford repeatedly has expressed his admiration for Livingstone’s
medical analysis so you see the connection. I have a list of other
possible candidate as well but first maybe we had better work on the
issue at hand. In medical circles, I think they call that triage.

Let’s see, Shackelford, you testified before the ARRP, didn’t you?
Your presentation is on line. Pretty exciting stuff -- looks like about
two-three minutes worth of copy, citing Tony Summers and other CTs. Why
did you bother? No one on the panel was sufficiently interested to even
ask a question. Too bad you didn’t know Judyth then. That would have
gotten their attention when you described her sleeping with Oswald
virtually on her wedding night and working to get Castro in a secret
underground lab. (She would have wanted to skip that part about killing
off test subjects.) Judyth, of course, took a pass on the ARRB and the
HSCA and the Clay Shaw trial and the WC investigation. It’s almost
enough to make you doubt her sincerity… unless, of course, you’re
Martin Shackelford.

It was the AARP that Platzman tried to win over:

From:hplatz Jul-15, 2007 6:25 PM 2001

I apologize for posting before reading all that has been said. But I
have personal knowledge of a key witness.

(1) Bugliosi says that a book by the woman who claims to have had an
affair with Oswald, Judyth Baker, was in fact written by the author
Harry Livingstone. I know he didn't write it because I was there and
saw them fighting over it for over a year. He didn't write it., and he
didn't edit it nearly enough.

(2) Several of these so-called myths show an unfamiliarity with the
subject, hard to believe for someone who has churned out 1,600 pages
-- but the literature is vast and his temperament is a hot one. His OJ
book was a fun, if hysteria-laced, read. He was right, but he really
never got around to the deeper fIaws in the defense case. I know too
much about this subject to find him much fun. If anyone would like a
few quick words on each, I'd oblige.

(3) Oswald was a patsy, as claimed. Indeed, a few years back, 60
Minutes promised they would run a story on Judyth, which Don Hewitt
pleaded with me not to take anywhere else, saying "this is the biggest
story we will ever do." What they found is not the usual "low-hanging
fruit" 60 Minutes picks for its investigations. The subject needs
research. That research was, for them, too costly -- and it was
sabotaged by the gentleman who now edits the US News & World Report. I
was there to see him do it.

CBS' lead consultant, Howard Liebengood, begged them, that year and
the year after, to give her story the "platform" she deserves.
Liebengood was Sen. Howard Baker's right-hand man for decades. On
Baker's Watergate Committee, he was Fred Thompson's Deputy Counsel.
His experience in intelligence oversight extends from the Church
Committee thru the Los Alamos threats. He was the man behind the so-
called Baker Report. Then he was chief of staff to Sen. Thompson, and
after Thompson went off to Law & Order, to majority leader, Bill
Frist. If Thompson became president, he would no doubt have been the
White House chief of staff -- had he not died at age 62.

Oswald was part of a plot - one to kill Castro, not Kennedy. Garrison
came so close to discovering this, but lacking enough evidence, his
investigation veered off course. Oswald was, as one still-living major
figure told me and as has been reported elsewhere, "one of Bobby's
boys." Judyth Baker, and less centrally, Lee Oswald, were part of a
plot to use lung cancer cells to kill Castro. That is the short
story.


Martin Shackelford - History


1830 Florida State Census

transcribed by Genealogy Trails Transcription Team

In 1821 the Territory of Florida was organized into two counties, Escambia and St. Johns. Escambia County, formerly known as ‘West Florida’, comprised the territory west of the Suwanee River, and St. Johns County, formerly known as ‘East Florida’, included the rest of the territory of Florida. The first Census presented herein is that taken by the United States Government in the year of 1830.

During that period (1821-1830) the two original counties had been divided and subdivided, making seventeen counties in the first census. This census reported a total population of 34,730, representing two races, (18,185 white and 16,345 negro).”

(Ref: The Seventh Census of the State of Florida, 1945, page 4)

The entire 1830 census, Florida’s first census available to the scholar, has been copied and indexed in one general index, showing the county wherein the head of household, by name, lived.

This census has been copied by myself, with the exception of three counties: Madison, Jefferson and Hamilton, which were submitted in typed form to us, by Judge Guy McClain, County Judge, Lafayette County, Mayo, Florida.

Some of the handwriting is difficult to read on the microfilm copy (even on the original books also), and unless one was familiar with every family name in a county, it would be impossible to copy the names absolutely correctly. However, a diligent effort has been put forth to copy the names as correctly as possible, and to omit none in this index.

Note that only the white persons were listed by name. All colored were shown in the category of free persons of color, or slaves, by number only, not by name.

In a personal examination of this census for any name which may interest the scholar, the information which can be added by so doing, or having this done, is the age bracket of persons living in each household, as:

Male: Ages under 5 5 to 10 10 to 15 15 to 20 20 to 30 etc.
Female: Ages under 5 5 to 10 10 to 15 15 to 20 20 to 30 etc.

In the following index all names which bear the prefix, de, del, etc., are listed in order of the name spelling without the prefix, alphabetically. Question mark indicates name was not completely decipherable. Many names are obviously misspelled, but no attempt has been made to correct the spelling. Thus, a name should be searched for by sound as well as correct spelling.

1830 FLORIDA – U.S. CENSUS

"The volume reproduced on this roll (microfilm), is labeled backstrip Fifth Census 1830 Population Florida. It contains the population schedules of the census of 1830 for the Territory of Florida. The schedules for the several counties then in existence appear in the following order (on the microfilm roll):

Mosquito: 1-2 1-3
Nassau: 3-9(5)-17
Duval: 10-19 19-37
Saint Johns: 20-35 39-69
Alachua: 36-52 71-103
Escambia (in part) 53-66 105-131
Escambia (in part) 67-71 133-141
Walton (in part) 72-79 143-157
Jackson: 80-95 159-189
Washington: 102-106 (202) (210)
Monroe: 106-11 211-221
Leon: 112-137 223-273
Gadsden: 138-155 275-(308)
Jefferson: 156-170 311-339
Hamilton: 171-175 341-349
Madison: 176-179 351-(356)


Within each of these political divisions, the information in the schedules is subsumed under the names of heads of families and comprises, for each family, facts of the age of group distribution of it of its members (taken by sixes)(including distinction between the free and slave negroes), and of physical disabilities. The only names that appear in the schedule, therefore, are the names of heads of families or of those individuals who were not associated with a family unit.

An original of a statement signed by the Indian agent to the Seminole Indians which is attached to sheet 53 of the volume indicates that the council of that tribe refused to permit the enumeration of the negroes residing in the Seminole Indians.

A census sheet extends over two pages, and therefore two frames of the microcopy must be examined to obtain all information respecting a particular family or individual. It should be noted that these records bear three sets of numbers: On Page which contains the beginning columns of the sheet appears, in pencil, the sheet numbering on the opposite page appears both a stamped sheet number and a penciled page number. When more than two successful pages are blank, they have not been photographed, and the omissions have been indicated at the proper point in the film.

In referring to this volume, scholars may wish to state that it is among the records of the Bureau of Census in the National Archives. An appropriate citation of a specific page in the volume is the following (example):

Fifth Census (1830), Florida, Sheet 156 (p. 311)

(Ref. Microfilm Roll 1830 U.S. Census).

BEGINNING 1830 FLORIDA CENSUS
As enumerated by the United States
Names of all heads of household, A to Z
All counties


Why I run the Peachtree: Martin Shackelford

Quote: "Through diet and exercise, I'm down to 200 pounds, off all my medications — high blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol — and am ready to run the race that I grew up hearing about but never dreamed I'd run."

Residence: Liberty, Ky.

Number of Peachtrees: This will be my first.

Why do you run? This will be my first year healthy enough to run the Peachtree Road Race. I have weighed more than 300 pounds for over 20 years. . This year will be the first year that I, along with my two younger brothers, who still live in Georgia, will all run together.

Why did you start running? I began running as a part of my cardio training during the 2010 Casey County — Kentucky — Biggest Loser program, which I won with a 23-percent weight loss in 12 weeks.

What will running in your first Peachtree mean to you? This event will have special meaning for me because my brothers have always been fit — one brother has even run in a prior Peachtree. But as of 15 months ago I was over 350 pounds and never dreamed I would get the chance to do something so significant and athletic with the people I love most.

What do you tell people about the race? It will be a personal-best-for-me run in this year's Peachtree Road Race. The oldest member of Team Shackelford can't wait to run! It'll be three against over 55,000.

What is your favorite race T-shirt? In this year's design contest, I like the one that has the red, white and blue peach set against the large 2011 design.

What do you like about the race? That it's not just a 10K. To me the Peachtree Road Race is going to be a six-mile patriotic party for athletes.

What other races have you participated in? Since losing 150 pounds, I've run in five races this year. The last was the 2011 Lexington [Kentucky] Half Marathon. I ran that in 1 hour, 57 minutes.


A proper goodbye

But longtime friends and associates weren&rsquot about to let the soft-spoken Montgomery slip out of the courthouse for the last time without a proper goodbye. On Dec. 17, the courtroom where Montgomery presided for county commissioners meetings was turned into a party room.

Plaques and certificates were read, including from his &ldquocourthouse family,&rdquo the governor, and a certificate from the state House of Representatives verifying that an accompanying Texas flag had flown over the state Capitol. After 24 years, Montgomery left office as popular as he was on his first day.

&ldquoI can&rsquot think of anything bad to say about Ross,&rdquo said Lanham Martin, Precinct 3 county commissioner.

Not that he was looking for something bad to say about him. In fact, Martin sought Montgomery&rsquos advice when he first considered running for county commissioner. Ever since taking office, Martin has liked what he has seen from Montgomery as a leader. The county judge lets commissioners do most of the talking. But if a commissioner, or a visitor, talks a little too long, Montgomery steps in.

&ldquoWhen he thinks enough&rsquos enough, he lets everybody know enough&rsquos enough,&rdquo Martin said.

For the past 15 years, Jeannie Balliew has been the secretary to Montgomery, the county attorney, and the county extension service. Montgomery is as easy-going with employees, Balliew said, as he is with the public.

&ldquoHe never demands anything&rdquo Balliew said, &ldquoIf he wants anything, he asks you.&rdquo


Martin Shackelford - History

I'd like to thank Noel Holobeck at the St. Louis Public Library for pointing me in the right direction to the glean the most from existing books on the subject and the staff at the Father Faherty's Jesuit Archives, especially Nancy Merz. They not only provided information of the all-important Jesuit connection, but also a large number of diocesan priests.

To put a limit on the scope of this document I arbitrarily chose to include the time period of 1759 through 1900. I also made the conscious decision to arrange this work in a chronological order as opposed to alphabetically. The reason for this that many of the early churches changed names nearly as often as they changed addresses. However, being on the Internet it should be relatively easy for everyone to click "Edit", "Find" to retrieve the info you need.

Catholic Prior to it's founding, Ste. Genevieve was a mission, a satellite of Immaculate Conception parish in Kaskaskia. Several years after it's founding, it was administered to by Philibert Watrin, a Jesuit priest. First permanent priest was another Jesuit, Jean-Baptiste de La Morinie. Father Sebastien L. Meurin became pastor in 1764. This parish had 900 parishioners in 1850. Located in Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri 1759 St. Louis (Old Cathedral) Catholic Originally located at Walnut and 2 nd , the current Old Cathedral was the fourth structure to be built on this property. The first priest on record (1766) in St. Louis was Father Sebastian L. Meurin. Shortly after 1770 a log church was erected. Father Pierre Gibault occasionally came up from Kaskaskia. About 1772 Father Valentin, a Capuchian friar came to St. Louis. Arriving in May 1776, and staying twelve years in St. Louis, German-born Father Bernard De Limpach, was St. Louis' first pastor. Father Ledru took over in 1789, Father Didier came in 1793, Father Janin in 1800. Father Thomas Flynn, administered the parish from 1806-08. Father Savine arrived in 1811, staying about six years. The log church gave place to brick, a large structure located on Second and Walnut streets. The building of this brick church was begun in 1818 and the first service was held in it Christmas, 1819. The brick church preceded the cathedral. When Bishop William DuBourg began the first log cathedral Father Francois Niel became curate in 1818. He was followed by Father Saulnier. The first St. Louis born priest was Father Regis Loisel. Italian Father Felix De Andreis performed parochial duties at the (Old) Cathedral from 1820-1823. Another Italian, Father Joseph Rosati, C. M., became head of the St. Louis diocese in 1826. He proceeded to build the St. Louis Cathedral (Old Cathedral), and prevailed on the Jesuits to assume control of St. Louis University in 1832. Other early St. Louis Italian priests includes Father Aristide Anduzzi, Father John B. Tornatore, and Father Anthony Penco. Notable Belgian priests included was Jean Pierre De Smet, Peter John Verhaegen (first president of SLU), John Anthony Elet and James Van De 1770 Carondelet Churches

( Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church )

( St. Joseph of the Angels Church ) Catholic A hilltop site northwest of the present intersection of Holly Hills and Pennsylvania Ave. was set aside for church purposes in 1767 by Carondelet's founder, Clement DeLore De Treget. The first church erected there was a log chapel dedicated to St. Francis Xavier in 1775. Two succeeding churches, bearing the names Our Lady of Mount Carmel and St. Joseph of the Angels , were erected on the site. The first of these, built in 1819, was described as a "modest hut of rough boards". The second church was a stone structure completed in 1835. See also " St. Mary and St. Joseph Church " 1775/1819/1835 St. Ferdinand Church

Catholic (French) Founded by the Jesuits, the original church was built of logs, and that church was destroyed by fire in 1836. Father Didier was the first pastor, and Bernard De Limpach was one of the early priests. The present brick church was dedicated in 1821 by Father De la Croix, and completed in 1832. Father Van Quickenborne performed his first baptism in this parish in 1823. The first Jesuit pastor was Judocus Van Assche (1829-35, 1837-38, 1840-53, 1858-77). Others include James Busschotts (1836), Victor Paillasson (1838), John Gleisel (1838-40), James Cotting (1840), Florian Sautois (1855-57), Adrian M. Hayden (1878-85), William F. Boex (1886-93), Joseph P. De Smedt (1894-95), Joseph Real (1896-97), and Francis G. Hillman (1898-1912). In 1866 the German portion of the congregation formed Sacred Heart Church . The old church is now maintained as St. Ferdinand Shrine , and the new St. Ferdinand Church is located at 1505 Charbonier Rd., Florissant, Missouri. In 1850 it had 1480 parishioners. 1788 St. Charles Borromeo Church Catholic (French and Spanish) Located in St. Charles County, Missouri, St. Charles Borromeo Church acquired the name St. Charles in 1791 with the construction of a log church in what is now the 400 block of Main St. The first pastor was Father Bernard De Limpach, followed by Jean Antoine Le Dru (1791), Pierre Joseph Didier (1792), Chalres Leander Lusson (1798-1801), Abbott Urban Cuillet, Bernard Langlois, and Joseph Marie Dunand. Father Peter Timmermans administered the sacraments prior to 1823. Peter Verhaegen was active from 1826-28, 1844-45, and 1852-68. Other early priests included John B. Smedts (1828-33, 1837-43), Felix Verreydt (1828-34, 1851-58), Charles Van Quickenborne (1833-1835), Cornelius Walter (1837-44), Henry Van Mierlo (1841-48, 1867-85), Theodore De Theux (1846), John Shoenmakers (1847), Francis X. De Coen (1847-51), James Busschotts (1847-48), Joseph Aschwanden (1850), Judocus Van Assche (1854-57), John Setters (1859-66), Maurice Oakley (1863-66), John Roes (1867-79), Joseph Zealand (1880-82), Victor Van Der Putten (1883-85), Adrian Sweere (1887-88), Henry Baselmans (1889), Joseph Rosswinkel (1890-95), Joseph Meuffels (1896-97), Constantine Lagae (1898-1910). A second church built of stone was erected in 1827, and was replaced with a brick structure in 1869 on the site of the present church (601 N. 4 th St, St. Charles, Missouri). Destroyed by a tornado in 1915, the gray stone church that stands now was built soon after. 1791 St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Located in Portage des Sioux, St. Charles County, Missouri 1799 Bellefontaine United Methodist Church Methodist Bellefontaine United Methodist congregation had it's start in 1805 with the construction of a cabin church. A brick and timber church was built in 1855, and still stand next to the new sanctuary built next to it in 1965. Located at 10600 Bellefontaine Rd. in St. Louis County. 1805 Fee Fee Baptist Church Baptist Fee Fee Baptist Church was organized in 1807 the congregation originally met in the old meeting house (built in 1828) that now stands at Old St. Charles Rock Road and Fee Fee. It was used by the Fee Fee Baptist Church for over 40 years. Also used by Methodist and Presbyterian congregations. Brick structure was built in 1870 at 11330 St. Charles Rock Road. 1807 All Saints Church Catholic (French) Sometimes known as St. Peter Church , this parish first met in 1815. A new church was built in 1834. The name All Saints Church was adopted in 1856. Under the leadership of Father Nicholas Staudinger the present church was begun in 1874. Located at 7 McMenamy Road in St. Peters, Missouri. (63376) 1815 First Presbyterian Church Presbyterian The pioneer of Presbyterianism in St. Louis was a Connecticut man by the name of Rev. Salmon Giddings. He arrived in St. Louis in 1816, and organized the First Presbyterian Church with nine members, in a schoolroom opposite the Courthouse. The First Presbyterian Church was erected on the west side of 4 th near Washington. Rev. William S. Potts served from 1828-35, Rev. Wm. Wisner from 1835-37, Rev. Artemas Bullard from 1838-55, Rev. Henry A. Nelson from 1856-1868, Rev. Charles A. Dickey from 1869-75, Rev. H. D. Ganse took over in 1875. The First Presbyterian Church, on 14 th and Lucas Place, was dedicated in 1855. This structure was abandoned in 1889 and was converted into a theater, and the church moved to 4100 Washington Blvd (at Sarah) in 1889. A fourth and final move took place in 1923 with the purchase of a church site in University City. The original building on Washington was turned over to new congregation, the Giddings Presbyterian Church . 1817 First Baptist Church Baptist Among the first to worship together were the Baptists, who started meeting together in 1796 in homes. But nothing formal came about until John Mason Peck arrived in 1817 as a missionary. He and James Eby Welch formed First Baptist Church, with a primarily black congregation. The Second Baptist Church became that number because the First Baptist Church (organized 1818), after a struggle of fourteen years, disbanded. That year, in 1818, this little Baptist flock began to build the first Protestant church in St. Louis, at Market and Third Streets, about two blocks from the Catholic Church ( Old Cathedral ). By 1827, former slave John Berry Meachum was pastor. Relocated at Cardinal and Bell. The first church building was erected in 1825 at Third and Almond streets in the downtown area. First Baptist Church bought its present site 3100 Bell Avenue in 1917. The adjacent four-family flat was purchased and later converted into an educational building. The church burned to the ground in 1940 and was reconstructed on the same site within thirteen months. 1818 Christ Episcopal Church Episcopal Christ Church was organized in 1819 and met in a house at the corner of 2 nd and Walnut. Rev Dr. Ward was the rector of the Episcopal Church at 4 th and Washington in 1821. It was disbanded in 1821 and reorganized in 1825, meeting in a Baptist church until its own building was completed the corner of 3 rd and Chestnut 1829. The first Parochial Register was begun by Rev. William Chaderton in September, 1832. The congregation occupied a larger building at 5 th and Chestnut in 1839 (where the Laclede Hotel was standing in 1875). The present Gothic structure at 13 th and Locust was complete in 1867, with the tower was added in 1910. Rev. Montgomery Schuyler was a early longtime pastor. Rev Cicero Stephens Hawks arrived in 1843 to be rector, and the next year became bishop. (314) 231-3454. Website: "www.yourcathedral.org" 1819 First Methodist Church South Methodist First Methodist Church South started in a house on 4 th near the Courthouse, moving in the next year to a frame chapel at 4 th and Myrtle (Clark), by Rev. Jesse Walker. In 1830 it was known as the Fourth Street Church , when it occupied a church at 4 th and Washington. In 1854 it located at 8 th and Washington and in 1883 moved to the former Y.M.C.A. at 11 th and Locust, finally leaving the downtown area in 1884 when it relocated at Glasgow and Dayton. Rev. Thos. M. Finney was pastor in 1875. 1821 St. Joachim Catholic Located in Old Mines, Washington County, Missouri 1822 All Saints Catholic Located in St. Peters, St. Charles County, Missouri 1823 St. Mary and St. Joseph Church Catholic (French) See "Carondelet Churches". In 1859, the name of the parish, founded in 1824, was changed to St. Mary and St. Joseph Church and a new brick church was erected. It was situated on a site north of the earlier structures. 6304 Minnesota Ave., Carondelet (63111) 1824 St. James Catholic Located in Potosi, Washington County, Missouri 1829 Mormon Church Mormon The Mormons ( Latter Day Saints ) came to St. Louis in 1831. In 1854 they rented a former Methodist Church at 4 th and Washington, where the Missouri Athletic Club stands today. The church went into a decline after the Civil War and did not sufficiently revive until 1916, when a church was purchased on Maple Avenue. 1831 St. Mary's Chapel Catholic St. Mary Chapel (originally St. Louis College) was blessed on May 6, 1832 by Father Peter Verhaegen (Jesuit Superior). Fire destroyed it in 1835. Father Joseph Lutz celebrated Mass there. 1832 - 1835 St. Peter Catholic Englishman John Sappington moved to the St. Louis area from Maryland in 1806. His son Joseph, one of 17 children, was one of the founders of St. Peter Parish in Kirkwood. Two of the early priests were Father Saulnier (1833-35) and Father Aelen (1838). Located at 243 West Argonne Drive, Kirkwood (63122) 1832 Church of the Holy Ghost Independent Evangelical (German) Holy Ghost Church started at 4 th and Washington (in the Methodist Church), then moved to 7 th and Clark (used jointly with Lutherans) in 1840, moved to 8 th and Walnut in 1858 (pastor was Dr. Hugo Krebs), and Grand and Page in 1895. Also known as Holy Ghost United Church of Christ. ADDED 8/27/2007: Today was the last service at this church (at it's fifth location on Mardel Ave. in south St. Louis) 1833 - 2007 Des Peres Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Des Peres Presbyterian Church was built on Geyer Road in 1833, this stone church was site of Rev. Elijah Lovejoy's sermons in the 1834-36 time frame. This congregation's present church is located in Clayton Rd. and was completed in 1960. 1833 Second Baptist Church Baptist Second Baptist Church started on Market below 2 nd , in rooms of a house by Rev. Archer B. Smith. In the Second Baptist Church of 1833 were represented the Cozzens, Stout, Orme, Kerr and other prominent families of St. Louis. In those first years this church also engaged Rev. Wm. Hurley and Rev. Thomas P. Green. The congregation purchased the Episcopal Church on Chestnut at 3 rd in 1839 with Rev. B. F. Brabrook as pastor, followed by Rev. R. E. Pattison in 1840. In the 1840s they saw Rev. John Mason Peck, Rev. E. Rogers, Rev. I. T. Hinton, and Rev. S. W. Lynd serve the congregation. A larger church was built at 6 th and Locust in 1848 under Rev. J. B. Jeter, and was used until 1872 when a stone edifice was located at the NW corner of Locust and Beaumont. Other ministers included Rev. Dr. Read (1853), Elder Jacob Knapp (1857), Rev. Galusha Anderson (1858), Rev. A. H. Burlingham (1866), and Rev. W. W. Boyd (1877). Moved in 1907 to SE corner of Kingshighway and Washington. Present congregation at this site is called Baptist Church of the Good Shepherd . The Second Baptist Church congregation is now located at Clayton and McKnight Rd. Website: "http://www.2ndbc.org/History.htm " 1833 St. Peter's Cathedral Catholic St. Peter Cathedral erected a primitive church in 1834. In 1840 a brick church was erected est of the present one. The first resident priest was Rev. Casper Ostlangenberg. In 1870 Father Baltes was pastor of St. Peter's. The next church, built in the 1860-70s was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1912. Located at 200 West Harrison in Belleville, Illinois (62220) 1834 Church of the Messiah Unitarian Sometimes referred to at First Unitarian Church , Church of the Messiah first met in schoolrooms on Market Street opposite the Courthouse, organized by Rev. William G. Eliot (pastor for 37 years). First services were held on the 3 rd floor of the Masonic Hall at Main and Locust. In 1837 they built a church at 4 th and Pine and moved in 1851 to a large Gothic edifice on the NW corner of 9 th and Olive. Rev. John Snyder succeeded Rev. Eliot. The church was sold in 1879 and converted to Pope's Theater. When the Century Building was built on that corner in 1896, the Century Theater was located on the same site. The Unitarian Church of the Messiah moved in 1880 to a new stone church at the NE corner of Locust and Garrison (Piety Hill). In 1907 they relocated to NE corner of Union and Enright, and finally to Waterman near Kingshighway in 1917. 1834 Methodist Church Methodist Rev. Thomas Drummond came to St. Louis to take charge of the Methodist Church on Fourth street and Washington Avenue. A year later he died in the 1835 cholera epidemic. He has the distinction of being buried three times: from 23 rd and Franklin avenue, it was taken to Grand and Laclede, and later to the cemetery on Olive Street Road. 1834 St. Francis Borgia Catholic Located in Washington, Franklin County. Missouri 1834 Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church Catholic Bishop Rosati laid the cornerstone for Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Church in Carondelet in 1834. He ordered a census of Catholics in St. Louis in 1835. The results: 8601 souls, 293 baptisms, 100 marriages, 97 funerals, 54 converts. 1834 St. Paul's Episcopal Church (Alton) Episcopal This church began with a stone building used by Baptists, Episcopalians, and Presbyterians. Bought by the Episcopalians in 1845, St. Paul Episcopal Church was consecrated in 1848. A new structure, at the same site (10 E. 3 rd Street, Alton, Illinois 62002) was built in 1857, and renovated in 1976. 1836 First Presbyterian Church (Alton) Presbyterian This Alton, Illinois First Presbyterian Church was organized in 1837, meeting at 2 nd and Market. The present building was erected in 1897 at W. 4 th and Alby in Alton. 1837 United Hebrew Temple Jewish Despite the Code Noire (non Catholics forbidden west of the Mississippi) of the 18 th century, it is likely that a Jewish community existed in St. Louis in 1803. Louis Bomeisler, a German from Philadelphia, probably conducted the first service ( minyan ) in St. Louis for Rosh Hashannah in 1836. In 1841 group headed by Herman Van Beil, J. Pecare, and Hyam H. Cohen, met at the Oracle Coffee House at 2 nd and Locust to write the constitution for the United Hebrew Congregation. It's first officers included Abraham Weigle, Joseph Kohn, David Levison, Adolph Latz, and Nathan Abeles. In 1848 they located on 5 th (now Broadway) near Green (now Lucas) in the four year old North Baptist Church . The first formal religious leader was Dr. Bernard Illowy who became the first rabbi of United Hebrew. He stayed only one year (1854-55). In 1859 the congregation dedicated its new building at 420 North 6 th (between Locust and St. Charles). By 1860, the Jewish population in St. Louis swelled to 5,000 souls. Early ministers and rabbis were Rabbi Henry Vidaver (1863), Rev. Mr. Ritterman, Rev. Mr. Henry Kuttner (1857, 1870-1875), Rev. Morris Treichenberg, and Henry J. Messing (1878 - 1911). Synagogue was located on SW corner of 21 st and Olive from 1880 to 1903, when the congregation moved to Kingshighway and Enright. Their present temple on Skinker near Wydown was occupied in 1926, and is presently the home of Missouri Historical Society. Present location: 13788 Conway Rd., St. Louis, MO 63141. Telephone: 314-469-0700. Website: www.unitedhebrew.org 1837 St. Paul Methodist Church South Methodist St. Paul's Methodist Church South had it's beginning as the Mound Mission of the old Fourth Street Church . Services were held in the Washington Chapel on Mullanphy near 2 nd . The 1844 flood caused a move to Broadway near Mound. The church's affiliation with the Southern Church came about this time due to dissension in Methodism about the slavery issue. St. Paul's first permanent church was called Mound Church , located at 10 th and Chamber in 1850. After several moves the present site at 1927 St. Louis Ave. was purchased in 1871. Rev. E. E. Bounds was pastor in 1875. The present building was constructed in 1902. 1838 Zion Evangelical and Reformed Church Evangelical Zion Evangelical and Reformed Church was located for many years at 25 th and Benton, dedicated in 1872, succeeding an earlier church at 23 rd and Montgomery. Formed by members of the old St. John Church (14 th and Madison, later 4130 North Grand) and St. Peter Church (15 th and Carr). Rev. Henry C. Klerner was the pastor from 1876 - 1883. 1838 St. John Evangelical Church Evangelical St. John's Evangelical Church was founded by Rev. Edward Louis Nollau in an area called Gravois Settlement. First church was built in 1839. A brick structure was built in 1868, and by 1922 the present brick church was in place at 11333 St. John's Church Rd. (63123). In 1957 this church became St. John United Church of Christ. 1838 Second Presbyterian Church

Presbyterian Second Presbyterian Church was founded in temporary quarters at 5 th and Pine as a colony from the First Presbyterian Church . Rev. A. T. Norton was followed by Rev. Wm. S. Potts as pastor in 1839, and stayed in that position until 1855. At that time Rev. N. L. Rice (1855-57), Rev. James H. Brookes (1858-64), Rev. Samuel J. Niccolls (1865). A large structure was occupied in 1840 on the NW corner of 5 th and Walnut. A large part of this congregation formed the Sixteenth Street Presbyterian Church and moved to separate quarters about 1864 at 16 th and Walnut. Meanwhile, the Second Presbyterian Church moved westward in 1870 to a new stone building on Lucas Place at 17 th . In 1896 it's third home was at the NW corner of Taylor and Westminister in the Central West End. Website: "www.secondchurch.net" 1838 German Evangelical Congregation of River Des Peres Evangelical Parkway United Church of Christ in Town & Country was founded in 1838 as German Evangelical Congregation of River Des Peres , MO. In 1846, the members adopted a constitution under the name " Evangelical Protestant Manchester Road Church " and erected a log building 1/4 mi. south of Manchester Rd. on Ballas Rd. Soon after, a lawsuit divided the church and some members broke away to form what is now St. Paul Lutheran in Des Peres . The 13 remaining members started a new church on ground donated by Henry Bauer and Daniel Mueller 1/4 mi. west of Ballas and half-way between Manchester and Clayton Roads. This church was known as German Evangelical Congregation Church on Ballas Rd. Between 1854 and 1860, another dispute led some more members to join St. Paul Lutheran in Des Peres. In 1861, a new log church was built on the present four-acre site near the intersection of Ballas and Clayton Roads. By 1870, the name had changed to Zion Evangelical and Reformed Church and in 1871 a new brick church (currently on the east side of Ballas) was dedicated. In 1958, the name was changed to Parkway United Church. The present sanctuary was completed in 1998. (Most of this information was taken from the 150th anniversary booklet, and provided by Gail Schneider)
Now the Parkway United Church of Christ in Des Peres, Missouri. See Bob Buecher's compilation of early Parish Records 1838 Manchester United Methodist Church Methodist A small frame church, Manchester United Methodist Church was dedicated in 1839 on the site of today's church at 129 Woods Mill Road, Manchester, Missouri. It was replaced with a brick structure in 1856. Today this is the largest United Methodist church in Missouri. 1839 Centenary Methodist Episcopal Church, South Methodist The second Methodist church organized in St. Louis, Centenary Methodist Episcopal Church, South was organized in 1839 at the SW corner of 5 th and Pine, has been at 16 th and Pine since 1870. Rev. Dr. W. V. Tudor was pastor in 1875. Present address is referred to as 55 Plaza Square, and the church is called the Centenary United Methodist Church. 1839 St. Paul's Church Episcopal St. Paul Church was organized as a mission at 5 th and Wash (now Cole). In 1859 it moved to its own building at 17 th and Olive, but financial matters caused it to merge with Christ Church . 1839 - 1859 Assumption Church Catholic Assumption Church is located at 4725 Mattis Rd., in the Meramec region of south St. Louis County (63128). There were 700 parishioners in 1850. 1839 Trinity German Evangelical Lutheran Church Lutheran (German) Bishop Martin Stephan and 700 Lutherans arrived via steamboats in 1839. Stephan was expelled, and Otto Hermann Walther was the pastor of the congregation that worshiped in Christ Episcopal Church and which later became Trinity Church , the first German Lutheran church in St. Louis. His brother, Ferdinand Wilhelm Walther, succeeded him upon his death, and for 48 years was the dominant figure in the Lutheran movement. In 1842 they occupied a chapel on Lombard between 3 rd and 4 th . They relocated at 8 th and Lafayette in 1865. The 1896 tornado destroy the church built in 1865, and reconstruction began immediately. Located at 1805 S. 8 th Street, 63104) Check out their website at http://www.surf-gate.com/historictrinitylutheran 1839 Wesley Chapel Methodist Wesley Chapel (1843-1848) formed the beginning of the current congregation. It was located on Paul St. north of Hickory St. and moved in 1848 to the northeast corner of 8 th and Chouteau. In 1873 a larger building was erected, and the name changed to Chouteau Avenue Methodist Church, South (1850-1887). Rev F. A. Owen was pastor in 1875. The congregation moved again in 1888 to Lafayette and Missouri Avenues and adopted the Lafayette Park Methodist Church name. 1840 First Christian Church Christian First Christian Church was organized in 1840, meeting were held in various locations until it located at 6 th and Franklin in 1845. By 1852 they had moved to 5 th near Franklin. In 1863 the church purchased the former St. Paul Episcopal Church at 17 th and Olive. Dr. W. H. Hopson was pastor in 1875. Located in the downtown area. 1840 First United Presbyterian Church Presbyterian The First United Presbyterian Church was located at 5 th and Pine, later occupied a church at 20 th and Morgan in 1873. 1840 Sts. Philip and James Catholic Located in River aux Vases, Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri 1840 Immaculate Conception Church Catholic (German) Founded in the town of Maxville (later changed to Arnold), Jefferson County, Missouri (63010), this parish was predominantly German. Bishop Joseph Rosati sent Fr. J.P. Fischer, an assistant to the Cathedral of Saint Louis , to serve these immigrants. Fr. Fischer purchased 160 acres of land for the parish in 1839, celebrated the first Mass in 1840 and directed the building of the first church, a log building, in 1842. A stone church was built in 1851, and the present church in 1895. 1840 Bonhomme Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Bonhomme Presbyterian Church , in Chesterfield, this church still stands at the corner of Conway and White Road. The congregation now meets in a modern structure visible from I-64. 1841 Salem German Methodist Church Methodist (German) Salem German Methodist Church moved from 15 th and Wash to Page and Pendleton in 1906. In the Grand-Prairie area 1841 St. Paul's A. M. E. Church African Methodist

Episcopal St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church was organized by Rev. William Paul Quinn in 1841 and is the oldest A. M. E. church west of the Mississippi. The congregation originally met in a log cabin at the end of Main, but soon moved to an old Presbyterian mission at 7 th and Washington. They occupied a new church at 11 th and Green (now Lucas) in 1852, with a brick structure replacing this church in 1871. Their new church at Lawton and Leffingwell was dedicated in 189. Since 1962 they have been occupying the former Hamilton Avenue Christian Church building at Hamilton and Julian. In 1883 it was the largest African-American Methodist congregation in the City with 1200 communicants. In the Cabanne district. Current address is 1260 Hamilton Ave., St. Louis, MO 63112, (314) 385-8900 (e-Mail is [email protected].com) 1841 St. John Episcopal Church Episcopal St. John Episcopal Church is the oldest Protestant Episcopal church in St. Louis. First at 2 nd near Plum, then Spruce at 5 th in 1843, then Spruce and 6 th in 1853 (eventually sold to the Italian Catholics of St. Bonaventure Church ) . In 1870 it moved to the corner of Hickory and Dolman where Rev. J. P. T. Ingraham was rector. Badly damaged by the 1896 tornado, it was rebuilt and continued to serve the congregation until 1908 when it moved to 3664 Arsenal west of Grand in 1903. At one time the church served as the home to Metropolitan Community Church. The church on Dolman was then occupied by St. Mary's Assumption Church (founded as St. Andrew Church ), a Greek Ruthenian Catholic Church. The Catholic community there worships according to the 1962 (pre-Vatican II) worship books. 1841 St. Bridget's (Downpatrick) Church (Pacific) Catholic Original log church (now completely gone) served from 1841 thru 1859, when the foundation of a new church in Pacific, Franklin County, Missouri was directed by Fr. Miller of Kirkwood. Remained a mission for a number of years. In 1866 a brick building was built under the leadership of Rev. Edward Berry. Early priest included Rev. Doherty, Michael Walsh, L. Madden, Fr. Stemker, Fr. John Feltman. Fr. John Hennes assumed control of the parish in 1885. 1841 St. Vincent de Paul Church Catholic (Irish) St. Vincent Church was organized in 1839 by Father John Timon (of Irish extraction, came with his parents to St. Louis as a child in 1819). He was succeeded as pastor by Father Thaddeus Amat. By the mid 1840s the German Catholic population was estimated at about 7,000 (about one third of the 21,000 Catholic, half of the entire population). In 1875 Father Hennessy was pastor of the English portion, and Father Uhland of the Germans. The cornerstone was laid in 1844 at 1417 So. 9 th St. (near Park), (63104). In the Soulard area 1841 St. Patrick's of Armagh Church (Pacific) Catholic Fr. Donnelly began construction of the first church and cemetery here in 1844. He was recalled to St. Louis in 1845. Father John O'Hanlon arrived in 1847. Rev. Patrick Ward served 1851-52. Father Phillip Grace came in 1852, and laid the cornerstone of the new "Rock Church" in 1857. Fr. Grace died in 1859. Father Berry (1864-1876) continued construction, and church was finished in 1866. 1843 First German Swedenborgian Church Swedenborgian (English) Swedenborgian s, or the New Jerusalem Society , was first organized in St. Louis in 1842. The church established a German Society in 1854. The building was erected in 1859 by the First German Society, and it still stands at North 14 th and Howard Streets. Today this church is known as The Church of the Open Word and is located in West County at 1040 Dautel Ln. 1842 St. Martin Church Catholic St. Martin Church was the fifth built in the county (the first in west county). When the city and county split in 1876 this parish moved and the old church was abandoned, and the parish name was changed to St. Joseph Church. On Bonhomme Road in Clayton, Missouri. 1842 - 1881 St. Francis Xavier Church Catholic St. Aloysius Chapel was the forerunner of this parish, and began to administer to the congregation in 1835. St. Francis Xavier 's first church was located at 9 th and Lucas Avenue, adjoining St. Louis University, was consecrated in 1843. Originally located at the corner of 9 th and Green (now Lucas). The cornerstone of the present church was laid in 1883, and was occupied in 1888 (old church was razed in 1890). First pastor was Herman Aelen (1844-47), followed by John Gleizel (1845-49), Arnold Damen (1848-57), Cornelius Smarius (1858-60), John O'Neil (1861-63, 1870-73), Michael J. Corbett (1864-69), Patrick J. Ward (1876-83), Peter Bouige (1883-88), Hnery C. Bronsgeest (1888-1914). In addition, Florian Sautois was active from 1858 to 1873. Also known as "College Church " because it serves as the main church for St. Louis University, a Jesuit school. Located at 3628 Lindell Blvd., (63108). 1843 St. Patrick Church Catholic (Irish) St. Louis' Irish Catholics founded St. Patrick's Church in the mid-1840s, and shortly thereafter the second Irish church, St. John the Apostle Church , was opened. Some early pastors included Rev. Lutes, Rev. Hamilton, Rev. Wheeler, Rev. Ward, Rev. Higginbotham, Rev. Wheeler, and Rev. Fox. In 1875 the pastor was Rev. James J. Archer, assisted by Rev. James McCaffray amd Rev. William O'Shea. Many Irish settled in St. Louis during the potato blight and in 1849 a third Irish parish was opened, named St. Michael Church . Father Timothy Dempsey, pastor in 1898, was noted for his work with the City's poor. Located at 1207 North 6th St., (63106) near Biddle. 1843 - 1973 (razed) St. Mary of Victories Church Catholic (German) Bishop Peter Kenrick, completing the work initiated by Bishop Joseph Rosati, established the German parish of Our Lady of Victories Church in 1843 (first Mass in 1844). Father John P. Fischer (1843-47) was the first administrator of this Church. Vienna-born Father Joseph Melcher (1847-68) followed him. Church was enlarged in 1855 and 1868. Henry Muehlsiepan, V. G. was pastor from 1868 through 1870, and William F. Faerber (1870-1905). Located at 744 So. 3 rd St. (at Gratiot), (63102). In 1957 the church was turned over to St. Stephen of Hungary Church Parish. 1843 St. James Catholic Located in Catawissa, Franklin County, Missouri 1843 Mizpah Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Mizpah Presbyterian Church, located at 11339 St. Charles Rock Road, was organized on Fee Fee Road in 1843, and the present structure was built in 1869. 1843 Immanuel Lutheran Church Lutheran Immanuel Lutheran Church was formed as an offshoot of Trinity Church , was a mission at 7 th and Cole. First church was erected at 11 th and Franklin (now Dr. Martin Luther King). Led by Rev. J. F. Buenger. Second church was at 16 th and Morgan where the congregation worshiped for nearly 50 years. The third and final move was made in 1919 to Marcus and Lexington Avenues, with the current church cornerstone laid in 1927. In Fairgrounds area. See Linda Reichert's website at (http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/

lindainmo/mo_imm_luth/) for images of the actual church records. 1844 Immanuel Lutheran Church Lutheran No, I've been assured this is not a repeat of the above listing. Apparently this was a popular name, but this Immanuel Lutheran is the one in Olivette. It was organized (also in 1844) on Warson Road and later relocated to its home on Olive Blvd. in Olivette - just east of Lindbergh. Liz Schroeder tells me that they have a good compilation of their records (she should know since she I did most of them). The church secretary could help you with details as to first pastors, etc.) 1844 Central Presbyterian Church Presbyterian The Central Presbyterian Church began as the Fourth Presbyterian Church in 1844 and acquired its present name in 1846 when it met in a small building at 6 th and St. Charles Streets. Early clergy included Rev. Joseph Templeton and Rev. Alexander Vancourt, Rev. S. J. P. Anderson, and Rev. Robert G. Brank. In 1849 it moved to its own building at 8 th and Locust where it remained until 1873. At that time it moved to a temporary chapel at the NE corner of Lucas and Garrison. A new church was built there in 1876. This church was used until 1906 when the congregation moved to Delmar and Clara. Currently located at the corner of Hanley Road and Davis Drive in Clayton, Missouri. (314) 727-2777 or e-mail [email protected] Website: "www.centralpres.com " 1844 Pine Street Church Presbyterian At first the congregation worshiped in a State tobacco warehouse on the NE corner of 6 th and Washington until a church was erected at 8 th and Washington. In 1853 the Washington Avenue Church moved to 11 th and Pine and changed its name to Pine Street Church . Early clergy included Rev. James Gallaher and Rev. J. B. Townsend, Rev. Mr. Long, Rev. J. W. Hall (1853). Soon thereafter, it merged with the Westminster Presbyterian Church, and had a church at 5 th and Locust after 1848. 1844 North Presbyterian Church Presbyterian North Presbyterian Church erected a church at 11 th and Chambers in 1857. Remained there until 1908, eventually ending up at the NE corner of St. Louis and Warne. In Grand-Prairie area. The new owners (1908) were St. Cyril and Methodius Polish National Church , formed by dissident Polish Roman Catholics from St. Casimir Church and St. Stanislaus Church . 1845 South Church Evangelical The South German Evangelical Church , later known as St. Marcus Evangelical and Reformed Church , was founded at the northwest corner of Jackson (Fourth) and Soulard Street, now Lafayette Avenue. It became St. Marks or St. Marcus Church in 1856 and in 1866, constructed a brick church on its original site. Pastor in 1875 was Rev. Henry Braschler. In 1915, the church moved to Russell and McNair Avenues. Known initially as South Church. Click here for Bob Buecher's Marriage Index, 1847-1865 and Confirmation Index, 1848-1870 1845 Second Colored Baptist Church Baptist Central Baptist Church, located at 2843 Washington Avenue, the fourth-oldest black church in St. Louis, was organized as the Second Colored Baptist Church in 1846 and met in a hall near third and Cherry (later Franklin Avenue) streets. Later located at Eighth and Green streets and 23rd and Morgan streets, since 1914 the church has been located at its present site on Washington Avenue. The Washington Avenue site was purchased from the Pilgrim Congregational Church where the distinguished minister and orator, the Reverend Henry Ward Beecher, preached. In March 1971, the church was destroyed by fire. In December 1975, the newly-constructed Central Baptist Church opened. The Reverend T. E. Huntley, who served as pastor of Central Baptist from 1942 to 1981, was prominent in the civil rights movement in St. Louis. From http://www.umsl.edu/services/library/blackstudies/stacentc.htm#firstbapt 1846 St. Gertrude Catholic Located in Krakow, Franklin County, Missouri. 1845 St. Joseph Catholic Located in Zell, Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri. There were 1085 parishioners in 1850. 1845 St. George Episcopal Church Episcopal First pastor was Rev. E. Carter Hutchinson, head of the defunct Kemper College. Church was built on Locust, west of 7 th in 1847. Dr. E. F. Berkeley was rector until 1870 when he took charge of St. Peter Free Chapel at Olive and Grand. Rev. R. A. Holland took over from him. The Rev. S. S. Gassaway was also an early rector. A large stone church was erected in 1874 on the NW corner of Beaumont and Chestnut. This church was destroyed by fire in 1891. A new church was opened in 1892 at Olive and Pendleton. In 1928, St. George's Church was merged with St. Michael Church and All Angels Church and moved to the latter's location at on Wydown in Clayton. In 1930 the church at Olive and Pendleton was sold to St. Stephen Lutheran Church . 1845 Ebenezer Chapel Methodist Ebenezer Chapel was disbanded in 1861 because of the northern sympathy of its members in a denomination that was predominately pro-southern. It was re-organized as Union Methodist Episcopal Church in 1862 in the former Union Presbyterian Church at 11 th and Locust. This was sold to the Y.M.C.A. in 1882 when the Union Church moved westward to Lucas and Garrison. Midtown area. 1845 Grace Episcopal Church Episcopal First church of Grace Episcopal Church was completed in 1851 at 11 th and Warren, with Rev. W. L. Githens as pastor. An enlarged church was built in 1881. Financial crises cause this church to resign it's charter. Bishop Daniel Tuttle linked it with the Holy Cross Mission , and Grace Church assumed the status of a mission. It's name was later changed to Grace Hill House . The wooden church was replaced by a stone edifice in 1924. 1845 Westminster Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Westminster Presbyterian Church was founded by a group of 50 persons from the First Presbyterian Church, New School , it was initially known as the Washington Avenue Church . In 1853 it was known as the Pine Street Church when it was located at 11 th and Pine, moved to a chapel on Grand opposite Washington Ave. in 1880. Named changed to Grand Avenue Church in 1882. It was occupied until 1914 when the church moved to it's present site at Union and Delmar. The old church was razed in 1927 as part of the site for the Fox Theater. Early ministers: Rev. James A. Lyon, James Gallaher, J. B. Townsend, Rev. Long, J. W. Hall, S. B. McPheeters, F. Brown, J. C. Brown, J. C. Thom, B. T. Lacy, A. P. Foreman, E. H. Rutherford. 1846 St. Joseph Church Catholic (German) The German congregation that had been gathering at the Jesuit's St. Louis University's St. Aloysius Chapel (at 9 th and Washington) , served by Father Helias D'Huddeghem, finally celebrated Mass in their new parish church of St. Joseph in 1846. Rev Cotting was the first pastor from 1841-45, followed by John Hofbauer (1847-51), Joseph Patchowski (1852-58), Joseph Weber (1860-70), Peter Tschieder (1871-76), Frederick Hagemann (1877-81), Lambert Etten (1882-95), Francis Vallazza (1896-1900). Although never pastor, Rev. Martin Seisl, S. J. was active from 1848-53. A new church was erected in 1865. By 1870 St. Joseph's was the largest parish in the city (nearly 1200 German Catholics). Parish closed in 1979, and it is now referred to as the Shrine of St. Joseph . It is located at 1220 North 11 th St. at Biddle, (63106) 1846 Mount Auburn M. E. Church, south Methodist In Wellston, on the corner of Hodiamont and Wabada. Presently occupied by the Trinity Methodist Church . In about 1854 congregation moved to the framed Eden Chapel , on St. Charles Rd., about seven miles beyond St. Louis city limits. In 1887 it was decided to move to the Hodiamont and Wabada location. After completion of the church in 1892 the name was changed to Mount Auburn M. E. Church, south . Mount Auburn later moved to Lucas-Hunt Road. 1846 North Church Evangelical St. Peter German Evangelical Church , located at Warne and St. Louis Avenues, had it's origins as the North Church at 6 th and Franklin. Later moved to 15 th and Carr and in 1907 to Swan and Newstead before relocating on St. Louis Ave. 1846 St. Peter A. M. E. Church African Methodist Episcopal St. Peter A. M. E. Church was the second African Methodist church west of the Mississippi. The first church was erected at Elliott and Montgomery Streets. A second church on that site was destroyed by the 1927 tornado. The church moved to it's present 4730 Margaretta (63115). This same building was previously used by the Salem Evangelical Church. Telephone (314) 381-3345. 1847 Salem United Methodist Church Methodist (German) Salem United Methodist Church was founded by Rev. H. Hohmann. By 1855 a small white frame building had been erected not far from the current church. The present sanctuary was built from slave-made bricks in 1870. Located at 1482 Manchester Road in Ballwin (63011). 1847 First German Church Presbyterian (German) This congregation traces its origins to a group of immigrant Hollanders that held services at 13 th and Park. The present Peters Memorial Presbyterian Church was founded in 1847. The congregation met in homes until 1863 when a church was organized by the Presbytery. It was called the First German Church and met in the old Second Church at 5 th and Walnut Streets. In 1864, it moved to the South Mission at Ninth and Marion Streets and then to a store at the northeast corner of 10 th and Rutger Streets. In 1867, a chapel was built on the site and, in 1871, a church was constructed adjoining the chapel. This was wrecked in the 1896 tornado but was rebuilt. A new church was built in 1916, at Sidney Street and Minnesota Avenue and the old church became the Tenth Street Mission . In 1931, a newer church was erected adjacent to the Sidney Street Church , which was then renamed the Peters Memorial Presbyterian Church. 1847 St. John the Apostle Church Catholic (Irish) The eighth Catholic parish in the city, the church was affiliated with the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran in Rome and could thus hold ordination and consecration services. Founded by Father Patrick O'Brien (1847-58), with Rev. Raemon the first pastor, followed by John Bannon (1858-61), and Patrick J. Ring (1861-1868). From 1868 to 1880 it was the residence of Rt. Rev. P. J. Ryan, bishop of the diocese, and assisted by Rev. E. J. Shea, Rev. W. H. Brantner, and Rev. M. Gleason. Also known as St. John the Evangelist Church . Dedication of St. John the Apostle Church occurred in 1860. Other early pastors included John Hennesey (1880-89), Philip Brady (1889-93), and James T. Coffey (1893-1903). By 1930 all family members of the church had moved out. Located at 15 Plaza Square (16 th and Chestnut St., (63103)) 1847 Emanu El Jewish Original president was Max Stettheimer. Established second Jewish cemetery at Gratiot and Pratte in 1848. Merged with B'Nai Brith to form B'Nai El (1852). 1847 St. Paul's German Evangelical Church Evangelical St. Paul German Evangelical Church occupied it's first church at 9 th and Lafayette in 1850. A larger church on the same site was dedicated in 1874, but was wrecked by the 1896 tornado. Church was rebuilt at Thirteenth Street and Allen Avenue, but later sold to a St. Lucas Slovak Catholic Church congregation. Present church was dedicated in 1932 at Giles and Potomac (63116). Presently home to St. Paul United Church of Christ . 1848 St. Peter Church Catholic (German) St. Peter Church cornerstone was laid in 1848. This church was replaced in 1861. Located at 324 S. 3 rd Street, St. Charles, Missouri. (63301) 1848 Holy Trinity Church Catholic Bishop Kenrick sanctioned the creation of this German parish, Most Holy Trinity Church , in 1848 at 14 th and Mallinkrodt. It has the distinction of being the mother church of four parishes. The 1848 building was replaced with a larger one in 1856. Early priests included Theodore Laurensen (1849), Joseph Blaarer (1849-50), John Anselm (1850-56), Caspar Doebbener (1856), Frederick Brinkhof (1856-87, and Joseph Schroeder (1887-1907). By 1897 a newer church at 3619 N. 14 th was designed and completed in 1899. The 1927 tornado did severe damage, but the church was repaired. In the Bremen area of north St. Louis. 1848 Salem Lutheran Church Lutheran (German) Salem Evangelical Church of New Bielefeld (now known as Black Jack) was organized by Rev. C. H. Schliepsick as the first pastor. The original log church was completed in 1851, replaced in 1861 by a brick church. The present church was dedicated in 1899. Located at 5180 Parker Rd., Florissant. 1848 B'Nai Brith Jewish Daniel Block was the "father of B'Nai Brith " in St. Louis. Merged with Emanu El to form B'Nai El (1852). 1849 Bethlehem Evangelical Lutheran Church Lutheran Bethlehem Evangelical Lutheran Church is the oldest Protestant congregation in the Bremen - Hyde Park area. First building in 1850 at N. 19 th and Salisbury. Present building was dedicated in 1895 on the NW corner of Salisbury and Florissant. 1849 St. Peter and Paul Church Catholic (German) The parish was founded in 1849 by Father Simon Sigrist, and was the mother church of south side German Catholics. The present German Gothic edifice was constructed in 1875, and is the third building erected in the same city block. Father Francis Goller (pastor 1858 -1910) deserves credit for construction of the church. In 1875 the parish was assisted by Rev. Rev. F. Ruesse, Rev. H. Groll, and Rev. W. Klevinghaus. Damaged in the 1896 tornado it was soon rebuilt. Located at 1919 South 7 th St. at Allen Avenue, (63104), in the Soulard area. 1849 St. Michael (the Archangel) Church Catholic (Irish) St. Michael Church was founded as a companion church of St. Patrick Church . The founder and first pastor was Rev. Father Hogan. In 1875 the pastor was Rev. Andrew Eustace, assisted by Rev. T. J. O'Hanlon. The church at 2200 North 11 th was completed in 1855 and was razed in 1957. Records at Holy Trinity Church. 1849 - 1957 St. Paul's Lutheran Church Lutheran St. Paul Lutheran Church initially met near Ballas Road and Manchester. The present church was erected in 1938. Located at 12345 Manchester, Des Peres, Missouri 63131. 1849 Carondelet Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Carondelet Presbyterian Church was organized in by Rev. Robert S. Finley, and was located at Michigan Avenue (at Bowen Street) in Carondelet. The 1863 brick church is one of a few Civil War era churches remaining in the city. The present stone church was built next to the older structure in 1896. In 1958 the church's name became Carondelet-Markham Memorial Presbyterian Church . The Hope Mission Chapel at 3 rd and Taylor Streets in Carondelet was an offshoot of this church around 1883. 1849 St. Peter Catholic Located in St. Charles, St. Charles County, Missouri. In it's first year it had 1480 parishioners. 1850 Third Baptist Church Baptist At Grand and Washington, originated as an offshoot of Second Baptist Church in 1850 by Rev. Dr. Jeter. Rev. Joseph Walker was pastor in 1850, Rev. John Teasdale in 1854, Rev. Wm. Crowell in 1855, Rev. Washington Barnhurst in 1856, Rev. Elias John Foote in 1860, Rev. J. V. Schofield in 1862, and Rev. W. Pope Yeamen in 1870. First located at Market and 13 th , they erected a church at 14 th and Clark, and the current structure was completed in 1885. Telephone (314) 533-7340. 1850 Fourth Baptist Church Baptist Fourth Baptist Church was located at 1301 Sullivan in the near north side area. It started as a mission of the Second Baptist under the name Zion Baptist Church . A church building on North 12 th between Benton and North Market was dedicated in 1862. A small church was built on the present site in 1887 and was succeeded by the existing church in 1924. Early pastors includes Edward I. Owen (1851-55), Thomas Morton (1855-56), George Howell (1856-57), George Mitchell (1857-60), Ed G. Taylor (1860-61), W. B. Bolton (1861), Thomas Morton (1861-62), A. C. Osborn (1862-68), D. T. Morrill (1868-74), and M. H. Pogson took over in 1874. 1851 Immaculate Conception Catholic Located in Augusta, Warren County, Missouri 1851 Coldwater Union Church Multiple Coldwater Union Church was built in 1851, this brick church was used by congregations of Baptist, Methodists, and Presbyterians. Last used as a church in 1921. Located at 15245 New Halls Ferry Rd. in Florissant, Missouri. 1851 B'Nai El Jewish Two congregations sprouted quickly, B'Nai Brith (1849) and Emanu El (1847), which merged in 1852 into B'Nai El. The key figure in the merger was Rabbi Bernard Illowy. He preached his first sermon at United Hebrew in 1848. B'Nai El was first to erect its own building, in 1855, constructed at 6th and Cerre. B'Nai El was the first synagogue built west of the Mississippi River. Rabbi Henry Kuttner served the congregation from 1857 - 1870. In 1875 they had moved to the corner of Chouteau and Beckwith (aka 11 th ) (the old Chouteau Avenue Presbyterian Church ), at which time Rev. Dr. Samuel Wolfenstein (1870 - 1878) was rabbi. Rabbi Moritz Spitz served B'Nai El from 1870 - 1920. B'Nai El later moved west, to a new Temple at Flad and Spring. Completed in 1906, it is the oldest surviving building constructed for a Jewish congregation in St. Louis (now an apartment complex). Rabbi Spitz was there in 1912. The congregation moved to the West End in 1930, into the former Central Presbyterian Church at Delmar and Clara. It's present temple is at 11411 Highway 40/Interstate 64 in west St. Louis County. 1852 First Congregational Church Presbyterian Third Presbyterian Church was an offshoot, which became the First Congregational Church in 1852. The present First Congregational, then known as the First Trinitarian Church , moved from its former location at 10 th and Locust to a wooden chapel at Grand and Delmar in 1879. In 1885, the present stone church building at that location was occupied. The congregation eventually moved into a new chapel on Wydown in St. Louis County. The building on Delmar eventually became home to the Union Methodist Church. In 1991 the building became the Grandel Square Theater (current address is 3610 Grandel Square). 1852 St. John United Church of Christ United Church of Christ (German) St. John United Church of Christ is located at the SE corner of 14 th and Madison, a brick structure was erected in 1855. Rev. Louis Haeberle was pastor from 1862 - 1879. In Fairgrounds area. 1852 Pilgrim Congregational Church Congregational In 1854 Pilgrim Congregational Church occupied a one story brick building at 2910 Morgan (now Delmar). In 1865 a new lot was purchased at the SE corner of Washington and Ewing and a brick chapel erected 1866. A stone church building was dedicated in 1872. The first pastor was Rev. John Monteith, followed by Rev. W. Carlos Martyn (1869-71) and Rev. C. L. Goodell. This building was later turned over to Tabernacle Baptist Church , then Central Baptist Church. In 1904 the Pilgrim congregation purchased their current site at 826 N. Union Avenue. Part of the Piety Hill area. Website: "www.pilgrimuccstl.org" 1853 1853 Olive Chapel A.M.E. Church African Methodist Episcopal Olive Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church was founded by Rev. Jordan W. Early, a circuit rider minister and abolitionist. The church was organized in 1853 and is the oldest protestant congregation in Kirkwood, Missouri. It is the third oldest AME Church in the St. Louis Metropolitan area. Olive Chapel has served the Kirkwood community from its present location at the intersection of Monroe and Harrison Avenues since 1923. 1853 St. Bridget (of Erin) Church Catholic (Irish) St. Bridget of Erin Church was founded on Jefferson and Carr, with the present church dedicated in 1860. John Christopher Fittman (1853-57) was the first pastor, followed by Father David Lillis (1857-62. Father William Walsh was instrumental in the early church. Rev. J. J. Ryan was an assistant in 1875. Monsignor Walsh died in 1898 and was succeeded by Rev. Edward Fenlon, and in 1907 by Rev. Patrick Dooley (formerly of Assumption Church ). In spite of the anti-Catholic extremists known as the Know-Nothings, the Irish Catholics flourished between 1850 and 1865. St. Bridget became closely identified with Kerry Patch, a working-class Irish neighborhood. Address is 2401 Carr Street (at Jefferson) (63106) 1853 St. John Nepomuk Church Catholic (Bohemian) The first Bohemian parish in the U. S. opened on the South Side when St. John Nepomucene Church opened in 1854 on the NW corner of Soulard and Rosatti (now 12 th ). The first High Mass was sung by famed missionary Father Pierre De Smet. The first pastor was Father Henry Lipowski, followed by Father Joseph Hessoun (who served from 1865 until his death in 1906). The cornerstone of the present church was laid in 1897 almost immediately after the tornado of 1896 destroyed the 1870 building. 1625 South Eleventh St., (63104) 1854 Immaculate Conception Catholic (Irish) Several parishes were named Immaculate Conception. The first one was located at 8th and Chestnut, but was abolished in 1874 because the church had been built over a tunnel and was sinking. Immaculate Conception then moved to Jefferson and Lucas, but that one closed in 1901. A larger church for St. Kevin's parish was needed, and once again this new church was called Immaculate Conception and built at 3120 Lafayette Avenue, (63104). 1854 St. Lawrence O'Toole Church Catholic (Irish) St. Lawrence O'Toole Church was founded by Father James Henry as a mission from St. Patrick Church . The first church was dedicated in 1855 and was replaced by a later structure across the street at the SW corner of 14 th and O'Fallon. Assistant in 1875 was Rev. Lawrence Madden. Church was sold in 1948. 1855 Trinity Episcopal Church Episcopal Started as a mission of St. George Church , this church was found by Rev. C. F. Robertson and Rev. E. Coan in 1875. Occupied the church in 1861 located on the NW corner of 11 th and Washington. Destroyed and rebuilt in 1865. Moved to Channing and Franklin about 1883. Remained there until purchasing a church building at 4005 Washington. 1855 St. Peter and Paul Church Catholic Formerly known as the Cathedral Church of Alton, St. Peter and Paul Church was built in 1855. Located at 717 State Street, Alton, Illinois (62002) 1855 St. Vincent de Paul Catholic Located in Dutzow, Warren County, Missouri 1856 Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church Methodist First home, known as Simpson Chapel , was built at 10 th and North Market in 1857. It was the only Methodist church not disorganized during the Civil War. In 1870 a church was built on the same site and called Trinity Methodist Church . This congregation moved to an old German church at 1227 Tyler in 1916, and merged with the Concord Methodist Church in south St. Louis County in 1956. 1856 Independent German Evangelical Independent German Evangelical Independent German Evangelical Church started at 8 th and Mound, then moved to 13 th and Webster (Webster became Tyler). The church was an offshoot from Holy Ghost Evangelical Protestant Church (est. in 1834). In 1856 a group broke with Holy Ghost and formed the Independent Evangelical Protestant Church. In 1936 it became the Independent Congregational Church. Today it is called Independent Evangelical Protestant Church, and is located at 11370 Old Halls Ferry Road, Florissant, Missouri 63033. Info thanks to Erven Thoma. 1856 First Methodist Episcopal Church South Methodist Instigated by Rev. Dr. David R. McAnally, Frank C. Carter, and John C. Bull, First Methodist Episcopal Church South first held services in a small Presbyterian church. A small church was erected at the SW corner of Virginia and Haven in 1857. It was then also known as the Haven Street Church . The Haven Street Church was razed in 1903 to make way for the present structure. The church has since been renamed as the Mellow Memorial Church . In the Carondelet neighborhood. 1856 St. Clare Catholic Located in St. Clair, Franklin County, Missouri 1857 St. Liborius Church Catholic (German) St. Liborius Church was organized as an offshoot of St. Joseph Church , a brick church was built at Hogan and North Market in 1857 near the Lemp Brewery. In 1875 the church stood at the SW corner of 19 th and Monroe Street. Founder of the parish, Rev. Stephen Schiveihoff, died in 1869. The parish was administered by Rev. E. Hoeynck and Rev. Henry Schrage in 1875. The present church was completed in 1889. The church was closed in 1991. Located at 1835 North 18 th St., (63106) 1857 Holy Cross Lutheran Church Lutheran Services were held in the Concordia College building on South Jefferson Ave. until 1867, when the Holy Cross Lutheran Church was completed on Miami Street between Texas and Ohio Avenues. In 1896 the tornado tore off the steeple but another one replaced it. 1858 Frieden's United Church of Christ United Church of Christ Located at the SW corner of 19 th and Newhouse. Organized as Friedens German Evangelical Church. Present structure was completed in 1908. 1858 Beaumont Street Baptist Church Baptist This congregation was grew out of the Jefferson Mission , which was established at 25 th and Franklin in 1859. In 1866 a group from the Second Baptist Church was dismissed to from the Beaumont Street Baptist Church . A chapel was built at the NE corner of Morgan and Beaumont streets. Early clergy included Rev. A. A. Kendrick, and Rev. J. C. C. Clarke. 1859 Washington - Compton Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Washington and Compton Presbyterian Church began their congregation as a conservative group that broke from the Second Presbyterian Church on Broadway in 1859 and the congregation erected a church at 16 th and Walnut which was leased from 1860 to 1862 by the Union Presbyterian Church , formerly located at 11 th and Locust. Rev. James Brookes was first pastor of this Walnut Street Presbyterian Church . The congregation dated back to 1849 and met in Wyman's Hall on Market Street until the 11 th Street church was finished in 1854. They disbanded after the sale of the church to the Union Methodists in 1862. 1859 St. Malachy Church Catholic (Irish) Father John O'Sullivan attended to the parish of St. Malachy Church from the St. Bridget Rectory until the new parish opened in 1859. Father Miles W. Tobyn succeeded him as pastor followed by Father Charles Ziegler (1868-1869). Rev. Thomas Manning was pastor until early 1870. Rev. Henry Kelly's service was from 1870 to 1878. Father Thomas Ambrose Butler took over at Father Kelly's death, and continued until 1884. At the SW corner of Clark and Ewing. Razed during demolition for Mill Creek Valley. Records at St. Matthew Church - 2715 North Sarah St., (63113) 1859 (now razed) St. Trinity Church Lutheran (German) St. Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church 's first church was on the west side of 6 th (now Vermont) between Robert and Koeln, built in 1870-72, in the Carondelet neighborhood. Present church is at 7404 Vermont (63111) 1859 Marvin M. E. South Mission Methodist Marvin M. E. South Mission was organized in a blacksmith shop in 1859 and later used rented rooms. In 1874, a frame mission building was dedicated at 2629 Menard Street. The present building was erected in 1891 and was later known as the Marvin Memorial Methodist Church and is located at 1129 Sidney Street. 63104 1859 Zion Lutheran Church Lutheran (German) As the oldest extant Lutheran house of worship in St. Louis, Zion Lutheran Church was an offshoot of the Immanuel Church . First Zion church was built at 15 th and Warren in 1860, and the congregation moved to the present church at 21 st and Benton in 1895. The church was occupied during the early 1920s by the Greeley Memorial Presbyterian Church congregation, and later by the Zion Church of the Nazarene . Since 1937 the church was been home to a series of Pentecostal congregations. Located at 2500 N. 21 st St (63106) 1860 St. Ann Church Catholic Originally run by the Jesuits until 1889, the Passionist Fathers took over until 1948 at which time the parish became a diocesan church. First pastor was Felix Ward. Located at 7530 Natural Bridge Rd., Normandy, Missouri (63121), in the north St. Louis County area. 1860 St. Boniface Church Catholic (German) St. Boniface Church was the first German Catholic parish in Carondelet, which was a separate city until the annexation in 1870. First pastor was Father John Baptist Gamber (1860-61), second was Ernest Andrew Schindel (1861-1895). Cornerstone and dedication was performed in 1860 at Michigan Ave. and Schirmer St. in the Carondelet area (63111) 1860 St. John Church of Manchester, Mo. Evangelical A number of folks at Manchester, Ballwin and other points along the old stage coach route now known as the Manchester Road, having come from Christian homes, keenly felt the need of a church within easier reach. It appears that in the late Fifties of the last century this desire for a church of their own led to some definite steps towards securing one. This fact is clearly established beyond any shadow of doubt, namely, that twenty-eight men covenanted on January 3, 1860, to found the United Evangelical Church of Manchester, Missouri, for in an old record book the original entry is found. From the very beginning, St. John was served by ministers of the Evangelical Synod of the West, and so chose to affiliate with this church body on December 31, 1873. In 1934 this Synod became the Evangelical Synod of North America, which became known as the Evangelical and Reformed Church in 1937. The year 1957 saw the Evangelical and Reformed Church merge with the Congregational-Christian Church to become the United Church of Christ. As a result, the church name became the present St. John United Church of Christ. The above information is taken from church histories published in 1935 and 1994 by Mary Ann Buescher Eberbach, a member of the confirmation class of 1957. 1860 Park Avenue Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Park Avenue Presbyterian Church was organized as a colony of the Second Presbyterian Church in the early 1860's. It built a church at Twelfth Street and Park Avenue which was sold to the Park Avenue Baptist Church in 1867. In 1868, the church merged with the Chouteau Avenue Presbyterian Church at 11 th Street and Chouteau Avenue. The Chouteau Avenue was built in 1867 and was sold to the B'Nai El Jewish congregation in 1875, at which time the Chouteau Avenue Church was dissolved. 1860s Annunciation Church Catholic Bishop Patrick John Ryan was the first pastor. Other early pastors included Rev. Henry Kelly, Rev. David S. Phaelan, Father James Dougherty, Rev. Phillip P. Brady, and Rev. David J. Doherty. Located at 6 th and Chouteau. Closed in 1951, it's records were maintained at St. Mary of Victories Church 1861 - razed St. James the Greater Church Catholic (Irish) St. James the Greater Church was organized in what was then known as Cheltenham in 1861. It was founded as a mission of St. Malachy Church by Rev. John O'Sullivan. Rev. Michael Welby took over after six months, and was also the chaplain at City Hospital Chapel and assistant at Annunciation Church parish . Rev. Henry Kelly was pastor from 1870 - 1878. Father Thomas Ambrose Butler was made pastor in 1878 (and later organized St. Cronan Church ). Father Patrick J. McNamee came to the parish in 1884, and remained as pastor for 12 years. Reverend Edmond A. Casey (assistant at the Old Cathedral in 1882, later at St. Bridget Church ) followed in 1896. Present church at Tamm and Nashville Avenues was dedicated in 1928. Part of the Oakland/Clifton neighborhood. 1861 Union Methodist Episcopal Church Methodist Initially at Watson and Pernod, moved to 11 th and Locust in 1862 with Rev. Henry Cox as pastor, and Rev. Mr. Van Anda was pastor in 1875. They then moved to "Piety Hill" at the SW corner Garrison and Lucas from1882 to 1911. This congregation was an outgrowth of Ebenezer Chapel , the city's first Methodist Church, which disbanded in 1861 because of the northern sympathy of its members in a denomination that was predominately pro-southern. The Garrison Ave. structure was destroyed in 1911, and, although church was rebuilt, the congregation purchased the First Congregational Church at 3610 Grandel Square. Union Methodist Church merged with Christ Methodist Church in 1952 and occupied a new building at 3543 Watson Rd. The Grandel church is now occupied by the St. Louis Black Repertory Theater. The Garrison Avenue church is now occupied by the Metropolitan Zion A. M. E. Church which was formed in 1878. 1862 St. Paul's Lutheran Church Lutheran St. Paul Lutheran Church met originally in a hall at what is now DeSoto and Benedict Street. It moved to a small frame church in 1863, then a brick church on Prairie Avenue in 1873. That church was destroyed by fire in 1922. Present structure was built in 1926, restored from fire in 1990. Located at 2137 East John Avenue, 63107 in the Bissell area. 1862 St. Anthony of Padua Church Catholic (German) St. Anthony of Padua Church was founded by the Franciscan Fathers. Early priests included Alardus Andresheck, Ferdinand Bergmeyer, and Vincent Halbfass. Present church begun 1910. Located at 3140 Meramec Street, (63118), in the Marquette area 1863 Holy Cross Church Catholic (Irish and German) Holy Cross Church was formed in the early 1860s by Rev. Casper Doebbener of Holy Trinity Church in Bremen. Prior to this the German residents of Baden attended mass at a private chapel of the Carmelite Convent in Calvary Cemetery. A church was dedicated in 1864. First pastor was Frederick Brinkhoff from 1864-65, followed by Herman Wigger (1865-97). The Irish portion of the congregation withdrew in 1872 to form Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church . A new (current) church was erected in 1909. This church is located at 8115 Church Road near Baden Avenue. 1863 Assumption Church Catholic (Irish) Rev. C. P. Smith was parish priest in 1875. Assumption Church was closed in 1965. Located at 917 Sidney, it's records were maintained at St. Agatha Church 1864 - 1965 Walnut Street Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Walnut Street Presbyterian Church was organized in 1864 as a dissident offshoot of Second Presbyterian Church , then changed to Washington - Compton Avenue Presbyterian Church in the late 1870s after it moved to midtown. Rev. James H. Brookes was an early pastor. In 1926 the church moved to Skinker and Alexander Drive, and adopted the name Memorial Presbyterian Church . The Compton Avenue building was remodeled in 1948 and used by the Washington Tabernacle Baptist Church. 1864 St. Mary Church Catholic Founded by the Jesuits of Florissant, this church is located at 4603 Long Road, Bridgeton, MO (63044) 1864 First Independent Church of St. Louis

Presbyterian Located at 2240 St. Louis Ave., First Independent Church of St. Louis began as a mission of the Second Presbyterian Church , and started as an outgrowth of the Protestant Free School , which was founded in 1840 at 6 th and Carr. The congregation moved to 14 th and Carr. As the school flourished, a First Independent Church was organized. A church was built in 1880 at the SW corner of 16 th and Carr, led by Carlos S. Greeley. In 1909 the congregation moved to the former Zion Lutheran Church at Blair and Warren, and the church assumed the name of Greeley Presbyterian Church in honor of it's benefactor. With help from the Second Church, Greeley Church completed its present building in 1930. 1864 Presbyterian Church of Pacific City Presbyterian Rev. J. F. Fenton was the first pastor. In 1867 they acquired the old stone "Union Church" at Fourth and St. Louis Streets, and became the Pacific Presbyterian Church . 1864 Eighth Street German Methodist Episcopal Church Methodist (German) Eighth Street German Methodist Episcopal Church organized in 1864 and occupied a brick church structure on the SW corner of 8 th and Soulard (now Lafayette) Streets as late as 1883, in the Soulard area. (Comment from Christine Merseal May 8, 2021: "I have contacted the Missouri United Methodist Archives about the Eight Street Methodist Episcopal Church in St. Louis. John D. Finley, the Archivist wrote me back. Here is part of his response": "The 8th Street Methodist Episcopal Church changed its name to Memorial MEC about 1892. Memorial United Methodist Church closed in 1981. I discovered that the State Historical Society of Missouri has the records from Memorial that have survived. The church suffered two fires and a tornado, so we are lucky to have the records we do….One document that has survived is a church register that includes membership information from the 1870's and 1880's…." 1864 St. Joseph Church Catholic In the Lafayette area, this church was first known as St. Malachy Mission . Prior to 1869 this congregation was visited by priests from the Old Cathedral and later St Peter Church in Kirkwood. When the old church was razed in 1893 its name was changed to St. Joseph Church . 567 St. Joseph Lane, Manchester, Missouri (63021) 1865 Holy Communion Church Episcopal Holy Communion Church was established as a mission of Trinity Church . Pastor was Rev. P. G. Roberts. Church was opened at NW corner of Leffingwell and Washington in 1877, in the Piety Hill area. Moved to Delmar and Jackson (University City) in 1938. New owner was Jamison Memorial C. M. E. Church , an African-American congregation organized in 1917. 1865 Plymouth Congregational Church Congregational Plymouth Congregational Church , the fourth of its denomination to be founded in St. Louis, grew out of Hope Mission Sunday School which was organized in Elleardsville in 1865 by the Rev. William Porteus. 1865 St. John Evangelical Lutheran Church Lutheran First pastor of St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church was Rev. August Craemer. This church didn't have it's own building until 1884. Now located at Morganford and Chippewa. Present church was built in 1949. 1865 Shaare Emeth Jewish This reform Judiasm organization got it's roots from Isaac Hoffheimer and Isaac Fuld in 1865 as "The Temple Association " (later "The Temple Building Association "). The cornerstone of the first Shaare Emeth ( Gates of Truth ) temple was laid at the NE corner of 17 th and Pine in 1867 (dedicated 1869, survived until 1897). The first Rabbi was Dr. Solomon H. Sonnenscheim (1869 - 1886). Later on Sonnenscheim started Temple Israel with a group from his old congregation. Rabbi Samuel Sale was at Shaare Emeth from 1887 - 1919. Congregation later moved to large stone temple at SE corner of Lindell and Vandeventer in 1895. This temple was razed in 1929 to widen Vandeventer. They then moved to 6900 Delmar (at Trinity) in University City in 1932. Shaare Emeth has since moved to 11645 Ladue Road, St. Louis, MO 63141. Telephone: 314-569-0010.

Website: www.shaare-emeth.org 1865 - razed St. Teresa of Avila Church Catholic (Irish) St. Teresa of Avila Church was founded by Rev. James J. O'Brien, and succeeded by Rev. F. P. Gallagher after one year.. Rev. Joseph A. Connelly was pastor during the 1890s. By 1883 four parishes had been formed from within St. Teresa's boundaries. Cornerstone of present church was laid in 1900, located at N. Market St. at Grand, (63113) in the Grand Prairie area 1866 Holy Angels Church Catholic Father Michael Welby organized Holy (Guardian) Angels Church on St. Ange and Chouteau, considered one of the finest neighborhoods in St. Louis. He was succeeded as pastor by Rev. Francis M. Kielty in 1869, and assisted by Rev. M. J. McLaughlin. Located north of Lafayette Park at 1019 S. 14 th Street. 1866 - 1992 St. Francis de Sales Church Catholic (German) St. Francis de Sales Church was organized as an offshoot from St. Peter and Paul Church . Ludwig Lay (1867-69) was the first pastor, Father Peter Wigger (1869-78) was the parish's second pastor, with Father Peter J. Lotz (1878-1903) following. Brick church built in 1867 was destroyed by the 1896 tornado, occupying the NW corner of Gravois and Ohio Avenues, but was rebuilt in 1908. Father Frederick G. Holweck succeeded Father Lotz in 1903. Located at 2653 Ohio Avenue (at Lynch Street), (63118). In Compton Hill area. 1867 Park Avenue Baptist Church Baptist Park Avenue Baptist Church purchased the existing church at South 13 th and Park Avenue in 1867. Organized from members of the Second Baptist Church. Early pastors include Rev. J. M. C. Breaker, George Kline, M. L. Laws, and D. T. Morrill. 1867 First Baptist Church of Carondelet Baptist The Carondelet Baptist Church was organized as the First Baptist Church of Carondelet . Its first building was dedicated in 1872 at 5 th and Taylor Streets in Carondelet. In 1874 a colony called the Welsh Mission of Second Baptist Church was formed by some members of the First Church.. This mission flourished for two years and then it's members returned to the parent church. The new church was completed in 1928 at Virginia and Robert Avenues. 1867 Emmanuel Episcopal Church Episcopal Stone structure was erected in 1867 at 9 S. Bompart, Webster Groves, Missouri. Emmanuel Episcopal Church was upgraded and additions completed in 1965. 1867 St. Mark Evangelical Lutheran Church Lutheran (English) First services were held in Asbury Methodist Episcopal Church at 15 th near Franklin and Morgan (presently Delmar). St. Mark's first church was completed in 1872 at Elliott near Wash. The first pastor was Dr. S. W. Harkey. Rev. M. Rhodes was pastor by 1875. The congregation moved to Cardinal and Bell in 1882. Their current location is at 6337 Clayton Road, built in 1921. 1867 St. Nicholas Church Catholic Originally situated at the NW corner of 20 th and Christy the church's first pastor was Rev. Nicholas Staudinger (1866-76), assisted by Rev. J. A. Schmidt. After this came Caspar Duebbener (1876-78) and Coseph Schaefers (1878-1907). Once located at 1827 Lucas Avenue, this church is presently located at 701 N. 18 th Street, (63103) 1867 Sacred Heart Church Catholic (German) Sacred Heart Church was formed by a number of German families from St. Ferdinand Church . Early Jesuits included Ignatius Panken, (1866-67), Ignatius Peuckert (1867-76), John Bauhaus (1877-86), Francis Vallazza (1887-95), and Lambert Etten (1895-1903). First church was built in 1867. Present structure was dedicated in 1893 at 751 N. Jefferson Street, Florissant, Mo. 1867 Bethany Evangelical Church Evangelical Bethany Evangelical Church was located at Red Bud and Rosalie Avenues for many years, and was organized in 1867 in a hall at 22 nd and Franklin. It later worshiped in a small chapel at 24 th and Carr, and in 1875 dedicated its own church at 23 rd and Wash Streets. Rev. Christoph F. Stark was pastor in 1875. In Fairgrounds area. 1867 Evangelical Lutheran Church Lutheran (English) This Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in 1867 with Rev. Dr. M. Rhodes, pastor. 1867 St. Alphonsus (Liguori) (Rock) Church Catholic (Irish) Better known as Rock Church , this church was erected by the Redemptorists Fathers (notably Rev. Louis Dold, Egidins Smulders and Ferreol Girardey). The cornerstone was laid in 1867 by Rev. Jospeh Melcher, and was dedicated in 1872 (church still lacked the steeples) and St. Alphonus Church received parish status in 1881, with a predominant Irish congregation. Father W. V. Meredith was the first rector. Other early priests were Rev. E. Smulders, Rec. C. W. Rathke, Rev. H. Meuer, Rev. J. Keitz, Rev. F. Muller, Rev. L. Cook. Located at 1118 North Grand Boulevard, (63106) 1867 Second Church Christian Second Church was originally the old North St. Louis Christian Church at 11 th and Tyler. 1868 St. Peter Church Episcopal Formed as a mission of Christ Church. Became part of St. Peter Church parish, founded by Rev. Edward F. Berkeley, in 1872. First at NE corner of Jefferson and Olive, then, a stone chapel at NE corner of Grand and Olive in 1873 with Rev. Dr. Berkeley, minister. Stone church was erected in 1893 at the SE corner of Lindell and Spring. Remained there until 1949 when the congregation moved to Ladue and Warson in Ladue. 1868 St. Paul Protestant Episcopal Church Episcopal St. Paul's Church held services in rented quarters until the church was completed in 1870. The church was located on 3 rd near Lafayette in Carondelet with Rev. O. H. Staples as pastor. The church's present address in 6518 Michigan. Marker in front yard of this church is the SE corner of the old Carondelet Common Fields, set there in the late 1700s. 1868 Protestant Episcopal Church Episcopal Services for Protestant Episcopal Church were first held in Elleardsville in 1868 on Victoria (Aldine) Street. The church's first building was complete in 1870 at Whittier and North market where St. James P.E. Church organized. The congregation's second church was built at Goode and Cote Brilliante in 1888 and in 1900, it erected its third home at that intersection. In Grand-Prairie area. 1868 Lafayette Park Baptist Church Baptist Lafayette Park Baptist Church was organized in a store at 7 th Street and Chouteau Avenue in 1867. In the next year, known as the Park Avenue Baptist Church , it occupied a building at Park Ave near 12 th St. . Moved to larger quarters in 1888 at the southeast corner of Lafayette and Mississippi Ave. 1868 Bernard Street Baptist Church Baptist Bernard Street Baptist Church at the corner of Bernard and Emily Streets, was led by pastor Rev. J. Hickman. 1868 St. John Methodist Church South Methodist St. John's Methodist Church South began as the Ashbury Chapel at 15 th and Gay. Disbanded during the Civil War, this church was officially reorganized in 1868 and built the church in 1869 on land purchased at NW corner of Ewing and Locust in 1865. Rev. F. A. Morris was the first pastor, and Rev. Joseph W. Lewis had that role in 1875. Centenary Methodist Church contributed to the building fund for this church in the neighborhood called "Piety Hill". St. John's erected a new church in 1901 on Washington Avenue at N. Kingshighway. In 1902 the old church was sold to St. Charles Borromeo Church parish, organized by Italian born Father Caesar Spigardi. 1868 Ebenezer Lutheran Church Lutheran Ebenezer Lutheran Church was an offshoot of Bethlehem Evangelical Lutheran Church located in the Baden area. Initially worshipped in a log house at what is now the SE corner of McLaran Avenue and Riverview Boulevard (originally Tracy Road). By 1871 a brick church was completed in the 8400 block of Church Rd. A larger church was built in 1923 at Theobald and Church Rd. 1869 St. James Evangelical Church Evangelical (German) St. James United Church of Christ at 1505 East College Avenue was organized as a branch of Friedens Evangelical Church . The name St. James Evangelical Church was used at that time. Located in the Bissell area. A small church was erected at DeSoto and McKissock in 1869. Prior to this church, Eden Evangelical Seminary offered services to this north St. Louis community. The present site at College and Blair was dedicated in 1888. 1869 St. John Lateran Catholic Located in Imperial, Missouri 1869 St. John Methodist Church Methodist St. John's Methodist Church was the first African-American Methodist church in Carondelet was built in 1869 1869 Scheerith Israel Jewish (Orthodox) Scheerith Israel came into existence through efforts of Abraham Tuchler. Congregation was popularly known as "Krakower Shul". Established it's own cemetery in 1871. By early 1880s this was the largest Orthodox congregation in St. Louis. Rev. L. Rosenblatt acted in lieu of rabbi until Rabbi Aaron Levy became first permanent rabbi in 1883. Disbanded by 1900. Most members migrated to B'Nai Amoona congregation. 1869 - 1900 Central Methodist Church Methodist Central Methodist Church was organized in 1869 in a hall at 18 th and Wash Streets, moved to a new church on NE corner of 23 rd and Morgan (now Delmar) in 1871. Early ministers included Rev. Dr. A. C. George, Rev. J. J. Bentley, and Rev A. C. Williams. Disbanded in 1890s. 1869 - 1890s Carondelet German Evangelical Church Evangelical (German) Carondelet United Church of Christ Church at 7423 Michigan was founded as the Carondelet German Evangelical Church by Rev. John Will. Present church building was constructed in 1871. Denominational name changes took place in 1939 with the congregation's adoption of the name Evangelical and Reformed. In 1957, following the consolidation of the Congregational Christian Church with the Evangelical and Reformed Church , it was renamed United Church of Christ Church. 1869 Mayflower Congregational Church Congregational Mayflower Congregational Church was established as a mission of Pilgrim Church , a chapel was built on what is now Garfield, west of Grand. In 1876 the name was changed to Third Church and the building was moved again in 1882 to a site on the SE corner of Grand and Page. In 1895 they merged with the Aubert Place Church which was then erecting a building at Fountain and Aubert. The name of Fountain Park Church was adopted for the combined societies. 1869 Pacific Baptist Church Baptist Organized under the leadership of Rev. J. H. Breaker. Cornerstone laid on St. Louis Street (in Pacific) in 1882 (completed 1883). 1870 Bethany Lutheran Church Lutheran Members of the Bethlehem Lutheran Church petitioned for a mission in 1870. A frame chapel was erected in 1874. The chapel was used jointly with Grace Church until that congregation moved to Wellston in 1879. In 1883 new church was constructed at Natural Bridge and Clay Avenues. Bethany Lutheran's current church was completed in 1929. In Fairgrounds area. 1870 Mount Calvary Episcopal Church Episcopal Rev. B. E. Read was pastor of the initial church at Lafayette and Grand. Chapel built at Jefferson and Lafayette in 1878, church in 1882. Rev. Philip W. Fauntleroy directed rebuilding after 1896 tornado unroofed the building. Mount Calvary Episcopal Church 's new church at 3661 DeTonty was consecrated 1912. 1870 - Razed (part of I-44) St. Luke (or Lucas) German Evangelical Church Evangelical (German), now United Church of Christ St. Luke's or St. Lucas German Evangelical Church was organized in 1870 at 2637 Chouteau Avenue. A brick church was erected on the NE corner of Jefferson and Scott. The congregation became a member of the Evangelical Synod of North America in 1874, and a new church was dedicated in 1878, and rebuilt after the tornado in 1896. Church site at 2336 Tennessee was purchased in 1906. Today it is called St. Luke's United Church of Christ , and is still at 2336 Tennessee Ave., St. Louis, MO 63104, phone 314-865-2956. It presently has 98 members, pastor: B. De Bardelaben. According to Dr. Lowell Zuck at Eden Archives, the archives have none of this church's records. NOTE: This church is not to be confused with St. Lucas Evangelical Lutheran Church at 7100 Morganford Road which was founded on January 29, 1905, as St. Lucas Slovak Lutheran Church , the first of its kind west of the Mississippi. 1870 Church of the Unity Unitarian The second Unitarian congregation (offspring of the Church of the Messiah ), they built a stone church in 1879 at Park and Armstrong across from Lafayette Square named Church of the Unity . First pastor was Rev. John Calvin Learned. In 1917, Unity moved to a new church at 5007 Waterman and the building was sold to St. Joseph Lithuanian Catholic Church . Messiah and Unity consolidated in 1938 at the Waterman location, and adopted the name First Unitarian Church . 1870 Union Avenue Christian Church Christian An outgrowth of the old Central Christian Church , originally formed in 1871. First met at 14 th and St. Charles Streets until 1875 when it moved to a church at 23 rd and Washington. In 1887 another move was made to a new building on Finney Avenue near Grand. In 1892 Rev. O. A. Bartholomew resigned as pastor of the First Christian Church to form the Mount Cabanne Christian Church at Kingshighway and Morgan (now Enright). In 1902, this church combined with the Central Christian Church . In 1904 they adopted the name of Union Avenue Christian Church and erected a chapel at on the present site (733 Union Blvd. 63108). In the Cabanne District. Website: "www.union-avenue.org" 1871 St. Agatha Church Catholic (German) St. Agatha Church was organized by Rev. J. A. Stroomberger as a German language parish in the Anheuser Busch Brewery area. Early priest include Henry Leygraaft (1871-1874) and William Hinseen (1874-83). Construction of the red brick church, under the leadership of Rev. Henry Schrage, began in 1884 but wasn't completed until 1899. Located at 3239 South 9 th Street at Utah Street, (63118) in the Soulard area. 1871 St. Aloysius Church Catholic This church was initially a mission of Holy Cross Church and Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church . It is located at 12110 Larrimore Road, Baden Sta., Missouri in the Spanish Lake community. 1871 Corinthian Baptist Church Baptist Corinthian Baptist Church was originally located at Steins and Alabama, presently located at 6326 Colorado Avenue near I-55. 1871 Holy Innocents Church Episcopal Holy Innocents Church occupied a frame church building at the NW corner of Morganford and Tholozan in 1871. This building had been erected in 1856 and served as a union church for Methodist, Presbyterians and other denominations for 15 years. Holy Innocents merged with two parishes in 1939 to become St. Mark Episcopal Church at 4712 Clifton. The old church was later occupied by the Morganford Church of Christ , which razed it in 1954 to erect their present building on its site. 1871 Church of the Good Shepherd Episcopal The Protestant Episcopal Church of the Good Shepherd was organized in 1871 in a building on 7 th Street near Sidney. In 1873, a chapel was erected on South 8 th Street between Pestalozzi and Lancaster (Dorcas) Streets with Rev. H. D. Jardine, rector. It was enlarged in 1883 and in 1904 the congregation moved to 2838 Salena Street. It is now located at 1166 South Mason Road in St. Louis County. 1871 Most Sacred Heart Church Catholic (Irish) Sacred Heart Church was founded by Rev. James J. McCabe. The stone church was completed in 1899. Located at 2336 University Street (63107) in "Kerry Patch". 1871 - 1978 Holy Name Church Catholic (Irish) Most Holy Name Church is located at 2047 East Grand Boulevard, (63107) in the Bissell Hills area of North St. Louis. The nucleus of this parish originated with St. Thomas Chapel of St. Louis University. Rev. P. J. Gleason was the first priest. The present church was built in 1916. 1871 St. Monica Church Catholic Prior to the establishment of St. Monica Church these Catholics attended St. Joseph Church . Franciscan Father Chrysostomus Beineke was the first pastor (1872-81), followed by Joseph Diel (1881-84), Charles Brookmeier (1885-98), and then Henry Thobe. Located at 12136 Olive Street Road, Creve Coeur (63141). Website: "www.catholicforum.com/stmonica" 1872 St. Bonaventure Church Catholic (Italian) Italian Catholics first concentrated in the area of St. Patrick Church . The first church for the Italian population was St. Bonaventure Church in 1872, but it was too far from the concentration of Italian Catholics on "The Hill". They used a basement chapel at the German-American parish of St. Aloysius Church under the auspices of Father F. G. Holweck (who spoke Italian, German, and English). In 1875 the church was attended by Rev. John B. Salvatelli and Rev. N. Graziani. The church (built in 1855 by St. John Episcopal Church ) was located at 6 th and Spruce (near Busch Stadium). 1872 - 1883 St. Columbkille Church Catholic (Irish) St. Columbkille Church was organized in 1872 to serve Irish iron workers of the nearby Vulcan Iron Works. Its pastor, the Rev. Michael O'Reilly, was called a "militant defender of the church" because of his defense of his parishioners against slurs of Irish character. Church was razed in 1952. Located at 8202 Michigan Avenue. Records at St. Boniface Church , 7622 Michigan Avenue, Carondelet (63111) 1872 - 1952 Epworth Methodist Church Methodist Epworth Methodist Church began as a small mission on Easton Ave., west of Grand. Frame chapel was built 1875 at northern corner of Goode Ave. and North Market. Organized as the Goode Ave. M. E. Church with Rev. R. S. Stubbs as pastor in 1876 1872 Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church Catholic (Irish) In 1872 the Irish faction of the Holy Cross Church parish split and formed Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church parish. Founded by Rev. David S. Phelan, he was pastor from 1872 through 1915. The initial church was dedicated in 1874. The present church building was completed in July 1939. Located at 8747 Annetta Avenue, (63115). This parish merged with Holy Cross Parish in 1993 and formed Our Lady of the Holy Cross Church. Located in north St. Louis. 1872- 1993 Curby Memorial Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Curby Memorial Presbyterian Church was organized as the Westminster Church in 1873 in rooms at 3500 South Broadway. In 1876 the church occupied a frame structure at Pestalozzi and James (now 18 th ) Streets. The present church was built in 1898 at 2621 Utah. 1873 Our Lady of Perpetual Help Church Catholic (German) The church at 2011 Linton Avenue (63107) (in north St. Louis to the east of O'Fallon Park)was dedicated in 1874 from a group of parishioners from Holy Trinity Church . According to Rothensteiner "Parish was founded on territory called "College Hill" and owned by the Jesuits of St. Louis University in the unincorporated town of Lowell. Lowell became part of St. Louis in 1877". A newer church was built in 1889 (destroyed by fire in 1970). Rev. A. J. Schilling was pastor from 1875 thru 1904. Part of the parish was removed in 1891 to create St. Engelbert Church .. 1873 - 1992 St. Bernard Church Catholic (German) The west-central part of the city was predominantly Irish, but even here St. Bernard Church gave a slight touch of the Rhineland to the upper Mill Creek Valley. St. Bernard's parish was dismembered in 1885 to create St. Henry Church parish and again in 1892 to form that of St. Aloysius Church. Closed, records are now at St. Cronan Church. Located at 4019 Gratiot Street, (63110) 1874 - 1973 (razed) St. Augustine Church Catholic (German) Originally at 22 nd and Hebert, St. Augustine Church was organized by Rev. Henry Jaegering in 1874. Larger church was erected in 1897 under the direction of Pastor Rev. Henry Hukestein. Parish was closed in 1982. Located at 3114 Lismore Street, (63107) in the Grand-Prairie neighborhood near the old Fairgrounds vicinity. Building is presently used as Evergreen Outreach Center. 1874 St. Elizabeth of Hungary Church Catholic Established by the Jesuits for African American Catholics, this church originally stood at 14 th and Gay Streets. First pastor was Jesuit Ignatius Pankin (1873-91), followed by Father Meuffels (1892-95), Father Boarman , Father Michael Speich (1896-1911). By 1875 they had moved in the church located at 15 th between Franklin and Morgan (now Delmar), the former home of the Asbury Methodist Episcopal Church . Later moved to 2721 Pine (known as the Old Walsh Mansion). Records are now at St. Matthew Church located at 2715 North Sarah St, (63113). 1874 Grace Church Lutheran (English) Grace Church is located on the SW corner of Warne and Cozens Avenues, in the Grand-Prairie area. Rev. Martin P. Sommer was pastor from 1891-1914. 1875 Cote Brilliante Presbyterian Church Presbyterian By 1875 Cote Brilliante Presbyterian Church already had a structure built at Labadie and Marcus (4687 Labadie). The building was called Union Chapel . By 1879 the name was changed to Cote Brilliante Church . Changed to Presbyterian in 1885. New church was built in 1894. 1875 St. Matthew German Evangelical Church Evangelical (German) In 1876 this Evangelical congregation occupied a church at 3331 South 7 th St. Rev. Henry Braschler was the first pastor. The present church at the corner of Jefferson and Potomac was built in 1888, and now houses the St. Matthew United Church of Christ . Located at 2613 Potomac in the Marquette-Cherokee area. (63118) 1875 Central Christian Church Christian Central Christian Church occupied a church at the NE corner of 23 rd and Washington in 1875. Formed from members of the First Christian Church (dissension over an organ). They first met in a hall at 14 th and St. Charles before moving in 1875. After the 23 rd St. property was sold in 1879, the church met in various halls until 1887 when it dedicated a new structure on Finney near Grand. It eventually became known as the Union Avenue Christian Church in 1904. 1875 St. Kevin Church Catholic St. Kevin Church was constructed in 1876 at Compton and Rutger. After an initial struggle the parish grew rapidly under the pastorate of Rev. E. J. Shea. Rev. P. F. O'Reilly was the pastor in 1875. A new church was built in 1889 at Park and Cardinal. Early pastor was Father McEvoy. The current church at Lafayette and Longfellow was built in 1908 at which time the parish adopted the name of Immaculate Conception Church. 3120 Lafayette Avenue (63104). Immaculate Conception parish merged with St. Henry (1230 California at Rutger) in 1977. Has the parish records of St. Kevin Church and St. Henry Church . In the Compton Hill area. 1876 Fairground Mission Church Christian Fairground Mission Church was formed by the old Third Church , later became the Church of the Redeemer and merged with Union Church in 1911, and joined Fountain Park Church in 1918. 1877 Garrison Avenue Baptist Church Baptist Garrison Avenue Baptist Church was an offshoot of the Third Avenue Baptist Church, built its small church in 1877 on Garrison near Morgan (now Delmar). In 1879 that building was moved west to the corner of Morgan and Compton. The present church at 620 Spring Avenue was completed in 1884. Eight years later the congregation reorganized (see Delmar Baptist Church) , and moved to a larger building at Delmar and Pendleton. The new owners of the building on Spring were the First Society of Jerusalem (Swedenborgians) . They owned it until 1956 when the Memorial Church of God in Christ took over. 1877 Page Avenue M. E. Church South Methodist Page Avenue M. E. Church South occupied a chapel on Page near Grand from 1877 until 1883. In Grand-Prairie area. 1877 Lafayette Park Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Lafayette Park Presbyterian Church was formed as a colony of the Walnut Street Church . Church at Missouri Ave. and Albion Place was occupied early 1884. Many came from the congregation of the Chouteau Avenue Church which disbanded in 1875. Damaged by 1896 tornado and rebuilt. Merged with Tyler Place Church in 1946. Located at 1505 Missouri Ave. 1878 St. Paul Church Catholic (German) Built five years after Fenton's incorporation, St. Paul Church was a predominately German congregation that built this church. St. Peter Church of Kirkwood served this parish until 1887. 1879 Second German Swedenborgian Church Swedenborgian (English) The Second German Church of New Jerusalem was organized in St. Louis in 1879. In 1883 they constructed a church at 2126 St. Louis Avenue. They occupied the building until 1930. Since then it has been home to the Chiesa Diddio Christian Italian Pentecostal Church , The Italian Christian Congregational Church (1937-1956), Church of God Prophecy (1960-1972), and the Abyssianian Missionary Baptist Church since 1973. 1879 Beth Hamedrosh Hagodol Jewish Founded as a minyan. Congregation purchased first building at 1123 N. 11 th in 1890, and stayed there for 30 years. First Rabbi was Israel Miller (1886-1892), followed by Solomon Elchanan Jaffe (1892-1895). Comprised mostly of Latvian Jews. Presently at 1227 North and south Road, St. Louis, MO 63130. Telephone 314-721-1037. Name means "Great House of Learning". 1879 St. Cronan Church Catholic St. Cronan Church was founded out of a part of the St. James Church parish. Father Thomas Ambrose Butler was an early pastor. Father Patrick J. McNamee was the next pastor from 1884 to 1896. Church at 1203 South Boyle Avenue, (63110) was dedicated in 1879 1879 Compton Hill Congregational Church Congregational Compton Hill Congregational Church was organized as the High Street Mission (aka Twenty-third Street Mission) , which was a colony of the Pilgrim Church . In the next year it was organized as the Fifth Congregational Church in the former High Street Presbyterian Church at 23 rd and Clark. This congregation took it's current name when the present site of Compton and Lafayette was purchased in 1886, with the church building being dedicated in 1894. Pastorates of Dr. W. W. Newell and Rev. L. J. Sharp. In the Compton Hill area. In 1955 the Compton Hill Congregational Church merged with Mount Hope Evangelical Church and moved to the latter's church building at 3661 DeTonty. The building was purchased by the Christian Fundamental Church (organized in 1940s). This congregation later changed it's name to Church of St. Louis . 1880 Holy Ghost Church

Catholic (German) Rev. Michael Busch was first pastor. Reorganized by Rev. Augustine Huettler. Holy Ghost Church was dedicated in 1909 under pastorate of Rev. John Rothesteiner. Located at North Taylor and Garfield. Closed in the 1970, records at Church of the Visitation , 4515 Evans Avenue, (63113). The church was razed in 1975. 1880 - 1960 Carondelet A. M. E. Church African Methodist Episcopal A building which was built in 1869 as a city market by the city of Carondelet was sold in the early 1880s to the Carondelet African Methodist Episcopal Church . Also known as the Quinn Chapel . 1880 Immanuel Baptist Church Baptist Immanuel Baptist Church was originally at 5850 Bates, near Hamilton, is now located at 10360 Olive Street Road in St. Louis county. The old building was later the home of the Metropolitan Missionary Baptist Church , which has moved to 8325 Scudder Avenue in Kinloch. 1880s Hyde Park Congregational Church Congregational Hyde Park Congregational Church was organized in 1881, this church at 1501 Bremen was completed in 1894. At one time the home of New Shiloh Baptist Church , it is now the home of a Pentecostal church. 1881 Grand Avenue United Presbyterian Church Presbyterian In 1881 the First United Presbyterian Church organized a mission at Grand and Clark which became the Grand Avenue United Presbyterian Church . It built a stone church there in 1895. In 1902 a group left the church to form the Gibson Heights Church and in 1923, the name of the Grand Avenue Church was changed to Second United Church. 1881 - Razed St. John and James Church Catholic David S. Phelan, pastor at Mount Carmel Church , was active in this parish, whose first pastor was Vincent J. McCartney. This parish is located at 140 North Elizabeth Ave., Ferguson, MO. (63135) 1882 Memorial Congregational Church Congregational Memorial Congregational Church was founded in Cheltenham and by 1904 it occupied a building at Sulphur and Way. The church's present location is 6234 Victoria. Part of the Oakland/Clifton neighborhood. 1882 St. Thomas of Aquin Church Catholic (Irish) The parish of St. Thomas Aquin Church was organized in 1882 by the English speaking members of St. Anthony Church . The congregation worshiped in the chapel of Alexian Brother's Hospital until their church was completed in 1883. Rev. David J. Doherty was the first pastor, from 1882 to 1932. Damaged in the 1896 tornado, the current church was completed in 1926 at 3949 Iowa Avenue, (63118) 1882 B'Nai Amoona Jewish Formed from a group of former Sheerith Israel members, B'Nai Amoona was founded at 9 th and Washington, moving in 1884 to 11 th and Washington, and in 1883 to 13 th and Carr (where their first synagogue was dedicated in 1889). Rabbi Adolph Rosentreter was the first spiritual leader of this congregation, and ministered for more than two decades . After merging with the Scheerith Israel congregation in 1893, they moved to Garrison and Lucas in 1906. 1882 Baden Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Services were originally held in a frame house at 7936 North Broadway and later a nearby dry goods store. A frame church was erected in 1904 at 8449 Halls Ferry Road. About 1914 the Baden Presbyterian Church congregation merged with the Windsor Methodist Church . 1882 Our Lady of the Visitation Church Catholic Rev. Edward Fenlon, first pastor of Our Lady of the Visitation Church , was succeeded by Rev. Edward Dempsey in 1907. In 1992 Visitation Church merged with St. Ann Church and became Visitation - St. Ann Shrine . 4515 Evans Avenue at Taylor (63113). In the Grand-Prairie area. 1882 St. Stanislaus Kostka Church Catholic (Polish) The first Polish Church, St. Stanislaus Church , was consecrated in 1882 with Franciscan Fathers. Father Urban Stanowski took charge of the parish in1886. Present church was completed in 1892, and was the mother church of Polish parishes including St. Casimir Church, St. Hedwig Church , and Our Lady of Czestochowa Church. Located at 1413 North 20 th Street at Cass, (63106). Part of the Kerry Patch area. 1882 St. Rose of Lima Church Catholic Rev. James J. McGlynn was appointed pastor of the St. Rose of Lima Church in 1884, and moved the site to the corner of Etzel and Goodfellow, where the church was dedicated in 1885. The present church at the NW corner of Maple and Goodfellow was dedicated in 1910. 1015 Goodfellow Boulevard, (63112). In the Cabanne neighborhood. 1884 Antioch Baptist Church Baptist Antioch Baptist Church 's present church was erected in 1920 at Goode and North Market. Located in the Grand-Prairie area. 1884 St. James A. M. E. Church Methodist At 4301 St. Ferdinand Ave. 1884 Immanuel Methodist Church Methodist Immanuel Methodist Church 's first place of worship was a small frame building on the SW corner of Bruno and Forest Avenues. New church was erected on SW corner of Blendon Place and Bruno by pastor Rev. J. D. Vincel, and known as Benton Methodist Church . About 1897 a wooden church was erected in the present site at 2105 McCausland, and the existing brick church was completed in 1927. In the Benton area. 1885 Cook Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church Methodist Sponsored by members of the St. John Methodist Church , Cook Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church is located at Spring and Cook Avenues. Name was changed in about 1906 to Scruggs Memorial C. M. E. Church in honor of it's major benefactor, Richard M. Scruggs (of department store fame). In 1925 church ownership passed to the "Colored Methodist Episcopal Church " (later called Christian Methodist Episcopal Church ). In Grand-Prairie area. 1885 Water Tower Baptist Church Baptist Water Tower Baptist Church was begun as a mission of the Third Baptist Church in the Bissell area. Building at 2115 E. Grand Ave. was dedicated in 1886. 1885 Memorial Methodist Church (Pacific) Methodist Built on West St. Louis Street in Pacific. Rev. Albert Jump preached the first sermon in the Methodist Church of Pacific . Presently called Pacific Methodist Church . 1885 Salem Evangelical Church Evangelical Salem Evangelical Church began in a house at Marcus and Margaretta Avenues. The congregation occupied a new church at Shreve and Margaretta in 1898. In Fairgrounds area. 1885 St. Henry Church Catholic (German) St. Henry Church was organized by Rev. John A. Hoffmann, pastor from 1885 to 1909. This church was dedicated in 1885 at California and Hickory. The first marriage to take place in this church was between John Lossos and Margaret Knichel, on October 13, 1885. The first church was destroyed in the tornado of 1896, but rebuilt in 1910. Rev. Henry Hussmann was pastor from 1909 until 1929, at which time Father William S. Kempf took the reigns. This parish was originally formed from part of St. Mary of Victories Church parish. Parish is closed (1977) and records are now at Immaculate Conception Church parish. 1885 - 1977 St. Joseph Church Catholic See also St. Martin Church . St. Joseph's Parish is rich in tradition and history due to its establishment in the County Seat of Clayton in 1881, as the first church in this area. In

1828, at Bonhomme and Price Roads, the village of Central was established and became the center of community life for West St. Louis County. St. Martin's,

the first Roman Catholic Church in West County, was established in 1842. Current church is at 106 North Meramec, Clayton, MO 63105-3788. (314) 726-1221 1881 Holy Redeemer Church Catholic (German and Irish) By 1896 the German portion of the congregation formed St. Michael Church in Shrewsbury with Rev. P. J. Kane it's first pastor. Located at 17 Joy Avenue, Webster Groves, Missouri (63119) 1886 Temple Israel Jewish Temple Israel was founded by a group of liberal dissents from Shaare Emeth, St. Louis' first Reformed Jewish Congregation. Rabbi Solomon H. Sonneschein (1886 - 1890) left Shaare Emeth to become Temple Israel's leader. First worship was held at Memorial Hall at 19 th and Locust and later at the old Pickwick Theater at Jefferson and Washington. A stone temple was completed in 1888 at Leffingwell and Pine. Rabbi Leon Harrison led the congregation from 1891 - 1928. This temple was razed in the Mill Creek demolition. Congregation moved to Kingshighway and Washington in 1908. In 1962 the congregation settled into their new building at Ladue and Spoede. Address: 13788 Conway Road, St. Louis, MO 63141. Telephone: 314-432-8050.

Website: www.ti-stl.org 1886 Fourth Christian Church Christian Built in 1886, Fourth Christian Church 's original design is evident in spite of it's numerous remodeling jobs. Located at 5101 Penrose. Presently home to New Harmony General Baptist Church . 1886 St. Stephen Episcopal Church Episcopal In 1886 the Rev. W. E. Greene opened the parish with worship services in a tent at Third and Rutger Streets. St. Stephen's Episcopal Church was founded as a mission and met in stores in the vicinity of 7 th and Hickory Streets. In 1898, a church was built at 6 th and Rutger Streets and was organized as a parish in 1921. A new church to, serve the area near City Hospital was built at 14 th Street and Park Avenue in 1961. This parish closed it doors on December 26, 2004. 1886 - 2004 Sheerith S'fard Jewish Sometimes referred to a Anshei S'fard , this group was the first orthodox congregation to purchase its own synagogue in St. Louis (715 Carr St). Made up mainly of the poor Jewish immigrants from Russia. 1887 Ebenezer German Evangelical Church Evangelical Ebenezer German Evangelical Church , formed in 1888, has been at 2915 McNair, in the Benton Park area, since 1891. The Epiphany United Church of Christ was formed as a merger of this church and St. Andrew Church congregation in 1964. This church was originally occupied by St. Paul German Methodist Church in 1874 as a mission of the Eighth Street German Church. 1888 St. Leo Church Catholic (Irish) First pastor was Jeremiah James Harty (1888-1903). St. Leo Church was located just north of the downtown area. Records are now at St. Bridget Church . 2315 Mullanphy Street, (63106) 1888 - 1978 Grace Methodist Church Methodist Grace Methodist Church at 6199 Waterman at the corner of Skinker, was organized in 1888 as the South Vandeventer branch of the Union Methodist Church . Union Methodist, then located on "Piety Hill" at Garrison and Lucas Avenues, felt the need for a colony that would be convenient for members who were moving further west. The church purchased a site at the SW corner of Lindell and Newstead Avenue. A chapel was occupied there in 1892, by the newly named Lindell Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church with about 100 members. In 1897, the church structure was completed at the Lindell site. This building served the congregation until 1913. The old church building was dismantled and after precise planning was re-erected at the new location. Demolition began in March, 1913, and the rebuilt edifice was dedicated on October 11, 1914. As a result of the move the new name of Grace M.E. Church was chosen and was known thereby until the Episcopal title was dropped with the unification of the three branches of Methodism 1888 Clifton Heights Methodist Episcopal Church Methodist Formally organized by Rev. S. B. Warner as the Clifton Heights Methodist Episcopal Church in 1888 as a colony from the Union Methodist Episcopal Church . A new church was built in 1892 at 2501 Clifton in the Southwest area and the name was changed to Dr. Fry Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church . Destroyed by fire in 1905 it was rebuilt on the same site a year later. 1888 West Presbyterian Church Presbyterian West Presbyterian Church began in the homes of Dr. E. M. Nelson and W. J. Dixon. A Sunday School building was erected at NE corner of Maple and Hamilton. St. Louis Presbytery organized this church in 1888. First pastor was Dr. Francis L. Ferguson, who installed first edifice at Maple and Maryville Avenues in 1898. In the Cabanne District 1888 Immanuel Evangelical Church (Ferguson) Evangelical Immanuel Evangelical Church was organized in 1888 at 126 Church Street in Ferguson, Missouri. Changed to Immanuel United Church of Christ in 1957. 1888 Ascension Protestant Episcopal Church Episcopal Ascension Protestant Episcopal Church is located at Cates and Goodfellow, this church was formed by Episcopalians from the former Union Sunday School , in the Cabanne District 1888 Bethlehem German Evangelical Church Evangelical (German) Bethlehem German Evangelical Church was formerly at Shaw and Hereford Aves., later at 5801 Southwest, and now merged into Mount Tabor Church at 6520 Arsenal. 1889 Concordia Lutheran Church Lutheran In 1891 the Concordia Lutheran Church held services in a Masonic Lodge at Forest and Bruno. Erected a building in 1897 at 7277 Southwest Ave. Presently located at 7291 Sarah in Maplewood. Originally part of the Oakland/Clifton neighborhood. 1889 Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church Lutheran Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church , located at the corner of St. Louis and Garrison Avenues in St. Louis was originally organized to serve the English-speaking Lutherans in St. Louis. The services were originally held in the basements of Zion and Bethlehem Lutheran Churches. The first Pastor was the Rev. Fred Adams. In 1953, under the guidance of the Rev. Gerhardt Nitz, the congregation bought 4.5 acres in what is now Bellefontaine Neighbors to start a branch of the city congregation, as well as to open a Lutheran Elementary School. After 16 years of holding services at both locations the congregation decided to sell the beautiful sanctuary (seating approximately 1,200) at the corner of St. Louis & Garrison Avenues to the Eastern Star Baptist Church. The congregation of Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church is still in existence to this day and is continuing to serve the community of Bellefontaine Neighbors in north St. Louis County as Grace Chapel Lutheran Churh and School and is located at the corner of Highway 367 (Lewis & Clark Boulevard) and Chambers Road. (Information provided by Rev. Ryan Buchmueller in July 2003) 1889 Emmaus Lutheran Church Lutheran Emmaus Lutheran Church was established as a mission of Trinity Church . Organized as a church in 1894. Chapel was built but destroyed in 1896 tornado. Present church was dedicated 1902 at Jefferson and Armand Place. 1889 St. Peter Lutheran Church Lutheran St. Peter Lutheran Church , at 1124 South Kingshighway, grew out of a mission opened by Christ Lutheran Church . Building near Vista and Swan was moved to new location at Newstead and Swan in 1904. Cornerstone of present church at 1126 S. Kingshighway (63110) was laid in 1926. 1889 Wagoner Place Church Methodist Wagoner Place Church started in a store front at Taylor and North Market, chapel erected in 1891 at Taylor and Maffitt. Permanent church was erected in 1894 at 1527 Wagoner Place. In Grand-Prairie area. 1890 St. Casimir Church Catholic (Polish) Originally located at 8 th and Mullanphy, this parish relocated to north St. Louis County in 1955. Records at 10745 Vorhof Drive, Hathaway Manor 1890 - 1955 Aubert Place Congregational Church Congregational When construction began on the new church in 1895, Aubert Place Congregational Church merged with Third Congregational Church and the united churches adopted the name of Fountain Park Congregational Church . Later mergers (1918-1919) brought United Congregational Church and Plymouth Congregational Church into the Fountain Park Church (which closed in 1936). First Christian Church took over the facility, and then, in 1945, Centennial Christian Church purchased the church. Located at 4950 Fountain Avenue (at Auburn Street). 1890 Tower Grove Baptist Church Baptist Suggested by Rev. John McCourtney, first pastor Rev. F. T. Shore. Cornerstone of first church was laid 1895 on Norfolk Avenue. Pastor Rev. F. A. Lowry took over in 1923. Church's present location at Tower Grove and Magnolia took place in 1949 1890 West End Christian Church Christian West End Christian Church was founded by Dr. Robert Cave after he resigned from the city's Central Christian Church. Thus commenced what came to be known as the Cave affair, a controversy over the reverend Dr. Robert Cave's theological modernism, which excited and entertained citizens of St. Louis for several weeks, provoked a schism in Cave's congregation and establishment of the Non-Sectarian Church of St. Louis, and stirred a controversy over heresy in the newspapers of the Disciples of Christ. "Cave submitted his resignation to Central Church on December 27 though it was not accepted until January 5, 1890. By the end of December members were withdrawing from the congregation to form a new West End Christian Church on what one of them termed ‘the old-line Campbellite basis’ of absolute congregational autonomy. Cave accepted a call from this group and preached his first sermon in a rented hall on January 13, 1890. Two weeks later in response to continued denominational criticism both Cave and the congregation renounced all denominational affiliations, and the congregation became the Non-Sectarian Church of St. Louis. “Though it identified with a national Non-Sectarian movement, the St. Louis church had a particular character shaped by Cave's personality, theology, and denominational background. Erecting a building on one of the city's most fashionable west end boulevards, the congregation maintained a vigorous ministry on the liberal fringe of Protestantism for a decade. After Cave's retirement the church affiliated with the Christian Connexion, a denomination historically and ideologically closely akin the to Disciples. Information provdied by Gordon Seyffert, Kansas City, MO in October 2005. 1890 St. Agnes Church Catholic St. Agnes Church was founded by Rev. C. P. Smith to replace the Church of the Assumption. However, both parishes continued. Located at 1933 Sidney Street, (63104), in the Benton Park area. 1890 St. Paul the Apostle Church Catholic (Irish) St. Paul the Apostle Church was founded by Rev. John T. J. Tuohy, succeeded by Rev. O. J. McDonald. Church was dedicated in 1892 at Finney and Pendleton in Grand-Prairie area. The location was moved in 1897 to St. Ann, Mother, B.V.M. Church at Page and Whittier. 1891 - 1897 Most Holy Rosary Church Catholic (Irish) (Most) Holy Rosary Church was organized by Rev. Daniel J. Lavery. The present church, at the SW corner of Margaretta and Clarence Avenues was dedicated in 1923. 3905 Clarence Avenue, (63115). In Fairgrounds area. 1891 Compton Heights Christian Church Christian First of it's denomination in south St. Louis, the Compton Heights Christian Church began as a mission with the congregation meeting at Jefferson and Lafayette. In 1894 a chapel was built at California and St. Vincent Avenues. The chapel was rebuilt after the tornado of 1896, and served until 1930 when they moved to the former B'Nai El Hebrew Temple at Spring and Flad. Present church at 2149 South Grand was completed in 1948. 1891 St. Engelbert Church Catholic (German) St. Engelbert Church was founded out of part of the parish of Our Lady of Perpetual Help Church . Founder of the parish was Rev. Anthony Pauk. First church was dedicated 1891 at Shreve and Carter Avenues. Located at 4330 Shreve Avenue, (63115). In Fairgrounds area. 1891 Christ Evangelical Church Evangelical Christ Evangelical Church was dedicated in early 1891 as a sister congregation to St. Mark's Evangelical Church at Jefferson and Potomac. The congregation moved to 7121 Manchester (63143) in 1919. 1891 Immanuel Congregational Church Congregational Immanuel Congregational Church was located at the NE corner of Jamieson and Marquette, the present church was completed in 1925 at 3960 Jamieson. 1891 Church of the Redeemer Episcopal When a fire destroyed St. George Episcopal Church at (Chestnut and Beaumont) in 1891 those that wanted to remain in the neighborhood organized the Episcopal Church of the Redeemer . Built in 1892 at 3010 Olive (at Cardinal). Within a decade this church was sold to the First Spiritual Association and moved to the Central West End. In 1910 it merged with St. James Church parish. St. James' contribution to the merger included a stone church at the corner of Cote Brilliante and Goode. That structure was moved at the time of the merger to the corner of Washington and Euclid where it continues to house the united parishes, renamed Trinity Episcopal Church in 1935. Berea Presbyterian Church , previously named Leonard Avenue Presbyterian Church , bought the old Redeemer church on Olive in 1908. 1891 Third United Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Began as a Sunday School in 1891 at Kisker Hall at Newstead and North Market. A congregation was soon organized and a church site was acquired at the SW corner of Wagoner Place and North Market. Services were held at Marcus Hall at Easton and Marcus until 1893 when the new church was completed and named Wagoner Place United Presbyterian Church . The present site of Union and Highland was acquired in 1912. United Third name was adopted in 1916. Located at 2426 Union Blvd, in the Arlington/Walnut Park/Grand-Prairie area 1891 Maple Avenue M. E. Church Methodist First services of Maple Avenue M. E. Church were held in a hall in the Arcade Building. A site was purchased on the SE corner of Maple and Belt, and a chapel was dedicated in 1895. Church was destroyed by fire in 1957. In the Cabanne District 1892 Our Redeemer Church Lutheran (English) Services were held in Holy Cross Hall until 1893 when it removed to Anchor Hall at Jefferson and Park Ave. In 1894 the congregation was organized as a church and occupied a chapel at California and Juniata in 1897. This was sold to St. Andrew Evangelical Church (which later became a United Church of Christ) in 1901. The Calvary Cross Missionary Baptist Church took over the 3127 California church in 1964. Our Redeemer Church erected a chapel on its present site at Utah and Oregon Avenues in 1908. 1892 Lindell Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church Methodist Lindell Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church was originally at the SW corner of Lindell and Newstead, the old church was torn down and rebuilt at 340 N. Skinker (at Waterman). Re-dedication as Grace Methodist Episcopal Church took place in 1914. 1892 St. Aloysius Gonzaga Church Catholic (German) St. Aloysius Gonzaga Church had its first services in a house at Magnolia and Sublette. Rev. F.G. Holweck was appointed as its first pastor. The cornerstone for a large brick church at Magnolia and January Avenues was laid on May 7, 1898, but only the basement was completed and used for church services for some years. By 1900, a small colony of Italians was among the worshippers at St. Aloysius Church . Rev. Francis G. Brand became pastor in 1903. On May 2, 1925, the cornerstone of the present brick Romanesque church was laid at 5608 North Magnolia Avenue, (63109), part of "The Hill". 1892 Society of Practical Christianity Christian Founded by Rev. Henry Schroeder, this group started meeting in 1892 at Broadway and Shenandoah under the name German Society of Divine Science . In 1898 they incorporated as the Society of Practical Christianity , and purchased the church at 18 th and Pestolozzi. In 1915 the cornerstone of a new church was laid at 3617 Wyoming. Although known as the Church of Practical Christianity , the congregation officially changed it's name to First Divine Science Church of St. Louis in 1928. 1892 Delmar Baptist Church Baptist Delmar Baptist Church was originally the Garrison Avenue Baptist Church . Delmar Baptist Church built a new facility at 4300 Delmar (at Pendleton). In 1914, Delmar Baptist sold the building to First Christian Church and eventually moved into their new stone church at the SE corner of Skinker and Washington. First Christian sold it to the First Church of the Nazarene in 1937. The present congregation, Galilee Baptist Church , founded in 1898, purchased the building in 1947 from the First Church of the Nazarene. 1892 Beckville M. E. Church South Methodist Beckville M. E. Church South is now the Christy Memorial United Methodist Church , at Morganford and Neosho. First services were held in Voyc's Hall at the SW corner of Morganford and Oleatha, and by 1900 it was known as the Oak Hill M. E. Church . 1892 St. Mark Church Catholic (English) Rev. John J. Dillon formed St. Mark Church parish. Temporary building was erected at Page and Academy, with the present building at1313 Academy Avenue, (63113) dedicated in 1902. Parish closed in 1992. In the Cabanne District. This church in now the home of St. Mark's Community Center. 1893 St. Barbara Church Catholic (German) Rev. Adrian Van Hulst, S. J. then pastor of St. Anne Church in Normandy, built a small wooden chapel at what is now Hamilton and Minerva in 1872. It served as a forerunner of St. Rose of Lima Church until 1885. Rev John Schramm (1893-1904) was delegated to form the parish of St. Barbara Church . Cornerstone was laid in 1896, dedicated in 1907, and located at 1371 Hamilton Avenue, (63112), in the Cabanne District 1893 St. Matthew the Apostle Church Catholic (Irish) St. Matthew Church was founded by Rev. Joseph T. Shields. Church dedicated 1907. Located at 2715 North Sarah Street, (63113) in the Grand-Prairie area. 1893 Holy Innocents Church Catholic (English) In the southwestern part of the city, Holy Innocents Church is located at 4923 Odell Street, (63109) 1893 St. Ann Church Catholic (Irish) St. Ann Church replaced the original church called St. Paul the Apostle Church . It was created from a section of St. Alphonsus Church Parish. 1220 Whittier Street, (63113) in the Grand-Prairie area. 1893 Kingshighway Christian Church Christian Kingshighway Christian Church was founded as a mission at Easton and Marcus by Rev. O. A. Bartholomew of Mount Cabanne Church . Shortly thereafter it moved to Marcus and Hammett where it was known as Beulah Christian Church and later Hammett Place Church . In 1918 it moved to a new church at Kingshighway and Labadie and the name changed again to Kingshighway Church. 1893 St. Edward the King Church Catholic (Irish) St. Edward Church was founded by Rev. Edward J. Wynne in May, 1893. Located in the Arlington/Walnut Park area, at 2709 Clara Avenue, (63112). This parish is now closed. 1893 Jesus Church Evangelical Jesus Church was organized in 1894 at the Soulard Market Hall and in 1896 by former members of St. Mark Evangelical Church . It occupied a church at Twelfth and Victor Streets. This church was eventually used by the Jesus Church United Church of Christ. They gave it to Tabernacle Baptist Church in 2002. In 1913, the original Jesus Church merged with St. Paul Friedens Church in the latter's building at 13 th Street and Allen Avenue and in 1914, sold the building to St. Lucas Slovak Lutheran Church . 1894 First Church of Christ, Scientist Christian Science First Church of Christ, Scientist was founded as one of the first five Christian Science churches in the world. Meetings first held at Beethoven Conservatory at 1603 Olive. First church was built in 1895 on Pine east of Leffingwell. New church was opened on Kingshighway and Westminister in 1904. Website: "www.csinfostl.org" 1894 Third Congregational Church Congregational Located at 4950 Fountain Ave., this church is presently known as Centennial Christian Church . 1894 Our Lady of Good Counsel Church Catholic (English - Irish) Formed from St. Michael's Church parish, this church ceased operations in 1949. Church was located at 1114 Destreham. Records at Holy Trinity Church 3519 North 14 th St., (63107) 1895 - 1949 Oak Hill Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Oak Hill Presbyterian Church began in a frame church building at the corner of Bent and Humphrey. Destroyed by fire in 1907, dedication of the new church at the Oak Hill and Connecticut site took place in 1920. 1895 St. Wenceslaus Church Catholic (Bohemian) St. Wenceslaus Church was dedicated to the Bohemian national saint. This parish was formed by Rev. Joseph Hessoun of St. John Nepomuk Church . Present structure was completed in 1920-30s. 3014 Oregon Avenue, (63118). In the Compton Hill area. 1895 Carondelet Christian Church Christian Formed at a home at 510 Kansas Street, then rented old Temperance hall at Minnesota and Robert Avenues where they organized as the Carondelet Christian Church . They rented the former German Methodist Church at Pennsylvania and Upton in 1897. The former high school at 6801 Virginia was purchased in 1901. Named was changed to Dover Place Christian Church in 1907. 1895 St. Michael Church Catholic (German) St. Michael Church was formed by the German parishioners of Holy Redeemer Church . Early pastors include F. Brand (1895), G. A. Stroomberger (1899), and Charles E. Einig (1900). Located at 7622 Sutherland Avenue, Shrewsbury (63119) 1895 Ellendale Christian Church Christian Ellendale Christian Church was organized in Ellendale. In 1897 erected a building at Hewitt near Lanham . In 1903 moved to 2640 Oakview Terrace in Maplewood and adopted the name of Christian Church of Maplewood. 1896 Tyler Place Presbyterian Church Presbyterian Tyler Place Church 's first service at present site of Russell and Spring was held 1901. Dr. John B. Brandt was the first pastor. Rev. J. L. Roemer was pastor in 1912. In 1946 the Lafayette Park Presbyterian Church merged with the Tyler Place Church . In the Shaw neighborhood. 1896 St. Louis (New Cathedral) Church Catholic Initially a chapel was built in 1896, and it wasn't until 1914 that the Cathedral was built (and the chapel razed). 4431 Lindell Boulevard, (63108). In the Central West End area. 1896 St. Stephen Evangelical Church Evangelical St. Stephen's Evangelical Church at Halls Ferry and Gimblin was dedicated in 1896. The denomination changed it's name in 1934 when the Evangelical and Reformed churches merged. In 1938 the present church at 8500 Halls Ferry was completed. Presently called St. Stephan United Church of Christ. 1896 Winnebago Church Presbyterian Winnebago Church was founded as a mission of the First German Church (later Peters Memorial Church ) in 1897. A small chapel was dedicated in 1898, at Winnebago and Tennessee, in the Marquette-Cherokee area 1897 Pattison Avenue Negro Baptist Church Baptist Pattison Avenue Negro Baptist Church was located at 5232 Pattison, now part of I-44, in the neighborhood of "The Hill". 1897 Trinity United Church of Christ United Church of Christ SE corner of South Grand and Itaska, was originally located at Michigan and Neosho. Moved to it's present building in 1931. 1898 Tyler Place Methodist Church Methodist Tyler Place Methodist Church was the forerunner of the Shaw Avenue M. E. Church, South (name adopted pre 1906) and was established as a mission. Purchased building at Tower Grove and McRee, former home of a Presbyterian church. Rev. E. W. Webdell, pastor. In the Shaw neighborhood. 1898 Holy Family Church Catholic (German) In the Oak Hill district, Holy Family Church was organized by Rev. John J. Reuther, pastor from 1898-1926). A church was dedicated in 1899 on the NW corner of Humphrey and Oak Hill. The present church at 4125 Humphrey Street, (63116) was dedicated by Cardinal Glennon in 1927. 1898 St. Margaret of Scotland Church Catholic (English) Rev. James J. O'Brien held services in a vacant store at the SE corner of Russell and 39 th until the present building at 3864 Flad was dedicated in 1907. 1899 Holy Trinity Church Catholic (Slovak) St. Paul Evangelical Church was built on this site in 1896 replacing the one built in 1860 and destroyed by the 1896 tornado. Rev. Francis Horvath was pastor from 1899-1902. In 1924 it became the Most Holy Trinity Slovak Catholic Church. Located at 1804 South 9 th Street, (63104). Now closed, records are housed at St. John Nepomuk Church in the Soulard area. 1899 - 1984 St. Charles Borromeo Church Catholic (Italian) St. Charles Borromeo Church parish began when Father Cesare Spigardi rented the old Presbyterian church at 19 th and Morgan. In 1902 the parish purchased the St. John Methodist Church at 29 th and Locust which had been built in 1867. This parish closed in 1982. 1900 - 1982

Archdiocese of St. Louis. Archdiocese of St. Louis - Three Centuries of Catholicism 1700-2000. Editions du Signe, Strasbourg, France, 2001

Brunsmann, Sandra M. Early Irish Settlers in St. Louis Missouri and Dogtown Neighborhood 1798 - 2000. U. S. A.: Gene Del, Inc., 2000.

Dry, Camille N. Pictorial St. Louis - the great metropolis of the Mississippi Valley: a topigraphical survey drawn in perspective, A. D. 1875. Edited by R. J. Compton. St. Louis: 1876 (reprint St. Louis: McGraw-Young Publishing, 1997).


III. Dilemmas for the future Chinese Documentary

Although system-based documentary filmmaking has grown toward the orientation of industrialization external factors seem more discouraging for the development of commercialized documentaries in terms of capital allocation and distribution scope, due to the increased constrictions imposed by the general climate of recent years. This results in the growth of mega projects, relating to both the heroic revolutionary history and current-politics. Argued by two annually released official reports on China’s documentary industry 14, the industry has risen steadily year by year, on which seemingly nothing can impact. As claimed by the Study Report of the Development of Chinese Documentary, the gross revenue of the industry reached up to 3 billion yuan in 2014, even if excluding ‘Where Are We Going (爸爸去哪儿), which is only another version of a television reality show, far from a true documentary film.’15 Nonetheless, in 2015, the documentary industry ‘input 3.024 billion yuan, with its general income attains 4.679 billion yuan’, and ‘the sudden rise of reality-show programs’ became an eye-catching phenomenon for example, ‘in 2015, reality show blockbusters appeared constantly, especially the triumphant reality-show Survivor Games (跟着贝尔去冒险) that is co-produced by the Shanghai Documentary Channel and the American Discovery Channel’16. Apparently, live-action filmmaking has contributed a huge amount of industrial profits for reality shows that feature physical competition, game playing, and expedition. It is stated by the report that ‘new-media documentaries skyrocketed’17 in 2015. Another report issued in the same year proposes the idea that ‘reality shows have led the direction of domestic creative endeavors’18. The academic accuracy of those two reports is indeed doubtful. Reality shows that were produced by the BBC veterans had already hit high audience ratings in the 1960s, such as The Course of Justice, I Want to Be a Doctor and the later Airport, Driving School Children’s Hospital, etc. Thus the proposition on ‘domestic creative endeavors’ is by no means appropriate.

During its development, documentary film has been committed to the approach of engaging social reality by presenting a ‘truth and morality narrative’. Even though such commitment seems broad, at least its goals signify a primary need of solemnity and definitiveness rather than amusement or entertainment. What ultimately determines the industrialization development of China’s documentary lies in the extent to which the institutional productive forces can be emancipated and the latitude of how much the market can be opened up nonetheless, it is worrying, considering the current state of affairs.

Undoubtedly, separating itself from the dense historical context brings about limitations and inappropriateness for system-based documentaries, in terms of either aesthetics or politicization. China’s system-based documentaries of the 1990s that are concerned about realities ‘emerged simultaneously’, the development trajectory of which is marked by transformations that happened to documentarians since 2011. For example, the filmmaker Sun Zengtian (孙增田) who specialized in employing poetic film language to portray disappearing ethnic-minority cultures in the early 1990s and made The Last Mountain God (最后的山神) and The God of Deer (神鹿呀,我们的神 鹿 ), and who turned to directing the one-hundred-episode series The Communists (共产党人) (2011) afterwards. The filmmaker Chen Xiaoqing (陈晓卿) who is the chief director of A Bite of China had earlier made Dragon’s Back (龙脊) (1994) about the childhood education in the remote mountain area. Duan Jinchuan (段锦川) who initiated China’s direct-cinema style with the work No. 16, Barkhor South Street, and Jiang Yue who canonized the vérité mode in China via his classic film The Other Bank (1993), collaboratively produced the documentary series Peking Opera. The documentary film Yin and Yang (阴阳) (1997) possesses the reputation of being ‘the most profound documentary film on China’s rural subject matters’ while its filmmaker later produced the Treasure and Dream (财富与梦想) (2010) and the documentary series Revelation of the Northern Shanxi (陕北启示录) (2011) that regards the birthplace of the heroic revolution. Peng Hui (彭辉)’s documentary film Balance ( 平 衡 ) on the Tibetan-Antelope protection had paved the original story for Lu Chuan (陆川)’s fiction film Kkexili: Mountain Patrol (可可西里), but during the past dozen years, Peng has switched to concentrating on the mega documentary series Allegiance (忠贞) that is about more than ten first-ladies of the republic. Among those filmmakers, Jiang Yue and Duan Jinchuan are more inclined to the identity of independents, on account of their independent work The Storm (暴风骤雨), except for which there is scarcely any masterpiece about social realities. To such extent, the convergence and interaction between the system and the independents has almost completely withered.

China’s media-based documentary filmmaking has always been looking into trans-national collaborations for production, distribution and development. The overseas capital that has invested in Chinese subjects has been especially embraced in these examples ranging from The Great Wall (万里长城) (Japan, 1993) to Born in China (诞生在中国) (USA, 2016) that is about rare wild animals. However, China’s role as either the subject or the supplier of raw materials has barely changed, except for Born in China, financed by the Disney Company of America, but credits the director’s role to Lu Chuan. But in view of the fact that according to China’s film laws foreign directors are forbidden to do filmmaking on rare species of animals in China, added to the producer-centered system of the Disney Company, it seems clear that the specific co-production structure of this film signifies little earth-shaking transformation.

China’s independent documentary cinema has grown to be distinct from the western independent models, because of its self-finance approach to achieve autonomy. This guarantees little commercial value. More significantly, its difference or deviation from the mainstream ideology in pursuit of expressing diverse views and values probably traps China’s independents into political risks that fluctuate corresponding to the dynamics of the general environment. Therefore, independent documentary filmmaking is deemed to be ‘a very special social and spiritual landscape’19 of China. Since 2010, the vital independent documentary film festivals and exhibition activities have gradually been restricted and eventually canceled. It has been estimated that, ‘it was after 2010 that it [the Beijing Independent Film Festival] had been “watched” and oppressed, which is may be related to some changes of the general environment.’20 ‘Since October 2012, drastic changes have happened, and the circumstance suddenly got worse. This resulted in the forced termination of some domestic independent exhibition activities, including the CIFF (China Independent Film Festival) that seems to have been hurt by this misfortune.’21 One of the founders of the CIFF states that ‘the period of 2003-2006 established the festival, and it flourished during 2007-2011 and gradually withered from 2012 to 2016.’22 The other domestic independent documentary film festivals, exhibitions, and screening organizations, such as ‘Qi Fang’ (齐放), a grassroots alliance of screening, basically share the same fate with the CIFF, and ‘independent filmmakers are forced to be performance artists, having blind film exhibitions with candles in hands.’23 The space available to devoting oneself to independent documentary filmmaking and distribution at home is more and more compressed, which leads Cui Weiping ( 崔卫 平 ) to argue in an article written in 2002 that ‘an alternative solution for the independent documentary filmmaking is to expand outwards’ 24 . However, as specified by the Film Industry Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China that has been implemented since March 2017, ‘films without a permit for public release are not allowed to be distributed, exhibited or take part in any film festival (or exhibition). The person who supplies the non permitted film to a film exhibition will be forbidden to work on related film activities.’ The external power of authority always overwhelms arts and aesthetic discourse nonetheless, documentary still exists as a kind of capacity, or more accurately, a kind of right. The international production of Born in China is characterized by speedy changes, multiple facets and complexities.

The masses are troubled by a sense of crisis and anxiety, wherein the documentary film acts as a carrier of people’s memories and a method of historiography. Independent filmmakers adopt documentary as an apparatus to experience and show authentically as expressed by, ‘I require myself to connect with the society intimately … it brings me about a feeling of down to earth’ 25, and ‘I am more fascinated by the glamour of the subject of her/his own and the splendor of humanity, rather than presupposing some resisting gesture.’ 26 ‘Gradually, I felt Ba Ya resembles a big tree, which is still able to continue growing, and that becomes a lush crown that protects the world, even if its branches have been chopped apart. As a female I likewise, saw in Ba Ya the self-possessed state for dealing with everything that ever happened and to be yet encountered.’ 27 In the process of handling realities, benefiting from life experiences and the attitudes of others, documentary filmmakers continuously realize and complete one’s self-hood. Having grown for almost thirty years, China’s independent documentary cinema has shaped ‘an indirect psychological picture on China’s social structure’, and narrates a living image-history full of historical textures and life details in the best way, allowing voices of people from the most subaltern world to be perceived and reverberated inside the tunnel of history.

‘Once there is a place possessing memory, there requires a history’ 28, which then requires a documentary film to narrate the history. However, at the present time, although industrial and politicizing documentaries that are produced by the mainstream media have claimed loudly by means of the aggressive aesthetic-discourse that they somehow show truth, it remains an aesthetic that is considerably short of real-life engagement. This is not to negate the achievement of system-based commercial documentaries. Rather, based on the specific contemporary social-historical experience, this paper raises the question, whether it is possible for diverse documentary practices to co-exist. It argues that a specific practice should not be merged, annexed, or abolished by the others. In fact in some special cases, different practices benefit from their clashes in purpose and style. Nonetheless, regarding the current situation, such an argument remains a kind of hopeful thought. Ultimately, reality is the best scriptwriter on the documentary history.

To end, we quote Sontag’s comment on Artaud to assess the independent documentary cinema, it “was not only achieved works of art but a singular presence, a poetics, an aesthetics of thought, a theology of culture, and a phenomenology of suffering.”29

1 ‘Un país sin cine documental es como una familia sin álbum de fotografías’, retrieved from
https://www.patricioguzman.com/es/
2 Retrieved from http://www.sapprft.gov.cn/sapprft/govpublic/6595/279653.shtml
3 Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/zgjx/2013-10/21/c_132815179.htm

4 Wang, Xiaolu (2010). An Observation on China’s Independent Documentary Films of Two Decades (ershi nian
zhongguo duli jilu pian de guancha). Film Art, 6, 72-78.
5 Wu, Wenguang (2001). Camera as My Own Eyes (jingtou xiang ziji de yanjing yiyang). Shanghai: Shanghai
Wenyi Press.
6 Cui, WeiPing. The Growing Space of the Independent Documentary Films of the Mainland China (zhongguo
dalu duli zhizuo jilu pian de shengzhang kongjian). Wang Bing, Fan Jian, Zhang Zanbo (张赞波), Du Haibin, Cong Feng (丛峰), Ma Li

7 Cui, WeiPing. The Growing Space of the Independent Documentary Films of the Mainland China (zhongguo dalu duli zhizuo jilu pian de shengzhang kongjian).

8 Li, Xiaofeng (2016). A Research Report on the Creative Ecology of the Contemporary Chinese Documentary Film: Evidence from the Contemporary Chinese Documentary and Filmmakers (dangdai zhongguo jilu pian de chuangzuo shengtai baogao: guanyu dangdai zhongguo jilu pian yu jilu pian ren de diaocha baogao). Journalism

9 Welzer, Harald (2001). Social Memory: History, Memory, Inherit (p. 119). Ji Bin, Wang Lijun, and Bai Xikun (trans.). Beijing: Beijing University Press.

10 Zhang, Huiyu (2012). The Visual ‘Nostalgia’ on ‘A Bite’ (‘shejian’ shang de shijue ‘xiangchou’). China Book Review, 9, 19-27.

11 According to baike.baidu.com, the objective of this documentary series is ‘to respond to the time of social transformation, when it is hard to proceed on constructing the harmonious doctor-patient relationship, and to unfold a true humane world by means of transposition into a different perspective and friendly expressions’.

12 The Locarno Film Festival’s official interview with Wang Bing, after his winning of award in August, 2017.

14 Including the Study Report of the Development of Chinese Documentary in 2015 that is released by the Beijing Normal University, and the Annual Report on the Development of Chinese Documentary that is issued by the Communication University of China.

19 Wang, Xiaolu (2010). An Observation on China’s Independent Documentary Films of Two Decades (ershi nian zhongguo duli jilu pian de guancha). Film Art, 6, 72-78.

20 Cui, Weiping. Beijing Independent Film Festival that was Closed for Three Times (bimu sanci de Beijing duli yingzhan). Retrieved from http://www.chinainperspective.com/ArtShow.aspx?AID=17525

21 Cao, Kai. The Iron Fist Still Highly Lifts: The Whitepaper on the (Annual) China Independent Film Festival. First Draft (tiequan gaoqing: zhongguo duli yingxiang (niandu) zhan baipi shu chugao).

24 Cui, WeiPing. The Growing Space of the Independent Documentary Films of the Mainland China (zhongguo dalu duli zhizuo jilu pian de shengzhang kongjian).

27 Quote in the director’s interpretation essay of the filmmaker Ji Dan on her film Ba Ya for the author.

28 Welzer, Harald (ed.) (2001). Social Memory: History, Memory, Inherit (p. 120). Ji Bin, Wang Lijun, and Bai

Xikun (trans.). Beijing: Beijing University Press.

29 Sontag, Susan (2006). Under the Sign of Saturn (zai tuxing de biaozhi xia) (p. 16). Yao Junwei (trans.).

Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House. Original work published 1980.

Author: Hongyun Sun PhD. — Email: [email protected]

Hongyun Sun, associate professor, Department of Film Studies, Beijing Film Academy. Also Author Two China?, Ivens’ Yukong & Antonioni’ s China on Studies in Documentary Film(Volume 3, Number 1, September 2009, pp. 45-59), Joris Ivens Film in China for Joris Ivens Magazine(2008), and over 40 academic articles about documentary film in Chinese leading journals. Monograph is Truth Game: New Documentary in the West. Editor Joris Ivens and Documentary Film and translated two books from English to Chinese: Documentary Storytelling: Making Stronger and More Dramatic Nonfiction Films by Sheila Curran Bernard, and Living Dangerously: A Biography of Joris Ivens byHans Schoots.

Department of Film Studies, Beijing Film Academy
4 Xitucheng Road, Haidian, 100088, Beijing, China


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