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United Arab Emirates

United Arab Emirates


A Short History of United Arab Emirates

Journeying back to the past decades, the United Arab Emirates originates from inhabitants in around 5000 BC, with archaeological remnants found in the country. The civilization has emerged from the Neolithic Period, and trade has started to become abundant especially copper trading from Hajar Mountains. Camel herding had become parts of living of the first settlers in the country. Contacts and exchanges of goods with other civilizations had greatly emerged around 3000 BC. Several sea travel routes were opened bringing other people from different countries to enter and trade in the country. Other settlers such as Phoenicians and Greeks also went through the realm of the Arabian Peninsula. Furthermore, the Romans had also attempted to conquer the peninsula but failed.

The emergence of Islamic culture and religion had marked the stability of the country. The governance of the Umayyah Dynasty brought the country into progress, making the Gulf a global centre for navigation and trade.

The Portuguese settlers occupied the country expanding their territories to the Indian Ocean and eventually to the Arabian Peninsula. They were successful in conquering the inhabitants of the peninsula, with 150 years of control of the country. The Ottoman Empire was the next to control the country. The British regarded the region as the “Pirate Coast” because of harassments of shipping industries by the raiders. Furthermore, a treaty was signed, the “Trucial Sheikdoms”, forming the unity of the sheiks and an agreement to settle disputes among sheiks. In July 17, 1971, the six trucial states, the Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Umm Al Qaiwain, Ajman, and Fujairah agreed on the Federal Constitution for the independence as the United Arab Emirates. Eventually, in December 2, 1971, the seventh sheikhdom joined the UAE and finally conjuring to the formation of the United Arab Emirates.


United Arab Emirates

Few countries in history have experienced, in less than four decades, a huge shift in income and development comparable to that of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during the last part of the twentieth century. The UAE developed a public national educational system in a thirty year period that is similar to what Western countries established in over a hundred year period. Since the early 1960s the UAE has emerged from relative obscurity in global affairs to become one of the wealthiest and most dynamic of the smaller countries of the world. The rapid infrastructure development in virtually every corner of the country provides visual evidence of immense change. Public and private construction and modern consumption patterns are in evidence throughout the country.

Developing a diversified economic base and sophisticated modern cities equipped with advanced telecommunications, electricity, and utilities are among many measures being taken by the UAE federal government to provide a high standard of living and quality of life and to advance the skills and human resources of its citizens. Social development efforts, most particularly the nurturing of the country's citizens or "human capital," have been a priority of the UAE government since the early years of the federation. Immense resources have been applied to provide modern social and economic development infrastructure in education, health, and social welfare.

The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven independent states located in the southeastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula. It is in a very tough geopolitical neighborhood. The politics of the region includes differences in geographical names. The "Persian" or "Arabian Gulf" borders the region to the north, Saudi Arabia to the south and west, and Oman to the east. Before the discovery of oil in the 1950s, the UAE was a group of low-income emirates under the protection of the British. Oil brought rapid growth and modernization to the area, and these small states became independent as the UAE in 1971.

Most of the country is desert but the UAE's proven oil reserves make up almost one-tenth of the world's total oil, with about ninety percent of the UAE's oil in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. It is quite hot during the summer months (May to October), with temperatures reaching 49C (120F).

Population estimates of the country in 2000 ranged from 2.6 to nearly 3 million. About 85 percent of the country's population is urban. Abu Dhabi is the largest city and is the national capital. It serves as the financial, transportation, and communications center of a major petroleum-producing area. Abu Dhabi also has a large port and is home to federal government ministries and embassies. Dubai is the main trading center of the entire Gulf, has the principal port facilities of the UAE as well as its busiest airport, and has several large commercial enterprises. The UAE has four other international airports.

Several features of the UAE's demography are unusual. The population in 1995 was 15 times larger than it was in 1965, largely due to the immigration of male expatriate workers. Four-fifths of the UAE's inhabitants are foreign workers and their dependents. The UAE also has a very youthful population because of the influx of young foreign workers, a cultural preference for large families, and greatly improved medical care. There is a significant imbalance in the sex ratios, with some national expatriate groups having about ten males for every female.

The native population of the UAE is overwhelmingly Arab. Generally a different tribe dominates each emirate. About two-thirds of the UAE's non-native populations are Asians (largely Indians, Pakistanis, Sri Lankans, Bangladeshis, and Filipinos), and the other third are Iranians or Arabs (primarily Jordanians, Palestinians, and Egyptians). Although the huge population share of expatriates has caused some concern over its possible impact on security and on social and cultural values, the level of tensions between the various ethnic communities is slight. The UAE is noted for a very low level of crime violent behavior is rare. Standards for public conduct are high. Expatriates may be expelled for minor law violations. There are a sizeable number of undocumented residents who have overstayed temporary visas and are casually employed.

Arabic is the official language of the UAE. English is also widely spoken, as are Hindi, Urdu, and Persian. Islam is the official religion of the country and all Emiratis and a majority of the expatriates are Muslims. The constitution guarantees religious freedom and there are some Christian churches in the country. The density of mosques in the urban areas is very high. Two or three mosques may be in sight of one another.

The culture of the UAE is a blend of traditional and modern elements, which is open to many types of influences and change. The religion of Islam and the heritage of a traditional, tribal Arab society form the basis of a stable and conservative social structure. Censorship of media is routine. There is, however, a degree of openness and a tolerant atmosphere that permits expatriates opportunities to enjoy familiar entertainments and leisure activities, including the discreet use of alcohol.

The most conservative arenas of life in the UAE concern women and male-female interaction. For most Emirati women the home remains the basic sphere of activity. Younger women, benefiting from their access to modern education, are playing a wider role in society but, with only about fourteen percent of the small overall Emirati labor force being female, their numbers are few. Arranged marriages are the norm and family members carefully restrict the conduct of young women. Marriage to a cousin or within one's class is a preferred form. The number of Emirati men marrying non-Emirati women has increased in recent years and is considered by the government a threat to national culture that requires intervention. The government is actively involved in promoting marriages among its nationals.

Reflecting a mix of modern and traditional life, clothing styles include Western and indigenous dress and the national dress of several other countries. A great variety of dress is manifest in public places, including that of groups from South and Southeast Asia. Most Emirati men wear the dishdasha, a white, loose-fitting garment that is comfortable in hot weather. Most women wear the black abayah and some also wear a facemask called the burka, although this tradition is less common among younger women.

Most of the population has modern air-conditioned housing, either in apartments or villa-style houses, a great contrast with the simple dwellings of forty or more years ago. The small rural population lives in a more traditional style, and a few Bedouins still live nomadically in tents. Similarly, local foods represent a blend of traditional Arab dishes, such as grilled lamb with spiced rice, with South Asian, Chinese, European and increasingly popular American fast foods readily available in urban areas.

Traditional sports, such as falconry and horse and camel racing, remain popular with newer sports, particularly soccer (football). Tribal identities continue to be expressed through loyalty to some UAE football teams. There are several internationally known and broadcast competitions held each year in the UAE in golf, tennis, horseracing, auto cross, motor-rallying, and powerboat racing. Most Emiratis enjoy family-centered entertainment, including routine visits with a network of friends and relatives and watching video media at home. Cell phones are in common use throughout the country and contribute to daily interaction.

Traditional Islamic rituals remain important, especially the Eid al-Fitr and the Eid al-Adha, the festivals that mark the end of Ramadan (a month of fasting) and the conclusion of the haj (pilgrimage to Mecca) on the Islamic calendar. On special occasions Emiratis perform traditional dances to musical accompaniment. The commitment to preserving traditional arts and culture is evident both at the popular level and in the political leadership. Each emirate devotes considerable resources to maintaining museums and libraries. Sharjah has developed nine museums within extensive arts and culture district and a vast University City complex, which includes the campuses of five institutions of higher learning.

There is a strong commercial tradition in the UAE and trading relationships with other countries are longstanding. Trade with India and China expanded in the early Islamic period, with Julfar (in present-day Ras al Khaymah) one of many areas currently being examined by archaeologists, serving as one of the leading ports.

European intervention in the area began with the Portuguese in the early sixteenth century. From the mid-seventeenth century the British and Dutch competed for domination, with Britain coming out on top. By about 1800, the Qawasim, the ruling clans of Sharjah and Ras al Khaymah today, had become a maritime power in the lower gulf, attacking ships from British-ruled India. Labeling their opponents as "pirates," the British defeated the Qawasim fleet in 1819 and in 1820 imposed the first of several treaties that created and sustained a maritime truce, giving the name "Trucial States" to the emirates. By 1892 the British had taken over the states' foreign relations and external security and the states remained under British protection until 1971.

The British, who were principally concerned with the security of the UK-India trade routes and Gulf maritime commerce, rarely directly intervened in the states' internal affairs. The British drew upon a small but sophisticated group of civil servants to manage political and military relations. The most significant results of British domination were the establishment of an embryonic government bureaucracy, a general peace, the introduction of the Western concept of territorial or nation-states, and the creation in 1952 of the Trucial States Council to promote cooperation among the seven rulers, which provided the basis for the future leadership of the UAE.


Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

Before 1960, the only settlements were small towns and villages. Oil resources have enabled massive modernization. Towns have been transformed from mud-walled communities into commercial capitals integrated in the global economy. Because of the small population and harsh desert interior, 80 percent of the population lives in the coastal capital cities, leading social scientists to describe them as city-states.

Urbanization has been characterized by unparalleled growth. Abu Dhabi is one of the most modern cities in the world. UAE cities have been heavily influenced by the global city type. Dominant urban features include skyscrapers in the commercial city centers, multistory residential buildings, large shopping malls, wide boulevards, an extensive network of highways, and sprawling new suburbs.

The cities have a multiethnic composition, with segregated housing areas for nationals and the immigrants. Housing is subdivided further according to class, social power, ethnicity, and nationality.

To create a balance between their global and local aspects, in municipalities have adopted policies projecting Arab-Islamic architectural design, particularly arched windows, gates, and decorative stucco. Recently, more urban settings have exhibited decorative designs with local themes related to the national heritage. Preservation of the urban heritage also is seen in the renovation of old forts, palaces, souks (marketplaces), and mosques. Date palm trees, symbols of the local culture, have been planted extensively along city roadsides.


Index

Geography

The United Arab Emirates, in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, extends along part of the Gulf of Oman and the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. The nation is the size of Maine. Its neighbors are Saudi Arabia to the west and south, Qatar to the north, and Oman to the east. Most of the land is barren and sandy.

Government

Federation formed in 1971 by seven emirates known as the Trucial States?Abu Dhabi (the largest), Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qaiwain. In addition to a federal president and prime minister, each emirate has a separate ruler who oversees the local government.

History

Originally the area was inhabited by a seafaring people who were converted to Islam in the 7th century. Later, a dissident sect, the Carmathians, established a powerful sheikdom, and its army conquered Mecca. After the sheikdom disintegrated, its people became pirates. Threatening the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman early in the 19th century, the pirates provoked the intervention of the British, who in 1820 enforced a partial truce and in 1853 a permanent truce. Thus what had been called the Pirate Coast was renamed the Trucial Coast. The British provided the nine Trucial states with protection but did not formally administer them as a colony.

The British withdrew from the Persian Gulf in 1971, and the Trucial states became a federation called the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two of the Trucial states, Bahrain and Oman , chose not to join the federation, reducing the number of states to seven.

The country signed a military defense agreement with the U.S. in 1994 and one with France in 1995.

After the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks on the U.S., the UAE was identified as a major financial center used by al-Qaeda in transferring money to the hijackers (two of the 9/11 hijackers were UAE citizens). The nation immediately cooperated with the U.S., freezing accounts tied to suspected terrorists and strongly clamping down on money laundering.

Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the founder of the UAE and ruler of the federation since 1971, died in Nov. 2004. His son succeeded him. In Jan. 2006, Sheik Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the prime minister of the UAE and the emir of Dubai, died. Crown Prince Sheikh Muhammad ibn Rashid al-Maktoum assumed both roles.

The Burj Khalifa, in Dubai, was completed in January 2010 and became the world's tallest building at 2,716 feet (828 meters) and 160 stories. It contains the world's fastest elevators, 20.7 acres of glass, and is expected to use about 250,000 gallons of water per day.


United Arab Emirates Culture

Religion in United Arab Emirates

The vast majority of Emirati nationals are muslims, approximately 90% Sunni and 10% Shia. The UAE follows a policy of tolerating existence of other religions, through the Ministry of Tolerance. Based on the latest Ministry of Economy census in 2005, 76% of the total population is Muslim, 9% Christian, and 15% are recorded as other (mainly Hindu).

Social Conventions in United Arab Emirates

The UAE is an Islamic country and women may feel more comfortable when dressed modestly. Even though foreign women can dress as they please, covering the shoulders and knees is a requirement in public areas like shopping centres and also during periods of religious significance. Men are also expected to dress with respect. Homosexuality and adultery are both illegal and while non-married couples aren&rsquot lawfully permitted to stay together in the same hotel room, it is common practice and rarely enforced.

Alcohol is tolerated, with non-Muslims allowed to drink alcohol in the cities&rsquo plentiful hotel bars and restaurants (except for Sharjah). Tourists are permitted to bring four litres of alcohol into the country, though under 20s are not allowed to drink alcohol or buy cigarettes. It is illegal for everyone to eat, drink or smoke in public during daylight hours of the holy month of Ramadan, and on the day or eve of days of national importance, alcohol isn&rsquot sold and bars are shut. As in all Muslim countries, it&rsquos best to keep displays of affection private &ndash kissing or embracing in public is not only considered disrespectful, it could lead to police caution or even arrest. Holding hands is generally fine, but swearing, rude gestures and drink driving are all punishable by imprisonment. Drugs are a strict no-no and could land you in serious trouble. It&rsquos worth checking what medicine and painkillers you bring into the country, as even some common pain medications like codeine are prohibited.


UAE history

Mohammed al Qudsi, a senior member of the Abu Dhabi TV team, is at Union House at 2am to set up. “We placed our camera near the flag raising, a couple inside the room where the sheikhs were going to be, and on the roof. The roof was a crucial location and the footage from that was very good.”
According to some reports, Sheikh Zayed meets first with Sheikh Rashid at Zabeel Palace before the two Rulers drive to the official federation ceremonies together, arriving before 10am. “Sheikh Zayed came in an American car but with Sheikh Rashid and officials of Dubai,” al Qudsi says. He recalls a sunny day, but cool enough for men to be wearing light jackets.

10AM The Rulers gather at Sheikh Rashid’s majlis on the beach in Jumeirah. Sheikh Ahmed, the Ruler of Umm Al Qaiwain, is unable to attend because of illness and has delegated responsibility to Sheikh Rashid, the Crown Prince and future Ruler. Sheikh Saqr, the Ruler of Ras al Khaimah, is present as an observer. The Rulers and their advisers gather around a horseshoe-shaped table in the circular meeting room now known as Union House, which is a round house beside the majlis.
Their first task is to ratify the provisional constitution that formally brings the United Arab Emirates into existence. The ceremony and proclamation, read by Ahmed al Suwaidi, is filmed and broadcast live on the new Voice of the United Arab Emirates radio station, which launches that morning.

According to Al Ittihad: “Sources say that the new station will be among the most influential stations in the Gulf area. It will mainly focus on affairs relating to the new union, along with the accomplishments of the United Arab Emirates as a nation.”

Sheikh Zayed reads the Treaty of Friendship, watched by (from left) James Treadwell and Sir Geoffrey Arthur of Britain. On his other side are Sheikh Rashid of Dubai and Sheikh Khalid of Sharjah. Behind him are Ahmed al Suwaidi, Mahdi al Tajir and Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid. Courtesy Al Ittihad
A NEW RELATIONSHIP WITH THE OLD COUNTRY
Treaty of Friendship between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United Arab Emirates

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United Arab Emirates Considering that the United Arab Emirates has assumed full responsibility as a sovereign and independent State Determined that the long-standing and traditional relations of close friendship and cooperation between their peoples shall continue Desiring to give expression to this intention in the form of a Treaty of Friendship Have agreed as follows:

ARTICLE 1 The relations between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United Arab Emirates shall be governed by a spirit of close friendship. In recognition of this, the 
Contracting Parties, conscious of their common interest in the peace and stability of the region, shall: (a) consult together on matters of mutual concern in time of need (b) settle all their disputes by peaceful means in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations. 
ARTICLE 2 The Contracting Parties shall encourage educational, scientific and cultural cooperation between the two States in accordance with arrangements to be agreed. Such arrangements shall cover among other things: (a) the promotion of mutual understanding of their respective cultures, civilisations and languages, the promotion of contacts among professional bodies, universities and cultural institutions (c) the encouragement of technical, scientific and cultural exchanges. 
ARTICLE 3 The Contracting Parties shall maintain the close relations already existing between them in the field of trade and commerce. Representatives of the Contracting Parties shall meet from time to time to consider means by which such relations can be further developed and strengthened, including the possibility of concluding treaties or agreements on matters of mutual concern.
ARTICLE 4 This Treaty shall enter into force on today’s date and shall remain in force for a period of ten years. Unless twelve months before the expiry of the said period of ten years either Contracting Party shall have given notice to the other of its intention to terminate the Treaty, this Treaty shall remain in force thereafter until the expiry of twelve months from the date on which notice of such intention is given. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned have signed this Treaty. 
DONE in duplicate at Dubai the second day of December 1971AD, corresponding to the fifteenth day of Shawwal 1391H, in the English and Arabic languages, both texts being equally authoritative. The Supreme Council also discusses its relations with Britain and authorises the signing of a Friendship Treaty with Britain. Al Mehairbi remembers the expression on Sheikh Zayed’s face as the flag was attached to the staff for the first time. “There was something you saw in his eyes. He is thinking now: ‘Okay. We are independent now.’ That is what he said in the majlis later. ‘We are independent now.’ You know. Like when you have a dream and you wake up. But this was real. His eye was on the flag. You can see it in his face. It is not the face of protocol. It is natural. His expression said, ‘This is done. This is my dream. This is the flag’. ”

PRESIDENT NIXON SENDS A GREETING FROM Embassy of the United States in London, via telegram SUBJECT Recognition of United Arab Emirates. The following presidential message is for delivery to Shaykh Zayid of Abu Dhabi as President of the United Arab Emirates upon the formal establishment of that federation: “His Highness Shaykh Zayid bin Sultan al-Nuhayan, President of the United Arab Emirates. Your Highness: to you, the Government, and the people of the United Arab Emirates I am pleased to extend my warm congratulations and those of the American people on the occasion of the independence of your states and the formation of a union. In welcoming the establishment of the United Arab Emirates, I look forward to cooperative and amicable relations between our two governments, building the friendship which has long characterised the relationship between our peoples. With very best wishes. Sincerely, Richard Nixon.” Mahdi Al Tajir hands the flag to Sheikh Zayed for the first time. Courtesy Al Ittihad 11.30AM (ABU DHABI) News of the formation of the nation is relayed to officials at Al Manhal Palace by radio, where an identical flag raising ceremony takes place, watched by dignitaries and guests who include Umm Kulthum.

Mohammed al Fahim, an Abu Dhabi businessman, is among those witnessing the ceremony. “I didn’t know what was happening, and just saw a red and white flag being replaced by a colourful one. I realised later what a privilege it was to witness the raising of our flag, and how lucky I was,” he remembers.

Sir Geoffrey takes up the story in his official report published in early 1972. “We went to Jumeirah at noon, to be greeted by a scene of astonishing confusion in the small semi-circular room in which the Supreme Council of the UAE and their advisors had assembled. “My deputy [Walker] narrowly escaped a boot on his hand, and my First Secretary who was carrying the treaty, needed skill in rugby football rather than diplomacy that day.” Of the day, Walker now recalls: “There was a fair amount of excitement but in a way we had already got there. The big achievement and the big relief was the signing of the constitution on July 18.”

12.30PM (APPROX) The official proceedings then adjourn. Sheikh Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum reads a proclamation from his father: “Agreements were signed to terminate the special contractual relations between each of our emirates. In this historic meeting we witness the declaration of the establishment of the United Arab Emirates as an independent and sovereign state. The aim of the new state is to provide a better life and stability for the nation, protect the rights and freedom of its citizens, achieve close cooperation among the emirates for their common good and to achieve development and progress in all fields, look forward to joining the Arab League and United Nations, keep in line with the Islamic causes and interests, consolidate friendship and cooperation with all friendly nations, which is based on the principles of the United Nations charter and international agreements.”

Al Mehairbi remembers Sheikh Zayed surrounded by a throng of international media who bombarded him with questions. After the failure of other Arab unions, including the United Arab Union between Egypt and Syria, many Arab journalists were sceptical that the United Arab Emirates would survive for more than a few months. Local journalists are less sceptical. “Every journalist, TV man and photographer was proud to be covering it,” says al Q udsi. “They shared the happiness and the feeling it brought with it.” While there are no official celebrations outside the gates of Union House, residents of Dubai share the optimism. Deena Motiwalla moved to Dubai with her husband, Bomi, in 1970. They lived on the edge of The Creek in Deira. “We all felt that it was a very good thing that they were going to make a country. We felt very patriotic, even though we came from India, because there was such a welcome for everybody at that time. “Despite that, we took the events in our stride – and never thought that the signing of the treaty was a historic moment – just that it was good that the country was getting together. “On the day itself we didn’t go along to Union House after all. I don’t remember exactly why – it was only going to be the sheikhs and we often saw them anyway – especially Rashid, who would often drive around, always sitting in the front seat, and if we were downstairs he would wave and say hello as he passed. We did go along a couple of days afterwards to see the new flagpole, though.”

Len Chapman, then living in Dubai, remembers: “I lived in Jumeirah Beach Road in those days, not far from the Summer Palace. We went to have a look. A small crowd surrounded the roundabout outside the Palace, but there was not much to see. The dignitaries drove out in their cars at the end of the event. After that life went back to normal. ”
sub-docs Among those watching the raising of the flag at Al Manhal Palace are Sheikh Khalifa and Umm Kulthum. Mohammed al Fahim, the author of Rags to Riches, is also in the group. The officers’ salutes are left-handed because the original photograph was published back to front. Courtesy Al Ittihad JOINING THE UN A communiqué dated December 2, 1971, from Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, President of the United Arab Emirates to U Thant, secretary general of the United Nations:
“I have the honour to submit on behalf of the United Arab Emirates this application for membership of the United Nations in accordance with Article 4 of the United Nations Charter.
I would be grateful if you would place this application before the Security Council and the General Assembly at the earliest opportunity.”

AFTERNOON The six leaders are reported to have received well-wishers in Sheikh Rashid’s majlis before travelling to Zabeel Palace for lunch, while the reporters departed to file their stories. “I went back to Abu Dhabi at 2pm, and most of the media people as well,” says al Qudsi. “We had to work on our material and prepare our 9pm news of the same day. I was honoured to read material of the declaration of that day.” EVENING Some recall that Sheikh Zayed spent the night in Dubai. Al Mehairbi says Sheikh Zayed went to his residence at Al Khawaneej, informally receiving congratulations before returning to Abu Dhabi later.

This version of events is also supported by al Fahim, whose father was a member of the Abu Dhabi party in Dubai and who did not return to the new capital for several days. Al Ittihad reports Sheikh Zayed’s return to Abu Dhabi after “the historic meeting”. He was greeted by Sheikh Khalifa, the Al Nahyan sheikhs and members of the public who cheered and applauded him. Once he stepped out of the plane, he repeated thrice: ‘Praise to Allah for all His graces.’ After shaking hands with his well-wishers, he got into the car, off to his palace.”

The Brief History of the United Arab Emirates

Madinat Jumeirah Al Qasr, Dubai: Themonnie/Flickr

The earliest known human habitation in the UAE dated from the Neolithic period, 5500 BC. At this early stage, there is proof of interaction with the outside world, particularly with civilizations to the north in Persia.

Several places along the coast had important links with places like India during early history. The arrival of envoys from the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in 630AD heralded the conversion of the region to Islam. After Prophet Muhammad’s death, one of the major battles of the Ridda Wars was fought at Dibba, resulting in the defeat of the non-Muslims and the triumph of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. In 637, Julfar (today Ra’s al-Khaimah) was used as a staging post for the conquest of Iran. Over many centuries, Julfar became a wealthy port and pearling center from which dhows traveled throughout the Indian Ocean. Portuguese expansion into the Indian Ocean in the early sixteenth century following Vasco da Gama’s route of exploration saw them battle the Safavid Persia up the coast of the Persian Gulf. The Portuguese controlled the area for 150 years, in which they conquered the inhabitants of the Arabian peninsula. Vasco da Gama was helped by Ahmad Ibn Majid, a navigator, and cartographer from Julfar, to find the route of spices from Asia.

During the 16th century, portions of the nation came under the direct influence of the Ottoman Empire. Thereafter the region was known to the British as the “Pirate Coast”, as raiders based there harassed the shipping industry despite both European and Arab navies patrolling the area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the United Kingdom and the Trucial Sheikhdoms established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty, similar to treaties entered into by the UK with other Persian Gulf principalities. The sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the United Kingdom and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the United Kingdom without its consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack.

At the beginning of the 1960s, the first oil company teams carried out preliminary surveys and the first cargo of crude was exported from Abu Dhabi in 1962. As oil revenues increased, Ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, undertook a massive construction program, building schools, housing, hospitals, and roads. When Dubai’s oil exports commenced in 1969, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the de facto ruler of Dubai, was also able to use oil revenues to improve the quality of life of his people. In 1955, the United Kingdom sided with Abu Dhabi in the latter’s dispute with Oman over the Buraimi Oasis, another territory to the south. A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute however, the agreement has yet to be ratified by the UAE government and is not recognized by the Saudi government. The border with Oman also remains officially unsettled, but the two governments agreed to delineate the border in May 1999.

When the British-Trucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on December 1, 1971, they became fully independent. The rulers of Abu Dhabi and Dubai decided to form a union between their two emirates independently, prepare a constitution, then call the rulers of the other five emirates to a meeting and offer them the opportunity to join. It was also agreed between the two that the constitution be written by December 2, 1971. On that date, at the Dubai Guesthouse Palace, four other emirates agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. Ras al-Khaimah joined later, in early 1972. Since the 1980s, Dubai and later many other places included another major source of income along with oil, namely tourism.


UAE – United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates is a country of seven cities or a union of seven emirates located in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula Coast. Sheikh Rashid Bin Saeed Al Maktoum ruler of Dubai and Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan ruler of Abu Dhabi met on 1968 February 18, in Abu Dhabi which was known as Al Samha those days. Rulers of all seven Emirates states to conduct a conference based on constitutional and with the mutual understanding they formed an agreement of eleven points which was the basis for the establishment of UAE – the United Arab Emirates. The United Arab Emirates was founded as a federation on 2 nd December 1971. When it was founded it was the union of six emirates (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Umm Al Quwain, Ajman, and Fujairah) and the seventh one named, Ras Al Khaimah joined UAE federation on 10 th February 1972. After the formation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) forged a distinct national identity. The political system, legal systems and other systems in UAE have been designed to ensure the country’s heritage is maintained. 19 th May 1973 United Arab Emirates (UAE) launched its official currency named UAE Dirham and which is also known as AED. On 26 th September 1973, the first traffic light/signal becomes operational in Abu Dhabi.

United Arab Emirates

UAE is now a modern, Oil exporting country with a strong and highly diversified economy today. UAE is home to 189 Nationalities and Emirates nationals are 20% of the total population and which makes UAE the world’s highest number of immigrants. Indian and Pakistanis are the two highest percentage of immigrants in the UAE. Indian immigrants are 28% of the total population and Pakistanis immigrants are 12% of the total population of the UAE.
Official Language of UAE
National Dress of UAE

National Dress in UAE for Emirati Women is Abaya and traditionally the colour of Abaya is black. Abaya covers the whole body except the hands, face, and feet. National Dress in UAE for Emirati men is a Dishdasha or Kandura and traditionally the colour of kandura is white but sometimes they wear other colours like brown and grey etc. Kandura is a single piece of ankle-length garment.
Famous Dishes in UAE
Emirati Dishes
  • Aside
  • Harees
  • Jami
  • Jasheed
  • Kabsa
  • Khabees
  • Madroob
  • Maqluba
  • Quzi
  • Kanafeh
  • Shawarma
  • Fattoush
  • Tharid
  • Salona
  • Waggafi Bread

Dubai

Dubai International Airport – (DXB)

Dubai International Airport is one of the world's most occupied airports by international passenger traffic. Dubai International Airport also very well-known as a (DXB) and is one of the sixth occupied cargo airports in the world. Dubai International airport has a capacity of (100 million) passengers (per annum) and the airport is the highest number of passengers average per flight. In 2019, Dubai Airport installed the largest solar energy system as per the goal of the Dubai government to reduce energy consumption by 30% until 2030.

Abu Dhabi

Abu Dhabi is the 2 nd most populated and the 2nd largest city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Abu Dhabi is the capital city of (UAE). The population is 3.23 Million (2019). The economy of Abu Dhabi worth of (US 200 Billion Dollars). Abu Dhabi covers an area of (972 km 2 ). Emir Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan (age 71 years) is the ruler of Abu Dhabi and President of UAE.
Places to Visit in Abu Dhabi

Sharjah

Sharjah is the 3 nd Largest Emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the third most populated city of UAE. The population is 2.38 Million (2019). Sharjah covers an area of (235.5 km 2 ). Sultan Bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi (age 80 years) also known as Sultan III is the ruler of Sharjah and the member of the Federal Supreme Council - the United Arab Emirates since 1972.
Places to Visit in Sharjah

Ajman

Ajman is the smallest Emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Ajman is located at the Persian Gulf. The population is 385,000 (2019) and Ajman covers an area of (259 km 2 ). Sheikh Humaid Bin Rashid Al Nuaimi (age 89 years) also known as Al Nuaimi is the ruler of Ajman and the member of the Federal Supreme Council – the United Arab Emirates since 1981.
Places to Visit in Ajman

Ras Al Khaimah

Ras Al Khaimah is also known as RAK. Ras Al Khaimah is one of the seventh emirate located in the northern part of UAE. The population is 400,000 (2019) and RAK covers an area of (373 km 2 ). Sheikh Saud Bin Saqr Al Qasimi (age 64 years) is the ruler of Ras Al Khaimah and the member of the Federal Supreme Council – the United Arab Emirates since 2010.

The United Arab Emirates History Report

In the eastern part, of the Arabian Peninsula is where the United Arab Emirates is located (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011). It expands down to the southern coast of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The United Arab Emirates is located at the north of Qatar, the West and South of Saudi Arabia and the East of Oman. A large portion of land in the country is sandy and unproductive.

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Initially, the region was occupied by naval citizens who were later transformed to Islam. Afterward, a nonconformist cult, by the name Carmathians, instituted a strong sheikhdom making its defense force to triumph over Mecca (U.S. Department of State, 2011a).

Following the collapse of sheikhdom, most of its members emerged into pirates. Intimidating the Sultanate of Oman and Muscat, the pirates aggravated the British intrusion, which in 1820 imposed a limited truce and a stable truce thirty three years later. As a result, the Pirate Coast changed its identity to the Trucial Coast. Despite the British offering the nine Trucial states, and fortification, they did not officially govern them as protectorates.

In 1971, the British vacated the Persian Gulf, making the Trucial states a confederacy known as the United Arab Emirates (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011). The figure of the states in the Confederacy later dropped to seven, as Oman and Bahrain decided not to unite with the Confederacy. In 1994, the United Arab Emirates formed a military defense accord with the United Stated, and a year later, with France.

The United Arab Emirates was recognized as a key financial hub utilized by al-Qaeda in transmitting money to the terrorists, following the U.S terrorist assaults. Instantly, the state joined the U.S. in fighting these terrorists by sub-zeroing accounts attached to the alleged terrorists.

The originator of the United Arab Emirates and leader of the Confederacy as from 1971, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, passed on in 2004(U.S. Department of State, 2011a). His heir took on the leadership of the federation. The head of Dubai and the prime minister of the UAE, Sheik Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, passed on in 2006, leaving Prince Sheikh Muhammad ibn Rashid al-Maktoum with both positions (The Official Portal for Dubai Government, n.d.).

The UAE flag was formally assumed in 1971. It is composed of four colors red, green, black and white (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011). An erect, red band rests on the hoist surface of the flag.

Three horizontal bands of green, white and black, which are identical, are respectively sustained on this band from the top. All the colors in the UAE flag symbolize Arab entity and unity. Red symbolizes the past flags of the Kharijite Muslims, green symbolizes productiveness, white stands for impartiality and peace, and black symbolizes oil, the major source of income for the state.

1996 is the year when the national anthem for UAE was formed, substituting the previous anthem, which lacked terms. The contest triumphed by Aref Al Sheikh Abdullah Al Hassan determined the anthem’s words and tune. The name of the national anthem is “Nashid al-watani al-Emirati” (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011).

The government consists of the federation that was established in 1971 by seven states, also called the Trucial States. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (2011), these states include “Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, Umm al-Qaiwain, Abu Dhabi, Ajman and Fujairah” (n.p.). Besides the federal prime minister and president, every state owns a disconnected leader who supervises the local administration.

The executive body of the federal government is recognized as the Council of Ministers (U.S. Department of State, 2011a). The prime minister is the head of this executive body. Conventionally, the ministries are shared amid states depending on their volume and power. Although Abu Dhabi and Dubai occupy most ministries, all the states are embodied with no less than one place.

The legislation is typically started by the Council of Ministers prior to approval by the Supreme Council. The Council of Ministers, in addition, supervises the federal administration and ratifies the federal finances.

The uppermost federal administration is the Supreme Council of Rulers, which has representatives from all the states in the federation. It designs rules and nominates ministers, judges of the Federal Supreme Court, the prime minister, and the president. It as well approves federal acts, even though the president has the power to amend them.

Although casual meetings are numerous, the Supreme Council is scheduled to meet at least once annually. All resolutions are ratified by the emirs of Dubai and Abu Dhabi together with three other states in the federation.

Through the conference, the federal head is usually the director of Abu Dhabi. Therefore, Sheikh Khalifa was collectively designated, by the Supreme Council in 2004, for a five-year phase, soon after replacing his father as the emir of Abu Dhabi. While the UAE owns fully balanced establishments, consisting of the governmental, administrative and judicial sectors, all vital decrees are arrived at by the ruling folks of the Emirates, especially Abu Dhabi.

Here, the administration is not apparent or liable to its decisions, leaving a substantial range for inadequacy, since extreme cases of ineffectiveness and fraud are concealed and are hardly ever exposed to defy. Two aspects influence the mode of UAE life, enlistment, and integration of politics. Hence, political culture is influential in that an individual’s ways of life differentiate his or her characteristics.

The United Arab Emirates in broad and Dubai specifically has been on the vanguard of triumphant business endeavors, and, therefore, has clutched international interest. Excellent sea, road, and air infrastructure have been the key features for this rise. The country owns one of the most active financial capitals internationally.

The fiscal situation of the emirates has improved in a short period of almost a decade, and, therefore, has demonstrated to be an ideal international business center. With the figure of free zones in UAE rising daily, they have emerged to be a significant ingredient in the UAE financial system. Central Intelligence Agency (2011) reveals that the free zones in UAE have vastly contributed to the rising of the economy by providing a suitable business environment.

The United Arab Emirates owns an inclusive, public-financed health service, plus a swiftly emerging private health segment, which offers an elevated class of health services to the residents and visitors (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.). Health service delivery is experiencing a change in most UAE states.

Main communicable illnesses previously prevalent in the UAE, for instance, measles, poliomyelitis, and malaria, have been eliminated. At the same time, postnatal and prenatal services are at the same level as those of industrialized states. The infant mortality rate has declined to7.7 per 1000 and newborn mortality rate to 5.54 per 1000(Central Intelligence Agency, 2011). Mortality rates of mothers have also declined to 0.01 for each 100,000.

Life expectancy in UAE has risen to 78.3 years, similar to North America and Europe, due to elevated standards of treatment at all phases of the health care structure. So far, health care in the UAE is mainly supported by the regime (U.S. Department of State, 2011 b). In other segments, this prominence is developing, and private-public ventures have emerged as vital.

Government policy centers on increasing managerial and legal platforms founded on best experience, to improve the public and private segment health care potentials. Besides, government policy acts put precedence for health services expansion in the subdivision.

Regardless of the stunted economy, the figure of expats in the UAE, over the last three years, is approximately 90%. The figure of aliens living in the country was about 8.26 million in the last half of last year, symbolizing a sum expat inhabitant of 88.5% of the joint inhabitants of UAE. Since 2006, there has been a spectacular raise of a projected figure of 83%. The UAE legal structure is prejudiced against foreigners. There also exists unfair treatment of aliens in various aspects such as employment, wages, and terms of work.

The UAE financial system is projected to develop by3.2 percent. The above-estimated rise will be supported by a hoist in international oil order. The Minister of Economy, Sultan Al Mansouri, asserted that a fee of $85 a barrel would uphold the economic expansion. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (2011), the UAE economy improved by 1.3 percent last year. However, the latest figures availed by the International Monetary Fund projects development of 1.3 percent in 2011, after a narrowing of 0.7 percent last year.

In conclusion, the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula is where the United Arab Emirates is located. Initially, the region was occupied by naval citizens who were later transformed to Islam. Later, the Pirate Coast changed its identity to the Trucial Coast, made up of nine states. In 1971, the British vacated the Persian Gulf, making the Trucial states a confederacy known as the United Arab Emirates. The figure of the states in the Confederacy later dropped to seven, as Oman and Bahrain decided not to unite with the Confederacy.

Regardless of the stunted economy, the figure of expats in the UAE, over the last three years, is approximately 90%. The figure of aliens living in the country was about 8.26 million in the last half of last year, symbolizing a sum expat inhabitant of 88.5% of the joint inhabitants of UAE. The government consists of the federation that was established in 1971 by seven states, also called the Trucial States.

The executive body of the federal government is recognized as the Council of Ministers, and the prime minister is the head of this executive body. The UAE flag was formally assumed in 1971. It is composed of four colors red, green, black and white. All the colors in the UAE flag symbolize Arab entity and unity.

Red symbolizes the past flags of the Kharijite Muslims, green symbolizes productiveness, white stands for impartiality and peace, and black symbolizes oil, the major source of income for the state. 1996 is the year when the national anthem for UAE was formed, substituting the previous anthem, which lacked terms. The contest triumphed by Aref Al Sheikh Abdullah Al Hassan determined the anthem’s words and tune.

The uppermost federal administration of UAE is the Supreme Council of Rulers, which has representatives from all the states in the federation. It approves federal acts, even though the president has the power to amend them. It as well designs rules and nominates ministers, judges of the Federal Supreme Court, the prime minister, and the president. The United Arab Emirates in broad and Dubai specifically has been on the vanguard of triumphant business endeavors, and, therefore, has clutched international interest.

Excellent sea, road, and air infrastructure have been the key features for this rise. The fiscal situation of the UAE has improved in a short period of almost a decade, and, therefore, has demonstrated to be an ideal international business center. With the figure of free zones in UAE rising daily, they have emerged to be a significant ingredient in the UAE financial system. The free zones in the UAE have vastly contributed to the rising of the economy by providing a suitable business environment.

The United Arab Emirates owns an inclusive, public-financed health service, plus a swiftly emerging private health segment, which offers an elevated class of health services to the residents. Life expectancy in UAE has risen to 78.3 years, similar to North America and Europe, due to elevated standards of treatment at all phases of the health care structure.

So far, health care in the UAE is mainly supported by the regime. In other segments, this prominence is developing, and private-public ventures have emerged as vital. Finally, the UAE financial system is projected to develop by3.2 percent.


Watch the video: The Economy of the United Arab Emirates (January 2022).