22 October 1939
War in the Air
German aircraft sighted of the east coast of England and south east Scotland
On This Day: October 22
On Oct. 22, 1962, President John F. Kennedy announced an air and naval blockade of Cuba, following the discovery of Soviet missile bases on the island.
On Oct. 22, 1920, Dr. Timothy Francis Leary, the American psychologist and writer who advocated the use psychedelic drugs, was born. Following his death on May 31, 1996, his obituary appeared in The Times.
On Oct. 22, 1962, President John F. Kennedy announced an air and naval blockade of Cuba, following the discovery of Soviet missile bases on the island.
On This Date
|1746||Princeton University received its charter.|
|1797||French balloonist Andre-Jacques Garnerin made the first parachute descent, landing safely from a height of about 3,000 feet.|
|1844||Actress Sarah Bernhardt was born in Paris.|
|1934||Bank robber Charles "Pretty Boy" Floyd was shot to death by federal agents at a farm in East Liverpool, Ohio.|
|1954||West Germany joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.|
|1968||Apollo 7, with astronauts Wally Schirra, Donn Fulton Eisele and R. Walter Cunningham aboard, returned to Earth.|
|1979||The U.S. government allowed the deposed Shah of Iran to travel to New York for medical treatment.|
|1981||The Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization was decertified by the federal government for its strike the previous August.|
|2002||A bus driver was shot to death in Aspen Hill, Md., in the 13th and final attack by the Washington-area sniper.|
|2007||China&aposs Communist Party gave President Hu Jintao a second five-year term.|
Historic BirthdaysDr. Timothy Francis Leary 10/22/1920 - 5/31/1996 American psychologist and advocate of psychedelic drugs.Go to obituary »
|74||Franz Liszt 10/22/1811 - 7/31/1886 |
Hungarian pianist and composer
|78||Collis Porter Huntington 10/22/1821 - 8/13/1900 |
American railroad magnate
|32||John Reed 10/22/1887 - 10/19/1920 |
American radical journalist
|85||George Wells Beadle 10/22/1903 - 6/9/1989 |
|60||Constance Bennett. 10/22/1904 - 7/24/1965 |
|44||Karl (Guthe) Jansky 10/22/1905 - 2/14/1950 |
|59||Jimmie Foxx 10/22/1907 - 7/21/1967 |
American professional baseball player
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Born This Day In History 22nd October
Celebrating Birthdays Today
Born: October 22, 1952, West Homestead, Pennsylvania, USA
Known For : American actor most well-known for his roles in the films Independence Day, Jurassic Park, The Fly, and The Big Chill. He has also made several television and notable stage appearances and was nominated for an Academy Award for his role in the short film "Little Surprises" in 1996. He is also an accomplished jazz pianist.
Christopher Allen Lloyd
Born: 22nd October 1938 Stamford, Connecticut, USA
Known For : Possible best known for Emmett "Doc" Brown in the Back to the Future trilogy and Uncle Fester in The Addams Family and Addams Family Values. But his acting carreer stretches over many years and includes One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Taxi, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, In Search of Dr. Seuss to name just a few.
Today in World War II History—October 22, 1939 & 1944
80 Years Ago—October 22, 1939: Soviets clamp down on occupied Poland, closing schools and churches, banning the Polish language and typewriters, and replacing Polish currency with Soviet rubles.
Gallup poll: 62% of American want to aid the Allies, but 95% want to stay out of the war.
75 Years Ago—Oct. 22, 1944: First use of napalm in the Southwest Pacific Theater—US fighters drop napalm on oil storage tanks on Ceram Island in the Netherlands East Indies.
Capt. Alexander Patch III, son of the commanding general of the US Seventh Army, is killed in action in France.
October 22, 1939…The First Ever Pro Football Telecast
75 years ago today, the relationship between professional football and television began when The National Broadcasting Company earned a spot in history by televising a pro football game. Only 22 days before, NBC had televised the first ever college game on September 30th.
A crowd of 13,050 were on hand at Brooklyn’s Ebbets Field on that now-historic day when the Philadelphia Eagles fell to Brooklyn’s Dodgers 23-14. Yes, there was a Brooklyn Dodgers football team, from 1930 to 1943.
The game included play by three future Hall of Famers…quarterback Ace Parker and tackle Bruiser Kinard for the Dodgers and end Bill Hewitt for the Eagles.
Five hundred-or-so fortunate New Yorkers who owned television sets witnessed the game in the comfort of their own homes, over NBC’s experimental station W2XBS. Many others saw the telecast on monitors while visiting the RCA Pavilion at the World’s Fair in New York where it was scheduled as a special event.
According to Allen “Skip” Walz, the NBC play-by-play announcer, only eight people were needed for the telecast. Walz had none of the visual aids…monitors, screens or spotters used today, and there were just two iconoscope cameras. One was located in the box seats on the 40-yard line and the other was in the stadium’s mezzanine section. (The photo of Waltz below was taken a few years later with an RCA Orthicon camera behind him).
“I’d sit with my chin on the rail in the mezzanine, and the camera was over my shoulder,” remembered Walz. “I did my own spotting, and when the play moved up and down the field, on punts or kickoffs, I’d point to tell the cameraman what I’d be talking about.”
The television log records of that day say that the game began at 2:30 p.m. and ran for exactly two hours, thirty-three minutes. By comparison today’s games run almost three full hours. Of course there were no commercial interruptions during the 1939 game. There were, however, interruptions of another sort.
“It was a cloudy day, when the sun crept behind the stadium there wasn’t always enough light for the cameras,” according to Walz. “The picture would get darker and darker, and eventually it would go completely blank, and I would begin to call the game in the style I used for radio broadcasts.”
Buildup to World War II: January 1931-August 1939
The buildup of World War II increased when Adolf Hitler acquired more power by becoming chancellor of Nazi Germany in January 1933. The World War II timeline below summarizes important events that occurred from January 30, 1933 to October 14, 1933.
World War II Timeline: January 30-October 14
January 30: Adolf Hitler becomes chancellor of Nazi Germany.
February 4: Adolf Hitler tightens his absolute power in Nazi Germany with the decree "For the Protection of the German People," which gives the Nazis the authority to censor publications and ban political agitating.
February 27: The Reichstag building in Berlin is set afire. Adolf Hitler's government accuses Communists of arson, triggering an anti-Communist crackdown throughout Nazi Germany.
March 20: SS chief Heinrich Himmler announces the establishment of Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp. The camp will receive its first inmates, political prisoners, within the next few days.
March 23: Nazi Germany's Reichstag passes the Enabling Act, affording Adolf Hitler total dictatorial powers.
March 27: Japan announces that it will no longer be part of the seemingly impotent League of Nations.
April 1: Adolf Hitler orders a boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses in Nazi Germany. The boycott itself fails when most German citizens ignore it, but Adolf Hitler will follow with a series of laws that effectively strangle the civil liberties of German Jews.
April 7: With the passage of the Aryan Law, any German who is one-quarter or more Jewish is barred from civil service employment.
July 14: All German political parties except the Nazi Party are outlawed.
October 14: Nazi Germany announces that it intends to follow Japan's lead and withdraw from the beleaguered League of Nations.
World War II Headlines
Below are more highlights and images that outline the events of World War II and show the details of the Nazi's increasing power, as well as Japan's military offensive against China in the early 1930s.
The Reichstag fire: Less than a month after Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor, arson gave the Nazis an excuse to suspend civil liberties and crack down on their political enemies. On February 27, 1933, the Reichstag (parliament) building in Berlin went up in flames, and a Dutch Communist found at the scene was charged with the crime. Claiming that acts of terrorism were about to break out all over Nazi Germany, the Nazis imposed martial law, made mass arrests, and carried out summary executions. Many historians believe that the Nazis set the fire themselves.
The Kwangtung Army captures Shanhai Pass of the Great Wall: Once the Japanese established the puppet government of Manchukuo, the Kwangtung Army turned its attention to the northeast provinces of China. It achieved its first objective, the capture of Shanhai Pass -- the easternmost stronghold of the Great Wall -- on January 3, 1933. After Japan took the Chinese province of Jehol on March 1, Chinese troops attempted to make a stand along the Great Wall, but Japan drove them from the Wall by May 12. Representatives of both countries signed the Tanggu Truce on May 22, the provisions of which entirely favored the Japanese. China relinquished Jehol and agreed to a 100-mile-wide demilitarized zone south of the Great Wall.
Japan's military successes fuel its future imperial ambitions in the Pacific and Southeast Asia: The Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905 demonstrated Japan's emergence as a significant 20th century power. Its successful surprise attack against Port Arthur in 1904 -- without any declaration of war -- and the destruction of the Russian fleet at Tsushima in 1905 also indicated the way that Japan might conduct itself strategically and diplomatically in the future. By the 1930s, the leadership of an increasingly militaristic and radicalized country felt strategically isolated and economically threatened by Anglo-French-U.S. encroachments within the region and by Japan's lack of raw materials. These fears eventually precipitated Japan's campaigns in Manchuria and China from 1931. Its military successes fueled its future imperial ambitions in the Pacific and Southeast Asia areas.
Nazi Germany continued to gain strength and Benito Mussolini built up his Italian military. Go on to the next page for a detailed timeline highlighting the important World War II events that occurred from November 1933 to December 1934.
For additional information about World War II, see:
The arrival of U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry in 1853 during a time of fear of Western colonization inspired a radical change in Japan's government structure. For more than 260 years, power had been vested in the decentralized Tokugawa shogunate, while the Imperial Court in Kyoto had remained mostly symbolic.
Recognizing that Japan's continued autonomy depended on a unified nation and a centralized government, a cadre of nobles and former samurai forced the collapse of the much-weakened Tokugawa shogunate in 1868. Nominal authority was returned to the emperor in what became known as the Meiji Restoration, though real power remained in the hands of the samurai activists who had overthrown the Tokugawa shogunate and seized control of the new government.
The new government forced the dissolution of some 250 semi-autonomous domains, and brought all territory under central control. Reform continued in 1889 when the Meiji Constitution established a rather ineffective two-house legislature (the Diet) and a politically powerful cabinet of ministers under the emperor. The system suffered from fundamental weaknesses in that the ministers did not have to answer to the Diet. As before, real power remained with the ruling clique of insiders.
During the period of Emperor Taisho (1912-26), a democratic movement briefly shifted influence to the parliament and democratic parties. However, economic depression in the 1920s and the rising assertiveness of the military soon stifled that movement.
The army and navy already exerted great political influence through their own cabinet ministers. Moreover, the emperor's passive role in government allowed the militarists to flourish. The military also claimed immunity from civilian control on grounds that only the emperor was commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Political leaders who opposed the militarist agenda were targeted for assassination by radical young officers.
The military demonstrated its disdain for civilian control in 1931 when the Kwangtung Army seized Manchuria without even consulting its own government. By 1941, when General Tojo was named prime minister, Japan was essentially a military autocracy.
Lee Harvey Oswald
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Lee Harvey Oswald, (born October 18, 1939, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.—died November 24, 1963, Dallas, Texas), accused assassin of U.S. Pres. John F. Kennedy in Dallas on November 22, 1963. He himself was fatally shot two days later by Jack Ruby (1911–67) in the Dallas County Jail. A special President’s Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, better known as the Warren Commission because it was headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, investigated from November 29, 1963, to September 24, 1964, and concluded that Oswald alone had fired the shots killing Kennedy and that there was no evidence that either Oswald or Ruby had been part of any conspiracy. In January 1979 a special U.S. House of Representatives Assassinations Committee, after a two-year investigation, reported that a second assassin may also have fired a shot and that there may have been a conspiracy. The evidence has remained highly debatable.
Oswald was born two months after his father’s death his mother subsequently remarried for three years, but the family moved frequently between 1939 and 1956. In October 1956 Oswald dropped out of high school and joined the U.S. Marines. A competent sharpshooter but an indifferent marine, he began expressing pro-Soviet and politically radical views and, on a hardship plea, secured release from the corps on September 11, 1959. Nine days later he left for the Soviet Union, where he tried unsuccessfully to become a citizen.
In Minsk, where he was assigned to work, he met and married (April 30, 1961) Marina Nikolayevna Prusakova. Thirteen months later, in June 1962, he was able to return to the United States with his wife and three-month-old daughter, June Lee.
In January 1963 Oswald bought a .38 revolver and, in March, a rifle and telescopic sight, through the mails. On April 10 in Dallas he allegedly shot at but missed an ultrarightist, Edwin A. Walker, a former army general. Later that month he left his wife with a friend in Dallas and went to New Orleans, where he set up a one-man branch of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee and distributed pro-Castro leaflets. In September he went to Mexico City, where, according to the Warren Commission, he tried vainly to get a visa for Cuba and to get Soviet permission to return to the U.S.S.R. In October he returned to Dallas and secured a job at the Texas School Book Depository.
At 12:30 pm on November 22, 1963, from a window on the sixth floor of the depository building, Oswald, using his mail-order rifle, allegedly fired three shots that killed President Kennedy and wounded Texas Gov. John B. Connally in an open-car motorcade in Dealey Plaza. Oswald took a bus and a taxi to his rooming house, departed, and about a mile away was stopped by Patrolman J.D. Tippit, who believed that Oswald resembled the suspect already being described over the police radio. Oswald killed Tippit with his mail-order revolver (1:15 pm ). At about 1:45 pm Oswald was seized in the Texas Theatre by police officers responding to reports of a suspect. At 1:30 am on November 23 he was formally arraigned for the murder of President Kennedy.
On the morning of November 24, while being transferred from a jail cell to an interrogation office, Oswald was shot by a distraught Dallas nightclub owner, Jack Ruby. Ruby was tried and found guilty of murder (March 14, 1964) and sentenced to death. In October 1966 a Texas appeals court reversed the conviction, but, before a new trial could be held, Ruby died of a blood clot, complicated by cancer (January 3, 1967).
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.
American Nazis in the 1930s—The German American Bund
In the years before the outbreak of World War II, people of German ancestry living abroad were encouraged to form citizens groups to both extol “German virtues,” around the world, and to lobby for causes helpful to Nazi Party goals. In the United States, the Amerikadeutscher Volksbund, or German American Bund, was formed in 1936 as “an organization of patriotic Americans of German stock,” operating about 20 youth and training camps, and eventually growing to a membership in the tens of thousands among 70 regional divisions across the country. On February 20, 1939, the Bund held an “Americanization” rally in New York’s Madison Square Garden, denouncing Jewish conspiracies, President Roosevelt, and others. The rally, attended by 20,000 supporters and members, was protested by huge crowds of anti-Nazis, who were held back by 1,500 NYC police officers. As World War II began in 1939, the German American Bund fell apart, many of its assets were seized, and its leader arrested for embezzlement, and later deported to Germany.
Nearly 1,000 uniformed men wearing swastika arm bands and carrying Nazi banners parade past a reviewing stand in New Jersey on July 18, 1937. The New Jersey division of the German-American Bund opened its 100-acre Camp Nordland at Sussex Hills. Dr. Salvatore Caridi of Union City, spokesman for a group of Italian-American Fascists attending as guests, addressed the bund members as "Nazi Friends." #
German American Bund Camp youth salute Hindenburg in Griggstown, New Jersey. #
Members of the German-American Bund form a guard of honor before the speaker's stand as Fritz Kuhn, leader of the Bund, addresses a crowd at Hindenberg Park, La Crescenta, near Los Angeles, California, on April 30, 1939. This caption originally stated the park was in Sunland. We regret the error. #
American Nazi Bund Rally near Yaphank, New York, in 1937. #
This "Adolf Hitler Strasse" is a street running through "Camp Siegfried," a summer camp of the German American Bund in Yaphank, Long Island, New York. #
Youths at a German-American Bund camp stand at attention as the American flag and the German-American Youth Movement flag, right, are lowered in a ceremony at sundown in Andover, New Jersey, on July 21, 1937. #
Nazi "Bund" camp anniversary celebration, 1938. #
Hundreds of German Americans give the Nazi salute to young men marching in Nazi uniforms. The event was a German Day celebration sponsored by German American Bund at Camp Sigfried on Long Island. #
Fritz Kuhn, center facing forward, is congratulated by fellow officers of the German-American Bund in New York on September 4, 1938. Kuhn was unanimously re-elected on September 3 as National leader of the Bund, a pro-Nazi organization holding its sixth annual convention. #
German American Bund leader Fritz Kuhn, (center, front), and members of his staff pay their respects to Germany's Chancellor Adolf Hitler, during a visit to Berlin. #
German American Bund parade in New York City on East 86th St. on October 30, 1939. #
Pro-Nazi members of various singing and gymnastic societies salute a procession of flags at White Plains Hall in New York in the 1930s. They were gathered for a German Day celebration. The German-American Bund disclaimed this large group. #
An anti-Nazi crowd rushed the bar entrance of the German-American Bund Hall in Union City, New Jersey, on October 2, 1938 where Fritz Kuhn, bunds-fuehrer, was to make a “victory” speech celebrating Hitler’s occupation of Czechoslovakia. Bund members, including one with a belt as weapon drove the protesters out, but the meeting was disrupted. #
A crowd of approximately 20,000 attends a German American Bund Rally at New York's Madison Square Garden on February 20, 1939. At center is a large portrait of George Washington, claimed as an icon by the Bund, who called him "the first Fascist", claiming Washington "knew democracy could not work." #
The crowd responds with a Nazi salute as uniformed members of a German-American Bund color guard march at a gathering in New York's Madison Square Garden, on February 20, 1939. #
February 20, 1939. Original Caption: The local Fuehrer holds forth. Hewing to the verbal line and letting the syllables fall where they may, Fritz Kuhn, local Fuehrer, leader of the German American Bund, addresses the Bund's heavily guarded "Americanization" rally at Madison Square Garden. All during the rally scuffles occurred outside as the Anti-Nazis massed outside rushed the cordon of police in attempts at forcing entry to come to grips with Kuhn's storm troopers. Herr Fritz was himself the target of a punch when a Jewish youth attempted to attack him on the rostrum as he launched into an anti-Jewish harangue. But Kuhn's strong-arm men came to his rescue. #
New York City’s mounted police form a solid line outside Madison Square Garden on February 20, 1939, to hold in check a crowd which packed the streets around the Garden where the German American Bund was holding a rally. To prevent any clash between bundsmen and counter-demonstrators, police surrounded the area with a force of 1,500. #
February 20, 1939. Original Caption: Fight For The Flag. Anti Nazis Battle Cops. Mounted Policemen and rabid Anti Nazis battle for an American flag outside Madison Square Garden. The Anti-Nazis were parading outside the Garden in protest of the German American Bund "Americanization" rally being held there. This was only one of the night's many clashes between the demonstrators and heavy force of policemen who were on hand to preserve order. #
A crowd of demonstrators outside New York’s Madison Square Garden seize a uniformed member of the German American Bund who had emerged from a Bund rally in the Garden and attempted to enter a taxi, on February 20, 1939. #
Original Caption: Fritz Kuhn, in the full uniform of a Storm Trooper, national leader of the Bund gestures from the rostrum at Madison Square Garden in New York, on February 20, 1939 while he uttered imprecations against Jews over and over. #
Original caption: Dorothy Thompson, the New York columnist and wife of Sinclair Lewis, the famous American author, interjected the word "Bunk!" at the big rally of the German-American Bund at Madison Square Garden, in New York, on February 20, 1939, and was promptly escorted outside in the hope that such action would prevent any further demonstration. Later, on her plea that is was her constitutional right to heckle, Miss Thompson was readmitted to the meeting. Here, with a pair of storm-troopers beside her, Dorothy Thompson is escorted from the meeting of the German-American Bund at Madison Square Garden. #
Stormtroopers subdue a heckler on the platform at New York’s Madison Square Garden, February 20, 1939. Police who rescued and later arrested the man, whose clothing was torn from him in the struggle, identified him as Isadore Greenbaum, 26, a hotel worker. Fritz Kuhn, National Bund leader, stands on the rostrum, his back turned as he regards the struggle which interrupted his Denunciation of Jews during the Bund rally. #
Original Caption: There’s plenty of pushing and shoving as police try to keep streets clear in the immediate vicinity of Madison Square Garden in New York, on February 20, 1939 during a German-American Bund rally which had aroused a storm of protest from anti-Bund forces. There were strict police orders against picketing, and the 1,500 cops on duty in the area were instructed to halt all persons entering the neighborhood with provocative signs. #
A New York City mounted policeman outside Madison Square Garden at 50th Street and 8th Avenue during a German American Bund meeting, is shown attempting to take an American flag away from one of the demonstrators who marched outside carrying the staff and banner on February 20, 1939. #
German American Bund speakers and officers in front of an American flag at a “patriotic dinner” in New York, on September 25, 1939 at which President Roosevelt’s neutrality recommendations were denounced. From left, seated Wilbur Keegan, New Jersey attorney who urged members to profess their loyalty to the United States Fritz Kuhn, Bund fuehrer and William Meyer, who said the Bund would continue to fight for a “real nationalistic America”. Standing: Gustave Elmer, William Kunze and James Wheeler-Hill, Bund officials. #
Original caption: Andover, New Jersey: Bund Camp Raided. Sheriffs Deputies who assisted Sheriff Denton J. Quick, of Sussex County in raid on German American Bund Camp Nordland at Andover, New Jersey, shown examining swastika decoration on ceiling of one of the assembly halls at the camp. #
In 1939, German-American Bund leader Fritz Kuhn was convicted of embezzlement, and sent to prison. While there, his citizenship was revoked, and he was later interned in a federal camp in Texas as an enemy alien. He was later deported to Germany in 1945. Here, handcuffed to two other prisoners, Kuhn (third from left), walks into Sing Sing Prison in Ossining, New York, on December 6, 1939, to begin serving his sentence. Sheriff Mathew Larkin, right, of New York county, is escorting the prisoners. #
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The Hamburg America Line History
The Hamburg America Line is Germany's oldest and largest steamship company. It was founded on May 27, 1847, by Hamburg merchants as the Hamburg-American Steam Packet Company and rose in the course of a few decades from an obscure firm owning a few sailing ships to the position of the world's largest steamship company whose ships sailed to every corner of the globe.
After the World War which resulted in the loss of practically all of its tonnage, untiring and persevering efforts soon enabled the Hamburg America Line again to occupy one of the leading positions in the shipping world with a modern fleet of 101 ocean-going steamers and 142 smaller vessels aggregating in all 738,971 Gross Register Tons.
The first service operated by the Company which today maintains regular services to all parts of the world was between Hamburg and New York.
After the foundation of the Company, the service was inaugurated by three sailing ships, soon to be followed by the first steamers flying the Hapag flag.
They started a rapid development of this critical service by still larger and faster ships until, at the outbreak of the War, three giant liners plying between Hamburg and New York were the largest and most luxurious afloat.
Today the New York Service is maintained by the four twin-screw express steamers of the "Hamburg" type, of 22,000 Gross Register Tons.
Propelled by engines of about 28,000 HP., these ships attain an average speed of 19 miles per hour enabling them to make the crossing from Hamburg to New York in eight days.
Every Thursday, in summer and winter, one of the "Famous Four" sails from Hamburg via Southampton and Cherbourg to New York while another one returns from New York via Cherbourg and Southampton to Hamburg.
Each of these ships can accommodate about 1,000 passengers in Cabin, Tourist and Third Class. Besides the four ships of the "Hamburg" type, the twin-screw MV "St. Louis" of 16,732 Gross Register Tons is also engaged in the New York Service during the summer months.
Also, a Twin-Screw-Electric-Liner for the North Atlantic-Service of the company is in construction with a tonnage of about 36,000 tons to be placed into commission at the beginning of 1941.
Apart from this service, the Hamburg America Line maintains regular sailings to all parts of the world. More than 120 ports in every corner of the globe are regularly called at by the steamers of the Hamburg America Line.
With excellent ships for the speedy transportation of passengers, cargo and mail, the Company maintains services to Canada, Cuba and Mexico, the West Indies and Central America, to the West Coast of North and South America, to the Dutch East Indies, to Australia, to China and Japan and other countries of the Far East.
Pleasure cruising has been another important branch of the Company's business ever since, in the early nineties, the "Augusta Victoria" of the Hamburg America Line sailed on the world's first pleasure cruise.
The Twin-screw-steamer "New York" is scheduled yearly on Short and Long West Indies Cruises visiting the most remarkable places of the Carribean.
The "Milwaukee" of 16,754 Tons is exclusively engaged in cruising carrying its passengers to the Mediterranean and the Lands of the Midnight Sun, to the Atlantic Islands and to the West Indies.
The "Milwaukee," among other features, is equipped with up-to-date installations for medicinal baths, massages and similar treatments making her the world's first "floating Spa."
1939 World Series New York Yankees over Cincinnati Reds (4-0)
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Win Expectancy, Run Expectancy, and Leverage Index calculations provided by Tom Tango of InsideTheBook.com, and co-author of The Book: Playing the Percentages in Baseball.
Total Zone Rating and initial framework for Wins above Replacement calculations provided by Sean Smith.
Full-year historical Major League statistics provided by Pete Palmer and Gary Gillette of Hidden Game Sports.
Some defensive statistics Copyright © Baseball Info Solutions, 2010-2021.
Some high school data is courtesy David McWater.
Many historical player head shots courtesy of David Davis. Many thanks to him. All images are property the copyright holder and are displayed here for informational purposes only.
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|Altus Times||1981–2004||Google Newspaper Archive|
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|Beaver City Pioneer||1886||Guymon Public Library|
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|Durant Weekly News & Bryan County Democrat||1944&ndash1985||Donald W. Reynolds Community Center & Library|
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|Hammon Advocate||1911||Roger Mills County Newspapers|
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|Oslo Posten||1910&ndash1913||Guymon Public Library|
|Panhandle Collegian||1927&ndash1935||Guymon Public Library|
|Panhandle Daily News Herald||1949&ndash1950||Guymon Public Library|
|Panhandle Herald||1925&ndash1941||Guymon Public Library|
|Panhandle News Herald||1941&ndash1948||Guymon Public Library|
|Panhandle Times||1995&ndash1997||Guymon Public Library|
|Perkins Journal||1915–2009||Google Newspaper Archive|
|Press Democrat||1895&ndash1914||Hennessey Public Library|
|Saturday Morning Advertiser||1914||Donald W. Reynolds Community Center & Library|
|South & West||1894&ndash1897||Guymon Public Library|
|Southeastern Oklahoma Citizen & Bryan County Democrat||1932&ndash1937||Donald W. Reynolds Community Center & Library|
|Stillwater Journal||2005&ndash2009||Google Newspaper Archive|
|Tenant Farmer||1912&ndash1915||Hennessey Public Library|
|Texas County News||1933&ndash1940||Guymon Public Library|
|The American||2005–2009||Google Newspaper Archive|
|The Daily O'Collegian||1895–1939||Digital Collections @ OSU Library|
|Thomas Tribune||2005&ndash2009||Google Newspaper Archive|
|Tyrone Observer||1911&ndash1946||Guymon Public Library|
|Tyrone Progress||1904||Guymon Public Library|
|Valliant Leader||2005&ndash2007||Google Newspaper Archive|
|Vista||1903&ndash2015||University of Central Oklahoma|
Oklahoma Historical Society | 800 Nazih Zuhdi Drive, Oklahoma City, OK 73105 | 405-521-2491
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