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Apollo, Macedonian Gold Stater

Apollo, Macedonian Gold Stater


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NGC Ancients: Philip II and the Macedonian Empire

Alexander III (336-323 B.C.), known to most of the world simply as “Alexander the Great,” is the monarch most readily associated with the vast and powerful ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon. Over two thousand years after his death, he remains one of the giant figures of the classical world a cultural, military, and political icon who has only grown larger with the passage of time.

However, it was Alexander’s father and predecessor, King Philip II (359-336 B.C.), who must be credited with the initial formation and consolidation of the empire that Alexander was to make renowned throughout the world. Though less famous than his son, Philip II was arguably as important a figure in both the annals of Greek military history and numismatics.

Philip, who was probably born in 382 B.C., was the son of the Macedonian King Amyntas III (393, 392-370 B.C.), who enjoyed a long (but troubled) reign. This coin is a silver didrachm of Amyntas III, and features Heracles in lion headdress on the obverse, and a horse and the king’s name on the reverse.

Philip spent at least part of his formative years as a political captive in Thebes, where he received his military and political training. It is speculated that he returned to Macedon c.364 B.C., after the death of his father. Although he was not first in line for the royal succession, Philip was able to seize the Macedonian throne in 359 B.C., following the deaths of his brothers Alexander II and Perdiccas III.

The coin on the left is a rare bronze unit of Alexander II, the only type that can be definitively attributed to him. The coin on the right is also quite scarce it is a silver diobol of Perdiccas III, who had succeeded Alexander II to the throne in 368 B.C.

Through a combination of skillful diplomacy and aggressive military action, Philip quickly expanded and secured the Macedonian Kingdom. By 356 B.C., he had already taken control of productive gold and silver mines that would fuel his political and military activity for the next two decades.

Interestingly enough, though Philip had large quantities of precious metal at his disposal as early as the mid-350s B.C., the first gold staters (a standard Greek gold denomination) attributed to him are tentatively thought to have been minted c.345 B.C., and current research indicates that most of his gold coins were produced posthumously, during the early reign of Alexander III. Scholars have offered differing, and ultimately speculative, theories on the gold coinage of Philip, especially the many issues struck under Alexander III, but the precise chronology and explanation for this series remains elusive.

This piece, an excellent example of an early Philip II stater, depicts the god Apollo on the obverse, and on the reverse features a charioteer, with Philip’s name appearing in the exergue. This design is considered the standard Philip II gold “type,” as the design combination remained essentially unchanged for as long as these coins were struck.

Aside from the different styles of Apollo portraits from various Macedonian mints (the mints themselves represent another unresolved aspect of Philip’s coinage), the only significant variation within the series is represented by the symbol(s) on the reverse of most issues. These symbols, which include monograms, objects, and representations of deities, are thought to denote mint location and (very speculatively) the era of production. LeRider has attempted to group Philip’s staters according to these symbols and various aspects of style, but there is still much work to be done in this area.

This example features one of the most common symbols, that of a trident. Currently, this example is attributed to the Amphipolis mint, c.323-315 B.C., which would indicate that it was struck even later than the death of Philip’s son and successor, Alexander III (d.323 B.C.).

For purposes of contrast, this Philip II stater, attributed to the Abydus mint and also thought to be a posthumous issue (c.323-316 B.C.), displays a combination of a Greek letter and cornucopia beneath the horses. The depiction of Apollo differs stylistically from the example cited above, as do the symbols on the reverse it illustrates at once the subtlety and range of differences found on the gold staters of Philip II.

In addition to the gold staters of Philip II, his silver tetradrachms are also one of the classic and avidly collected issues of the ancient world. Though the obverse of this series features a bearded head of the god Zeus throughout, there are two significant variations on the reverse.

The first, earlier type shows a figure on horseback saluting, which is thought to be a representation of Philip himself. This coin is considered to be a “lifetime” issue of Philip II, possibly struck at Amphipolis from 355-348 B.C. It features on the obverse a typical depiction of Zeus, and on the reverse the king on horseback, with the bow symbol in front of the horse’s forelegs.

The other type features the “youth” on horseback the horseman will face to the right and is depicted holding a long palm branch. This coin is an excellent example of this reverse type. Similarly to the staters, Philip’s tetradrachms also display various symbols on the reverse, usually between the legs of the horse. Again, dating and mint attribution are largely speculative at this time this coin is currently thought to be minted c.340-328 B.C. and is attributed to the mint of Amphipolis.

Though eventually eclipsed by his conquering son, Philip II remains an important figure in Greek history and numismatics. He essentially founded one of the most significant empires in recorded history. In addition, he was also responsible for issuing two of the most recognizable and intriguing series of ancient coins. These coins are avidly collected today for their inherent beauty and historical significance. They also represent some of the most persistent mysteries in the field, as many aspects of the coinage are still open to debate and are often reconsidered by scholars as new discoveries are made.


Apollo, Macedonian Gold Stater - History

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Ancient Coins & Artifacts:

Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BC. Silver Fifth-Stater. Head of Apollo right bound in tainia / Naked youth on horseback rearing right, E and trident-head below. Choice VF details on both sides, hint of luster. 14.5 mm, 2.50 g. ref: Le Rider p. 318, 14 SNG ANS 723-725v. Ex-Daniel Frank Sedwick, FL. Rare! #CG2331: $425

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Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Naked youth (young Alexander?) on horseback, PHILIPPOY above. 18 mm with amazing detail and lustrous, golden patina! #0698: $115 SOLD
SPECIAL PIECE:
Ancient Hellenistic Greece, c. 350-300 BC. Fantastic bronze face, likely of Philip II of Macedon! 20 mm diameter. Interesting! #1059: $249 SOLD
Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Laureate head of Apollo rt / Naked youth (young Alexander?) on horseback, PHILIPPOY above. 17 mm. #0518: $60 SOLD
Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BC. Father of Alexander the Great. Bronze drachm. Laureate head of Apollo right / Naked youth (young Alexander?) on horseback, PHILIPPOY above. 17 mm, amazing detail on horse! Fantastic example. #0847: $75 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359 - 336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. AE-17. 5.69g. 17mm. Laureate head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horseback rt., monogram below, PHILIPPOY above. aVF, Neat style, light pitting. Nicer than this grainy, washed-out photo allows! #su-mtp577: $55 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze drachm. Laureate head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horseback right, prow of galley (ship) below, PHILIPPOY above. 18 mm, 6.60 g. and thick! Excellent detail, nice glossy olive-green to dark brassy patina. ref: Sear 6696v. #CG2057: $150 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Heavy bronze drachm. Laureate head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horseback right, N & trident head below, PHILIPPOY above. 17 mm, 7.55 grams! And very thick. ref: SNG ANS 940. ex-Frank S. Robinson, Albany, NY. Excellent detail! #CG2379: $199 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze drachm. Laureate head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horseback right, torch below, PHILIPPOY above. 16 mm, 5.34 g. ref: Sear 6696v. Lovely detail, much better than this grainy photo. #CG2158: $99 SOLD

Kingdom of Macedon. Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze drachm, set into custom .925 silver bezel. Laureate head of Apollo right / Naked youth (possibly young Alexander?) on horseback left, N below, PHILIPPOY ("of Philip") above. ref: Sear 6696v for type. Dark brassy tone. Total diameter 20mm. Coin ex Numismatik Naumann, Germany. #CGG1206: $299 SOLD


Kingdom of Macedon. Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze drachm, set into custom .925 silver bezel. Laureate head of Apollo right / Naked youth (possibly young Alexander?) on horseback right, PHILIPPOY ("of Philip") above. ref: Sear 6696v for type. Dark brassy tone. Total diameter 18mm. Coin ex Numismatik Naumann, Germany. #CGG1207: $299 SOLD


Phillip II of Macedon, 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Laureate head of Apollo left / Naked youth (young Alexander?) on horseback, PHILIPPOY above. 18 mm with amazing detail and bright tone! #0503: $90 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359 - 336 BC. AE-18. Pella Mint. Diademed head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horse prancing rt., thunderbolt below. 5.83g. 18.5mm. SNG Cop 611ff. Nice green patina. #mtp482: $75 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359 - 336 BC. AE-18. Pella Mint. Diademed head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horse prancing rt., thunderbolt below. 6.62g, 18.5mm. SNG ANS 880-882. Great bust! #mtp448: $85 SOLD
Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BC. Father of Alexander the Great. Bronze 18mm drachm. Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia / Naked youth on horseback prancing right. #622: $75 SOLD

Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BC. Father of Alexander the Great. Bronze drachm. Laureate head of Apollo right / Naked youth (young Alexander?) on horseback, PHILIPPOY above. Gorgeous toning, some earthen deposits. A beauty! #30106: $115 SOLD


Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze unit, Macedonian mint. Head of Apollo right, waering tainia / Youth on horseback right, raising right hand PHILIPPOY above, DI below. 18.8 mm, 6.20 g. ref: SNG ANS 913. gVF. Nice olive-green patina. Scarce variety. #CG2174: $135 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze drachm. Laureate head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horseback right, monogram A below, PHILIPPOY above. 17 mm, 6.22 grams, and extremely thick. ref: Sear 6696v. Lustrous deep-brown patina. ex-Gitbud & Naumann numismatics, Germany. Extremely nice, about as good as these get! #CG2306: $199 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze drachm. Laureate head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horseback right, monogram below, PHILIPPOY above. 18.5 mm, 5.03 g. ref: Sear 6696v. Glossy black patina with great detail. Much better than photo. ex-De Pere, WI collection. #CG2380: $99 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze drachm. Head of Apollo right, wearing taenia / Naked youth on horse prancing right on ground line, PHILIPPOY above, AP monogram and dolphin swimming downwards below. 19 mm, 6.30 g. ref: Mionnet vol I, n. 752. Great detail! Olive-green patina, earthen deposits around edge. #CG2341: $150 SOLD


Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Laureate head of Apollo rt / Naked youth (young Alexander?) on horseback, PHILIPPOY above. Large for type, brilliant golden tone. 20 mm. #0512: $80 SOLD
Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BC. Laureate head of Apollo left / Naked youth (young Alexander?) on horseback, PHILIPPOY above. 17 mm, nice glossy patina! #0868: $65 SOLD
Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BC. Father of Alexander the Great. Bronze drachm. Laureate head of Apollo right / Naked youth (young Alexander?) on horseback, PHILIPPOY above. 17 mm, amazing detail on horse! #0791: $75 SOLD
Philip II of Macedon, 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Laureate head of Apollo rt / Naked youth (young Alexander?) on horseback, PHILIPPOY above. Excellent portrait! #279003: $65 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359 - 336 BC. AE-18. Possibly a local Celtic imitation. Diademed head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horse prancing rt., thunderbolt below. 17 mm. Nice green patina! #ph8006: $60 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze drachm. Laureate head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horseback rt., thunderbolt below, PHILIPPOY above. Fine, dark brown patina Nicer than this grainy, washed-out photo allows! 6.0g. 18mm. #su-mtp574: $55 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze drachm. Laureate head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horseback right, monogram A below, PHILIPPOY above. 16 mm, 5.78 grams, and extremely thick. ref: Sear 6696v. Gorgeous glossy green patina, excellent detail. this photo does the coin absolutely no justice. #CG2159: $150 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze drachm. Head of Apollo right, wearing taenia / Naked youth on horse prancing right on ground line, PHILIPPOY above, spearhead below. 17.5 mm, 6.21 grams and very thick! ref: SNG ANS 850 Mionnet I, 750. Olive-green patina, fabulous detail! #CG2333: $175 SOLD
Kingdom of Macedon, Philip II. 359-336 BC. Alexander the Great's father. Bronze drachm. Laureate head of Apollo rt. / Youth on horseback right, monogram below, PHILIPPOY above. 18 mm, 4.50 g. ref: Sear 6696v. Better detail than this grainy photo allows. #CG2157: $75 SOLD

Archaeological findings [ edit | edit source ]

Victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd century BCE (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris

Silver tetradrachms dated back to the reign of Philip II. Part of Rezhantsi Treasure, Bulgaria

On November 8, 1977, Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos found, among other royal tombs, an unopened tomb at Vergina in the Greek regional unit of Imathia. The finds from this tomb were later included in the travelling exhibit The Search for Alexander displayed at four cities in the United States from 1980 to 1982. It is generally accepted that the site at Vergina was the burial site of the kings of Macedon, including Philip, but the debate about the unopened tomb is ongoing among archaeologists.

The initial suggestion that the tomb might belong to Philip II was indicated by the greaves, one of which was shaped in a way consistent with fitting a leg having a misaligned tibia (Philip II was recorded as having broken his tibia). What is viewed as possible proof that the tomb indeed did belong to Philip II and that the surviving bone fragments are in fact the body of Philip II comes from forensic analysis of the remains of the skull. By wax casting the skull was reconstructed, showing apparent damage to the right eye caused by the penetration of an object (historically recorded to be an arrow). Ζ]

Eugene Borza and others have suggested that the unopened tomb actually belonged to Philip's son, Philip Arrhidaeus, and Philip was probably buried in the simpler adjacent tomb, which had been looted in antiquity. Disputations often relied on contradictions between "the body" or "skeleton" of Philip II and reliable historical accounts of his life (and injuries), as well as analyses of the paintings, pottery, and other artifacts found there. Η]

According to a study published in 2000, ⎖] the style of the artifacts of the royal tomb date 317 BCE., a generation after Philip II's assassinations. Moreover, according to paleoanthropologist Antonis Bartsiokas of the Anaximandrian Institute of Human Evolution at the Democritus University of Thrace in Voula, Greece, and assistant professor at the Democritus who used a technique called macrophotography to study the skeleton in meticulous detail, the features identified by Musgrave, Prag, and Neave are simply normal anatomical quirks, accentuated by the effects of cremation and a poor reassembly of the remains. "The bump, for example," says Bartsiokas, "is part of the opening in the skull's frontal bone called the supraorbital notch, through which a bundle of nerves and blood vessels pass." Most people can feel this notch by pressing their fingers underneath the ridge of bone beneath the eyebrow. The bone at the site of the "injury" is simply the frontal notch and also shows no signs of healing in the bone fabric, a problem for Bartsiokas given that the wound was inflicted 18 years before Philip II's death.

Instead, according to Borza, Tomb I, also known as the Tomb of Persephone may have contained the remains of Phillip II and his family. If this theory is true, then the golden weaponry and royal objects found in Tomb II may have belonged to Alexander the Great. ⎗]

Hatzopoulos (2008) summarized the studies involved in the dispute around the tomb and argued that claims against Philip II are scientifically baseless. Moreover, he indicated that personal and political issues had confused the debate. ⎘]

Musgrave, et al. (2010) ⎙] showed that there is no valid evidence Arrhidaeus could have been buried in the unopened tomb, hence those who made those claims, like Borza, Palagia and Bartsiokas, had actually misunderstood certain scientific facts which led them to invalid conclusions. Musgrave's study of the bones of Tomb II of Vergina found that the cranium of the male was deformed possibly by a trauma, a finding that is consistent with the history of Philip II. ⎚]


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Persian Empire Xerxes I- Darius II Gold Daric (485-420 bc) NGC-CH-XF

This amazing 2,400 year old coin depicts the Persian &ldquohero-king&rdquo in a running stance with a bow and spear and the reverse employs the incuse punch that occurred when the coin was struck. The Persians conquered King Croesus and used his method of commerce using gold and silver as money for the next several hundred years. This is some of the earliest Persian coinage known. There are three design types, this being a Type 3.


Apollo, Macedonian Gold Stater - History

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Alexander the Great Gold Stater – The coin used around the world

Considered one of the greatest military leaders of world history, Alexander never lost a battle. When he inherited the throne of Macedonia at the tender age of 20, he controlled an area that was similar in size to modern day Greece. By the time of his death, a mere 13 years later, he ruled over virtually the known world. It was during his conquests of the known world that saw Alexander gain riches vast beyond imagining, and he turned his attention to conquering the world of coins.

Global coins for a global empire

Alexander wanted all the people across his empire to use the same coin. Across his vast empire, he established 26 mints, all with the explicit instruction to strike coins that looked the same. Previous successful coins such as the Athenian owl tetradrachm were used around the world, but what differed was that the coins of Alexander were struck everywhere. It is because of this that Alexander’s coins are often referred to as the world’s first global currency.

A message of REVENGE

Nearly 150 years before Alexander became king, the Greco-Persian War raged on. Armies of the Persian empire had reached the evacuated city of Athens, burning it, including the Parthenon, a temple dedicated to the goddess Athena, patron of Athens.

Taking a personal interest in the design of the coins, he chose a profile of the goddess Athena wearing a Corinthian helmet. When Alexander conquered the Persian Empire, it brought with it the riches of the Achaemenid dynasty. This was sweet retribution for Alexander, who, for that reason, chose the goddess of Victory to grace the designs of the reverse. The irony cannot be understated, using gold from the conquered Persians to strike gold coins emblazoned with the goddesses Athena and Victory. With a gold purity of around 98%, this is among the purest of gold found in ancient coins.

The stature and value of his coins were held in such high regard at the time, his successors continued to mint coins with the same design for the next 250 years.

We have an extremely limited number of this amazing artefact of history available. Minted over 2300 years ago, before the time of Christ, struck with gold war booty from the Persian Empire, don’t miss your chance to own this piece of history, call us on 0330 024 1001.


Apollo, Macedonian Gold Stater - History

Cyzicus. Ca. 500–460 BCE. Stater (15.98g). Phocaic standard. Winged Nike running left, looking back, holding tuna by tail before her.

Nike, the personification of Victory, was usually depicted in Greek art as a winged female. She represented victory in all of its forms, in athletic, equestrian, and musicopoetic competitions, as well as military victory on the battlefield. Nike was often associated with Zeus and Athena, because victory was an attribute of both of these deities and a gift they could confer on the mortals they favored.

Cyzicus. Ca. 500–460 BCE. Stater (15.98g). Phocaic standard. Winged Nike running left, looking back, holding tuna by tail before her.

Nike, the personification of Victory, was usually depicted in Greek art as a winged female. She represented victory in all of its forms, in athletic, equestrian, and musicopoetic competitions, as well as military victory on the battlefield. Nike was often associated with Zeus and Athena, because victory was an attribute of both of these deities and a gift they could confer on the mortals they favored.

Cyzicus. Ca. 375 BCE. Stater (15.95g). Phocaic standard. Laureate head of Apollo three-quarters right below, tuna right.

Among the artistic sources that inspired Cyzicene electrum coinage were the coin types of other cities. The first artistically successful facing heads on coins were created in Sicily ca. 410 or ca. 405 BCE. To the extent that these coins portray Apollo, they show him with long flowing hair. For a three-quarter head of Apollo with short hair, we must look to the coinage of Amphipolis, a city in Macedonia, ca. 357 BCE. The Amphipolitan type is a mirror image of the head of the seated Apollo on the east frieze of the Parthenon, a major sculpture of high classical style executed by Phidias (or under his direction) in the 440s BCE. The Cyzicene Apollo head closely resembles the Amphipolitan tetradrachm type and was probably also inspired by the Parthenon sculpture. This particular Cyzicene issue was represented by three examples in the Myrmekion hoard of 2003, proving that it was in circulation before the hoard's closure ca. 375 BCE. The multiple examples and their fresh condition may indicate that the facing Apollo variety was one of the latest issues of the hoard.

Cyzicus. Ca. 375–350 BCE. Hecte (2.65g). Phocaic standard. Bearded Orestes, nude except for chlamys (mantle) around neck, half-kneeling left, his right knee raised before him, his left knee resting on tuna left, his right hand holding sword with tip upward, his left hand resting on filleted omphalos (sacred stone) beside him.

This coin illustrates a scene from the myth of Orestes as recounted in Aeschylus' Eumenides. Orestes' mother, Clytemnestra, had murdered his father, Agamemnon, when the latter returned from the Trojan War in company with Cassandra. Years later, on orders from Apollo, Orestes avenged his father's death by killing Clytemnestra and her lover. The Furies punished this act of matricide by driving Orestes mad and pursuing him to Delphi, where he sought sanctuary with Apollo. This is the moment portrayed on the stater, as Orestes clutches the omphalos (sacred stone) of Delphi and attempts to ward off the Furies with his sword. In the end Apollo's protection was insufficient, and Athena intervened, holding a jury trial on the Athenian Acropolis, breaking a deadlock with her own vote to acquit Orestes, and propitiating the Furies with new rituals and an auspicious new name, the Eumenides (Well-Disposed).

Lampsacus. Ca. 410 BCE. Stater (15.15g). Local standard. Forepart of winged horse, vine branch before it, Greek letter Ξ below.

Lampsacus, a colony of Phocaea, was located on the east shore of the Hellespont near the entrance to the Propontis. Lampsacus differed from the contemporary electrum mints of Cyzicus, Phocaea, and Mytilene in that it used its civic badge as the main type of the obverse. This was the forepart of a winged horse, perhaps representing Pegasus, perhaps a hippocamp (fishtailed horse). On an honorary decree erected at Epidaurus, the Lampsacene symbol was completed with the tail of a cock. This coin represents the final issue of electrum staters of Lampsacus, probably struck in or after 412 BCE when Lampsacus, along with other tributary members of the Delian League, revolted against Athens. The vine branch arching over the winged horse symbolizes the cult of Dionysus and the local vineyards, which were famous.

Cyzicus. Ca. 500 BCE. Stater (16.10g). Phocaic standard. Half figure of winged female left wearing kekryphalos (cap), round earring, and long-sleeved chiton, right hand holding tuna by tail, left hand lifting flower to chin, truncation indicated by dotted line between parallel lines.

The type of this stater could represent any of several beings from Greek mythology: 1. A siren, a sea spirit whose songs lured sailors to their deaths and who accompanied the souls of the dead to the underworld. The siren was usually depicted in art as half-woman, half-bird, not as a winged female. 2. A harpy, one of three sisters who carried people off to the underworld. In Archaic art the harpies were represented as winged women. 3. Iris, goddess of the rainbow in art she was depicted as a winged woman with a herald's staff. 4. Nike, the winged personification of Victory. None of these beings was associated with flowers, which were above all an attribute of Aphrodite. The winged female is rendered in exquisite detail, from her ornamented cap to her expressive face and crinkly chiton. This treatment of the chiton can be observed in major art of the Archaic period, for example, in the east frieze of the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi

Cyzicus. Ca. 375–350 BCE. Stater (15.95g). Phocaic standard. Zeus, draped below the waist, half-kneeling right on tuna right, right hand holding lotus scepter behind him, left hand supporting eagle with spread wings above his knee.

Zeus was king of the Greek pantheon and father of gods and heroes. He was originally a sky god, and thus the eagle, most impressive of all birds, was considered his sacred animal.

Mytilene. Ca. 485 BCE. Hecte (2.56g). Phocaic standard. Facing head of Medusa.

Medusa was a hideous winged monster with snakes growing from her head instead of hair, and a glare that instantly transformed men into stone. The hero Perseus managed to decapitate her using a mirror so that he could avoid looking directly at her eyes. The severed head was used as an adornment of the aegis, a protective garment worn by both Zeus and Athena. The head of Medusa was also a favorite decorative motif in Greek art, often used as a repelling emblem in contexts where protection was needed, such as city gates, rooftops, and warriors' shields.

Sixth stater of Phocaea showing the head of a female, perhaps Aphrodite, wearing a cap.

Cyzicus. Ca. 500–460 BCE. Stater (16.06g) Phocaic standard. Phobos, with head of vulture and winged human body, running left, head turned back, holding tuna by tail before him.

Phobos was the personification of Fear, specifically the fear inspired by war. He was the fruit of an illicit liaison between Ares, the god of war, and Aphrodite, the goddess of love, and he accompanied his father on the battlefield together with his brother Deimos (Dread). In his depiction Phobos' qualities are represented by his non-human aspects. His wings symbolize the speed with which fear, or death itself, can descend. His vulture's head evokes the horror of death in war, when a proper burial cannot be assured and the corpse may fall victim to scavengers.

Cyzicus. Ca. 350–300 BCE. Stater (15.99g). Phocaic standard. Bearded Heracles crouching left on ground line, left knee lowered, right knee raised before him, right hand holding club over shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae, tuna placed vertically behind him (head upward).

The usual attributes of Heracles were a lion skin, club, and bow. He was also associated with the origin of the cornucopia, a horn filled with an infinite supply of fruits. According to one myth, Heracles broke off a horn of the goat Amaltheia, who cared for the infant Zeus when he was in hiding from his ravenous father Kronos. Her miraculous nurturing nature extended to the horn and it became an inexhaustible source of good things. In a variant tale, Heracles broke off a horn of the river god Achelous and it became the horn of plenty.

Cyzicus. Ca. 400–375 BCE. Hecte (2.70g). Phocaic standard. Bearded Cecrops left, with human head and torso and a snake's tail replacing his lower body, riding on tuna left and holding sapling in right hand.

Cecrops was a mythical king and founder of Athens, credited with introducing most of the institutions of civilization, including worship of the gods, literacy, marriage, and ritual burial. He was depicted in art with the tail of a snake instead of human legs in order to express the notion that he had been born from the soil of Attica. One of the events of his reign was a contest between Poseidon and Athena over which should take possession of the new city. Each deity offered a gift: Poseidon brought forth a spring from the rocks of the Acropolis, and Athena planted an olive tree. Cecrops judged the gift of Poseidon less valuable because the water was salty, not recognizing its promise of future sea power, and he awarded the city to Athena. The sapling carried by Cecrops in this Cyzicene coin type is the first olive tree, symbolizing Cecrops' role in establishing Athena as patron goddess of Athens.

Cyzicus. Ca. 430–400 BCE. Stater (15.95g). Phocaic standard. Nereid seated left on dolphin left, her raised right hand holding wreath, left arm supporting large round shield with star device in center below, tuna left.

The Nereids were the fifty daughters of the sea god Nereus and his consort Doris. The names of many of these sea nymphs are preserved in Greek literature, but by far the most important Nereid was Thetis, the mother of Achilles. She commissioned special arms for her son from the smith god himself – Hephaestus – and the Iliad devotes many lines to a minute description of the elaborate decoration of Achilles' shield. Although this stater depicts a shield with very simple decoration, it may be intended as the shield of Achilles, delivered to him by silver-footed Thetis.

Sixth stater of Erythrae showing the hero Heracles wearing the skin of the Nemean lion as a headdress.

Heracles was a popular image on electrum coins. His attributes were the club, bow, and lion skin, which he acquired after slaying the Nemean lion – the first of twelve labors imposed upon him by Eurystheus, King of Tiryns. His final labor was to capture Cerberus, the three-headed hound, guardian of the gates of the Underworld, and present it to the king. But as soon as Eurystheus set eyes upon the monster he became so frightened that he sent him back to the Underworld.

The city of Erythrae was famous for its sanctuary of Heracles, the Heracleum, one of the rare such temples found in the Greek world. The Erythraean Heracles was also worshiped as the destroyer of the vine-eating ips, a creature which was apparently only found there. His head came to be the civic type on Erythrae's coinage.

Many images appearing on electrum coins have their origin in myth. For the Greeks, mythos did not have the modern connotation of legend, folklore, or fable. The Greeks used mythic narrative to fill in the blanks of times for which no records existed and places that could not be reached or observed. The distant past was adorned with tales of the gods, with interactions between deities and mortals, and with the adventures of heroes who combated monsters or invented the elements of civilization. Dimly recalled historical figures became the protagonists of colorful tales, and the regions beyond reach were populated with strange tribes and fabulous beasts.


Modern reception [ edit | edit source ]

Apollo has often featured in postclassical art and literature. Percy Bysshe Shelley composed a "Hymn of Apollo" (1820), and the god's instruction of the Muses formed the subject of Igor Stravinsky's Apollon musagète (1927–1928). In 1978, the Canadian band Rush released an album with songs "Apollo: Bringer of Wisdom"/"Dionysus: Bringer of Love".

In discussion of the arts, a distinction is sometimes made between the Apollonian and Dionysian impulses where the former is concerned with imposing intellectual order and the latter with chaotic creativity. Friedrich Nietzsche argued that a fusion of the two was most desirable. Carl Jung's Apollo archetype represents what he saw as the disposition in people to over-intellectualise and maintain emotional distance.

Charles Handy, in Gods of Management (1978) uses Greek gods as a metaphor to portray various types of organisational culture. Apollo represents a 'role' culture where order, reason and bureaucracy prevail. 𖑉]

In spaceflight, the NASA program for landing astronauts on the Moon was named Apollo.


Phillip II "The One Eye", king of Macedonia

Philip II of Macedon, (Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών — φίλος = friend + ίππος = horse[1] — transliterated Philippos (help·info) 382 – 336 BC, was a Greek[2][3] king (basileus) of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was the father of Alexander the Great and Philip III.

4 Archaeological findings

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of the king Amyntas III and Eurydice I. In his youth, (c. 368� BC) Philip was held as a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, became eromenos of Pelopidas,[4][5] and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedon. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. He had however first to re-establish a situation which had been greatly worsened by the defeat against the Illyrians in which King Perdiccas himself had died. The Paionians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of the country, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the coast, a contingent under a Macedonian pretender called Argeus. Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back Paionians and Thracians promising tributes, and crushed the 3,000 Athenian hoplites (359). Momentarily free from his opponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal position and, above all, his army. His most important innovation was doubtless the introduction of the phalanx infantry corps, armed with the famous sarissa, an exceedingly long spear, at the time the most important army corps in Macedonia.

Philip had married Audata, great-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of Dardania, Bardyllis. However, this did not prevent him from marching against them in 358 and crushing them in a ferocious battle in which some 7,000 Illyrians died (357). By this move, Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid and the favour of the Epirotes.[6]

He also used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. He agreed with the Athenians, who had been so far unable to conquer Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion, to lease it to them after its conquest, in exchange for Pydna (lost by Macedon in 363). However, after conquering Amphipolis, he kept both the cities (357). As Athens declared war against him, he allied with the Chalkidian League of Olynthus. He subsequently conquered Potidaea, this time keeping his word and ceding it to the League in 356. One year before Philip had married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians.

In 356 BC, Philip also conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi: he established a powerful garrison there to control its mines, which granted him much of the gold later used for his campaigns. In the meantime, his general Parmenion defeated the Illyrians again. Also in 356 Alexander was born, and Philip's race horse won in the Olympic Games. In 355� he besieged Methone, the last city on the Thermaic Gulf controlled by Athens. During the siege, Philip lost an eye. Despite the arrival of two Athenians fleets, the city fell in 354. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian seaboard (354�).

Map of the territory of Philip II of MacedonInvolved in the Third Sacred War which had broken out in Greece, in the summer of 353 he invaded Thessaly, defeating 7,000 Phocians under the brother of Onomarchus. The latter however defeated Philip in the two succeeding battles. Philip returned to Thessaly the next summer, this time with an army of 20,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry including all Thessalian troops. In the Battle of Crocus Field 6,000 Phocians fell, while 3,000 were taken as prisoners and later drowned. This battle granted Philip an immense prestige, as well as the free acquisition of Pherae. Philip was also tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae. Philip did not attempt to advance into Central Greece because the Athenians, unable to arrive in time to defend Pagasae, had occupied Thermopylae.

Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus. To the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

Philip II gold stater, with head of Apollo.In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus, which, apart from its strategic position, housed his relatives Arrhidaeus and Menelaus, pretenders to the Macedonian throne. Olynthus had at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The latter, however, did nothing to help the city, its expeditions held back by a revolt in Euboea (probably paid by Philip's gold). The Macedonian king finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. The same fate was inflicted on other cities of the Chalcidian peninsula. Macedon and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic Games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently. However, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their laconic reply: "If". Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea.

In 345 B.C., Phillip conducted a hard-fought campaign against the Ardiaioi (Ardiaei), under their king Pluratus, during which he was seriously wounded by an Ardian soldier in the lower right leg.[7]

In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, he successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, while in the same year, Philip destroyed Amfissa because the residents had illegally cultivated part of the Crisaian plain which belonged to Delphi. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander III.

The Golden Larnax, at the Museum of Vergina, which contains the possible remains of King Philip II.The murder occurred during October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander I of Epirus and Philip's daughter, by his fourth wife Olympias, Cleopatra. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theater (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of his seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.

The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Fifty years later, the historian Cleitarchus expanded and embellished the story. Centuries later, this version was to be narrated by Diodorus Siculus and all the historians who used Cleitarchus. In the sixteenth book of Diodorus' history, Pausanias had been a lover of Philip, but became jealous when Philip turned his attention to a younger man, also called Pausanias. His taunting of the new lover caused the youth to throw away his life, which turned his friend, Attalus, against Pausanias. Attalus took his revenge by inviting Pausanias to dinner, getting him drunk, then subjecting him to sexual assault.

When Pausanias complained to Philip the king felt unable to chastise Attalus, as he was about to send him to Asia with Parmenion, to establish a bridgehead for his planned invasion. He also married Attalus's niece, or daughter, Eurydice. Rather than offend Attalus, Phillip attempted to mollify Pausanius by elevating him within the bodyguard. Pausanias' desire for revenge seems to have turned towards the man who had failed to avenge his damaged honour so he planned to kill Philip, and some time after the alleged rape, while Attalus was already in Asia fighting the Persians, put his plan in action. Other historians (e.g., Justin 9.7) suggested that Alexander and/or his mother Olympias were at least privy to the intrigue, if not themselves instigators. The latter seems to have been anything but discreet in manifesting her gratitude to Pausanias, if we accept Justin's report: he tells us that the same night of her return from exile she placed a crown on the assassin's corpse and erected a tumulus to his memory, ordering annual sacrifices to the memory of Pausanias.

The entrance to the "Great Tumulus" Museum at Vergina.Many modern historians have observed that all the accounts are improbable. In the case of Pausanias, the stated motive of the crime hardly seems adequate. On the other hand, the implication of Alexander and Olympias seems specious: to act as they did would have required brazen effrontery in the face of a military machine personally loyal to Philip. What appears to be recorded in this are the natural suspicions that fell on the chief beneficiaries of the murder their actions after the murder, however sympathetic they might appear (if actual), cannot prove their guilt in the deed itself. Further convoluting the case is the possible role of propaganda in the surviving accounts: Attalus was executed in Alexander's consolidation of power after the murder one might wonder if his enrollment among the conspirators was not for the effect of introducing political expediency in an otherwise messy purge (Attalus had publicly declared his hope that Alexander would not succeed Philip, but rather that a son of his own niece Eurydice, recently married to Philip and brutally murdered by Olympias after Philip's death, would gain the throne of Macedon).

The dates of Philip's multiple marriages and the names of some of his wives are contested. Below is the order of marriages offered by Athenaeus, 13.557b-e:

Audata, the daughter of Illyrian King Bardyllis. Mother of Cynane.

Phila, the sister of Derdas and Machatas of Elimiotis.

Nicesipolis of Pherae, Thessaly, mother of Thessalonica.

Olympias of Epirus, mother of Alexander the Great and Cleopatra

Philinna of Larissa, mother of Arrhidaeus later called Philip III of Macedon.

Meda of Odessa, daughter of the king Cothelas, of Thrace.

Cleopatra, daughter of Hippostratus and niece of general Attalus of Macedonia. Philip renamed her Cleopatra Eurydice of Macedon.

[edit] Archaeological findings

Victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. BC (Cabinet des Milles, ParisOn November 8, 1977, Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos found, among other royal tombs, an unopened tomb at Vergina in the Greek prefecture of Imathia. The finds from this tomb were later included in the traveling exhibit The Search for Alexander displayed at four cities in the United States from 1980 to 1982. It is generally accepted that the site at Vergina was the burial site of the kings of Macedon, including Philip, but the debate about the unopened tomb is ongoing among archaeologists.

The initial suggestion that the tomb may belong to Philip II was indicated by the greaves, one of which indicated that the owner had a leg injury which distorted the natural alignment of the tibia (Philip II was recorded as having broken his tibia). What is viewed as possible proof that the tomb indeed did belong to Philip II and that the surviving bone fragments are in fact the body of Philip II comes from forensic reconstruction of the skull of Philip II by the wax casting and reconstruction of the skull which shows the damage to the right eye caused by the penetration of an object (historically recorded to be an arrow).[8]

Eugene Borza and others have suggested that the unopened tomb actually belonged to Philip's son, Philip Arrhidaeus, and Philip was probably buried in the simpler adjacent tomb, which had been looted in antiquity. Disputations often relied on contradictions between "the body" or "skeleton" of Philip II and reliable historical accounts of his life (and injuries), as well as analyses of the paintings, pottery, and other artifacts found there.[9]

The heroon at Vergina in Greek Macedonia (the ancient city of Aigai - Αἶγαι) is thought to have been dedicated to the worship of the family of Alexander the Great and may have housed the cult statue of Philip. It is probable that he was regarded as a hero or deified on his death. Though the Macedonians did not consider Philip a god, he did receive other forms of recognition by the Greeks, such as at Eresos (altar to Zeus Philippeios), Ephesos (his statue was placed in the temple of Artemis), and Olympia, where the Philippeion was built.

Isocrates once wrote to Philip that if he defeated Persia, there was nothing left for him to do but to become a god[10] and Demades proposed that Philip be regarded as the thirteenth god. However, there is no clear evidence that Philip was raised to the divine status accorded his son Alexander.[11]

2.^ Alexander the Great in His World By Carol G. Thomas. Argeadai were all from Argos, Peloponnese.

3.^ Perseus By Daniel Ogden http://books.google.com/books?id=JA4WDQYYCV8C&pg=PA114&dq=Argead+Dy. A History of Greece to 322 B.C.by N. G. L. Hammond.ISBN 0198730950,page 56,1986"these conclusions to the evidence of archaeology, the following picture emerges. The first Greek-speaking peoples settled in Macedonia, Thessaly, and Epirus after c. 2500, and in these areas they developed different dialects".

5.^ Homosexualities by Stephen O. Murray,University of Chicago Press,page 42

6.^ The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis, ISBN 0521233488, 1994, page 374, ". The victory over Bardylis made him an attractive ally to the Epirotes, who too had suffered at the Illyrians' hands, and his recent alignment . "

7.^ Ashley, James R., The Macedonian Empire: The Era of Warfare Under Philip II and Alexander the Great, 359-323 B.C., McFarland, 2004, p.114, ISBN 0-7864-1918-0

8.^ See John Prag and Richard Neave's report in Making Faces: Using Forensic and Archaeological Evidence, published for the Trustees of the British Museum by the British Museum Press, London: 1997.

9.^ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/04/080423-alexander-gr. National Geographic article outlining recent archaeological examinations of Tomb II.

10.^ Backgrounds of early Christianity By Everett Ferguson Page 202 ISBN 0802806694

11.^ The twelve gods of Greece and Rome By Charlotte R. Long Page 207 ISBN 9004077162

This article incorporates text from the Encyclop๭ia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Philip II of Macedon, (Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών — φίλος = friend + ίππος = horse[1] — transliterated Philippos (382 – 336 BC), was a Greek king (basileus) of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was the father of Alexander the Great and Philip III.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of the king Amyntas III and Eurydice I. In his youth, (c. 368� BC) Philip was held as a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, became eromenos of Pelopidas,[4][5] and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedon. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. He had however first to re-establish a situation which had been greatly worsened by the defeat against the Illyrians in which King Perdiccas himself had died. The Paionians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of the country, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the coast, a contingent under a Macedonian pretender called Argeus. Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back Paionians and Thracians promising tributes, and crushed the 3,000 Athenian hoplites (359). Momentarily free from his opponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal position and, above all, his army. His most important innovation was doubtless the introduction of the phalanx infantry corps, armed with the famous sarissa, an exceedingly long spear, at the time the most important army corps in Macedonia.

Philip had married Audata, great-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of Dardania, Bardyllis. However, this did not prevent him from marching against them in 358 and crushing them in a ferocious battle in which some 7,000 Illyrians died (357). By this move, Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid and the favour of the Epirotes.[6]

He also used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. He agreed with the Athenians, who had been so far unable to conquer Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion, to lease it to them after its conquest, in exchange for Pydna (lost by Macedon in 363). However, after conquering Amphipolis, he kept both the cities (357). As Athens declared war against him, he allied with the Chalkidian League of Olynthus. He subsequently conquered Potidaea, this time keeping his word and ceding it to the League in 356. One year before Philip had married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians.

In 356 BC, Philip also conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi: he established a powerful garrison there to control its mines, which granted him much of the gold later used for his campaigns. In the meantime, his general Parmenion defeated the Illyrians again. Also in 356 Alexander was born, and Philip's race horse won in the Olympic Games. In 355� he besieged Methone, the last city on the Thermaic Gulf controlled by Athens. During the siege, Philip lost an eye. Despite the arrival of two Athenians fleets, the city fell in 354. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian seaboard (354�).

Involved in the Third Sacred War which had broken out in Greece, in the summer of 353 he invaded Thessaly, defeating 7,000 Phocians under the brother of Onomarchus. The latter however defeated Philip in the two succeeding battles. Philip returned to Thessaly the next summer, this time with an army of 20,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry including all Thessalian troops. In the Battle of Crocus Field 6,000 Phocians fell, while 3,000 were taken as prisoners and later drowned. This battle granted Philip an immense prestige, as well as the free acquisition of Pherae. Philip was also tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae. Philip did not attempt to advance into Central Greece because the Athenians, unable to arrive in time to defend Pagasae, had occupied Thermopylae.

Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus. To the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus, which, apart from its strategic position, housed his relatives Arrhidaeus and Menelaus, pretenders to the Macedonian throne. Olynthus had at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The latter, however, did nothing to help the city, its expeditions held back by a revolt in Euboea (probably paid by Philip's gold). The Macedonian king finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. The same fate was inflicted on other cities of the Chalcidian peninsula. Macedon and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic Games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently. However, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their laconic reply: "If". Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea.

In 345 B.C., Phillip conducted a hard-fought campaign against the Ardiaioi (Ardiaei), under their king Pluratus, during which he was seriously wounded by an Ardian soldier in the lower right leg.[7]

In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, he successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, while in the same year, Philip destroyed Amfissa because the residents had illegally cultivated part of the Crisaian plain which belonged to Delphi. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander III.

The murder occurred during October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander I of Epirus and Philip's daughter, by his fourth wife Olympias, Cleopatra. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theater (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of his seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.

The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Fifty years later, the historian Cleitarchus expanded and embellished the story. Centuries later, this version was to be narrated by Diodorus Siculus and all the historians who used Cleitarchus. In the sixteenth book of Diodorus' history, Pausanias had been a lover of Philip, but became jealous when Philip turned his attention to a younger man, also called Pausanias. His taunting of the new lover caused the youth to throw away his life, which turned his friend, Attalus, against Pausanias. Attalus took his revenge by inviting Pausanias to dinner, getting him drunk, then subjecting him to sexual assault.

When Pausanias complained to Philip the king felt unable to chastise Attalus, as he was about to send him to Asia with Parmenion, to establish a bridgehead for his planned invasion. He also married Attalus's niece, or daughter, Eurydice. Rather than offend Attalus, Phillip attempted to mollify Pausanius by elevating him within the bodyguard. Pausanias' desire for revenge seems to have turned towards the man who had failed to avenge his damaged honour so he planned to kill Philip, and some time after the alleged rape, while Attalus was already in Asia fighting the Persians, put his plan in action. Other historians (e.g., Justin 9.7) suggested that Alexander and/or his mother Olympias were at least privy to the intrigue, if not themselves instigators. The latter seems to have been anything but discreet in manifesting her gratitude to Pausanias, if we accept Justin's report: he tells us that the same night of her return from exile she placed a crown on the assassin's corpse and erected a tumulus to his memory, ordering annual sacrifices to the memory of Pausanias.

Many modern historians have observed that all the accounts are improbable. In the case of Pausanias, the stated motive of the crime hardly seems adequate. On the other hand, the implication of Alexander and Olympias seems specious: to act as they did would have required brazen effrontery in the face of a military machine personally loyal to Philip. What appears to be recorded in this are the natural suspicions that fell on the chief beneficiaries of the murder their actions after the murder, however sympathetic they might appear (if actual), cannot prove their guilt in the deed itself. Further convoluting the case is the possible role of propaganda in the surviving accounts: Attalus was executed in Alexander's consolidation of power after the murder one might wonder if his enrollment among the conspirators was not for the effect of introducing political expediency in an otherwise messy purge (Attalus had publicly declared his hope that Alexander would not succeed Philip, but rather that a son of his own niece Eurydice, recently married to Philip and brutally murdered by Olympias after Philip's death, would gain the throne of Macedon).

The dates of Philip's multiple marriages and the names of some of his wives are contested. Below is the order of marriages offered by Athenaeus, 13.557b-e:

Audata, the daughter of Illyrian King Bardyllis. Mother of Cynane.

Phila, the sister of Derdas and Machatas of Elimiotis.

Nicesipolis of Pherae, Thessaly, mother of Thessalonica.

Olympias of Epirus, mother of Alexander the Great and Cleopatra

Philinna of Larissa, mother of Arrhidaeus later called Philip III of Macedon.

Meda of Odessa, daughter of the king Cothelas, of Thrace.

Cleopatra, daughter of Hippostratus and niece of general Attalus of Macedonia. Philip renamed her Cleopatra Eurydice of Macedon.

He also had a partner, Arsinoe of Macedon, mother of Ptolemy I Soter, King of Egypt.

On November 8, 1977, Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos found, among other royal tombs, an unopened tomb at Vergina in the Greek prefecture of Imathia. The finds from this tomb were later included in the traveling exhibit The Search for Alexander displayed at four cities in the United States from 1980 to 1982. It is generally accepted that the site at Vergina was the burial site of the kings of Macedon, including Philip, but the debate about the unopened tomb is ongoing among archaeologists.

The initial suggestion that the tomb may belong to Philip II was indicated by the greaves, one of which indicated that the owner had a leg injury which distorted the natural alignment of the tibia (Philip II was recorded as having broken his tibia). What is viewed as possible proof that the tomb indeed did belong to Philip II and that the surviving bone fragments are in fact the body of Philip II comes from forensic reconstruction of the skull of Philip II by the wax casting and reconstruction of the skull which shows the damage to the right eye caused by the penetration of an object (historically recorded to be an arrow).[8]

Eugene Borza and others have suggested that the unopened tomb actually belonged to Philip's son, Philip Arrhidaeus, and Philip was probably buried in the simpler adjacent tomb, which had been looted in antiquity. Disputations often relied on contradictions between "the body" or "skeleton" of Philip II and reliable historical accounts of his life (and injuries), as well as analyses of the paintings, pottery, and other artifacts found there.[9]

Musgrave, et al. (2010)[10] showed that there is no valid evidence Arrhidaeus could have been buried in the unopened tomb, hence those who made those claims, like Borza, Palagia and Bartsiokas, had actually misunderstood certain scientific facts which led them to invalid conclusions.

The heroon at Vergina in Greek Macedonia (the ancient city of Aigai - Αἶγαι) is thought to have been dedicated to the worship of the family of Alexander the Great and may have housed the cult statue of Philip. It is probable that he was regarded as a hero or deified on his death. Though the Macedonians did not consider Philip a god, he did receive other forms of recognition by the Greeks, such as at Eresos (altar to Zeus Philippeios), Ephesos (his statue was placed in the temple of Artemis), and Olympia, where the Philippeion was built.

Isocrates once wrote to Philip that if he defeated Persia, there was nothing left for him to do but to become a god[11] and Demades proposed that Philip be regarded as the thirteenth god. However, there is no clear evidence that Philip was raised to the divine status accorded his son Alexander.[12]

King of Macedonia Philip II Temenid was buried in the Royal Tombs at Aigai, (Vergina), Imathia, Macedonia, (Greece). The royal tomb excavated in 1977 at Vergina, near Saloníka, is believed to be Philip's.3 He died 0336 B.C. In the Theater of Aigai, (Vergina), Imathia, Macedonia, (Greece). He was assassinated on the eve of launching a large invasion on Persia.4 He defeated the Athenians 0338 B.C. In the Battle of Chaeronea, Greece. Philip's army was greatly outnumbered by the Athenian and Theban forces, yet his phalanxes overwhelmed the Athenians and Thebans. He married Cleopatra of Macedonia 0338 B.C.2 He captured the Thracian town of Crenides 0355 B.C. In Thrace. He captured Potidea in Chalcidice, and Pydna on the Thermaic Gulf 0356 B.C.. He conquered the Athenian colony of Amphipolis 0357 B.C. In Thrace. He married Princess of Epirus Olympias Aeacid , daughter of King of Epirus Neoptolemus I Aeacid , 0357 B.C Primary wife.5,2 He defeated the Illyrians 0358 B.C.. King of Macedonia, 0359-0336 B.C..6 He was made regent for his infant nephew Amyntas, whose throne he promptly usurped 0360 B.C.. He returned to Macedonia 0364 B.C.. He associated with Arsinoë I Argaead , daughter of Meleagros Argaead Concubine.7 He was a hostage 0367-0365 B.C. In Thebes, Greece. He was the son of King of Macedonia Amyntas III Argaead and Eurydice Sirra of the Lyncestians . He was born 0382 B.C. In Pella, ancient Macedonia. He was the son of Amyntas III and Eurydice Sirra.8 He made an alliance with the Goths and took to wife Medopa, the daughter of King Gudila, so that he might render the kingdom of Macedon more secure by the help of this marriage.9 He married Olympias, from the royal house of Molossia, for the primary reason to create an alliance and strengthen loyalty. He was Sources: 1. Hammond, N.G.L. and Griffith, G.T. 'A History of Macedonia' Vol.II, pp.305. 2. Green, P. 'Alexander to Actium' pp.732..

Child of King of Macedonia Philip II Temenid:

King of Macedonia Philip III Arrhidaeus Temenid b. 0354 B.C., d. 0316 B.C.

Children of King of Macedonia Philip II Temenid and Princess of Epirus Olympias Aeacid :

Cleopatra Temenid d. 0308 B.C.

King of Macedonia Alexander III "the Great" Temenid + b. 0356 B.C., d. 0323 B.C.

[S197] Toby Dills, "A Descendant of Antiquity," gedcom file from e-mail address (e-mail address ) to Robert Stewart, 5 Feb 1999. Hereinafter cited as "Descendant of Antiquity".

[S669] M. B. Sakellariou, Macedonia, 4000 Years of Greek History and Civilization, Greek Lands in History (8, Philadelphias Street, Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon S.A., 1983/1988), pg. 114-115. Hereinafter cited as Sakellariou.

[S959] Manolis Andronicos, Vergina: The Royal Tombs (Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Hellados S.A., 1989). Hereinafter cited as Vergina.

[S959] Manolis Andronicos, Vergina, pg. 47.

[S283] Michael Wood, In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great (Companion to the BBC series) (London, England: BBC Books, 1997). Hereinafter cited as In the Footsteps of Alexander.

[S172] Various Encyclopaedea Britannica (U.S.A.: Encyclopaedea Britannica, Inc., 1976). Hereinafter cited as Encyclopaedea Britannica.

[S330] Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt (11 New Fetter Lane, London, EC4P 4EE: Routledge, 1999). Hereinafter cited as Who's Who in Egypt.

[S959] Manolis Andronicos, Vergina, pg. 51.

[S228] Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths (Department of Greek, Latin and Ancient History, University of Calgary: J. Vanderspoel, circa 560), X. Hereinafter cited as Jordanes' Getica.

Philip II of Macedon, (Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών — φίλος = friend + ίππος = horse[1] — transliterated Philippos (help·info) 382 – 336 BC, was an ancient Greek[2][3] king (basileus) of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336. He was the father of Alexander the Great and Philip III.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of the king Amyntas III and Eurydice I. In his youth, (c. 368� BC) Philip was held as a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, became eromenos of Pelopidas,[4][5] and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedon. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. He had however first to re-establish a situation which had been greatly worsened by the defeat against the Illyrians in which King Perdiccas himself had died. The Paionians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of the country, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the coast, a contingent under a Macedonian pretender called Argeus. Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back Paionians and Thracians promising tributes, and crushed the 3,000 Athenian hoplites (359). Momentarily free from his opponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal position and, above all, his army. His most important innovation was doubtless the introduction of the phalanx infantry corps, armed with the famous sarissa, an exceedingly long spear, at the time the most important army corps in Macedonia.

Philip had married Audata, great-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of Dardania, Bardyllis. However, this did not prevent him from marching against them in 358 and crushing them in a ferocious battle in which some 7,000 Illyrians died (357). By this move, Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid and the favour of the Epirotes.[6]

He also used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. He agreed with the Athenians, who had been so far unable to conquer Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion, to lease it to them after its conquest, in exchange for Pydna (lost by Macedon in 363). However, after conquering Amphipolis, he kept both the cities (357). As Athens declared war against him, he allied with the Chalkidian League of Olynthus. He subsequently conquered Potidaea, this time keeping his word and ceding it to the League in 356. One year before Philip had married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians.

In 356 BC, Philip also conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi: he established a powerful garrison there to control its mines, which granted him much of the gold later used for his campaigns. In the meantime, his general Parmenion defeated the Illyrians again. Also in 356 Alexander was born, and Philip's race horse won in the Olympic Games. In 355� he besieged Methone, the last city on the Thermaic Gulf controlled by Athens. During the siege, Philip lost an eye. Despite the arrival of two Athenians fleets, the city fell in 354. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian seaboard (354�).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon King of Macedonia Philip II Temenid was buried in the Royal Tombs at Aigai, (Vergina), Imathia, Macedonia, (Greece). The royal tomb excavated in 1977 at Vergina, near Saloníka, is believed to be Philip's.3 He died 0336 B.C. In the Theater of Aigai, (Vergina), Imathia, Macedonia, (Greece). He was assassinated on the eve of launching a large invasion on Persia.4 He defeated the Athenians 0338 B.C. In the Battle of Chaeronea, Greece. Philip's army was greatly outnumbered by the Athenian and Theban forces, yet his phalanxes overwhelmed the Athenians and Thebans. He married Cleopatra of Macedonia 0338 B.C.2 He captured the Thracian town of Crenides 0355 B.C. In Thrace. He captured Potidea in Chalcidice, and Pydna on the Thermaic Gulf 0356 B.C.. He conquered the Athenian colony of Amphipolis 0357 B.C. In Thrace. He married Princess of Epirus Olympias Aeacid , daughter of King of Epirus Neoptolemus I Aeacid , 0357 B.C Primary wife.5,2 He defeated the Illyrians 0358 B.C.. King of Macedonia, 0359-0336 B.C..6 He was made regent for his infant nephew Amyntas, whose throne he promptly usurped 0360 B.C.. He returned to Macedonia 0364 B.C.. He associated with Arsinoë I Argaead , daughter of Meleagros Argaead Concubine.7 He was a hostage 0367-0365 B.C. In Thebes, Greece. He was the son of King of Macedonia Amyntas III Argaead and Eurydice Sirra of the Lyncestians . He was born 0382 B.C. In Pella, ancient Macedonia. He was the son of Amyntas III and Eurydice Sirra.8 He made an alliance with the Goths and took to wife Medopa, the daughter of King Gudila, so that he might render the kingdom of Macedon more secure by the help of this marriage.9 He married Olympias, from the royal house of Molossia, for the primary reason to create an alliance and strengthen loyalty. He was Sources: 1. Hammond, N.G.L. and Griffith, G.T. 'A History of Macedonia' Vol.II, pp.305. 2. Green, P. 'Alexander to Actium' pp.732..

Child of King of Macedonia Philip II Temenid:

King of Macedonia Philip III Arrhidaeus Temenid b. 0354 B.C., d. 0316 B.C.

Children of King of Macedonia Philip II Temenid and Princess of Epirus Olympias Aeacid :

Cleopatra Temenid d. 0308 B.C.

King of Macedonia Alexander III "the Great" Temenid + b. 0356 B.C., d. 0323 B.C.

[S197] Toby Dills, "A Descendant of Antiquity," gedcom file from e-mail address (e-mail address ) to Robert Stewart, 5 Feb 1999. Hereinafter cited as "Descendant of Antiquity".

[S669] M. B. Sakellariou, Macedonia, 4000 Years of Greek History and Civilization, Greek Lands in History (8, Philadelphias Street, Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon S.A., 1983/1988), pg. 114-115. Hereinafter cited as Sakellariou.

[S959] Manolis Andronicos, Vergina: The Royal Tombs (Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Hellados S.A., 1989). Hereinafter cited as Vergina.

[S959] Manolis Andronicos, Vergina, pg. 47.

[S283] Michael Wood, In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great (Companion to the BBC series) (London, England: BBC Books, 1997). Hereinafter cited as In the Footsteps of Alexander.

[S172] Various Encyclopaedea Britannica (U.S.A.: Encyclopaedea Britannica, Inc., 1976). Hereinafter cited as Encyclopaedea Britannica.

[S330] Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt (11 New Fetter Lane, London, EC4P 4EE: Routledge, 1999). Hereinafter cited as Who's Who in Egypt.

[S959] Manolis Andronicos, Vergina, pg. 51.

[S228] Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths (Department of Greek, Latin and Ancient History, University of Calgary: J. Vanderspoel, circa 560), X. Hereinafter cited as Jordanes' Getica.


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