History Podcasts

Is this wrench from 1881, or is it just a serial number?

Is this wrench from 1881, or is it just a serial number?

One of my facebook group's member posted these pictures, he found them in their garden buried. He made cleaning, and they look old, but are they from 1880's? If the location helps: it is in Hungary, and many of tools were made in Germany.

So far my research tells that 1880's in US they had square shaped screw heads, not hexagons like today. But I am still unsure.


It is entirely possible - Hex-head bolts were known well before that. This page states that James Nasmyth made a lathe attachment to mill hex nuts in 1830, and by the 1880s the combination of cold-heading and the Bessemer process were being used to mass-produce them.


That "1881" looks hand-inscribed to me. Simple tools aren't commonly serial numbered in my experience.

The number could be a date added by the owner, or it could be some other numbering: a bench number where he worked, his employee number in a factory, or something like that. People in a factory tend to borrow tools and "forget" whose they are, so marking them is wise.


Is this wrench from 1881, or is it just a serial number? - History

Before contacting Customer Support, please review the information listed below where many common questions are answered.

WARNING: ENSURE YOUR FIREARM IS UNLOADED BEFORE ADJUSTING YOUR SIGHT. AT ALL TIMES FOLLOW THE BASIC FIREARMS SAFETY RULES IN THE SECTION ENTITLED “YOUR SAFETY RESPONSIBILITIES”.

WARNING: VISIBLE LASER RADIATION EMITS FROM THE CRIMSON TRACE® LASER WHILE IT IS IN OPERATION – AVOID DIRECT EYE EXPOSURE.

  1. Mount a target with a clearly visible aiming point downrange at the desired zeroing distance.
  2. Turn ON the Crimson Trace® Laser by pressing the activation button once.
  3. While aiming the M&P® BODYGUARD® 38 revolver with its iron sights, rotate the adjustment screws as needed to superimpose the laser strike point over the M&P® BODYGUARD® 38 revolver’s aiming point. To determine the required direction of rotation, refer to the Laser Adjustment Table on page 37 of the owner's user manual.
  4. Direct the Crimson Trace® Laser at the target aiming point.
  5. Fire a 3-round shot group and note the center of the shot group relative to the target aiming point.
  6. Rotate the adjustment screws (FIGURES A10 & A11 see owner's user manual) as needed to move the center of the shot group to the target aiming point. To determine the required direction of rotation, refer to the Shot Group Movement column in the Laser Adjustment Table on page 37 of the owner's user manual.
  7. Fire another 3-round shot group to confirm zero.
  8. Repeat these steps until the shot group falls within an acceptable radius around the target aim point.

WARNING: ENSURE YOUR FIREARM IS UNLOADED BEFORE ADJUSTING YOUR SIGHT. AT ALL TIMES FOLLOW THE BASIC FIREARMS SAFETY RULES IN THE SECTION ENTITLED “YOUR SAFETY RESPONSIBILITIES”.

WARNING: VISIBLE LASER RADIATION EMITS FROM THE CRIMSON TRACE® LASER WHILE IT IS IN OPERATION – AVOID DIRECT EYE EXPOSURE.

  1. Mount a target with a clearly visible aiming point downrange at the desired zeroing distance.
  2. Turn ON the Crimson Trace® Laser by pressing the activation button once.
  3. While aiming the M&P® BODYGUARD® 380 with its iron sights, rotate the adjustment screws as needed to superimpose the laser strike point over the M&P® BODYGUARD® 380’s aiming point (FIGURE A11). To determine the required direction of rotation, refer to the Laser Adjustment Table on page 46 of the owner's user manual.
  4. Direct the Crimson Trace® Laser at the target aiming point.
  5. Fire a 3-round shot group and note the center of the shot group relative to the target aiming point.
  6. Rotate the adjustment screws as needed to move the center of the shot group to the target aiming point. To determine the required direction of rotation, refer to the Shot Group Movement column in the Laser Adjustment Table on page 46 of the owner's user manual.
  7. Fire another 3-round shot group to confirm zero.
  8. Repeat these steps until the shot group falls within an acceptable radius around the target aim point.

WARNING: ENSURE YOUR FIREARM IS UNLOADED BEFORE ADJUSTING YOUR SIGHT. AT ALL TIMES FOLLOW THE BASIC FIREARMS SAFETY RULES IN THE SECTION ENTITLED "YOUR SAFETY RESPONSIBILITIES" OF YOUR BODYGUARD® 38 SAFETY AND INSTRUCTION MANUAL.

WARNING: VISIBLE LASER RADIATION EMITS FROM THE INSIGHT® LASER WHILE IT IS IN OPERATION - AVOID DIRECT EYE EXPOSURE.

  1. Turn the elevation adjustment screw (on top of the laser) four (4) complete rotations counter-clockwise with the allen wrench provided with your BODYGUARD® 38 revolver.
  2. Turn the windage adjustment screw (on the side of the laser) four (4) complete rotations counter-clockwise with the allen wrench provided with your BODYGUARD® 38 revolver.
  3. Pick a suitable aiming point where you can see the fixed sight picture and the laser beam at the same time. The point should be 8 to 10 feet from the BODYGUARD® 38 revolver.
  4. Turn the elevation adjustment screw so that the beam is two inches (2") above point of impact as referenced from the fixed sight picture. (Note: the beam will move approximately one inch (1") left of point of impact.)
  5. Turn the windage adjustment screw so that the beam is to the point of impact as referenced from the fixed sight picture.
  6. Turn the elevation adjustment screw so that the beam is to the point of impact as referenced from the fixed sight picture.
  7. Test fire the BODYGUARD® 38 revolver with your particular type and brand of ammunition and make any final adjustments necessary, making sure the revolver is unloaded prior to making any adjustments to the laser sight.

Click Here For Downloadable Instructions:

Use only commercially manufactured ammunition with internal ballistic pressures which are in strict accordance with the specifications of the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI).

Be certain all ammunition you use complies with the SAAMI specifications. If you are uncertain, contact your ammunition supplier for verification.

If you would like any further information on specific ammunition, you may contact one of the major ammunition manufacturers from the link listed below:

Q: Can I dry fire my Smith & Wesson?

A: Yes, except for the .22 caliber pistols which includes models 22A, 22S, 422, 2206, 2214, 2213 and 41.

.22 caliber revolvers such as models 17, 43, 63, 317 and 617 also should not be dry fired.

Q: Why can't I dry fire my .22 pistol or revolver?

A: Dry firing a S&W .22 pistol or revolver will cause damage to the firing pin.

The Smith & Wesson Performance Center offers a full line of gunsmithing services.

Smith & Wesson offers a wide variety of Holsters in the Firearm Accessories section in our Online Store.

Limited Lifetime Warranty: The product is warranted to the original consumer purchaser, for as long as he or she lives, against defects in materials, manufacture of assembly. Damage due to abuse, misuse or neglect is not covered. Defective products will be repaired or replaced. Discontinued items that are not repairable will be exchanged for items of equal value. In order to get service under this warranty, send the product prepaid, together with an explanation of the defect to the address listed below. Please add $6.95 for return freight. It is recommended that you insure the defective products to be returned.
Smith & Wesson Knives will not be responsible for any damages for loss or use of defective products or for other consequential or incidental damages.

2501 Lemone Industrial Blvd

Revolvers - The official serial number is located on the bottom of the butt of the frame. Some revolvers also have the serial number located on the inside of the frame, in the yoke area.

Pistols - The serial number is located on the side of the frame.

Sigma series - The serial number is located on the frame under the front of the handgun.

SW99 - The serial number is located on the frame at the rear of the pistol.

For long guns manufactured in the early 1980's, please contact the following dealers for parts and service. Smith & Wesson discontinued these models and no longer has a parts inventory or offer repair service for these models.

For Model 1020, 1012 or Elite Shotguns, please contact our Customer Service Department for parts or service at 800-331-0852.

Pricing information is included on most of our firearm detail pages on our website

You may also contact one of our customer support representatives for pricing on handguns.

1-800-331-0852 Ext. 2904 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, Monday - Friday.

Click on "The Store" link located at the top right of every page on the website

Click on "The Store" link located at the top right of every page on the website

Please see our Shipping & Returns Page to request a prepaid Fedex return label to return your S&W handgun for repair. Customers outside the USA may contact the International Warranty Service Center nearest you.

Smith & Wesson discontinued manufacturing air and pellet guns in 1980. The air and pellet gun line included the models: 77A, 78G, 79G and 80G. Should your Smith & Wesson air gun require parts and/or repairs, please contact:

Bimrose Precision Airgun Repair is now located at:
13090 Navajo Road #3
Apple Valley, CA 92308
(760) 646-9108

TMac's Airgun Service
C/O Tony McDaniel
1120 Finger Bridge Road
Hickory NC 28602
(828) 294-2468

Models 586 and 686 pellet guns, please contact:

Umarex USA, Inc.
6007 S 29th Street
Fort Smith, AR 72908
(479) 646-4210
http://www.umarexusa.com

We suggest that you call before shipping your air gun to ensure they have the required parts.

Unfortunately, we are unable to predict the value of handguns after they are shipped from the factory. You may wish to reference one of the many books written on the value of handguns at your local bookstore or library.

If you would like to obtain the history of your Smith & Wesson handgun please refer to the Request History of your S&W Handgun question above.

Every year, we receive a significant number of requests for donations, sponsorships and product support for various industry-related events, initiatives and organizations. Because of the sheer volume of requests that we receive, we are only able to support a small number of these programs.

We appreciate your understanding and hope you’ll keep us in mind for future opportunities.


THEN: SEARCH MODEL NUMBER

Once you have found your model number, use the search field below to determine which service outlet will best be able to serve you. It's important to note that CRAFTSMAN develops some tools in partnership if this includes your tool, we'll direct you to a partner's site.

Was developed as part of a partnership.

Please use your CRAFTSMAN model number on our partner's site for all your parts & service needs.

Was developed as part of a partnership.

Please use your CRAFTSMAN model number on our partner's site for all your parts & service needs.

Was developed as part of a partnership.

Please use your CRAFTSMAN model number on our partner's site for all your parts & service needs.

Parts & service for

Please use your CRAFTSMAN model number on our partner's site for all your parts & service needs.


Universal Firearms Corporation

The Beginning

Records of the State of Florida Dept. of State, Division of Corporations show Bullseye Gun Works incorporated in January 1960 with the directors as Jerry Resnick and Abe Seiderman. Bullseye Gun Works advertisements for carbine receivers, barrels and parts appear in Shotgun News, monthly, for at least the latter part of 1961.

Florida corporate records show Universal Firearms incorporated in Florida in June 1961. The articles of incorporation identified the directors as the corporate attorneys of the law office that submitted the application. The first indication of the actual corporate directors appears on the corporate tax return for 1962, dated July 1962. The president was Seymour Sommerstein, vice-president Robert Sommerstein, executive vice-president Jerry Resnick, and secretary-treasurer Abe Seiderman. The business location is indicated as 3746 E 10th Ct, Hialeah, FL. Starting with the corporate tax records for 1964, dated July 1963, Jerry Resnick no longer appears affiliated with Universal.

So far, the first indication that Universal was manufacturing M1 carbines appears in the April 1, 1962 issue of Shotgun News, within an advertisement for Southern Gun Distributors of Miami. Notice the ad states the receiver was manufactured from "4135 certified forging", meaning forged steel as opposed to cast metal.


Shotgun News, April 1, 1962

Gun Digest is an annual publication whose 1st Edition was in 1946. Each issue is divided into specific sections. One section includes chapters devoted to new firearms, a large section depicting current manufactured firearms and their information, and another section that is a directory listing that includes firearm manufacturers. The chapter devoted to new rifles in the 18th Edition pp. 225-226 (published in late 1963, for 1964) introduces the Vulcan 440 slide action .44 magnum carbine manufactured by Universal Firearms Corporation. The primary focus is the Vulcan, but the article states Universal also "now offers" a commercial duplicate of the .30 caliber M1 carbine. Interestingly, the article states Universal's M1 carbine used all new commercially manufactured parts. This means Gun Digest's author had not examined the actual carbine. The rifle depicted in the photograph below the article is not the Vulcan 440, it's their M1 carbine, which the caption calls "Universal's new M1 carbine" (below). The section on currently manufactured firearms does not include Universal's rifles. Universal Firearms Corp. is listed in the the arms manufacturer directory in the back of the book.

The statements in the Sloan's ads in August 1962 and Gun Digest's chapter on new rifles in 1963/1964, that Universal's M1 carbines were being manufactured using all new commercially manufactured parts, may indicate their M1 carbines were being advertised before they were actually available in any quantity.


1964 18th Edition Gun Digest (published in late 1963)

Universal Firearms Vulcan 440 pump action .44 magnum


The Miami News Sun June 7th, 1964

In August 1964 Bullseye Gun Works notified Florida the corporation had been dissolved. Resnick continued doing business as Bullseye Inc. the gun shop. For further information on Bullseye Gun Works, refer to the page on this website dedicated to Bullseye Gun Works.

First Sightings

The first data for the Universal Firearms M1 carbine appears in the 1965 19th Edition of Gun Digest.

Basic Universal M1 Carbine
Caliber: .30 carbine
Barrel: 18 inches
Weight: 5 lbs
Length: 35.58 inches overall
Stock: American walnut
Sights: fixed front, adjustable rear


Example of an early Universal GI type M1 Carbine

Over the course of the company's lifespan, Universal changed the markings and their layout on their carbine receivers several times. The first set of markings used by Universal began at the beginning of production, continued until sometime after s/n 276xx, and changed sometime before s/n 405xx.

Markings and their Positions - prior to s/n 405xx

Serial number forward of rear sight, Universal name behind rear sight
U.S. CARBINE, CAL. 30 M1 on receiver ring
Photograph courtesy of Eddy Yuja

The First Alterations

A few very early Universal carbines have trigger housings manufactured during WWII for the GI carbines. Within the first two years, Universal began production of an aluminum trigger housing, somewhat similar to the GI trigger housings. Within a year, Universal redesigned their M1 carbine trigger housings again. Carbines with this redesigned trigger housing appear as early as s/n 1875x and appear to have been used exclusively s/n 445xx and later. This redesigned trigger housing was also manufactured from aluminum. The sides of the housing were thickened and run parallel front to back, giving the housing an overall rectangular shape. This trigger housing required the stock be cut to allow room for the larger trigger housing, making the GI stocks no longer interchangeable with the Universal stocks. The Universal trigger housing does not fit inside any stock other than the Universal stock, unless several significant modifications are made to the wood of the non-Universal stock.


Universal Firearms aluminum trigger housing

Side thickness has been increased (started prior to s/n 460xx)


U.S. GI carbine stock and trigger housing (top), Universal stock and trigger housing (bottom)

Aluminum is not a metal that can be blued or parkerized like the rest of the carbine. Universal painted their trigger housings black. With continued use over time the paint may flake off. If this happens, it can be repaired by simple sanding and repainting the trigger housing. You might want to use a semi-gloss black bar-b-que paint or something like Brownell's Aluma-Hyde II, which is made for aluminum and a variety of other surfaces. The web page showing this product has links to several instructional videos that are worth watching, no matter what you use. They are a good example of how to use spray paint. They also have good on cold bluing and removing rust that apply to all products, not just their own.

The Shooter's Bible was another annual publication devoted to hunting, currently manufactured firearms, and accessories. The 57th issue 1966 (published late 1965) depicts the "Universal .30 M1 Carbine", the "Universal .30 caliber Pistol", and the Vulcan .44 magnum rifle. The description of the ".30 caliber Pistol" indicates the receiver was manufactured from "4140 certified forging". The photograph clearly shows this predecessor of Universal's Enforcer Model used the GI type barrel band. The .30 M1 Carbine drawing appears the same as the one in the 1964 Gun Digest, clearly showing a GI type barrel band with attached bayonet lug. As you will see below, the parts sometimes help to identify the time period a particular Universal carbine was made.


57th Issue The Shooter's Bible - 1966 published in late 1965
Notice the hand guard, barrel band, and sights, these later changed.

Another early change implemented by Universal was elimination of the GI front sight that used a key between the top of the barrel and a groove in the underside of the top of the sight, with the sight held in place by a retaining pin. They replaced the front sight with a commercially manufactured model that was held in place by a set screw in the top of the sight. This made the removal and installation of the front sight easier, but if it is ever removed and reinstalled it tends to come loose when the carbine is fired. Front sights that are very difficult to remove, if not impossible, may have been cemented to the barrel by a previous owner. If you remove and replace the front sight, it is strongly recommended the set screw be treated with a thread lock substance that will hold it in place but not make it impossible to remove (e.g. Loctite Threadlocker Green)


Front sight set screw used mid 60's & later (first observed on s/n 338xx)

In September 1964 Universal Firearms Corp. and inventor, Abe Seiderman, applied for a patent for a "Stock Lock Device". This was a round barrel band for a newly designed M1 carbine stock. The stock tapered down at the forend, allowing the round barrel band to secure the handguard, barrel, and stock together. The band was secured to the stock using a set screw in the bottom of the band. Patent #3,208,178 issued September 1965. The first carbine utilizing this device was introduced in 1966.


Universal Model 30 M-1 with new "stock lock device" barrel band & optional Monte Carlo style stock

A Change in Markings and Layout

The U.S. in "U.S. CARBINE" was eliminated about s/n 87000.

Universal's Detachable Scope Mount

In October 1967 Universal Firearms Corp. and inventor Abe Seiderman, applied for a patent for a "Detachable Mount for Telescopic Gun Sights". Patent #3,424,420 issued January 1969. The left side of the receiver was drilled and tapped on most models after the scope mount was introduced. The stock was altered to accommodate the scope mount. When the mount was not in place, a soft piece of plastic snapped into the holes in the receiver and filled the gap between the receiver and the stock.

The scope mount holes, stock cut for the mount and plastic insert had become standard on all carbines manufactured by Universal Firearms during the Fall of 1964 (about s/n 41000).


Universal's detachable scope mount


Drilled & tapped receivers were standard on most models, once the mount was introduced.


The stock also came standard with a cutout for the scope mount. A piece of soft plastic was used to fill the gap when the
scope mount was not in use. Occasionally this plastic piece is lost. Replacements may be found at Numrich Gun Parts.


All steel Universal Firearms 2.5x rifle scope with duplex cross-hair reticule, made by Weaver in the USA.

The First Catalog

The model designations and carbines depicted in the following table are believed to be circa 1966 and prior.


4. James and his cohorts eluded the Pinkertons.

Allen Pinkerton (left) with President Abraham Lincoln and a Union general during the Civil War

After Jesse and Frank robbed a train at Gads Hill, Missouri, in January 1874, the Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency was called in to hunt them down. Founded in Chicago in 1850 by Allan Pinkerton, a Scottish immigrant who had served as the first full-time detective on the Windy City’s police force, the private agency was experienced in capturing train robbers. In March 1874, after the agency took on the case of the James gang, a Pinkerton detective searching for Jesse and Frank in Missouri wound up dead, while a Pinkerton agent who pursued the brothers’ fellow gang members Cole and Robert Younger in another part of the state also was killed. Catching the James brothers became a personal mission for Allan Pinkerton, an abolitionist who had aided slaves on the Underground Railroad, uncovered a plot to assassinate President-elect Abraham Lincoln and gathered military intelligence for the federal government during the Civil War.

Shortly after midnight on January 25, 1875, a group of Pinkerton agents, acting on a tip that Jesse and Frank were at their mother’s farm (in fact, they were no longer there) carried out a raid on the place. The agents threw an incendiary device into the farmhouse, setting off an explosion that fatally wounded Jesse and Frank’s 8-year-old half-brother and caused their mother, Zerelda, to lose part of her arm. Following the raid, public support for Jesse and Frank increased, and the Missouri state legislature even came close to passing a bill offering the men amnesty. The James brothers also launched an intimidation campaign against their perceived enemies near Zerelda’s farm and in April of that year one of their mother’s neighbors, a former Union militiaman who had assisted the Pinkerton agents in preparing for the raid, was shot to death. Allan Pinkerton never pursued his hunt for Jesse and Frank any further.


Hercules and Economy gas Engine Igniter Wrench (smaller size "L" shaped variant)

  • Markings side one: No Markings
  • Markings side two: No Markings
  • Length: 3 by 8 inches with 3/4" hex socket & 5/16" square socket.
  • Reference: Old Hercules and Economy Parts Books.
  • Condition: Good++.
  • Price: SOLD (ref: FW/246-1)

Brinsmead Pianos Serial Numbers

1869 - 13361
1872 - 14897
1875 - 24750
1876 - 27500
1877 - 29006
1880 - 31600
1885 - 33000
1890 - 36000
1895 - 41000
1900 - 45000
1905 - 54200
1910 - 64250
1915 - 73200
1920 - 79550
1925 - 81600
1930 - 82750
1935 - 83200
1940 - 84150
1945 - 84400
1950 - 84750
1952 - 85100
1954 - 85320
1955 - 85450
1956 - 85680
1956 - 85680
1957 - 85800
1958 - 85930
1959 - 86050

See Kemble's Pianos for Numbers from 1960.

Visit the family history site at http://www.brinsmead.net/, documenting the Brinsmead family from early times in Somerset to emigration to the Americas.

If you need more information on your piano please use our history forums to ask questions.

Barrie Heaton, MABPT, FIMIT, AEWVH (Dip.), MMPTA, CGLI (hon.) (USA)
Visit my website Piano Tuning in Lancashire.
© copyright 1999-2002.


Henry Crouch Binocular

This Henry Crouch had been converted from monocular to binocular at some point in its history but the additional tube had never been lacquered. The lacquer on the original tube was mostly intact apart from a few knocks and bumps so it was only necessary to lacquer the one, unlacquered tube. The original lacquered tube was a beautiful colour, a rich yellow with a hint of chocolate brown. I was somewhat surprised when I saw this microscope because I have never seen such an eye catching colour before. The photos don’t do it justice, in some lights it appears chocolate brown and in other lights it appears yellow. I did wonder if I would be able to match the colour when I first saw it but the use of aniline dye made it much simpler than I first feared. Henry Crouch microscopes often used aniline dyes. The rest of the microscope was lacquered with yellow, a lovely two-tone specimen.

The microscope was missing an aperture wheel and tensioning screws for the rack. The mirror gimbal was broken in two (held together with string) and the mirror holder was thin and cracked. I made new screws, stage clips, an aperture wheel and a mirror gimbal and holder. The stage had lost all its colour so that was blackened and the foot which had peeling paint on it was stripped and chemically blackened as it would have been originally. The rack now moves as it should and it looks very smart indeed. The before and after pictures are below


Vetterli serialnumbers Waffenfabrik Bern.

In March 1868 the Swiss government decided to order 80.000 M-1869 Vetterli rifles with several contract manufacturers.
The years after got very turbulent for the several manufacturers as many modifications were introduced and they had problems in producing sufficient numbers.
In 1871 only a total of 12.000 of the requested rifles had been issued.
For that reason a simplified version of the M-1869 was introduced, the Ordonnanz M-1869/71 (without the loading gate cover).
Untill 1875 still several manufacturers were making these and modifications were still going on.
From 1875 on Waffenfabrik Bern was the main manufacturer of the Vetterli rifles.

Bern started producing the M-69/71 in 1875 at serial 114.001 all older serials could have been made by several other manufacturers too.
In 1875 they made 8000 rifles so till # 122.001
In 1876 they made 8677 rifles so till # 130.678
In 1877 they made 7799 rifles so till # 138.477
In 1878 they made 6400 rifles so till # 144.877
In 1879 they made 5124 rifles so till # 150.001
In 1879 they started production of the M-1878 at
serial 150.001 .
In 1879 they made 1785 rifles so till # 151.786
In 1880 they made 6976 rifles so till # 158.762
In 1881 they made 7009 rifles so till # 165.771
The production of the M-1881 started probably in 1882 at serial 165.771 .
In 1882 they made 5857 rifles so till # 171.628
In 1883 they made 6923 rifles so till # 178.551
In 1884 they made 7740 rifles so till # 186.291
In 1885 they made 8560 rifles so till # 194.851
In 1886 they made 8540 rifles so till # 203.391
In 1887 they made 10.500 rifles so till # 213.891
In 1888 they made 6970 rifles so till # 220.861
In 1889 they made 7830 rifles so till # 228.691
I count a total of 228.691 while the books say 228.060.

Fight to your last cartridge, then fight with your bayonets.


No surrender. Fight to the death.


Gen. Henri Guisan, Switzerland, July '40

Parts info and orders only through.


It's only me behind the screen so be prepared for some delay sometimes.


Is this wrench from 1881, or is it just a serial number? - History

For antique and vintage sewing machines


Dating Singer Sewing Machines From Serial Number

Alex has spent a lifetime in the sewing industry and is considered one of the foremost experts of pioneering machines and their inventors. He has written extensively for trade magazines, radio, television, books and publications world wide. You may have seen him on The Great British Sewing Bee or How The Victorians Built Britain.

The simple guide to dating your early Singer sewing machines.

( Where your Singer has two serial numbers always choose the larger of the two to date your machine )

Singer machine serial number dating Guide

(Brace yourself it's tricky!)

Please note this is only a guide , not gospel! Some people mail me to say they have a receipt from 1950 so how could my guide have their machine as made in 1948 or 1949 ? Let me explain. T he production runs at factories like Kilbowie were complex and long. The castings were marked with the serial number during manufacture. The machines were miles from completion, packing and delivery. Then there is delivery to the depot, storage , sales to the shop , and eventually sales to the customer .

The se factors all effect the purchase/receipt date , but not the date of manufacture.

For example during WW2 it is a well know fact the Singers were making guns and bullets as well as sewing machines. Only when they could spare the time would they continue with sewing machine production. I have come across a woman who bought her machine brand new in 1946 yet the casting was clearly made in 1939 just before the outbreak of WWII. During World War Two Singer had back orders for over three millions machines!

All Singers up until 1900 have no letter prefix and came from several factories around the world. The company cleverly managed their production from all factories to coincide with the serial number flow. If you fancy a read on the collapse of Singer in Britain have a go at End of Empire.

Very early Singers from the 1850's up until the start of prefix letters in 1900 had two serial numbers. There is a lot of controversy over why there were two lots of numbers. The most likely answer is that the larger number was the total number of machines produced by Singers when they only had a few factories and could keep up with, and control, the production output from Britain and America. They would order machines in batches say, 1,000 or 10,000 from Kilbowie, Elizabethport and elsewhere. The lower number may be the total production/batch run of that particular model range, the larger the overall total number of Singer machines made.

Singers have never manage to shed light on these two numbers!

Note: when two serial numbers are on the machine use the larger of the serial numbers.

Anyway here goes nothing. I do hope you find it useful.

On pre-1900 Singer machines if there are two serial numbers, always use the higher, longer, larger, serial number of the two to date your machine.

Pre 1900, 19th Century, Victorian Singer sewing machine serial numbers

1875 1,915,000-2,034,999
1876 2, 0 35,000-2,154,999
1877 2,155,000-2,764,999
1878 2,765,000-2,924,999
1879 2,925,000-3,679,999
1880 3,680,000-3,939,999
1881 3,940,000-4,889,999
1882 4,890,000-5,483,999
1883 5,494,000-6,004,999
1884 6,005,000-6,524,999
1885 6,525,000-7,046,499
1886 7,046,500-7,471,599
1887 7,471,600-7,918,999
1888 7,919,000-8,615,499
1889 8,615,500-9,436,999
1890 9,437,000-9,809,999
1891 9,810,000-10,629,999
1892 10,630,000-11,338,999
1893 11,339,000-11,913,499
1894 11,913,500-12,745,499
1895 12,475,500-13,387,999
1896 13,388,000-14,047,999
1897 14,048,000-14,919,999
1898 14,920,000-15,811,499
1899 15,811,500-16,831,099


The Magic Sewing Machine by Alex Askaroff
No1 New Release on Amazon. A tale for all ages.

After 1900 all Singers had a letter prefix before the serial number .

(The letter suffix after the model number denotes where the machine was manufactured)

For example , Singer model 99k serial number Y6307577 . The 99k denotes model 99 made in (K) for Kilbowie and the serial number Y6307577 gives us the year of manufacture as 1928 .

Singer manufacturing plants and letter s

Note: All the letters in BOLD below are letters that come AFTER the model number,
denoting place of manufacture.
For example Singer 15K- the K is for Kilbowie.
Singer 211G (model 211 made in Germany)
Singer 211U (model 211 made in Japan).

All letters not in bold prefix, come before the serial number, Example, A123456 - Podolsk, Poland
123456A - Anderson, USA

Some Singer model numbers made at Kilbowie, Clydebank, Scotland, Great Britain from 1900.

British serial number only

Both M & P produced at Kilbowie in 1900

1900 M-1 - M327100
1900 P-1 - P-404049
1901 P-404049 - P-999999
1902 R-1 - R-704424
1903 R-704424 - R-1388024
1904 J-1 - J-885.839
1905 J-885.840 - J-.905.204
1906 S-1 - S-1275049
1907 S-1275049 - S-2425059
1908 V-1 - V-499999
1909 V-50000 - V999999
1910 F-1 to F-1.079.124
1911 F-1.079.125 to F-1.987.314
1912 F-1.987.315 to F-3.316.719
1913 F-3.316.720 to F-4.621.564
1914 F-4.621.565 to F-5.915.524
1915 F-5.915.525 to F-6.646.349
1916 F-6.646.350 to F-7.314.979
1917 F-7.314.980 to F-8.147.769
1918 F-8.147.770 to F-8.721.799
1919 F-8.721.800 to F-9.317.989
1920 F-9.317.990 to F-9.999.999
Note Y & F produced in 1920 at Kilbowie
1920 Y-1 to Y-160.700
1921 Y-160.701 to Y-354.390
1922 Y-354.391 to Y-768.330
1923Y-768.331 to Y-1.628.300
1924 Y-1.628.301 to Y-2.344.170
1925 Y-2.344.171 to Y-3.775.310
1926 Y-3.775.311 to Y-4.387.390
1927 Y-4.387.391 to Y-5.658.823
1928 Y-5.658.824 to Y-6.307.594
1929 Y-6.307.595 to Y-7.450.266
1930 Y-7.450.267 to Y-8.375.207
1931 Y-8.375.208 to Y-8.449.942
1932 Y-8.449.943 to Y-8.633.634
1933 Y-8.633.635 to Y-9.162.104
1934 Y-9.162.105 to Y-9.633.846
1935 Y-9.633.847 to Y-9.999.999

Please note these are only for the British Singers

EA-000.001 to EA-203.878
EA-203.879 to EA-869.974
EA-869.975 to EA-999.999
EB-000.001 to EB-705.753
EB-705.754 to EB-956.428
EB-956.429 to EB-999.999
EC-000.001 to EC-589.135
EC-589.136 to EC-999.999
ED-000.001 to ED-202.377
ED-202.378 to ED-232.773
ED-232.774 to ED-242.053
ED-242.054 to ED-311.246
ED-311.247 to ED-745.856
ED-745.857 to ED-942.976
ED-942.977 to ED-999.999
EE-000.001 to EE-453.220
EE-453.221 to EE-933.528
EE-933.529 to EE-999.999
EF-000.001 to EF-600.940
EF-600.941 to EF-999.999
EG-000.001 to EG-312.860
EG-312.861 to EG-999.999
EH-000.001 to EH-012.026
EH-012.027 to EH-787.882
EH-787.883 to EH-999.999
EJ-000.001 to EJ-449.138
EJ-449.139 to EJ-999.999
EK-000.001 to EK-123.026
EK-123.027 to EK-992.399
EK-992.400 to EK-999.999
EL-000.001 to EL-999.999
EM-000.001 to EM-015.256
EM-015.257 to EM-999.999
EN-000.001 to EN-970.333
EN-970.334 to EN-999.999
EP-000.001 to EP-771.032
EP-771.033 to EP-999.999
ER-000.001 to ER-999.999
ES-000.001 to ES-238.743
ES-238.744 to ES-999.999
ET-000.001 to ET-179.954
ET-179.955 to ET-999.999
EV-000.001 to EV-019.712
EV-019.713 to EV-602.138
EV-602.139 to EV-999.999
EW-000.001 to EW-005.230
EW-005.231 to EW-020.180
EW-020.181 to EW-024.830
EW-024.831 to EW-030.680
EW-030.681 to EW-038.630
EW-038.631 to EW-045.210
EW-045.211 to EW-054.310

1935
1936
1937
1937
1938
1939
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1947
1948
1949
1949
1950
1950
1951
1951
1952
1953
1953
1954
1954
1955
1956
1956
1956
1957
1958
1959
1959
1960
1960
1960
1961
1961
1962
1962
1963
1964
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966

This list below can give you an idea for 19th century Singer machines. By the 20th century (after 1900) all Singer machines had a letter before the serial number.

Here are a few of the Singer factory letters around the world. These letter are before the serial numbers. Read the note below these letters.


F or some unknown reason the Singer page above had a piece of faulty information, serial letters JA, JB, JC, JD, JE above should be St John, Quebec, known today as St. Jean sue Richelieu.


A magical tale for all ages.

No1 NEW RELEASE, No1 BESTSELLER (Amazon July 2018). The Magic Sewing Machine. A tale for all ages.

Albert Cade, Sylko, his one-eyed dog and three naughty shop mice, Stinker, Squealer and Ragtail all live in a small tailors shop in Eastbourne. Albert is an old tailor with a secret, he has a magic sewing machine! All his work is perfect and every stitch a dream. The machine is called Clackety Clara after the first owner, Great Aunt Clara, a court dressmaker. She made dresses for duchesses and queens and tales say she even made a dress for a little cleaning maid that became a princess called Cinderella.

The books is crammed with wonderful characters including the fearsome Lady Iris Pratt, the awful mayor of Eastbourne, Arthur Crown, a group of singing pigeons and a local terror of a pub cat, Ophelia Dappleheart.

Join Albert and Sylko on the best adventure of their lives. This story with enthrall readers of all ages with fun and excitement, even a little touch of danger.

Thanks to your website, I have been able to date my $2 Trash and Treasure Singer as a 1939 model, manufactured in Scotland. It needed a good soaking in kerosine after I bought it about 12 years ago, but it continues to give good service in my workshop/garage. Thanks for th e research you have done.

Hello Alex,
I have tried a lot of places to date my singer and finally ran into your website. I found mine was made in 1897. Thank you so very much for all the hard work you put into setting up your page.
Barbara


Watch the video: not so rare after all bahco wrenches....just old adjustable spanners with a blonde touch (November 2021).