History Podcasts

Thoroughbred horse history on British Islands prior to 1686

Thoroughbred horse history on British Islands prior to 1686

It is well established, but oft overlooked, fact that almost all thoroughbred horses on the British Islands trace their ancestry to a single stallion, called Darley Arabian, brought to Britain by one Thomas Darley in 1704. We know that there was one famous horse prior to that date, Byerley Turk, brought to Britain in 1686 (his influence on the modern horses is much more modest, but at least we know he existed).

The descendants of those horses are very well accounted for in breed books; even more so, best horses, including the aforementioned breed progenitors, were painted on canvas, so we know exactly what they looked like. This is not at all surprising, considering how popular horse racing was and still is.

It is also highly unlikely that people were not at all interested in breeding fast horses prior to 1686/1704 - after all, back then the stakes on "bet to win" could literally be one's life in battle.

So, the question is, what do we know about the thoroughbred development history prior to 1686 (in Britain or elsewhere; Britain just happens to be the best in keeping its history in orderly fashion)?

Further clarifications

It is, of course, trivial fact that the term "thoroughbred" was only invented in the beginning of 18th century. My question begs to establish how the horse breeding was organized prior to the beginning of "thoroughbred" era (the term may be British, but the concept is definitely not).

  1. People who started the "thoroughbred" lineages definitely knew the value of good racing horse. They went through great expenses to bring those horses from the Middle East, breed them as extensively as they could and even bothered to commission portraits of those horses (so it was not an idle fancy by any measure).

  2. We know, that prior to invention of the term "thoroughbred", racing horses went by the name "palfrey". Good palfreys were as valuable as any later day thoroughbred and were used for the same exact purpose (horse back riding).

So, does anybody has any leads on studbooks or individual portraits of horses from the pre-thoroughbred time. I, personally, can not imagine that nobody bothered to keep a lineage or portrait of one of those super-expensive palfreys or destriers (such lineage would be handy for marketing purposes back then, if nothing else; a price of a single "noble" horse, as far as we know, was comparable to a price of a village, with land, peasants and all).


I think you're putting the cart before the horse! grin According to Wikipedia,

All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk (1680s), the Darley Arabian (1704), and the Godolphin Arabian (1729).[17][18] Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed. These included the Alcock's Arabian,[19] D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, and Curwen's Bay Barb.[20][21][notes 1] Another was the Brownlow Turk, who, among other attributes, is thought to be largely responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds.[19] In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred. The addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares[22] ultimately led to the creation of the General Stud Book (GSB) in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.[12]

So, before these, there was no such thing as a "thoroughbred" as we use the term today - at least, not in the UK. Can't speak for other countries, but think the English thoroughbred was the "gold standard" for others.

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thoroughbred


Eclipse was arguably the greatest racehorse of the 18 th century, racing in an era when the sport held little resemblance to modern horseracing. Eclipse won every race of his 18-race career, running distances of between 2 and 4 miles. His dominance was so marked that it led to the coining of the phrase "the rest were nowhere" in relation to decisive victories. His exploits are remembered to this day and the Group 1 Eclipse Stakes, France's Prix Eclipse and the US Eclipse Horse Racing Awards, are named in his honour.


via Rehs Galleries

West Australian's career didn't have an auspicious start - he lost the first race of his career. However, this unremarkable juvenile turned into a champion, reserving his finest performances for his season as a three-year-old. In 1853, West Australian became the first racehorse in history to claim the UK Triple Crown, winning the 2,000 Guineas, Epsom Derby and St. Leger Stakes. As a four-year-old, he also claimed the Ascot Gold Cup.


History of the Town

The Town of Hempstead is the largest township in the United States, encompassing over 142 square miles, with a population of approximately 770,000 people. Within the Town there are 34 unincorporated areas and 22 incorporated villages, over 65 parks and marinas, and 2,500 miles of city, county, state, and federal roads. The records in the holdings of the Town of Hempstead Archives portray events and transactions that impacted on the management, physical development, and governance of the Town of Hempstead.

The history of the Town of Hempstead really begins prior to its official inception in 1644. In 1636, settlers from the Plymouth, Massachusetts Colony established the towns of Hartford, Windsor and Wethersfield (called Watertown) in Connecticut. From Wethersfield, a handful of people journeyed along the Long Island Sound and established Stamford, Connecticut. This group included the Reverend Richard Denton and his four sons. In 1643, two emissaries &horbar Robert Fordham and John Carman, Fordham's son-in-law &horbar were sent across the Long Island Sound to the Dutch-held westerly part of Long Island to obtain town rights from William Kieft (Director General) and to purchase title from the Indians. In December of 1643, Carman and Fordham met with tribal representation of the Reuckowacky, the Merockes, Matinecock, and Massapequas and a land deed was negotiated on December 13, 1643. The deed failed to specify boundaries of the vast land tract that was to become Hempstead. Nor did it mention any form of compensation for the tribes. The Deed that Fordham and Carman had concluded with the Indians in 1643 was not confirmed until July 4, 1657.

Although colonists began to come over to what is present day Hempstead [the name Hempstead seems to derive from Hemel-Hempstead, in Great Britain, which means town spot.], it was not until November of 1644 that Dutch Director General William Kieft issued the patent granting the settlers rights and title [Kieft Patent].

During the early years, the decisions that came out of the Town of Hempstead Annual and Special Meetings formed the basis for local government and community living. Primarily, these decisions, often termed as "orders," dealt with the community land and the enforcement of local laws. The following excerpts provide a flavor of these early Town Meetings:

May 2, 1654 - It is ordered by all the inhabitants that hath any right in the work shall sufficiently make up either his or their proportion of fence at or before the 15th day of May next ensuing the date hereof stilo nova and every person or persons that is found negligent in so doing, shall pay for every rod defective two shillings and sixpence.(1)

May 2, 1658 - At a town meeting this present day, it is ordered that every inhabitant within this town of Hempstead shall within five days, after the date hereof, give in to be enlisted by the Town Clerk, all lands that was ploughed, and reaped and gathered viz. hollows, uplands, homelots, excepting one hollands acre by patent allowed, for each inhabitant, allowance whereby our tithe may be paid unto the Governor according to our agreement, being one hundred shocks of wheat.(2)

July 10, 1658 - It is ordered and agreede by general vote ye Mr. Richard Gildersleve, according to appointment is to go to Mannatens to agree with ye Governor concerning the tytles and therein is ordered not to exceede one hundred scheepels [sic] of wheate (and if required) it is to be delivered at the towne habour and the charge of his journey is to be defrayed by the towne.(3)

During the 20 years under Dutch rule, the Town of Hempstead had a good measure of self-rule. Elections were allowed for magistrates, a clerk, five townsmen, a pounder, cattle keepers, hay warden, and other local officials. Following the British taking of New York from the Dutch, the Duke's Law Convention was held in Hempstead in February, 1665. The purpose of the Convention was to adopt basic principles of law, local government, and approve a constitution. The following towns sent delegates: Southampton, Seatalcott (Brookhaven), Huntington, Oyster Bay, Hempstead, Jamaica, Gravesend, Newtown, Flushing, Brooklyn, Bushwick, Flatbush, New Utrecht, and from the mainland, Westchester. Hempstead sent John Hicks and Robert Jackson.

In 1683, the New York Colony divided into 12 counties, and Hempstead became part of Queens County. At the April 1, 1684 Town Meeting:

it is agreed upon by majority vote that all and every person that have had grants of home lots are obliged, either to fence, build upon or improve them within three years and one day's time, or if they do not improve the same Lotts according to ye above written agreement in the time specified, then the said home lotts belonging to the persons they were given to, are to return to the towne again. (4)

With the British back in charge, and Hempstead under British rule, the Town patent was again revised [Dongan Patent] in 1686.

As the Town continued to grow, record keeping and accounting was becoming more and more important, as is illustrated by the following excerpt:

At a general Town Meeting held at Hempstead the 22nd day of May 1711 it was voted by a major vote that every freeholder on the township of Hempstead shall give an account of what lands he hold in the township of Hempstead, and by what right he holds it by. (5)

By the mid-to-late 1700s, Town governance was becoming more complex and more detailed:

Town Meeting - the 30th day of March 1752. It was voted and agreed by the major vote of the tenants in common of Hempstead plains that the plains should be divided to every person that hath any right to the same according to every persons right in the patent with respect of quality the one part with the other after the deduction of former divisions, grants, hollows & highways.(6)

Town Meeting - the 14th day of April 1755, it was by the majority of the freeholders and tenants in common of the town voted and agreed upon to fence the plains belonging to this town off from the adjacent towns. (7)

Town Meeting - 19th day of April 1771 pursuant to a warrant granted for that purpose was then voted by a majority of the freeholders and inhabitants then assembled that the committee lately appointed to erect buildings to accommodate the poor belonging to this town be empowered and they are by the said town of Hempstead empowered to purchase land to erect the said buildings. (8)

Town Meeting - April 6, 1773 - At the same town meeting it was voted that the same persons that was appointed to build a poor [house] should erect a building nigh the same as a place of confinement and that the trustees pay them the expense of the same out of the public money in their hands.(9)

During the American Revolutionary War, settlers on the south shore of Hempstead were aligned with the British cause, and those on the north shore with the Revolutionary cause. So severe was this division that it lead to the formation, in 1784, of the separate Towns of South Hempstead and North Hempstead. The Town Records fail to indicate any reason whatsoever for the division and the only notation of a division is found in the following excerpt:

At a Town meeting held Hempstead according to adjournment the 15th day of April 1784 and the Town being then divided into two towns and after the town officers for South Hempstead were chosen the Town meeting chose by major vote John Hendrickson Senior and Nathaniel Seaman as a committee to associate with a committee to be chosen by the Town of North Hempstead for the purposes of dividing the poor and poor house of the two townships.(10)

During the 1800s, South Hempstead, which became known as Hempstead, continued to grow steadily. The population was 4,141 in 1800 by 1810 it was 5,084 and by 1830 it has grown to over 6,200. By 1855 it was the most populous town in Queens County with just under 10,500 people. Within 35 years the population more than doubled to just under 24,000 in 1900. Long Island was also growing during this period. The Long Island Telegraph was first published in the Village of Hempstead in 1830 (became the Hempstead Inquirer in 1831). The Long Island Railroad (chartered in 1834), decided that the line would be extended to Hempstead in 1836.

The Civil War, notated as the War of Rebellion in Town Records, did impact on the Town to an extent. In 1861, Camp Winfield Scott was set up on the Hempstead Plains by the Federal Government. At a Special Town Meeting on August 27, 1862 the following Resolutions were endorsed and adopted.

Resolved that to make ample provisions for the comfort of any who shall volunteer, and for their families in their absence this meeting of the citizens of the Town of Hempstead recommend that seventy five dollars bounty be given to each volunteer for the war, and, we also pledge ourselves to aid and protect the families of such during their absence.

Resolved, that to make provision for the payment of this bounty and having full confidence in the liberal policy and honor of the citizens of town, to sanction the same in special town meeting. This meeting respectfully and earnestly request Robert Cornwell Esq our supervisor, to borrow on the credit of the Town such sums as may be necessary, the aggregate of which shall not exceed twenty five thousand dollars, and that he pay to each volunteer enlisting the sum of seventy five dollars, on the presentation of proper vouchers of his enlistment from the Town of Hempstead and acceptance by the appointed officers of the Government.

Therefore Resolved by the legal voters of the Town of Hempstead in Special Town Meeting assembled, August 27th 1862 that the foregoing resolutions, be, and the same are hereby endorsed and adopted as the action of this Special Town Meeting.

Resolved, by the legal voters of the Town of Hempstead in Special Town Meeting assembled, that there be assessed and collected on the taxable real and personal property of said Town the sum not exceeding twenty five thousand dollars to be apportioned by the Supervisor of said Town in the payment of bounties to such persons who since the 13th day of August 1862, have enlisted or who may hereafter enlist in the volunteer service of the United States, pursuant to the proclamations of the President thereof.(11)

By the Annual Town Meeting of 1866, there was no mention whatsoever about the past war. The Meeting dealt with the election of officials and the following resolutions: raising over $80,000 to support the poor of the Town for the ensuing year appointment of a Sexton setting of times for the cutting of grass on the common marshes and beaches fines for cutting before specified time conveyance of a deed of land (forty acres) to the Queens County Agricultural Society for the promotion of agriculture the entire $700+ in the Relief Fund be appropriated to the support of the Town poor and the setting of the next annual meeting.(12)

Up until the mid-1870s, the Annual or Special Town Meetings were held at different locations. At the Town Meeting on April 7, 1874, it was "resolved that the sum of five thousand two hundred and fifty dollars ($5250) be appropriated by the board of Auditors from the surplus funds of the Town arising from the sale of the Hempstead Plains for the purpose of purchasing Washington Hall for the use of the Town."(13)

The late 1800s were relatively undisturbed times for Hempstead. The population growth was under 10,000 between 1880 and 1900. The Town, along with the rest of Long Island, supplied the Greater Metropolitan area with a multitude of farm products (dairy, produce, and livestock) and provided abundant recreational opportunities. Summer resorts (cottages, hotels, beach & boat clubs) abounded on the South Shore. Fox hunting was available in Westbury, East Williston, and Cedarhurst, and polo was played in Westbury. Horse racing, which dates back over 300 years, continued to enjoy a great deal of interest.

"On January 1, 1898, Chapter 378, of the Laws of 1897, went into effect, creating The (Greater) City of New York which included that part of Queens County known as the Towns of Jamaica, Newtown, Flushing and the Westerly Part of Hempstead. (The Rockaway.)" (14) "By Chapter 588, Laws of 1898, passed April 27, 1898, the County of Nassau was created, which included the Towns of Oyster Bay, North Hempstead, and that part of Hempstead not already incorporated into New York City."(15) At the December 28, 1898 Town Board Meeting it was "Resolved, That the Town Clerk be and is hereby authorized to procure a Seal of the Town changing the word Queens to Nassau County and have the same for use by January 1st 1899."(16)

By the turn of the century, Hempstead had a population of just over 27,000. The early 1900s saw the introduction of the trolley, which soon linked Mineola, Freeport, Hempstead, and Valley Stream. Also during the early 1900s Hempstead became the center of activity for aviation. In 1909, Glen Curtis flew his "Gold Bug" out of Mineola, followed in 1911 by the first air mail delivery to Washington, D.C., the flight of the dirigible (blimp) R-34 in 1919, and the famous Lindberg flight in 1927.

In 1917, a proposition was voted on for a Town Hall. It read "Shall the sum of Seventy-five thousand Dollars ($75,000) be raised by tax upon the taxable property of the Town of Hempstead, for the purpose of building a Town House in the Village and Town of Hempstead." Total ballots cast & counted: 3,849 Total YES - 1,899 Total NO - 1,772 Total Blank or Defective - 178.(17)

By 1930, the population of Hempstead grew to just over 186,000. After the Second World War, returning GIs and their families expanded the population from just over 265,000 in 1940 to 448,000 in 1950. Levittown serves as but one example of the suburban growth in the Town. Further population growth and development after the Korean War boosted the population to over 765,000 by 1960. The population peaked at just over 800,000 in 1970, and leveled at approximately 725,000 by the 1990s.


Before the Revolution

Americans can't travel to Cuba, but tourists from other parts of the world—mostly Europe and Canada—visit the island for its beaches, culture, Spanish colonial architecture and vintage American cars. They buy art and Che Guevara souvenirs in outdoor markets and drink beer in newly restored plazas, where musicians play Buena Vista Social Club tunes in a constant loop.

In some places, the country appears stuck in its pre-revolutionary past. The famous Hotel Nacional displays photographs of mobsters and celebrity guests. La Tropicana still features a nightly cabaret. And many Hemingway fans stop at La Floridita, one of his favorite haunts, to slurp down overpriced rum cocktails.

For many tourists, 1950s Cuba holds romantic appeal. Last year, more than two million people visited the island, bringing in revenues of $2.4 billion, according to the Cuban government. The tourism industry has saved Cuba from economic ruin more than once—most recently after the Soviet Union collapsed in the early 1990s. But tourism has provoked a tension between the sultry image paradise travelers expect to find and the country's steadfast desire to remain independent. In the years leading up to the Socialist Revolution, the façade came crashing down.

Cuba's reputation as an exotic and permissive playground came to light in the 1920s, when the country became a favorite destination for robber barons and bohemians. Scions like the Whitneys and the Biltmores, along with luminaries such as New York City Mayor Jimmy "Beau James" Walker, flocked to Cuba for winter bouts of gambling, horse racing, golfing and country-clubbing.

Sugar was Cuba's economic lifeline, but its tropical beauty—and tropical beauties—made American tourism a natural and flowing source of revenue. A 1956 issue of Cabaret Quarterly, a now-defunct tourism magazine, describes Havana as "a mistress of pleasure, the lush and opulent goddess of delights."

By the 1950s Cuba was playing host to celebrities like Ava Gardner, Frank Sinatra and Ernest Hemingway. But the advent of cheap flights and hotel deals made the once-exclusive hotspot accessible to American masses. For around $50—a few hundred dollars today—tourists could purchase round-trip tickets from Miami, including hotel, food and entertainment. Big-name acts, beach resorts, bordellos and buffets were all within reach.

"Havana was then what Las Vegas has become," says Louis Perez, a Cuba historian at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It attracted some of the same mafia kingpins, too, such as Meyer Lansky and Santo Trafficante, who were evading a national investigation into organized crime. In Cuba, they could continue their stock trade of gambling, drugs and prostitution, as long as they paid off government officials. The fees, however high, were a small price for an industry that raked in millions of dollars every month.

But while tourists eagerly spun the roulette wheel in sexy Havana, a revolution brewed in the less glamorous countryside. The sugar boom that had fueled much of Cuba's economic life was waning, and by the mid-'50s it was clear that expectations had exceeded results. With no reliable economic replacement in sight, Cubans began to feel the squeeze. Poverty, particularly in the provinces, increased.

Unlike other Caribbean islands, however, Cuba boasted a large upper-middle class. Cubans had fought vehemently for independence from Spain from the 1860s to the 1890s, but by the 20th century, the country had become beholden economically to the United States.

By the late 1950s, Cubans drove American cars, owned TVs, watched Hollywood movies and shopped at Woolworth's department store (Cuba today). All the while, though, a revolution brewed. (Teresa Eng) Cubans had fought vehemently for independence from Spain from the 1860s to the 1890s, but by the 20th century, the country had become beholden economically to the United States (a Cuban street, with a classic American car, today). (iStockphoto)

By the late '50s, U.S. financial interests included 90 percent of Cuban mines, 80 percent of its public utilities, 50 percent of its railways, 40 percent of its sugar production and 25 percent of its bank deposits—some $1 billion in total. American influence extended into the cultural realm, as well. Cubans grew accustomed to the luxuries of American life. They drove American cars, owned TVs, watched Hollywood movies and shopped at Woolworth's department store. The youth listened to rock and roll, learned English in school, adopted American baseball and sported American fashions.

In return, Cuba got hedonistic tourists, organized crime and General Fulgencio Batista. In military power since the early 1930s, Batista appointed himself president by way of a military coup in 1952, dashing Cubans' long-held hope for democracy.

Not only was the economy weakening as a result of U.S. influence, but Cubans were also offended by what their country was becoming: a haven for prostitution, brothels and gambling.

"Daily life had developed into a relentless degradation," writes Louis Perez in his 1999 book On Becoming Cuban, "with the complicity of political leaders and public officials who operated at the behest of American interests."

In 1957, a group of students fed up with government corruption stormed the National Palace. Many historians consider this a turning point in the revolution.

Over the next few years, bursts of violence erupted throughout the city. Bombs exploded in movie theaters and nightclubs. Gunshots rang out. Dead bodies turned up on sidewalks and streets.

"There had been an idealization of the [Cuba's] War of Independence and of being a revolutionary," says Uva de Aragon, a Cuban academic now living in Miami. "In this climate, people thought revolution was a solution to problems."

Bloody battles ensued between Batista's troops and the rebels in the mountains. Still, Cubans tried to keep some normalcy in their lives, going to school, watching baseball games and taking cha-cha lessons.

"It was surreal," says de Aragon. "There was a lot of fear in those last two or three years." A teenager at the time, she was particularly aware of what was happening because her step-father, Carlos Marquez Sterling, had run for president against Batista and lost Marquez wanted negotiation, but Batista's camp claimed power.

All classes of Cubans, including the very rich, looked to the young and charismatic Fidel Castro as their hope for democracy and change. Castro, a young lawyer trained at the University of Havana, belonged to a wealthy landowning family, but espoused a deep nationalism and railed against corruption and gambling. "We all thought this was the Messiah," says Maria Christina Halley, one of Uva's childhood friends. Her family later fled to the United States and now she teaches Spanish in Jacksonville, Florida.

When Castro's entourage finally arrived in Havana in January of 1959 after defeating Batista's troops, Batista had already fled in the middle of the night, taking more than $40 million of government funds.

In protest of the government's corruption, Cubans immediately ransacked the casinos and destroyed the parking meters that Batista had installed. Castro also eliminated gambling and prostitution, a healthy move for the national identity, but not so much for the tourism industry.

More than 350,000 visitors came to Cuba in 1957 by 1961, the number of American tourists had dropped to around 4,000. The U.S. government, responding to increasing intolerance of Castro's communism, delivered a final blow by enacting the trade and travel embargo in 1963, still in place today, closing off the popular Caribbean playground to Americans.

Still, the excitement and solidarity brought by the new government didn't last long, Halley says. Many of Castro's supporters ended up fleeing when they realized his Communist intentions. Between 1959 and 1970, half a million Cubans left the country.

"It all happened so fast," says Halley, who boarded a plane with just one suitcase in 1960, expecting to come back in a few months. Almost 50 years later, she and many others who left are still waiting for a chance to return.

Natasha Del Toro, a journalist in Tampa Bay, Florida, has produced a short documentary for PBS Frontline World on Cuban artists.


A New Horse With an Unknown History: Where to Start?

I purchased a horse, and she came with no health records. How do I get her back on a preventive care regimen?

Q. I recently purchased a horse from an auction, and she came with no health records whatsoever. I have no clue where to start when it comes to getting her back on a preventive health regimen. Should I just deworm and vaccinate her like my other horses? Does she need any special care?

A. Any new horse to your own farm with horses or a boarding/training barn situation should always be placed in a quarantine area for a minimum of 14 to 21 days. A “Welcome Barn” that is situated away from the regular herd or horse traffic—but close enough that the new horse doesn’t feel isolated for one month—is recommended. This allows the barn manager or farm owner to monitor the new horse for potential contagious diseases, such as strangles or influenza. Then after the quarantine time period, you can introduce the horse to the rest of the horses.

When acquiring a new horse, a good health maintenance history can help your veterinarian set up a proper herd health program. If a history is unavailable, then a good physical exam of the horse, including an oral exam, will help you and your veterinarian set up the proper dental care, foot care, and vaccination/deworming program.

A fecal test is recommended rather than random deworming. Take a small manure sample to your veterinarian prior to the first appointment. This will allow your veterinarian to incorporate the parasite condition of your horse at the first physical exam.

Depending on the horse’s age and limited history, your veterinarian will then recommend a good vaccination program. Most likely a booster vaccination (or two if your horse is under one year of age) will be warranted to properly protect your horse from disease. Any horse without a good history is considered “naive,” meaning without protection, for any disease protected by vaccinations.

Your vet will include body condition scoring in your horse’s exam and can advise you on a proper diet, which is also important. If possible, mix the horse’s previous diet with the new one. If none of the old diet came with the horse, then introduce your feed, hay, and pasture slowly. This is where a thorough oral exam by your veterinarian will aid in a proper nutrition program. Addressing the dental condition of the horse’s mouth by equilibrating the teeth may be necessary to help with weight gain or riding/training.

Both your veterinarian and your farrier should evaluate your new horse’s feet. Depending on the environment that she came from, your horse’s feet might require no change, or your veterinarian and farrier might need to work together in balancing the feet.

A thorough exam of your horse by your veterinarian will help you get going in the right direction with your new horse.


Racehorse Training, Drug History Needed to Understand Breakdowns

We asked Prof. Tim Parkin about the data the Equine Injury Database collects on catastrophic racing injuries and how the industry could make it even stronger and more useful.

Over the six-month meet at Santa Anita racetrack, in Arcadia, California, 30 Thoroughbred racehorses died or were euthanized due to injuries sustained while training or racing. When the precise reasons for catastrophic racehorse injuries aren’t clear, as is the case at Santa Anita, science—specifically, collections of data—can help. But for that data to be most useful for preventing future injuries, it needs to include comprehensive, accurate medication and training history data, says Prof. Tim Parkin, Sc, BVSc, PhD, DECVPH, MRCVS, veterinarian and epidemiologist at the University of Glasgow and consultant to The Jockey Club’s Equine Injury Database (EID).

An epidemiologist is someone who seeks to find the cause of health outcomes and disease in populations. In his EID role Parkin analyzes information on all horses at participating tracks that die or are euthanized as a direct result of injuries sustained while participating in a race and within 72 hours of a race (this includes musculoskeletal injuries, nonmusculoskeletal injuries, and sudden deaths). The database also contains information on training and nonracing fatalities, though those are not included in the EID annual statistics.

We at The Horse were curious about the data the EID is collecting and how the industry could make it even stronger and more useful, so we interviewed Prof. Parkin.

The Horse: Could you describe the gamut of data you collect surrounding each catastrophic injury, please? Surface type, distance, and age are in the reports, but what further data do you collect, if it’s more expansive?

Parkin: There is plenty of other information available to us from The Jockey Club that relates to the racing history of the horse, the conditions on the day of the race and, to a certain extent, prior workout data. Perhaps more importantly we create a lot of new potential risk factors from the data provided.

For example, we calculate for every start the number of prior starts in the last 30 days, 30 to 60 days, and 60 to 90 days, etc. In the next iteration of the models (which assess how successfully a potential risk factor does its job in predicting whether a horse sustains an injury) we are developing, we will also include measures of changes in intensity of racing or working at speed that are likely to help improve the predictive ability of the models. Those models will now include on initial assessment close to 150 different potential risk factors. The two peer-reviewed publications so far … include details of all significant variables we have investigated.

The Horse: Do you also collect information on injuries that are not career-ending or fatal? If so, how do you put that data to use?

Parkin: The EID does collect this information, but it is more difficult to verify and classify. It is easy to tell if a horse has died during racing, but much more difficult to definitively identify horses with particular types of injury. Having said that, nonfatal injuries during racing have been included in previous models predicting fatal injury and have been shown to be significant. IF we were able to collect (with some consistency and certainty) nonfatal injuries from training, I am sure these would be significant in terms of predicting the risk of fatal injury during racing.

If we knew exactly what every horse experienced on every day of its life (nutrition, training, veterinary history, treatments etc.), I am sure our models would be much more predictive.

The Horse: We learned about the importance of “big data” in an interview in March and said that epidemiologists have evaluated at least 300 potential risk factors in this area of study. Does the EID produce the amount of big data needed to realistically pinpoint the combination of factors causing the breakdowns at Santa Anita? If not, what more would it need to collect/would you like to see?

Parkin: Big data has two aspects:

  1. The number of observations collected (in this case, starts by individual horses on the track). In this regard we have plenty of data – multi-millions of rows of data with each row representing a different start, so there is no problem with statistical power of the studies to identify risk factors if they exist.
  2. The scope of the data – in other words how many different variables, covering different aspects of the horse’s career,,are collected. This is the area that should be the focus for the next generation of models. If we knew exactly what every horse experienced on every day of its life (nutrition, training, veterinary history, treatments etc.), I am sure our models would be much more predictive.

The work I presented at the Welfare and Safety Summit in 2016 shows that we could explain about 35% of the drop in fatal injury rate from 2015. That left 65% unexplained, which I, at least in part, attribute to information and data associated with training and veterinary histories. The goal of this work is to predict 100% of what is predictable. There will always be some “bad luck” involved in (racing) fatal injuries and we will never be able to predict and prevent all injuries, but with additional data scope, covering as many areas of the horses’ “lifetime experience” as possible, I am convinced we can do better.

The Horse: In a release in March you noted a need for focus on the medications present in horses during racing and training, transparency of veterinary records for all starters. What challenges do you face in increasing the amount of data you can collect on this, especially regarding testing challenges for some drugs? And with the current focus on safety after the Santa Anita deaths, do you expect transparency to improve? What will it take to get information on medication that you need?

Part of the work we do to encourage supply of this information has to be a clear recognition, on our part, of the pressures that trainers face in terms of needing to get horses to the track and the accompanying financial considerations

Parkin: This is really very simple. We need those involved in racing who care for and are responsible for horses that race for our pleasure to understand the importance and potential impact of medications on risk during racing. It needs people like me to be better at discussing and explaining the importance of these factors to stakeholders. We need to be better at providing the evidence-base showing the link between, in particular, the use of NSAIDs and corticosteroids, etc., and the risk of breakdown. Horses that are able to race (or train) faster than they otherwise would, simply because pain is being masked, are bound to be at greater risk of injury.

Reliable medication information will only be made available with stakeholder buy-in. Compelling declaration of medical records without ensuring that trainers and others recognize the importance of this information will compromise the quality of that information and compliance with its supply. Part of the work we do to encourage supply of this information has to be a clear recognition, on our part, of the pressures that trainers face in terms of needing to get horses to the track and the accompanying financial considerations. We need to work with them, hand-in-hand, so that we all have the opportunity to contribute to improved welfare of the racehorse.

The Horse: You’d also mentioned the need for information from morning training hours. It sounds like horses sustaining fatal catastrophic injuries during morning training hours also undergo necropsies, but is that information less complete than what’s collected from racing? What about non-career-ending injuries?

Parkin: As above, the more information we have from any source the more predictive our models will be.

The Horse: For nonfatal catastrophic injuries that undergo surgery, is there useful additional information to be gained by how the horse’s bones heal? Or would that dataset be too small to give credence?

Parkin: Probably of use, but as you suggest it would be such a small subset of the data that it would not influence the overall picture.

The Horse: Sky’s the limit, if you were to curate the perfect information set to dial down the specific constellation of factors that leads to breakdown, in order to prevent it, what would it include?

Parkin: On top of what we already have, these would be my priorities:


Off to the Races

At 24 years of age, William Byrd III presided over a vast Virginia estate that included Westover, a prosperous tobacco plantation on the James River. He possessed a round face, soft eyes, immaculate public manners and a new toy—a horse named Tryal he had just imported from England. Byrd was also an insatiable gambler captivated by dice, cards, horse racing, billiards, backgammon, lotteries—anything an American colonist could bet on in 1752.

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The young aristocrat wanted nothing more than to show off his new horse and, at the same time, make a gambling score, the bigger the better. His flamboyant urges resulted in the first historically significant Thoroughbred horse race on American soil: an epic five-horse, four-mile contest on a hilly Tidewater loam known as Anderson’s Race Ground, held before a noisy swarm of racing fans in Gloucester, Virginia, near Williamsburg, on December 5, 1752. It was “in many ways the most important race of the colonial era,” according to John Hervey, an eminent racing historian from the first half of the 20th century. It also foretold the fortunes of two of its principals—Byrd himself and a remarkable Thoroughbred named Selima.

Byrd’s grandfather had come to America from England around 1669 and parlayed an inheritance into a profitable fur-trading business. Byrd’s father collected books and wrote witty poems and intimate diaries, founded Richmond, built a breathtaking Georgian mansion at his Westover plantation in Virginia and increased the Byrd fortune through land speculation before his death in 1744.

Young Byrd wanted to maintain the family’s place in society, and he seemed well on his way. He was already a justice of the peace and had been elected to Virginia’s governing House of Burgesses, following in his father’s footsteps. He relished displaying his wealth, the more ostentatious the better. While commanding a military unit at a remote outpost several years later, he received a wagonload of wine, coffee, brandy, soap and chocolate, enabling him to maintain his abundant lifestyle in difficult circumstances.

“I think he thought he was the wealthiest man in the world, and he certainly behaved that way,” says Marion Tinling, a historian who has studied the Byrd family correspondence.

Running a horse in an important race was, Byrd believed, yet another way to emphasize his prominence. “That was what the wealthy gentlemen of the day did: they raced their horses against each other and staked their reputations on it,” says Ellen Moyer, the current mayor of Annapolis, Maryland, a racing center during the colonial era.

Neither Byrd’s father nor his grandfather had raced horses, so the young aristocrat saw the Gloucester race as a chance to succeed on his own, apart from their enduring influence. But what he found more enticing was a chance to win money. He had taken up gambling when his parents sent him to London to study law at age 18. Sheltered as a boy in Virginia— his schooling took place at home because his parents feared exposing him to smallpox—he cut loose mightily once he was on his own. There was a story that he had lost thousands of pounds to the Royal Duke of Cumberland in a single sitting at a West End club. As popular as gambling was among England’s privileged, Byrd was smitten beyond reason.

When he returned to Virginia, he married the daughter of another wealthy tobacco planter, built a mansion on a hill near Richmond and started a family. When the mansion at Westover, where his mother still resided, was damaged in a fire, he rebuilt it with the finest materials and objects, including the most expensive billiards table in Virginia. But while he seemed the very embodiment of colonial gentry, sinister influences lurked inside. He would turn on his mother who doted on him, calling her “insane.” And a French visitor to a Williamsburg tavern later wrote that Byrd was “never happy but when he has . . . Dices in hand.” Gambling consumed him.

“He was an unfortunate man in many respects,” says Tinling. “He had no head for business and didn’t know how to manage his money. He didn’t make very good friends. He didn’t like his mother, who wanted the best for him. There was not a lot that went right.”

After importing Tryal around 1752, Byrd issued a challenge that was audacious even by his standards: he would put up 500 Spanish pistoles, an outrageous amount, for any horse in the land to race against Tryal, with the winner taking the entire purse. He used Spanish currency, the backbone of the shipping trade, but the gamble was colossal in any coin. One pistole was the cost of a cow. Five hundred could furnish a mansion or buy a dozen slaves.

“The money on the table was phenomenal,” says Stephen Patrick, director of the City of Bowie Museums, which include the BelairMansion and the BelairStableMuseum in Maryland.

America in 1752 was a divided sprawl of Quakers and Puritans, Catholics and Dutch, Yankees and Southerners, Tories and slaves. More than a million people resided in what was still, in some ways, a brutal frontier, with disease claiming many children, Indians attacking the fringes, and pickpockets and horse thieves being put to death. But a sophisticated society was rapidly evolving as every year ships delivered more people and culture from England. There was theater to enjoy, newspapers to read and postal routes for the mail.

The population was still too far-flung and disparate to agree on much, especially independence, an idea just beginning to percolate. But colonists from Rhode Island to the Carolinas could all agree that nothing was more heavenly than a fast horse.

Racing in the New World dated to 1665, when New York’s royal governor plotted a track on a Long Island plain shortly after the Dutch surrendered the territory. Until the 1720s, a typical race was a quarter-mile sprint between two horses, usually resulting from an argument between wealthy country gentlemen convinced they owned the faster horse. The men frequently rode their own horses, often grabbing and punching each other as they hurtled down narrow racing lanes surrounded by fans hurling bets back and forth. These bawdy affairs known as path races took place in front of taverns, on city squares or at country fairs. They were particularly popular in Virginia, Maryland and the Carolinas.

A more sophisticated sport known as course racing had already sprouted in England by the early 1700s. Queen Anne opened the royal track at Ascot, and other racecourses followed. The typical race became a longer contest—four miles was the classic distance—between groups of horses competing for money and trophies.

In the colonies, the sport soon took a similar evolutionary turn. America’s first jockey club, composed of wealthy horse owners and breeders, was organized in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1734. Five years later, Williamsburg’s Virginia Gazette heralded a race in which eight horses competed over a one-mile course, with a trumpeter’s blast signaling the start and the winner earning 40 shillings.

In wealthy Annapolis, whose inhabitants, it was said, were more British than the British, the highlight of the social season was a week of parties and plays organized around a racing meeting. In 1743, a silversmith was commissioned to make a trophy for the Annapolis Subscription Plate, a premier event of the city’s September races.

The prestige and money associated with racing success inspired breeders to try to produce speedier horses. British soldiers had long returned from desert battle fronts with stories of their opponents’ astounding horses sprinting through the sand, so Middle Eastern sires were imported to England, leading to the foundation of a new breed, the Thoroughbred. At first known simply as blooded horses, these leaner, faster equines soon arrived in the colonies, attracting gawkers and vastly increasing interest in the sport. New oval tracks that gave spectators a better view further increased its appeal.

Only the wealthy could pay for a horse to take a threemonth boat trip across the rough Atlantic, of course. Samuel Gist of Hanover County, Virginia, was the first on record to do it, bringing over Bulle Rock, a 21-year-old, in 1730. Bulle Rock was much too old to race, but Gist wanted him to sire a new generation of faster horses. Others who imported Thoroughbreds included Samuel Ogle, the royal governor of Maryland Ogle’s brother-in-law, Benjamin Tasker Jr., a young colonel in the militia serving Anne Arundel County, Maryland and John Tayloe II, an avid horseman whose Mount Airy estate, in Richmond County, Virginia, later became a racing center.

Byrd wanted to be included in such company, but his judgment in horseflesh was flawed in one important regard: Tryal “had not been a success when raced” in England, according to John Hervey. The chestnut horse was also, at 10 years old, long past whatever prime he may have once enjoyed.

Byrd’s challenge, as foolish as it was bold, attracted interest. Tayloe offered to put up a thousand pistoles and run two imported Thoroughbreds against Tryal. Another Virginian, Francis Thornton, entered a fast gray mare that had not been imported. Colonel Tasker sent word from Maryland that he would bring a mare named Selima. The race was thus worth 2,500 pistoles, an astonishing sum at a time when a racewinning horse typically earned about 30 pistoles.

Tasker’s decision to enter Selima incited passions in Maryland, where horse owners and breeders believed their racing was superior to Virginia’s, an attitude their neighbors loathed. The colonies had battled over many issues, including rights to the Chesapeake Bay, and Selima’s entry took on sizable symbolic weight.

Like Byrd, Tasker was from society’s pinnacle. His father was the mayor of Annapolis. His sister was married to Maryland governor Ogle. At 32, he was an Annapolis city councilman and served in the upper house of Maryland’s colonial legislature. If contemporary paintings are a guide, Tasker was distinctively handsome with high cheekbones, a sharp nose and trim build. He would later represent Maryland at the Albany Congress, where the idea of colonial unity was first broached. “He was a popular man, and very active in political life,” says Shirley Baltz, a historian in Bowie, Maryland, who recently relocated to New Jersey.

But he was different from Byrd in that, as the grandson of a self-made man who came to America as an indentured servant, he did not take his wealth and comfort for granted. He had endured terrible despair—the deaths of five brothers before adulthood—and even his last name intimated a sense of purpose.

When Ogle died in 1752, leaving a 3-year-old son as his primary heir, Tasker and his father assumed responsibility for the boy. Unmarried and childless himself, Tasker moved into Ogle’s sprawling country estate, known as Belair, 15 miles west of Annapolis. Some might have perceived this as opportunism, but Tasker’s profits from the arrangement were minimal he used his own money on major improvements that raised the value of the estate for his nephew, Benjamin Ogle, who would later gain control of the property and become governor of Maryland in 1778.

The Maryland Gazette described Tasker as “courteous . . . steady and sincere,” and Benjamin Franklin, whom Tasker met at the Albany Congress, called him “amiable and worthy.” Putting 500 pistoles on the line was not a decision to be made casually. But he accepted Byrd’s challenge because he had faith in Selima and because his equine judgment, unlike Byrd’s, was sound. At age 7, Selima was at the peak of her racing prowess. Abay mare with a faint white star on her forehead and a splash of white on her left hind ankle, she was the first preternatural talent to cross the Atlantic and race in the colonies.

“She was the whole package,” says Anne Peters, a pedigree consultant who is also editor of Owner-Breeder International, an equine magazine, and co-founder of the Thoroughbred Heritage racing history Web site.

Selima’s sire was one of three Middle Eastern horses that had started the Thoroughbred breed. Foaled in Yemen around 1724 and shipped through Syria and Tunisia, the stallion, known to history as the Godolphin Arabian, had found his way, the legend goes, to the royal stable of France’s King Louis XIV. An Englishman named Edward Coke saw him in Paris, bought him and brought him back to England. After Coke died, the horse was passed on to Francis Godolphin, son of the lord treasurer to Queen Anne. Known as the Earl of Godolphin, Francis had a stud farm near the racing town of Newmarket.

The Godolphin Arabian was bred with the earl’s finest mares, one of which, a bay later known as Shireborn, could be traced to Queen Anne’s personal stable. Shireborn delivered Selima on April 30, 1745, at the earl’s stud farm. Tasker, in England on an extended visit, bought her for an amount lost to history. There is no record of her racing in England before being shipped to Maryland in September 1750.

According to the earl’s studbook, which was uncovered in the 1930s by C. M. Prior, an English pedigree expert, Selima was supposedly in foal—pregnant—when she was shipped across the Atlantic. “But there is no evidence that she produced a foal,” Peters says. “She probably either lost it on the long trip across the Atlantic, or it died.”

Selima was trained to race at Belair in 1751 and 1752. “It may well have been that they said, ‘Well, she’s not in foal, so let’s just put her in training and see what happens,’” Peters adds. Her racing debut was in Annapolis in May 1752. There, she defeated another English mare, Creeping Kate, winning 40 pounds, or about 50 pistoles. Her speed and heart were apparent. Described by Hervey as “one of those majestic matriarchs whose greatness is monumental,” she was a more formidable racehorse than Byrd ever expected Tryal to encounter at Gloucester.

Her trip to the race was painstaking. Belair was almost 150 miles from Gloucester, and she likely walked the entire distance, led by a succession of stablehands. “A horse seldom rode in a cart to a race in those days for the most part, they were walked,” says Tom Gilcoyne, a former historian at the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in Saratoga Springs, New York. The horses belonging to Byrd, Tayloe and Thornton also were walked, but their trips were shorter they were stabled just a few miles from the course.

Few details of the race survive. The only known newspaper account was a brief report in Annapolis’ Maryland Gazette listing the order of finish and referring to the occasion as “great.” But racing historians can help set the scene. For instance, although the jockeys went unnamed, many in the era were young male slaves, Gilcoyne says. And the era’s typical handicapping weight—the amount each horse had to carry— was 140 pounds (10 to 15 more than the best American Thoroughbreds carry today) including the jockey and his riding tack. Atrumpeter probably started the race.

It takes little imagination to conjure up the rest of the day’s images: the taciturn Tasker sitting on racing’s version of an unbeatable hand at poker the confident Byrd unaware that he had been caught in a trap he had set for himself hundreds of spectators spread across the race grounds, making wagers and shouting loyalties to Maryland and Virginia. “Agreat rivalry between the states started that day,” Annapolis mayor Moyer says.

Selima won, followed by Tryal, Thornton’s gray mare, and Tayloe’s two imports, one of which later became a popular sire. The victory was monumental. Tasker and Selima were welcomed back as heroes in Maryland, having defeated not just the imprudent Byrd but all of Virginia. Selima’s winning time went unrecorded, but the era’s fastest horses covered four miles in about eight minutes. Today’s best American horses seldom race longer than a mile and a quarter, the distance of the KentuckyDerby (though the Belmont Stakes, the last leg of the Triple Crown, is a mile and a half).

Virginia’s racing community was outraged at losing so much money to an imported horse like Selima. New Yorkers no longer allowed such imports, which they called ringers, to race in their colony, and Virginians somehow believed Tasker had duped them. (Never mind that three of the horses Selima defeated, including Tryal, also were imports.) They banned all Maryland horses from competing in Virginia. “It seemed the feeling in Virginia was, ‘You took our money, a lot of our money, and we’re not happy about it,’” Moyer says.

Maryland breeders soon circumvented the ban by taking their pregnant mares to Virginia to deliver their foals, producing animals that were technically Virginia born and thus eligible to race there, even though they would be maintained in Maryland.

Selima’s victory was “the beginning of the competition between Maryland and Virginia,” says racing historian Francis Barnum Culver, author of Blooded Horses of Colonial Days, a volume self-published in 1922.

Selima was retired from racing after 1752, her colonial career as spectacular as it was brief, consisting of two victories in two starts. She proved even more estimable as a broodmare. Mated only with stallions imported from England, she produced ten sons and daughters, the first six for Tasker and four for Tayloe, who, when Tasker died in 1760, bought her for an unknown amount and moved her to MountAiry. “Out of the ten, there was only one clunker in the bunch,” says Owner- Breeder’s Anne Peters. “Alot of people presume a great race mare is going to become a great broodmare, but the reality is it seldom happens. Selima was the best of both. She not only dominated in racing, she dominated the breeding of her time through her sons and daughters.

“Out of all the mares that were imported in that era, she was the most influential.”

Her most famous son was Selim, a temperamental bay foaled at Belair in 1759. Sold as a yearling to Samuel Galloway, proprietor of the Tulip Hill estate near Annapolis, Selim began competing at age 4 and never lost until he was 9, then continued with few defeats until retiring at 13. In his greatest victory, a virtual replay of his dam’s finest moment, he defeated Yorick, a Virginia-bred chestnut, in a Chestertown, Maryland, race that took place in 1766 when the local gentry raised 100 pistoles to lure what Culver called “the two most famous horses on this continent.”

Selima’s offspring also included a succession of females that produced many generations of winners and champions. “For 50 years or more, whenever they gave the bloodlines of a horse, they would always try to track it back to Selima to prove its worthiness,” says historian Baltz. “Selima’s name appeared very frequently in advertisements long after she was gone. Hers was very much a special bloodline.”

Her direct descendants included Lexington, the greatest American sire of the 19th century Foxhall, one of the best American-breds that ever ran in Europe and Hanover, winner of 17 straight races, including the 1887 Belmont Stakes. “Her [pedigree] line continued to produce the greatest runners America ever had,” Peters says.

Selima’s genetic impact was so profound that her name remained in circulation long after most of her contemporaries had been forgotten. Maryland’s Laurel Park named a major race for her in 1926 at the suggestion of William Woodward Sr., a New York banker who then owned Belair, which was still one of America’s top racing stables. (Woodward’s son William was shot to death by his wife, Ann, in 1955 in a celebrated case that became the basis for Dominick Dunne’s book The Two Mrs. Grenvilles.)

Much as Selima’s abiding fame was prophesied in Gloucester, the race also augured Byrd’s dismal fate. Undaunted by Tryal’s defeat, he continued to import blooded horses and to breed Thoroughbreds, but he never took part in another major race.

He achieved respectability as a soldier in the late 1750s and early 1760s, commanding the Virginia Militia’s second company, then replacing George Washington as the first company’s commander. Later, he was an important administrator at the College of William and Mary. His family’s prominent descendants include brothers Richard Byrd, a Naval officer who explored the North and South poles, and Harry Flood Byrd, a Democrat who was governor of Virginia and then represented the state in the U.S. Senate from 1933 to 1965. (Robert Byrd, the current U.S. senator from West Virginia, is not related.)

In 1756, he deserted his wife, with whom he had had five children, and later took up with a daughter of a former mayor of Philadelphia. Climbing up a chest of drawers in their home, his still distraught wife, according to one source, was searching for letters she believed would confirm his adultery. The chest tipped over, crushing her to death.

Byrd remarried and had ten more children, but he went deeply into debt after a tobacco glut led to a downturn in the market in the 1760s, and his hopes for recovery were undone by his gambling and expensive tastes. He put his holdings up for sale in a private lottery in 1768, but the return was disappointing. Pitifully, he thought the 1771 deaths of his mother and eldest son might save him, but he was largely ignored in their wills. “His family turned against him,” says Tinling. “He had lost their respect.”

With his debts overwhelming and his credit gone, he added to his troubles by favoring moderation rather than independence before the Revolutionary War, further isolating him from colonial leaders with whom he had once collaborated in society, politics and war. On the first day of 1777, at age 48, distraught and deeply in debt, he shot himself dead. “His life was a series of unfortunate choices,” says Tinling.


Thoroughbred horse history on British Islands prior to 1686 - History

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January 19, 2010 - Scott Brown, a Republican reformer from Massachusetts, stuns the nation with an upset win for the special election Senate seat. He is the first Republican elected to the Senate from the state since 1972 and only Republican member of the Massachusetts Democratic congressional delegation. His election puts a halt to the 60 seat Democratic super majority in the Senate and will prevent President Obama and the Democratic leadership from pushing legislation in future votes past a Republican filibuster.

March 25, 2010 - The U.S. House of Representatives finalizes the Health Care legislation approved by the Senate, extending health benefits and insurance to most Americans. The legislation, the Affordable Care Act, passed on a partisan basis by the Democratic Majority, has caused a significant rift within the public, who disapproved of the bill, and is expected to test the Democratic Party's hold on both houses of Congress during the mid-term elections in November.

April 1, 2010 - The U.S. Census of 2010 is conducted, showing a 9.7% increase from the 2000 census for a total of 308,745,538 people. The geographic center of the population is now 2.7 miles northeast of Plato, Missouri.

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April 14, 2011 - Congress votes to pass the 2010-2011 budget after six months of negotiations, including $38 billion in fiscal year cuts. This vote was one of the first measures that showed the new dynamic of a U.S. House of Representatives in Republican hands that was focused, due to Tea Party member goals, to get the burgeoning federal deficit under control.

May 2, 2011 - Osama Bin Laden, mastermind of the 9/11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and other locations and leader of the terrorist group, Al-Queda, is killed after ten years of pursuit by United States and coalition forces during a raid by U.S. Navy Seals on his hideout location in Pakistan.

December 15, 2011 - The war in Iraq is declared over when President Obama orders the last combat troops to leave the country.

May 2, 2012 - At a New York auction house, the highest payment for a work of art, the Scream by Edvard Munch, is paid, costing $120 million dollars.

October 29, 2012 - Hurricane Sandy, taking an unusual track up the East Coast and coming to landfall on the New Jersey coast near Atlantic City and Long Island coasts of New York creates significant damage to coastal towns as well as the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island, to the estimated cost of $65.6 billion. The hurricane, at its peak a Category 2 storm, was the largest storm in recorded history by diameter at 1,100 miles.

November 6, 2012 - President Barack Obama wins a significant victory, 332 electoral votes to 206, for his second term in office against Republican challenger and businessman Mitt Romney. Congress remained status quo with divided government as the House of Representatives remained in Republican hands and the Senate in Democratic hands.

February 12, 2013 - Using a 3-D printer and cell cultures, American scientists at Cornell University grow a living ear.

April 15, 2013 - Two bombs explode near the finish line of the Boston Marathon, killing three and injuring hundreds in a terrorism attack coordinated by two brothers associated with radical Islam. The attack caused the shutdown of the city as police and federal officials searched and apprehended the suspects within four days of the attack.

May 17, 2013 - Congressional hearings begin on the IRS scandal of group targeting that began two years prior. The Internal Revenue Service is accused of targeting conservative groups for additional scrutiny in tax status matters, including groups like the Tea Party, whose stances include lower taxes and smaller government, plus other patriotic and religious organizations. This breach of protocol from a government agency where all U.S. citizens file taxes has caused concern from both Republican, Democrat, and independent political groups.

January 1, 2014 - Obamacare, the Affordable Care Act, goes into affect for millions of Americans, the largest expansion of the social welfare state in decades. Over 7.3 million join the system, some due to cancellations of existing healthcare policies others due to subsidies provided by the government. Premiums for policies see large increases due to expansion.

September 30, 2014 - First case of Ebola is certified in the United States, an outcome of travel from the country of Liberia and West Africa where the virus has spread to 22,000 people and killed 9,000.

November 4, 2014 - Midterm elections see large increase in Republican lawmakers with expansion of their majority to 247 seats in the House of Representatives and the taking over of the majority in the Senate with 54 seats. This will cause the Obama administration to deal with a Congress now controlled by the other party for the final two years of his term.

April 25, 2015 - Riots begin in Baltimore after the death of Freddie Gray, a black man, in police custody. This incident, coupled with others at the end of 2014 in Ferguson, Missouri, and more in 2015, would lead to the creation of the Black Lives Matter movement and discussion of police brutality in poor, minority, and violent neighborhoods and the appropriate response of police when confronted with danger and issues on how to secure the public good.

December 2, 2015 - Islamic Terrorist inspired act in San Bernadino, California kills fourteen and follows a brutal attack against citizens in Paris in November. These attacks and others are fueled by the continual rise of ISIS in Syria, Iraq, and other countries around the world.

April 7, 2016 - American Idol, the seminal music competition that set the record for eight straight seasons, 2003-4 to 2010-11, as the Number One show on television, ended its fifteen year run. The television show was one of the most successful shows in television history, peaking in 2006 with over 31 million viewers. The program would subsequently be brought back two years later.

June 12, 2016 - Terrorist attack in Orlando, Florida, with fifty killed and fifty-three wounded, continues ISIS and Radical Islamic terrorist inspired attacks throughout the world, including major attacks in Ankara, Instanbul, Brussels, and Nice.

December 29, 2016 - Thirty-five Russian diplomats expelled from Washington by President Obama after national security report that Russia had been behind a hacking scandal to influence the national presidential election. Although no vote tallies were affected, the seriousness of continued cyber attacks against both democratic institutions and other major targets sends an international signal that these attacks represent a major threat in the digital world.

February 11, 2017 - North Korea fires ballistic missile over the Sea of Japan, testing the resolve of the world in its attempt to develop a deliverable nuclear weapon. Throughout the year, North Korea continues its provocative tests, firing its first intercontinental ballistic missile, and other nuclear tests, prompting increased sanctions.

August 25, 2017 - Disastrous hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Atlantic seaboard begins with Hurricane Harvey hitting the Houston area, causing $125 billion in damage. It is followed on September 6 with Hurricane Irma, the strongest Atlantic hurricane in history striking Florida, and on September 19, Hurricane Maria strikes Puerto Rico. Those two hurricanes cause over $150 billion in additional damages.

December 22, 2017 - President Trump signs the largest tax cut and changes in the tax code since 1986 with the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, reducing rates and simplying the tax code.

April 10, 2018 - Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg responds to a Congressional inquiry into the reason why eight-seven million customers had their private information breached by an outside British political consulting firm. By July, the market value of the firm had dropped twenty percent, losing $109 billion.

November 6, 2018 - Mid-term elections result in Democratic gains of forty seats in the U.S. House of Representatives and seven governors, but lose two seats in the U.S. Senate.

December 22, 2018 - Partial government shutdown begins after President Trump refuses to sign any spending package for Homeland Security that does not include border barrier funding in appropriations due to the status of illegal immigration and border security. Shutdown lasts for thirty-five days, the longest shutdown in United States history.

April 14, 2019 - Tiger Woods wins his 15th Major at the Masters after eleven years without a victory in one of the four major golf tournaments. On October 28, 2019, Woods ties Sam Snead for the most PGA Tournament victories in a career with 82.

May 10, 2019 - Additional tariffs against China, at twenty-five percent on $200 billion worth of Chinese goods, are announced by the Trump Administration in the continued trade war. By December, a First Phase Trade Agreement is announced, but not signed.

November 15, 2019 - Stock market closes above 28,000 in the Dow Jones Average for the first time, continuing its rise, with twenty-two record closes through the year. It would reach its highest level in history on December 27, 2019.

December 18, 2019 - President Donald Trump is impeached by the House of Representatives in a partisan vote, on two counts, Obstruction of Congress and Abuse of Power, for a perceived improper phone conversation revolving around the Ukraine, military aid, and a potential investigation into oil dealings of the son of political rival Joe Biden.


Thoroughbred horse history on British Islands prior to 1686 - History


Beaufort County Court House - Beaufort, SC (2007)

Old Beaufort County Court House - Now a U.S. District Court House - Beaufort, SC (2007)

Beaufort, a city of rich history, Southern hospitality and casual seaside charm, the “Queen of the Carolina Sea Islands” was discovered by the Spanish in 1514 and chartered by the British in 1711. Enjoying great prosperity in the eighteenth century as indigo and rice plantations thrived, Sea Island Cotton also brought tremendous wealth to the area prior to the American Civil War.

Today, tabby ruins, historic forts, elegant homes, majestic plantations and Gullah culture and cuisine are reminders of Beaufort’s 500-year history. Horse-drawn carriages make their way slowly through the narrow streets of the historic district, one of only three National Historic Landmark Districts in South Carolina and shrimp boats can often be seen gliding past Waterfront Park with the day’s catch.

In addition to a variety of historical and natural attractions, the area is home to three major military installations – the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, the Marine Corps Air Station, and the Naval Hospital – which are vital to the local economy, as well as national security.


Map of Port Royal Harbor in 1732

The seaport of Beaufort is located at the head of one of the largest natural harbors on the Atlantic coast, which explains the early interest of the Spanish and French explorers that followed. When the Spanish sailed up the sound in the 1520s, they found a land inhabited by many small tribes of Native Americans, the largest of which were the Cherokees and the Catawbas further inland.

French explorers visited this area long before the English arrived. In 1562, Captain Jean Ribaut and his Frenchmen entered the sound which he named Port Royal. They settled near the present town of Port Royal and named their settlement Charlesfort, after the French King Charles IX. As they were Huguenots, this was the first Protestant settlement in the United States. Ribaut is also credited with naming the land "Carolana" - a latinized form of Charles, which the English King Charles I also adopted for his first charter in the New World, later in 1629.

When Ribaut returned to France for reinforcements the soldiers who were left behind revolted, built themselves a ship, and sailed for France the next year. This was the first ship built in America to cross the Atlantic Ocean.

After the French fled, Spaniards from Florida built Fort San Felipe on Parris Island in 1566 and made the new settlement there, known as Santa Elena, the first capital of their La Florida Province. In 1576, under attack from Native Americans, Santa Elena was abandoned, but the fort was rebuilt the next year. Archeologists have positively determined the location to be on the Parris Island golf course.

In 1587, England's Queen Elizabeth I sent Sir Francis Drake to drive the Spanish from "La Florida." The Spanish decided to concentrate their forces in St. Augustine, and withdrew from Santa Elena, never to return.

Hilton Head Island is named for the English sea captain William Hilton, Jr. who was hired by a syndicate of Barbadian planters. He sighted the high bluffs of the island in August of 1663, while exploring the Port Royal Sound, and named it for himself, "Hilton Head," referring to the headlands visible as they sailed the uncharted waters.

Within a few years, the English had established the first permanent European settlement of South Carolina at Albemarle Point, near present-day Charleston, on the Ashley River in 1670. The Lords Proprietors' first settlers included many Barbadians, and South Carolina came to resemble more closely the plantation economy of the West Indies than did any of the other mainland colonies.

The Scots arrived in the area in 1684 and established Stuart's Town. In 1686, the Spanish attacked and burned down Stuart's Town, and the inhabitants that survived soon sailed back to Scotland.

The first trade was with the Indians for deer skins, a valuable commodity back in England, but indigo became the first cash crop. The climate and soil on the Sea Islands were favorable for its growth, and England was a great market for indigo.

Indian attacks, sponsored by the Spanish, continued to harass the settlers in the area. The Yamassee Indians were particularly fierce. Settlement of Savannah and the colony of Georgia was encouraged in order to set up a buffer from the Indians - in particular the area around Beaufort where indigo was thriving. The Indians significantly threatened the colony's existence in the Yamassee War of 1715-1716.

Settlers from the British Isles, France, and other parts of Europe built plantations throughout the coastal lowcountry. Beaufort, the third oldest town in South Carolina, was founded in 1711. Both Beaufort County and its county seat of Beaufort were named for Henry Somerset, 2nd Duke of Beaufort (1684-1714), one of the later Lords Proprietors of Carolina.

Parris Island, (Santa Elena) was bought in 1715 by Alexander Parris, Public Treasurer of South Carolina.

In 1717, for acts of bravery in quelling the rioting Yamassee Indians, Colonel James Barnwell was granted a thousand acres on the northwest corner of Hilton Head Island by the Lord Proprietors. He became the first white settler. By 1766, approximately twenty-five families lived on Hilton Head Island.

The ports of Georgetown, Charleston, and Beaufort became important centers of commerce and culture. In the years before the American Civil War, rice, indigo, and sea island cotton plantations brought great wealth to the entire lowcountry region.

Beaufort District was formed in 1769, and included the parishes of Prince William, St. Luke, St. Helena, and St. Peter.

Thomas Heyward, Jr., a local rice plantation owner, signed the Declaration of Independence.

As talk of Revolution escalated in the colonies, Hilton Head Island sided with the colonists. Daufuskie Island, just one mile south, was occupied by the Loyalists and was a British stronghold. During the American Revolution, the British frequently raided Hilton Head Island and burned plantations and captured slaves who were later sold in the West Indies. The raids continued even after Lord Cornwallis surrendered in 1781 at Yorktown.


Marshlands House - Beaufort, South Carolina

Extending along the coast from the border of North and South Carolina to Amelia Island, Florida, and approximately thirty miles inland, the Gullah/Geechee Nation is comprised of the descendants of Africans once enslaved in the lowcountry and coastal British Empire.

The word Gullah itself is thought to be a derivative of Angola and the Gola tribe. Geechee is a West African ethnic group. Anthropologists generally classify those people living on the South Carolina coast as Gullah and those living on the Georgia islands and their mainland relatives as Geechee – however, the Gullah, themselves, don’t use these designations.

Brought over mainly from the windward coast of west Africa, different tribes speaking different languages were often left alone on the sea islands to work on the large rice, cotton, and indigo plantations. To communicate with one another, they developed their own language, which became known as Gullah. Today, an estimated half a million people around the country and the world speak this Creole language with a pidgin English base that uses many west African words – such as gumbo, goober, yams, and cooter – as well the syntax and intonation.

Due to the relative isolation of the Sea Islands, many Gullah traditions were preserved through the centuries and are still practiced today. From cooking and spiritual practices to sweetgrass basket weaving and long-strip quilting, evidence of this rich cultural heritage can be found throughout the lowcountry of Beaufort County, South Carolina.

During the American Civil War, Union troops were headquartered on Hilton Head Island. In 1862, Mitchelville, the nation’s first freedman’s municipality was set up on Beach City Road. The same year, northern missionaries began the “Port Royal Experiment,” creating schools for the formerly-enslaved Africans.

One of the most well-known and historically significant of these schools was the Penn School, now known as the Penn Center, located on St. Helena Island. The only black historical landmark on the National Register in South Carolina, the Penn Center has played a vital role in African American history, from its inception through the Civil Rights Movement to the present.

Today, the Penn Center’s mission is to “preserve the unique history, culture and environment of the Sea Islands through serving as a local, national and international resource center and by acting as a catalyst for the development of programs for self-sufficiency.”


Plat of Beaufort, South Carolina from SC State Archives - Click Here


American History Timeline: 1651–1675

The American Revolution would not commence until 1765, when the Stamp Act Congress, representing the 13 colonies, disputed the right of the British parliament to tax the colonists without providing them with representation in the House of Commons. The American Revolutionary War would not begin until 1775. During the period from 1651 to 1675, however, attempts by the British government to control commerce in the American colonies gradually created an atmosphere in which rebellion was almost inevitable.

October: England passes the Navigation Act that forbids goods to be imported from the colonies to England in non-English ships or from locations other than where they were produced. This action causes supply shortages hurting colonies and eventually leads to the Anglo-Dutch War, which lasts from 1652–1654.

April 4: New Amsterdam is given permission to form its own city government.

May 18: Rhode Island passes the first law in America which prohibits enslavement, but is never enforced.

After the death of Maine's founder Ferdinando Gorges ( c. 1565–1647), the Massachusetts Bay Colony revises its borders to the Penobscot Bay, absorbing the growing colony of Maine.

July: The first battle of the Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652–1654) breaks out.

In defiance of England, Massachusetts Bay declares itself independent and starts minting its own silver coins.

The New England Confederation—a union of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven colonies formed in 1643—plans to help England in the ongoing Anglo-Dutch Wars. The Massachusetts Bay colony flatly refuses to participate.

The first Jewish immigrants arrive from Brazil and settle in New Amsterdam.

October: The new governor of Maryland, William Fuller (1625–1695), nullifies the 1649 Toleration Act which gave Catholics the right to practice their religion. The colony also removes Lord Baltimore from authority.

March 25: The Battle of the Severn, considered by some historians the last battle of the English Civil War, is fought in Annapolis, Maryland, between Puritan loyalists and moderate protestant and Catholic forces loyal to Baltimore the Puritans take the day.

Sept. 1: After a last maritime battle between the Dutch colonists led by Peter Stuyvesant (1592–1672) and forces from the Swedish government, the Swedish surrender, ending royal rule by Sweden in America.

July 10: Lord Baltimore is returned to power in Maryland and appoints Josias Fendall (1628–1687) as the new governor.

The first Quakers, Anne Austin and Mary Fisher, arrive in Massachusetts Bay from their colony in Barbados and are arrested and imprisoned. Later in the year, Connecticut and Massachusetts pass laws to allow for the banishment of Quakers.

Quakers who arrive in New Amsterdam are punished and then banished to Rhode Island by Governor Peter Stuyvesant.

September: Massachusetts colony passes laws that do not allow for religious freedom of Quakers including the holding of their meetings.

Quaker Mary Dyer (1611–1660) is arrested in New Haven and convicted for preaching Quakerism and is among those banished to Rhode Island.

Two Quakers are punished by hanging when they return to the Massachusetts Bay Colony after being banished.

Lord Baltimore is removed from power by the Maryland assembly.

The Navigation Act of 1660 is passed requiring only English ships with a three-quarters English crew be allowed to be used for trade. Certain goods including sugar and tobacco could only be shipped to England or English colonies.

The English crown, in protest to the rules against Quakers, orders them released and returned to England. They are later forced to stop the harsh penalties against Quakers.

April 23: Connecticut governor John Winthrop Jr. (1606–1676), secures a royal charter for the colony after nearly a year of negotiation in England.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter was accepted by England as long as they extended the vote to all landowners and allows for freedom of worship for Anglicans.

The Elliot Bible, the first complete Bible to be printed in America, is published at the Harvard College in Cambridge—in the Algonquin language. The Algonquin New Testament had been published two years earlier.

The Carolina colony is created by King Charles II and has eight English noblemen as proprietors.

July 8: Rhode Island is given a royal charter by Charles II.

July 27: The second Navigation Act is passed, requiring that all imports to the American colonies must come from England on English vessels.

The Hudson River valley Indians surrender part of their territory to the Dutch.

The Duke of York is given a charter to control lands that include the Dutch area of New Netherland. By the end of the year, a naval blockade by the English of the area causes Governor Peter Stuyvesant to surrender New Netherland to the English. New Amsterdam is renamed New York.

The Duke of York grants land called New Jersey to Sir George Carteret and John, Lord Berkeley.

Maryland and later New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia pass laws that do not allow for the freeing of enslaved Black people.

New Haven is annexed by Connecticut.

The King's commissioners arrive in New England to oversee what is occurring in the colonies. They demand that colonies must comply by swearing allegiance to the King and allowing for the freedom of religion. Plymouth, Connecticut, and Rhode Island comply. Massachusetts does not comply and when representatives are called to London to answer to the King, they refuse to go.

The territory of Carolina is extended to include Florida.

Maryland prohibits the growing of tobacco for a year due to a glut of tobacco on the market.

July 31: The Peace of Breda officially ends the Anglo-Dutch War and gives England formal control over New Netherland.

Massachusetts annexes Maine.

March 1: The Fundamental Constitutions, written partly by the English philosopher John Locke (1632–1704), are issued in Carolina by its eight proprietors, providing for religious tolerance.

Charles Town (present-day Charleston, South Carolina) is established on the Albemarle Point by colonists William Sayle (1590–1671) and Joseph West (died 1691) it would be moved and re-established in its present location in 1680.

July 8: The Treaty of Madrid (or Godolphin Treaty) is completed between England and Spain. Both parties agree that they will respect each other's rights in America.

Governor William Berkeley (1605–1677) of Virginia convinces the Virginia General Assembly to change the rules from allowing all freemen to vote to white males who owned enough property to pay local taxes.

Plymouth forces King Philip (known as Metacomet, 1638–1676), chief of the Wampanoag Indians, to surrender his weapons.

French explorer Simon François d’Aumont (or Daumont, sieur de St. Lusson) claims the interior of North America for King Louis XIV, as an extension of New France.

First copyright law is passed in the colonies by Massachusetts.

The Royal Africa Company is given a monopoly for the English trade of enslaved people.

Feb. 25: Virginia is granted by the English crown to Lord Arlington (1618–1685) and Thomas Culpeper (1635–1689).

May 17: French explorers Father Jacques Marquette (1637–1675) and Louis Joliet (1645–

1700) set off on their expedition down the Mississippi River exploring as far as the Arkansas River.

The Dutch launch a naval attack against Manhattan to try and win back New Netherland during the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674). Manhattan is surrendered. They capture other towns and rename New York to New Orange.

Feb. 19: The Treaty of Westminster is signed, ending the third Anglo-Dutch War with the American Dutch colonies reverting back to England.

Dec. 4: Father Jacques Marquette establishes a mission at present-day Chicago.

Quaker William Penn (1644–1718) is granted rights to portions of New Jersey.

King Philip's War begins with retaliation for the execution of three Wampanoag Indigenous people. Boston and Plymouth unite to fight against Indigenous tribes. Nipmuck tribal members unite with the Wampanoags to attack settlements in Massachusetts. The New England Confederation then reacts by officially declaring war on King Philip and raising an army. The Wampanoags are able to defeat settlers near Deerfield on September 18th and Deerfield is abandoned.


KEMPSEY

Kemesei, Kemeseg (viii cent.) Kemesege (ix cent.) Chemesege (xi cent.).

Kempsey is a parish on the left bank of the Severn, containing 3,238 acres of land, of which 32 are covered with water. The parish is watered by the Severn and a tributary, the Hatfield Brook. The village of Kempsey lies on the high road from Worcester to Tewkesbury. This road is mentioned in 1427 and 1448, when an indulgence was granted to all who should assist in repairing the old highway leading from Worcester to Kempsey. (fn. 1) In 1634 and 1635 it was presented at the county court of Worcester that this road was in great decay, (fn. 2) and in 1640 it was still out of repair. (fn. 3) The site of the bishop's palace is near the church of St. Mary in the middle of the village. Close to the church are traces of a Roman camp where urns and coins were found in 1835–6. Kempsey House, the residence of Mrs. Boucher, stands west of the high road, in grounds through which flows Hatfield Brook, supplying a small piece of artificial water.

Kerswell Green with its mission church and Methodist chapel is on the southern border of the parish. Most of the houses there lie on the north side of a small green. Between Kerswell and Baynhall is The Nash, the seat of Lieut.-Col. Sir Richard Carnac Temple, bart. The house is now an irregularly shaped building running east and west with the porch and entrance on the south. It is of red brick partly on a stone base. The existing building is of various dates, and consists of three independent halftimbered blocks, standing partly on a stone base and recased in red brick, which have been joined together by covering in the spaces between them under connected pent roofs, now showing twenty stepped gables with brick copings. The present hall was thus formed. To the left of it is the dining room, and over it the 'oak bedroom,' forming one of the old houses, apparently a 'hall.' In the dining room was an ingle, now covered in, and traces of a stair leading from it to the room above still exist. Both rooms are panelled with early oak, covering earlier walls of half-timber. They are ceiled with fine Italian plaster-work with plaster friezes of about 1600, and are of the same pattern as a ceiling at Madresfield Court: vine, rose, oak and thistle. The dining room frieze is of Tudor roses and Prince of Wales' feathers. The over-doors are of plaster with figures. In the oak bedroom is a large Italian painted plaster mantel of figures and strap-work dated 1598. Above this room and under the present roof are the timbers of the original roof, showing curved tie-beams and wind-braces. The hall is half-panelled in linen pattern oak, and contains a good 'Queen Anne' staircase, a leaded stained glass window of unusual construction, and a fireplace in an ingle with a window (restored) dated 1648 carved with figures and foliage. Here is also an early font originally in Pershore Abbey. The bowl is circular with a line of interlacing arches enriched with nail-head ornament and having thirteen seated figures within them. The stem, resting on a modern base, has a band of scallops and cable moulding. There is much panelling elsewhere and furniture of the 17th and 18th centuries. The bay windows and other openings chiefly date from the extensive changes made in 1831. The chimneys are very tall and are set diagonally.

An extensive museum of Burmese carvings and savage implements from the islands in the Bay of Bengal has been recently added to the house.

Draycott lies to the south. Draycott House is the residence of Lieut.-Col. Charles Edmund Southouse Scott, R.A. Napleton, with the seat of Mr. Philip Seymour Williams, and Stonehall are in the east, Brook End in the north-east and Upper Ham in the north. Lower Ham is a large common meadow, subject to floods, to the south-west of the village. There is a ferry there to Pixham and Malvern. At Clerkenleap, Treadway Russell Nash, the historian of Worcestershire, was born on 24 June 1725. (fn. 4)

Kempsey Common is a large piece of rough grassland south-east of the town. There is another smaller common at Stonehall, and Normoor Common is north of Kerswell Green.

The village and a large part of the parish lie very low in the Severn Valley 50 ft. or less above the ordnance datum. Kempsey Common is about 100 ft. above the ordnance datum, and the land rises northeastward to a height of 200 ft. at Stonehall Common. In 1905 the parish of Kempsey contained 877 acres of arable land, 1,677 of permanent grass and 20 of woods and plantations. (fn. 5) The soil is various and the subsoil Keuper Marl, producing crops of wheat, barley and beans.

At Upper Broomhall Farm in the north of the parish there are remains of a moat.

Beanhall in Kempsey was purchased with a sum of £100 bequeathed to the poor of the parish of St. Michael, Worcester, in 1712 by Mrs. Henrietta Wrottesley. The rent from this land was to be distributed upon All Saints' Day and at the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin by the minister and churchwardens and two of the feoffees of the charity. (fn. 6)

During the siege of Worcester in June 1646 the house of a Mrs. Andrews at Barneshall was fortified by the besieging army, who stationed troops of horse and dragoons at Kempsey in order to cut off communications towards the south. (fn. 7)

Richard de Marisco, who may have been related to the family of that name holding land at Nortonjuxta-Kempsey, was presented in 1212 to the rectory of Kempsey. He was one of King John's worst advisers, becoming Chancellor in 1214 and Bishop of Durham in 1217. (fn. 8)

Various antiquities, of which an account has been given in a former volume, have been found at Kempsey. (fn. 9)

Place-names which occur in deeds relating to Kempsey are the Lode Ground (fn. 10) (xvi cent.) Carlsome, (fn. 11) Garston Bridge, Ripple Gate Close, (fn. 12) and Byrdley Hall (fn. 13) (xvii cent.).

MANORS

Thirty manses belonging to the 'monasterium' called KEMPSEY were given in 799 by Coenwulf, King of Mercia, to Abbot Balthun, and at the same time this land was freed from all secular services, except military service and the building and repairing of bridges and strongholds. (fn. 14) The same king gave all the monasteries which belonged to Worcester to the monks of Worcester in 814. (fn. 15) This grant evidently included the monastery of Kempsey, which was given by the monks to their Bishop Deneberht (798–822) and his assigns for two lives, with reversion to the monastery. (fn. 16) The gift of Beormodeslea and Colesburna to Balthun by the bishop and monks may have been made to compensate him for the loss of Kempsey. (fn. 17) The manor evidently passed from Deneberht to his successors in the see, Eadberht and Aelhun, and the latter gave the manor back to the monks in 844. (fn. 18) In 847, however, they gave it again to Bishop Aelhun for two lives, on condition that his heirs should pay yearly to the monks on his anniversary certain specified provisions. (fn. 19) The manor seems to have passed into the possession of the Bishops of Worcester, possibly on account of these grants by the monks, and at the time of the Domesday Survey the large manor of Kempsey, including 24 hides, was held by the Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 20) In 1189 Richard I gave licence to assart 161½ acres in the manor of Kempsey, (fn. 21) and this grant was confirmed by King John in 1199. (fn. 22) Henry III in 1255 granted to the bishop free warren in his manor of Kempsey, provided it did not lie within the king's forest. (fn. 23) The bishop held 4 carucates of land, a mill, and a dovecot at Kempsey in 1291. (fn. 24) Kempsey remained in the possession of successive bishops (fn. 25) until 1648, when it was confiscated and sold by the Parliamentary trustees to Christopher Meredith of London. (fn. 26) It was conveyed in 1656 by Richard Harlakenden to Herbert Pelham and John Joscelyn, (fn. 27) but was restored to the bishop on the accession of Charles II. Since that time the successive bishops remained in possession of the manor until it was transferred in 1860 to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, (fn. 28) in whose possession it still remains.

The Bishops of Worcester had a park at their manor of Kempsey. (fn. 29) A manor-house evidently existed here in early times, for Bishop Leofric died at Kempsey in September 1033. (fn. 30) A house in the village still called the Palace probably marks its site. It seems to have been a favourite seat of the Bishops of Worcester, (fn. 31) and it was here that Simon de Montfort, accompanied by Bishop Cantilupe, brought Henry III as a prisoner in 1265 before the battle of Evesham. (fn. 32) Henry II issued from Kempsey a charter relating to Inkberrow, (fn. 33) and Edward I appears to have been a frequent visitor here as the guest of Bishop Godfrey Giffard. (fn. 34)

The estate called HOWDENS probably originated in two messuages and a virgate of land at Broomhall in the manor of Kempsey granted by William, Bishop of Worcester (1302–7), to his chamberlain Adam de Howden, and confirmed to Adam by the prior and convent in 1313 (fn. 35) and by the king in 1320. (fn. 36) A tenement called Howdens in Kempsey and Broomhall seems to have been in the possession of Adam Moleyns, Dean of Salisbury, in 1444. (fn. 37) The capital messuage of Howdens afterwards passed to the Mucklow family of Martley. Richard Mucklow died seised of it in 1556, when it passed to his son Simon. (fn. 38) He settled it in 1570 upon his son John and upon Appollina wife of the latter. John died in 1579, leaving a son Simon, a minor. (fn. 39) The further descent of this estate has not been found.

A messuage called BROOMHALL at Clerkenleap in Kempsey belonged to the monastery of Tewkesbury, but it is not known how the monks became possessed of it. In 1535 it was leased out at a rent of 24s. a year, (fn. 40) and it was granted in 1544 to John Thatcher. (fn. 41)

William de Kerswell and Taillefer (fn. 42) held 2½ hides at KERSWELL of the manor of Kempsey in the time of King Henry III. (fn. 43) In 1299 Nicholas de Hulle or Hill held land at Kerswell, (fn. 44) and was probably succeeded by a son of the same name, for in 1311 Nicholas de Hulle of Kerswell did homage to the bishop (fn. 45) for lands held of him in the manor of Kempsey. (fn. 46) He seems to have been succeeded by a son John, (fn. 47) and the estate had passed before 1346 to John son of John de Hulle, (fn. 48) who obtained a grant of free warren in the manor in 1347. (fn. 49) From this time it would appear from the few deeds which have been found relating to the estate that it passed in the same way as the manor of Hill Croome (fn. 50) to Thomas Lord Coventry, who died seised of it in 1640. (fn. 51) It has since descended with the title, and now belongs to the Right Hon. George William Earl of Coventry. (fn. 52)

Habington states that according to an undated survey of Kempsey Manor the heirs of John Clopton held there. (fn. 53) Sir William son of John Clopton died in 1420 holding a messuage and a carucate of land in Kerswell of the Bishop of Worcester as of his manor of Kempsey for knight service. (fn. 54) He left a son Thomas, aged thirteen, but he apparently died without issue, for the estate passed to his sister Joan, who married Sir John Burgh. (fn. 55) Sir John outlived Joan, and died in 1471, leaving four co-heirs. (fn. 56) This estate apparently passed to John Newport, son and heir of Elizabeth, one of the daughters of Sir John, for Habington states that he had heard that this land passed to Sir Richard Newport, grandson of John Newport, (fn. 57) and was sold by him to Kenelm Winslow, of whom it was purchased by Sir John Buck. (fn. 58)

The estate at Kempsey called the NASH (Atenasche, Asshe) was held of the manor of Kempsey. (fn. 59) References to inhabitants of the hamlet of Nash occur in early times. Robert de Fraxino was a tenant of Kempsey Manor in the time of Henry II. (fn. 60) In 1299 John son of Ralph de Ash was holding 3 virgates in Kerswell, (fn. 61) and in 1302–3 he was dealing with land in the field of 'Asshe.' Part of his estate afterwards passed to his brother Walter, who gave it in 1311 to his mother Alice and his sister Margery. (fn. 62) Land held by the Ash family at Kempsey seems to have passed to John de Kempsey, the founder in 1316 of the chantry at Kempsey, for he endowed this chantry with a messuage which he had bought of Adam de Fraxino. (fn. 63) The estate now known as the Nash seems to have been identical with that land at Kerswell held in the time of Henry III by Taillefer, (fn. 64) who may have been a member of the Ash family, Taillefer de Fraxino occurring in a deed in the parish chest of Kempsey, quoted by Prattinton. A messuage and 6 acres of land at Kempsey were held in the 13th century under John Taillefer by Peter de Frechnie, whose son John gave it up to John Taillefer, the chief lord. He afterwards gave this tenement to Osbert Buck, from whom it descended to Richard Buck, the owner in 1274. John Taillefer's interest in the land was then vested in his son Ralph. (fn. 65) Richard Buck paid a subsidy for this land in 1280. (fn. 66) John Buck and Isabel his wife levied a fine concerning land in Kempsey in 1356–7, (fn. 67) and in 1358–9 the king committed to them a messuage and a virgate of land in Kempsey, to be held during pleasure. (fn. 68) According to the pedigree of this family given in the Visitation of Worcestershire (1569), (fn. 69) which starts from this John Buck and Isabel, the estate descended from father to son in the family for many generations, but there are no documents which throw any light on the history of the estate from 1359 until 1535 when Kenelm Buck did homage to the king for a messuage in Kempsey. (fn. 70) Kenelm died in 1550 holding an estate described as a capital messuage and land called Nash, held of the Bishop of Worcester as of his manor of Kempsey. (fn. 71) Kenelm was succeeded by his son Francis, on whose death in 1580 it passed to his son John, then a minor. (fn. 72) He was afterwards knighted, (fn. 73) and sold the estate to Humphrey Baker of Worcester. (fn. 74) Charles Bentley held it about the middle of the 17th century. (fn. 75) About 1738 it was bought by Sir William Temple. (fn. 76) He succeeded to the baronetcy in 1749 on the death of his cousin Viscount Cobham, and died in 1760. His only daughter by his second wife, Anna Sophia, married her cousin Sir Richard Temple, who succeeded to the baronetcy on the death of Sir Peter Temple, brother and heir of Sir William above named. (fn. 77) The estate of the Nash passed to her. She died in 1805 without surviving issue, (fn. 78) and the estate passed to John Dicken, son of her half-sister Henrietta, wife of William Dicken of Sheinton, co. Salop. (fn. 79) John Dicken took the name and arms of Temple by royal licence 23 September 1796, (fn. 80) and his grandson Richard Temple was created a baronet in 1876. (fn. 81) He died in 1902, and his son Lieut.Col. Sir Richard Carnac Temple succeeded to the estate, (fn. 82) where he now resides.

Buck of the Nash. Party fessewise and wavy argent and sable with three pairs of bucks' horns with the scalps countercoloured.

Temple of the Nash, baronet. Or an eagle sable quartered with Argent two bars sable with three martlets or upon each bar.

CLERKENLEAP (Clarconleppo, xvi cent.) at one time belonged to the Winslows. (fn. 83) Edward Winslow, grandson of Kenelm Winslow of Kempsey, sailed in the Mayflower and became Governor of Plymouth Colony. (fn. 84) The estate was purchased about 1650 by John Nash of Worcester, and left by him to his nephew Richard Nash, from whom it passed to his grandson Dr. Treadway Russell Nash, the historian of Worcestershire. It descended with his other estates to Lady Henry Somerset, the present owner. (fn. 85)

There was a windmill worth 13s. 4d. at Kempsey in 1299. (fn. 86) In 1324 pardon was granted to John de Mareys 'mouner' for acquiring in fee from Godfrey Bishop of Worcester two mills in Kempsey held in chief of the king. (fn. 87) In 1690 a water grist-mill at Kempsey belonged to William Yarranton. (fn. 88) A weirpool at Clerkenleap called Wheler's Weare was granted in 1545 to John Bourne, (fn. 89) and passed at his death in 1575 to his son Anthony. (fn. 90) There were two windmills at Kempsey in 1821, (fn. 91) but the last was pulled down about 1875.

The manor of the RECTORY of Kempsey seems to have existed from quite early times. Godfrey the archdeacon, who may have been rector of Kempsey, held a hide and a half in the manor about 1182, and he also held 8 acres which had been given by Bishop John (1151–8) at the dedication of the church. (fn. 92) In 1223 Boidin, parson of Kempsey, was summoned to answer the Abbot of Pershore as to a claim set up by the parson to common in the abbot's manor of Wadborough. Boidin claimed it in exchange for common of pasture which he said the abbot enjoyed in his land at Kempsey. (fn. 93) In 1305 free warren was granted to Peter de Collingburn, parson of the church of Kempsey, in the demesne lands of the church of Kempsey. (fn. 94) In 1334 the privilege was granted to the parson of Kempsey that the rectory-house should be quit of livery of stewards, chamberlains, &c., so that none of them should lodge there against his will. (fn. 95) When the church of Kempsey was appropriated to the college of Westbury by the founder John Carpenter, Bishop of Worcester, in 1473, (fn. 96) the manor of the rectory passed to this college. The farm of the manor brought in £46 13s. 4d. at the time of the Dissolution, and from it various payments were made in alms. A sum of 4s. 4d. was given to six poor men and six widows by the ordination of Bishop John Carpenter, and alms to the value of 20s. were distributed on the anniversaries of Edward IV and the Duke of York his father. A sum of 9s. was paid for the diets of six senior priests, six poor men and six widows twice a year. (fn. 97)

The manor was confiscated by the Crown on the suppression of the college, and was granted in 1544 to Sir Ralph Sadleir and his wife Ellen. (fn. 98) Sir Ralph exchanged it with the king for other property in 1547, (fn. 99) and in the same year it was granted to the Dean and Chapter of Worcester. (fn. 100) It was confiscated by the Parliamentary trustees and sold in 1650 to George Wylde of Gressenhall, co. Norfolk. (fn. 101) The manor then included a mansion-house, fields called Butchers Meadows on the banks of the Severn, Windmill Fields, Carlsome, a tithe-barn and a wood near Jagg Mills.

At the Restoration the manor was given back to the dean and chapter, in whose possession it remained until it was transferred in 1859 to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, (fn. 102) who are the present owners.

CHURCH

The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN consists of a chancel 47½ ft. by 21 ft., a south organ bay, a nave 60¾ ft. by 28½ ft., a north transept 35 ft. long and 19 ft. wide, a south transept 26½ ft. long and 18¼ ft. wide, north and south aisles 10¾ ft. and 9½ ft. wide respectively, a west tower 15 ft. square, and a north porch. These measurements are all internal.

That the present building has been developed from an aisleless cruciform church of the 12th century is shown by the remaining jamb of a window in the west respond of the south arcade. Additional evidence may be seen in the plinth and buttresses at the western angle of the nave, the plinth of the south transept, and the south-east buttress of the north transept.

The chancel appears to have been rebuilt about 1250, and towards the end of the same century a south aisle was added to the church and the existing south arcade built. Soon after this a similar addition was made to the north side of the church, the north aisle and existing arcade being added early in the 14th century. During the 15th century extensive repairs became necessary, and the whole of the north and south transepts and aisles were rebuilt. A little later in the same century the west tower was rebuilt and heightened, much of the older masonry being re-used. In modern times an organ chamber has been added to the south of the chancel, the chancel arch and parts of the transepts rebuilt, new windows inserted and a porch added on the north side.

The chancel walling is of fine coursed rubble, the arcade walling of large random rubble, and the greater part of the later work faced with red sandstone ashlar. Parts of the internal details are in oolite, and greenstone is used in the arcades and elsewhere.

The east window of the chancel is of five grouped lancets under a moulded arch with shafted jambs the external labels have leaf stops and a moulded inclosing arch. In the north wall are three double lancet windows with internal and external inclosing labels. The south wall contains two similar windows and a south door, the latter with a segmental rear arch and continuously moulded jambs.

Kempsey Church: 13th-Century Piscina

The trefoil-headed piscina has three moulded brackets, one foliated, and a slot for a shelf. The sedilia are of similar design but with moulded labels and head stops, the spandrels being filled in with foliage. A moulded string-course runs round the chancel, breaking over the piscina, sedilia and doorway, and on the exterior is a corresponding course, apparently modern. The details of the chancel have been much repaired throughout, but the sedilia and piscina are excellent examples of 13th-century work. The chancel arch is modern.

The early 14th-century north nave arcade is of three bays, with arches of two chamfered orders, springing from square piers, with a half shaft against each face, and moulded capitals. The south arcade, also of three bays, has similar piers with mouldings of rather earlier date. The arches, of two moulded orders, are built of green and white stone alternately.

The 15th-century east and west windows of the north transept are of three lights, and in the modern north wall is a large window of the same type. The two north aisle windows, one on each side of the porch, are similar to the old windows in the transept. The north door, which may be of 15th-century date, but suggests a later copy, opens into a modern porch. The 15th-century west window is of three lights.

The south transept has a window on the south only, a large modern five-light opening, set in modern walling. In the east and west walls are traces of 13th-century windows with filleted shafts to the jambs, and on the east is a trefoiled piscina of similar date. The south aisle has been rebuilt with two windows similar to those opposite and a modern south door. The west wall, which is original, has a lancet light. The transverse arches at the eastern end of the aisles are contemporary with the adjoining arcades.

The tower is of three stages, with angle buttresses and an embattled parapet, having crocketed pinnacles at the four corners. The two-centred tower arch has flat panelled jambs and soffit, and the west window of the ground stage is of four large cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery in the head. At the north-east is a blocked entrance to the vice, which is now entered by a modern external doorway. The bell-chamber is lighted on all four sides by windows of two trefoiled lights with traceried twocentred heads, and the ringing chamber beneath by windows of similar design on the north, west and south.

The second window from the east in the north wall of the chancel, and the corresponding window on the south, contain some exceedingly fine remains of 14th-century glass. In the north window are the figures of St. Margaret and an archbishop, probably St. Thomas of Canterbury, both with well-designed cusped and crocketed canopies. Below in small trefoiled panels are the figures of a bishop and St. Catherine. These are earlier in style, and probably belong to the latter part of the previous century. The southern window contains figures of St. Catherine and St. Cuthbert of the same size as the figures in the opposite window, and with canopies of a similar design. Below are small trefoiled panels, with the figures of a bishop and a king, perhaps St. Edward. All have red backgrounds, with the exception of the St. Catherine in the southern window. The heads, grounds and borders of the windows are made up of various fragments of canopy and border work.

The seating and fittings are all modern. On the north chancel wall is a monument to Sir Edmund Wylde, 1620, consisting of an armed effigy on an altar tomb with arch and cornice above, and two kneeling figures of his sons Edmund and Walter, and in the pediment the quartered arms and crest of Wylde. The wife of Sir Edmund was Dorothy Clarke of Houghton Conquest, Bedfordshire. Out of this tomb for some years there formerly grew a horse chestnut tree, which was considered one of the great ornaments of the church. Under the tower is a large modern bronze bust of Sir Richard Temple, bart., who died in 1902.

The bells are six in number: the first inscribed 'Cantate Domino Canticum Novum 1686' the second, 'Fear God, Honour the King 1686' the third, 'Matthew Bagley made me 1686' the fourth, 'Henricus Bagley me fecit 1686' the fifth, the churchwardens' names. These bells have the same lettering and are probably of the same date. The sixth is by Mears, 1821, and the sanctus is inscribed T, R, K, W, I, L, with rose and fleur de lis stops, and a bell between the initials I. B.

Kempsey Church from the North-east

The plate consists of a 1571 cup repaired and recently gilt, a paten, apparently of 1639, a large flagon, 1732, a modern silver gilt copy of the 1571 cup, a small flat paten, and two large almsdishes. All the plate except the flagon is silver gilt.

The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) baptisms 1688 to 1782, burials 1688 to 1783, marriages 1690 to 1753 (ii) baptisms and burials 1783 to 1812, marriages 1783 to 1807 (iii) marriages 1754 to 1812. Many earlier 17th-century entries will be found among the Bishops' Transcripts.

ADVOWSON

There was a priest at Kempsey at the time of the Domesday Survey. (fn. 103) The advowson belonged to the bishopric of Worcester. (fn. 104) John Devreux, nephew of the Bishop of Worcester, was made rector of Kempsey in 1284. (fn. 105) He was apparently non-resident, for he appointed a vicar whose portion consisted of part of the tithes, mortuaries, Peter's pence and two loads of hay, a manse and garden. (fn. 106). In 1288 the bishop made the church of Kempsey prebendal to the college of Westbury and bestowed the prebend upon John Devreux. (fn. 107) In the following year an inquiry was instituted by the Pope, Nicholas IV, regarding a petition of the Prior and convent of Worcester stating that they had had the right of instituting rectors and vicars during a vacancy in the see of Worcester, but the bishop had constituted the church of Kempsey, which was subject to the church of Worcester, prebendal to the church of Westbury-on-Trym and assigned it to his clerk, John Devreux, whom he had made rector of the church of Kempsey and a new canon in the church of Westbury, so that the church of Kempsey was no longer immediately subject to the church of Worcester as it ought to be. (fn. 108) Kempsey, however, remained a prebend of Westbury in the gift of the Bishops of Worcester, (fn. 109) the vicars being appointed by the rectors, (fn. 110) and in 1434 it was declared by a papal letter at the petition of Adam Moleyns, rector of the church, that the church of Kempsey as a prebend of Worcester might be held with other benefice or dignity without papal dispensation. (fn. 111) In 1473 the church of Kempsey was appropriated to the college of the Holy Trinity, Westbury, by Bishop John Carpenter, who had refounded the college, the revenues being found insufficient, (fn. 112) and from that time the presentations to the vicarage were made by the Dean and Chapter of Westbury. (fn. 113)

In February 1544 the college with all its possessions was surrendered to the king, (fn. 114) and the rectory and advowson of Kempsey were granted in that year to Sir Ralph Sadleir and his wife Ellen. (fn. 115) They exchanged them with the king in 1547 for other property, (fn. 116) and in the same year they were granted to the Dean and Chapter of Worcester. (fn. 117) The presentations have been made by the dean and chapter from that time until the present day. (fn. 118)

An oratory at Kempsey was built and dedicated to St. Andrew by Aelhun, Bishop of Worcester, in 868. (fn. 119)

In 1316 a chantry of one chaplain was founded in the parish church of Kempsey by John de Kempsey, treasurer of the cathedral of Hereford. He endowed it with two messuages, 40 acres of land, 2 acres of meadow and 9s. 8d. rent in Kempsey. (fn. 120) The first presentation to this chantry was made by John de Kempsey, (fn. 121) but subsequent collations seem to have been made by the Bishops of Worcester. (fn. 122) In 1362–3 Roger de Otery, clerk, granted a messuage and land at Norton by Worcester to the chaplain of the chantry at the altar of St. Mary in the church of Kempsey. (fn. 123) At the time of the dissolution of the chantries in the reign of Edward VI the endowment of this chantry amounted to £6 10s. 11d., of which 26s. was paid to the bishop and 11s. 4¾d. to the king for tenths. In one return of the value of the chantry it is stated that the parish of Kempsey contained 400 'houseling people' and that the one parish priest was not sufficient, (fn. 124) but in another the number of householders is returned as 120. (fn. 125) The chantry was granted in 1548 to Sir John Thynne and Laurence Hide as a late possession of Kenelm Buck of The Nash. (fn. 126) They must shortly afterwards have transferred it to Kenelm Buck, for he died in 1550 in possession of the chantry lands of Kempsey which he held of the Bishop of Worcester as of his manor of Kempsey. (fn. 127) Francis his son succeeded him, and appears to have been in possession of the chantry in 1566. (fn. 128)

A messuage called the Church House was granted with the chantry to Sir John Thynne in 1548. (fn. 129) It passed with the chantry to the Bucks and was conveyed in 1558 by Francis Buck to trustees, for the use of the inhabitants of Kempsey. It was then described as containing four bays, and every bay 15 ft. in length. The trustees leased the church-house from time to time, retaining the right to enter into possession on a quarter's notice, for the purpose of holding a church ale. (fn. 130)

There is a Baptist chapel at Kempsey erected in 1860.

CHARITIES

The Church Lands.

—The parish has been possessed from time immemorial of certain lands and hereditaments under this title. The trust estates now consist of six cottages situate in different parts of the parish, also of twelve tenements in Church Street and at The Greens 3 a. 3 r. 20 p., known as Lammas Land, or Ann's Acre 1 a. or. 20 p., known as Southam Lammas Lands, and allotments, Church Street, containing 3 a.

The official trustees also hold a sum of £427 10s. 3d. consols, producing £10 13s. 8d. yearly, arising from sales of land and accumulations.

The net income, amounting to about £110 a year, is applied towards repairs of the church and general church expenses.

The trust is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners 17 June 1902.

Christopher Meredith's Charity.

—In pursuance of the will of this donor, dated 24 January 1652, Bibles and Prayer books to the value of £3 a year were received from the Stationers' Company for distribution amongst the tenants of the manor of Kempsey, and the like books of the same value among the scholars of the school. By an order of the Charity Commissioners 5 December 1905 this branch of the charity was constituted the Meredith Educational Foundation.

A free school was carried on in this parish as far back as memory goes, the master of which received £1 a year from a gift of John Winslow in 1717. The official trustees also hold a sum of £105 9s. 6d. consols, producing £2 12s. 8d. yearly, bequeathed in 1839 by will of Rebecca Sargent as a subscription to the Charity school.

Eleemosynary Charities.

—Sir Edmund Wylde, kt., as stated on the church table, in 1620 gave £20 for the poor, and other donors (twenty in number) gave smaller sums, amounting in the aggregate to £94 10s. In 1679 a tenement and 1 a. 2 r. in the hamlet of Kerswell were purchased therewith. In 1902 the sum of £4 4s. was received as rent, and the official trustees hold a sum of £42 15s. 3d. consols in respect of these charities also a sum of £4 16s. 5d. consols in respect of William Giles's gift of £5 for bread on New Year's Day.

The church table further mentioned that Charles Geary by his will 1788 left £20, the interest to be laid out in bread and coals at Christmas among ten poor women. The legacy is represented by £19 10s. 2d. consols.

In 1789 Elizabeth Eaton, by her will and a codicil thereto, bequeathed £150 and £50 respectively for the poor, which are represented by £195 11s. 11d. consols.

In 1822 William Hay by his will left £19 19s., the interest to be applied in the distribution of shoes to poor men. The legacy is now represented by £35 19s.

The several sums of stock are held by the official trustees, producing together in annual dividends £7 9s. These five charities are administered together and applied mainly in the distribution of coals.

An annual sum of 20s. is distributable in bread to the poor in respect of the charity of John Winslow, which is payable out of the rents of 4 a. 2 r. in the tithing of Draycott in this parish belonging to the charities of George Lloyd and Richard Spencer, comprised in deed of 21 August 1762. The annual rent, amounting to about £12, is applicable in moieties for the benefit of the poor of Kempsey and Severn Stoke.

Edward Hurdman by his will (date not stated) left £100, the interest to be applied in clothing on St. Thomas's Day for three or four poor men. The legacy has been invested in £102 13s. 11d. consols.

In 1839 Rebecca Sargent by her will left £100, the interest to be applied on St. Thomas's Day in clothing six poor old women invested in £105 9s. 6d. consols.

In 1853 Frances White left a legacy, now represented by £30 3s. 11d. consols, the income to be applied in bread.

In 1880 Mrs. Mary Handy Mercer, by her will proved at Gloucester 27 August, bequeathed £100, the interest to be distributed to the poor. The legacy has been invested in £97 18s. 4d. consols.

In 1883 Miss Caroline Wigley Bell, by her will proved at Gloucester 15 November, left £100 for the poor. The legacy, less duty, is represented by £88 6s. 10d. consols.

The several sums of stock are held by the official trustees, who also hold a sum of £10 13s. 2d. consols in respect of a legacy under the will of Sarah Mills, proved at London 23 August 1876.

The annual dividends of the six preceding charities, amounting together to £10 17s., are applied mainly in the distribution of doles, with a preference to widows.

In 1859 Joseph Munn, by his will proved at Worcester 18 February, bequeathed £100, the interest to be applied in bread for the poor. It was invested in £94 19s. 9d. consols, producing £2 7s. 4d. yearly.

In 1898 Thomas Crisp, by his will proved 11 November, bequeathed £20 consols, the annual dividend of 10s. to be applied in the purchase of shoes to be given on Good Friday to a poor man of not less than fifty years of age, any residue to be distributed in bread.


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