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New Jersey - History

New Jersey - History

Basic Information

Postal Abbreviation: NJ
Natives: New Jerseyan

Population 2018: 8,908,520
Legal Driving Age: 18
(*17 w/ Drivers Ed.)
Age of Majority: 18
Median Age: 39

State Song: “Does not have an official state song, both houses of the legislature passed "I'm From New Jersey" in 1972 but it was never singed into law. I'm from New Jersey was written by Red Mascara. Born to Run by Bruce Springsteen is the other unoffical state song.

Median Household Income:$76,475

Capital..... Trenton
Entered Union..... Dec. 18, 1787 (3)

Present Constitution Adopted: 1947

Nickname: Garden State

Motto:
“Liberty and Prosperity”

Origin of Name:
The Channel Isle of Jersey

USS New Jersey

Railroad Stations

New Jersey Economy

AGRICULTURE:
horses, chickens, eggs dairy
nursery products,asparagus, eggplant, lettuce,
blueberries, cranberries.

MINING: curshed stone, sand and gravel

MANUFACTURING: chemicals,
clothing, detergenents, food
processing,pharmaceuticals.


New Jersey Geography

Total Area:8,723sq. miles
Land area: 7,354 sq. miles
Water Area: 1,369 sq. miles
Geographic Center:Mercer County, 5 miles South East of Trenton
Highest Point: High Point (1,803 ft.)
Lowest Point: Atlantic Ocean (sea level)
Highest Recorded Temp.: 111˚ F (7/10/1936)
Lowest Recorded Temp.: -34˚ F (5/5/1904)

Along the east, New Jersey is flanked by the Atlantic Ocean. It is separated from New York, in particular the boroughs of the Bronx and Manhattan in New York City by the Hudson River, and from Staten Island by the Kill van Kull and the Arthur Kill. Liberty Island is an exclave of State of New York in New Jersey waters in Upper New York Bay. Ellis Island, also in the Upper Bay, and Shooter's Island, in Newark Bay, each have sections belonging to either of the two states.
On its west, New Jersey is flanked by the Delaware River that forms its border with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and Delaware Bay which separates New Jersey from the State of Delaware

Cities

Newark, 282,090
Jersey City, 247,597
Paterson, 146,199
Elizabeth, 124,969
Edison, 99,967
Woodbridge, 99,585
Lakewood, 92,843
Toms River, 91,239
Hamilton, 88,464;
Trenton, 84,913

New Jersey History

1524 Giovanni de Verrazano explores the coast of New Jersey
--Spaniards defeat local Indains at the Battle of Mauvilla.
1660 Bergen is founded
1664 Dutch lose New York and thus New Jersey to England
1664 Sir George Cateret and Lord John Berkley become the proprieters of New Jersey colony
1674 Lord Berkely sells his part of New Jersey to the Quakers
1702 West and East Jersey are reunited as a royal colony, Lord Cornbury becomes the Royal Governor
Mississippi to England thus Alabama became an English territory.
1746 College of New Jersey now Princeton University is founded
1776 First Constitution of New Jersey adopted
1776 December 25-26 Battle of Trenton
1777 January 3 The Battle of Princeton
1778 June 28- The Battle of Monmouth
1835 Samuel Colt began producing guns in Paterson
1830 The Choctaw Indians ceded their remaining land and they begin their
migration to Oklahoma.
1836 The Cherokees were forced to migrate to Oklahoma
1847 Thomas Edison born
1911 The Standard Oil Company of New Jersey is broken up by the order of the Supreme Court
1937 German Zeppelin Hindenburg explodes over Lakehurst Naval Air Station
2012 Hurricane Sandy destroys parts of the New Jersey shore causing Billions of dollars in damage

Famous People


Edwin Aldrin
William J. Brennan
Aaron Burr
William Frederick Halsey, Jr.
Philip Roth
Ruth St. Denis dancer and choreographer;
Antonin Scalia
H. Norman Schwarzkopf
Frank Sinatra
Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Willis

New Jersey National Sites

1) Great Egg Harbor River
Established by Congress in 1992, nearly all of this 129-mile river system rests within the Pinelands National Reserve. This National Park Service unit is unusual in that local jurisdictions continue to administer the lands.

2) Morristown National Historic Park
Morristown National Historical Park commemorates the sites of General Washington and the Continental army’s winter encampment of December 1779 to June 1780, where they survived through what would be the coldest winter on record.

3) New Jersey Pinelands
New Jersey Pinelands was established by Congress in 1876 as the country’s first National Reserve. It includes portions of seven southern New Jersey counties, and encompasses over one-million acres of farms, forests and wetlands. It contains 56 communities, from hamlets to suburbs, with over 700,000 permanent residents.


New Jersey

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New Jersey, constituent state of the United States of America. One of the original 13 states, it is bounded by New York to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east and south, and Delaware and Pennsylvania to the west. The state was named for the island of Jersey in the English Channel. The capital is Trenton.

Although it has major social, economic, and political force in its own right, New Jersey is sometimes looked upon as a stepchild among the heavily industrialized and populated states along the Eastern Seaboard. New Jersey is one of the smallest states in area, but it is highly urbanized and has one of the country’s highest population densities. Hundreds of thousands of its citizens commute to New York and Pennsylvania. New Jersey’s transportation system is one of the busiest and most extensive in the world, and it weaves the state into the fabric of the region by funneling goods and people to New York City and other points north and to Philadelphia and points south. For hundreds of thousands of visitors it offers long stretches of fine beaches along the Atlantic Ocean, and the resort town of Atlantic City may be better known than the state itself.

Above all, New Jersey is rife with contradiction and anomaly. Its people fiercely fight off attempts of state government to end home rule by powerful municipal administrations. While the state has produced some of the most able and respected U.S. governors, corruption has often played a part in its local politics, and it has achieved notoriety as a major locus of organized crime.

New Jersey is called the Garden State because it became famous in the 18th century for the fertility of its land. It is now also among the most urbanized and crowded of states. The urban density of its northeast contrasts sharply, however, with the rugged hills of the northwest, the enormous stretches of pine forest in the southeast (the Pine Barrens), and the rolling and lush horse country in the south-central part of the state. New Jersey is an important industrial centre, but it has paid the price in environmental pollution, in dirt and noise, and in congested roads and slums. In sum, New Jersey is a curious amalgam of urban and rural, poor and wealthy, progressive and conservative, parochial and cosmopolitan. Indeed, it is one of the most diverse states in the union. Area 8,723 square miles (22,591 square km). Population (2010) 8,791,894 (2019 est.) 8,882,190.


New Jersey - History

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The written history of New Jersey began with the exploration of the Jersey Coast by Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524, though the region had been settled for millennia by Native Americans. At the time of European contact, the area was populated by tribes of Lenape. The New Jersey region soon came under the control of the Swedes and the Dutch resulting in a struggle in which the Dutch were victorious. However, the Dutch colony of New Netherland was seized by the British in 1664. New Jersey was one of the original 13 colonies that joined the American Revolutionary War in 1776. It signed the Articles of Confederation in 1779 with Princeton acting as the nation's capital for four months in 1783. New Jersey became independent after the American Revolutionary War, in which several crucial battles were fought in New Jersey resulting in American victories. In 1787, New Jersey was the third state to join the United States of America.


Growth of the contemporary state

Between the Revolutionary and Civil wars, New Jersey underwent tremendous industrial development, largely abetted by the construction of canals and, later, railroads. The railroads, in particular the Camden and Amboy line (a forerunner of present-day Conrail), played a crucial role in the state’s political life, dominating and controlling legislators and governors during the “robber baron” era of industrial expansion in the 19th century. Accommodating tax laws of that era gave New Jersey the epithet Mother of Trusts—half of the country’s largest corporations made their headquarters in the state by the early 1900s. Public dissatisfaction with the power of the trusts and public utilities reached a high point at the time of the election of Gov. Woodrow Wilson (1911–13), who signed legislation providing for tighter regulation of corporations (later repealed). Economic growth continued during and after World Wars I and II, but the growing decay of the cities continued to be largely overlooked amid general prosperity throughout the 20th century.

Politically, New Jersey is often a swing state in national elections. It historically tended to lean Republican, but, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, voters more decidedly supported the Democrats, who have since frequently controlled the state legislature. The governorship has tended to alternate between Republican and Democrat. In 1993 Republican Christine Todd Whitman became the first female governor of New Jersey.

A master plan for the state’s development, first adopted in 1992 and subsequently updated, aimed to direct growth toward existing infrastructure. The goal was to benefit existing urban and older suburban areas and to protect the state’s natural resources. The state also committed to the acquisition of open space and the reduction of suburban sprawl and its concomitant difficulties for commuters. Simultaneously, there was a rise of “edge cities” (suburban areas that contain all or most of the functions once found only in an urban context). As New Jersey moves through its fourth century of history, it continues to fulfill its potential as a diverse and richly gifted state.


Contents

New Jersey was one of the Iowa-class "fast battleship" designs planned in 1938 by the Preliminary Design Branch at the Bureau of Construction and Repair. She was launched on 7 December 1942 (the first anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor) [6] and commissioned on 23 May 1943. The ship was the second of the Iowa class to be commissioned by the U.S. Navy. [7] The ship was christened at her launching by Carolyn Edison, wife of Governor Charles Edison of New Jersey, himself a former Secretary of the Navy and commissioned at Philadelphia 23 May 1943, Captain Carl F. Holden in command. [8]

New Jersey ' s main battery consisted of nine 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 guns in three three-gun turrets, which could fire 2,700-pound (1,225 kg) armor-piercing shells some 23 miles (42.6 km). Her secondary battery consisted of twenty 5"/38 caliber guns mounted in twin-gun dual purpose (DP) turrets, which could hit targets up to 9 miles (16.7 km) away. With the advent of air power and the need to gain and maintain air superiority came a need to protect the growing fleet of allied aircraft carriers, so New Jersey was fitted with an array of Oerlikon 20 mm and Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft guns. When reactivated in 1968, New Jersey had her 20 mm and 40 mm AA guns removed and was tailored for use as a heavy bombardment ship. When reactivated in 1982, New Jersey had four twin 5"/38 caliber DP mounts removed. She was outfitted with four Phalanx Close-In Weapon System (CIWS) mounts for protection against missiles and aircraft, and eight Armored Box Launchers and eight Quad Cell Launchers designed to fire Tomahawk missiles and Harpoon missiles, respectively. [9]

The main deck was 53,000 square feet of teak. [10] Unlike the other Iowa-class battleships, New Jersey was named by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to repay a political debt, to then-New Jersey Governor Charles Edison. During his time in the Navy department, Edison pushed to build the Iowas, and to build one at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, which secured votes for Roosevelt in Pennsylvania and New Jersey in the 1940 presidential election. [11]

Shakedown and service with the 5th Fleet, Admiral Spruance Edit

New Jersey completed fitting out and trained her initial crew in the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. On 7 January 1944 she passed through the Panama Canal war-bound for Funafuti, Ellice Islands. She reported there 22 January for duty with the United States Fifth Fleet, and three days later rendezvoused with Task Group 58.2 for the assault on the Marshall Islands. New Jersey screened the aircraft carriers from Japanese attack as planes from Task Group 58.2 flew strikes against Kwajalein and Eniwetok 29 January – 2 February, softening up the latter for its invasion and supporting the troops who landed on 31 January. [8]

New Jersey began her career as a flagship 4 February in Majuro Lagoon when Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, commanding the 5th Fleet, broke his flag from her main. Her first action as a flagship was in Operation Hailstone, a two-day surface and air strike by her task force against the major Japanese fleet base on Truk in the Carolines. This attack was coordinated with the assault on Kwajalein, and effectively interdicted the Japanese naval retaliation to the conquest of the Marshalls. On 17 and 18 February, the task force accounted for two Japanese light cruisers, four destroyers, three auxiliary cruisers, two submarine tenders, two submarine chasers, an armed trawler, a plane ferry, and 23 other auxiliaries, not including small craft. New Jersey destroyed a trawler and, with other ships, sank the destroyer Maikaze. New Jersey also fired on an enemy aircraft that attacked her formation. The task force returned to the Marshalls 19 February. [8]

Between 17 March and 10 April, New Jersey first sailed with Rear Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's flagship Lexington for an air and surface bombardment of Mille, then rejoined Task Group 58.2 for a strike against shipping in the Palaus, and bombarded Woleai. Upon his return to Majuro, Admiral Spruance transferred his flag to Indianapolis. [8] New Jersey ' s next war cruise, 13 April – 4 May 1944, began and ended at Majuro. She screened the carrier striking force which gave air support to the invasion of Aitape, Tanahmerah Bay and Humboldt Bay, New Guinea, 22 April, then shelled shipping and shore installations at Truk 29–30 April. New Jersey and her formation shot down two enemy torpedo bombers at Truk. Her 16-inch salvos pounded Ponape 1 May, destroying fuel tanks, badly damaging the airfield, and demolishing a headquarters building. [8]

After rehearsing in the Marshalls for the invasion of the Marianas, New Jersey put to sea 6 June in the screening and bombardment group of Admiral Mitscher's Task Force. On the second day of preinvasion air strikes, 12 June, New Jersey shot down an enemy torpedo bomber, and during the next two days her heavy guns battered Saipan and Tinian, in advance of the marine landings on 15 June. [8] The Japanese response to the Marianas operation was an order to its main surface fleet to attack and annihilate the American invasion force. Shadowing American submarines tracked the Japanese fleet into the Philippine Sea as Admiral Spruance joined his task force with Admiral Mitscher's to meet the enemy. New Jersey took station in the protective screen around the carriers on 19 June 1944 as American and Japanese pilots dueled in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. That day and the next would cripple Japanese naval aviation in what would become known as the "Marianas Turkey Shoot", the Japanese lost some 400 planes for less than two dozen American aircraft in return. This loss of trained pilots and aircraft was equaled in disaster by the sinking of the Japanese aircraft carriers Taihō and Shōkaku by the submarines Albacore and Cavalla, respectively, and the loss of Hiyō to aircraft launched from the light aircraft carrier Belleau Wood. In addition to these losses, Allied forces succeeded in damaging two Japanese carriers and a battleship. The anti-aircraft fire of New Jersey and the other screening ships proved virtually impenetrable two American ships were slightly damaged during the battle. Only 17 American planes were lost in combat. [8]

Service with the 3rd Fleet, Admiral Halsey Edit

New Jersey ' s final contribution to the conquest of the Marianas was in strikes on Guam and the Palaus from which she sailed for Pearl Harbor, arriving 9 August. Here she broke the flag of Admiral William F. Halsey Jr., [12] 24 August, becoming flagship of the United States Third Fleet. On 30 August New Jersey set sail from Pearl Harbor, and for the next eight months was based at Ulithi to lend support to Allied forces operating in the Philippines. In this span of the Pacific War, fast carrier task forces ranged the waters off the Philippines, Okinawa, and Formosa, making repeated strikes at airfields, shipping, shore bases, and invasion beaches. [8]

In September the targets were in the Visayas and the southern Philippines, then Manila and Cavite, Panay, Negros, Leyte, and Cebu. Early in October raids to destroy enemy air power based on Okinawa and Formosa were begun in preparation for the Leyte landings of 20 October 1944. [8] This invasion brought on the last great sortie of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Its plan for the Battle of Leyte Gulf included a feint by a northern force of planeless heavy attack carriers to draw away the battleships, cruisers and fast carriers with which Admiral Halsey was protecting the landings. This was to allow the Japanese Center Force to enter the gulf through San Bernardino Strait. At the opening of the battle, planes from the carriers guarded by New Jersey struck hard at both the Japanese Southern and Center Forces, sinking a battleship 23 October. The next day, Halsey shaped his course north after the decoy force had been spotted. Planes from his carriers sank four of the Japanese carriers, as well as a destroyer and a cruiser, while New Jersey steamed south at flank speed to meet the newly developed threat of the Center force. It had been turned back in a stunning defeat when she arrived. [8]

New Jersey rejoined her fast carriers near San Bernardino 27 October 1944 for strikes on central and southern Luzon. Two days later, the force came under suicide attack. In a melee of anti-aircraft fire from the ships and combat air patrol, New Jersey shot down a plane whose pilot maneuvered it into the port gun galleries of Intrepid, while machine gun fire from Intrepid wounded three of New Jersey's men. During a similar action 25 November three Japanese planes were shot down by the combined fire of the force, part of one flaming onto the flight deck of Hancock. Intrepid was again attacked she shot down one would-be kamikaze aircraft, but was crashed by another despite hits scored on the attacker by New Jersey gunners. New Jersey shot down a plane diving on Cabot and hit another plane which smashed into Cabot ' s port bow. [8]

On 18 December 1944 the ships of Task Force 38 unexpectedly found themselves in a fight for their lives when Typhoon Cobra overtook the force—seven fleet and six light carriers, eight battleships, 15 cruisers, and about 50 destroyers—during their attempt to refuel at sea. At the time the ships were operating about 300 miles (500 km) east of Luzon in the Philippine Sea. [13] The carriers had just completed three days of heavy raids against Japanese airfields, suppressing enemy aircraft during the American amphibious operations against Mindoro in the Philippines. The task force rendezvoused with Captain Jasper T. Acuff and his fueling group 17 December with the intention of refueling all ships in the task force and replacing lost aircraft. [14]

Although the sea had been growing rougher all day, the nearby cyclonic disturbance gave relatively little warning of its approach. Each of the carriers in the Third Fleet had a weatherman aboard, and as the fleet flagship New Jersey had a highly experienced weatherman: Commander G. F. Kosco, a graduate of the aerology course at Massachusetts Institute of Technology who had also studied hurricanes in the West Indies despite this, none of these individuals or staffs were able to give Third Fleet due warning of the impending typhoon. [14] On 18 December, the small but violent typhoon overtook the Task Force while many of the ships were attempting to refuel. Many of the ships were caught near the center of the storm and buffeted by extreme seas and hurricane-force winds. Three destroyers—Hull, Monaghan and Spence—capsized and sank with nearly all hands, while a cruiser, five aircraft carriers, and three destroyers suffered serious damage. [13] Approximately 790 officers and men were lost or killed, with another 80 injured. Fires occurred in three carriers when planes broke loose in their hangars, and some 146 planes on various ships were lost or damaged beyond economical repair by fires, impact damage, or by being swept overboard. [14] As with the other battleships of TF 38, skillful seamanship brought New Jersey through the storm largely unscathed. She returned to Ulithi on Christmas Eve to be met by Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz. [8]

Service with Battleship Division Seven, Admiral Badger Edit

New Jersey ranged far and wide from 30 December 1944 to 25 January 1945 on her last cruise as Admiral Halsey's flagship. She guarded the carriers in their strikes on Formosa, Okinawa, and Luzon, on the coast of Indo-China, Hong Kong, Swatow and Amoy, and again on Formosa and Okinawa. At Ulithi 27 January Admiral Halsey lowered his flag in New Jersey, but it was replaced two days later by that of Rear Admiral Oscar C. Badger II commanding Battleship Division 7. [8] In support of the assault on Iwo Jima, New Jersey screened the Essex group in air attacks on the island 19–21 February, and gave the same crucial service for the first major carrier raid on Tokyo 25 February, a raid aimed specifically at aircraft production. During the next two days, Okinawa was attacked from the air by the same striking force. [8]

New Jersey was directly engaged in the conquest of Okinawa from 14 March until 16 April. As the carriers prepared for the invasion with strikes there and on Honshū, New Jersey fought off air raids, used her seaplanes to rescue downed pilots, defended the carriers from suicide planes, shooting down at least three and assisting in the destruction of others. On 24 March 1945 she again carried out the role of heavy bombardment, preparing the invasion beaches for the assault a week later. [8] During the final months of the war, New Jersey was overhauled at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, from which she sailed 4 July for San Pedro, Pearl Harbor, and Eniwetok bound for Guam. Here on 14 August she once again became flagship of the 5th Fleet under Admiral Spruance. Brief stays at Manila and Okinawa preceded her arrival in Tokyo Bay 17 September, where she served as flagship for the successive commanders of Naval Forces in Japanese waters until relieved 28 January 1946 by Iowa (BB-61). As part of the ongoing Operation Magic Carpet New Jersey took aboard nearly a thousand homeward-bound troops, with whom she arrived at San Francisco 10 February. [8]

After west coast operations and a normal overhaul at Puget Sound, New Jersey came home to Bayonne, New Jersey, for a rousing fourth birthday party 23 May 1947. Present were Governor Alfred E. Driscoll, former Governor Walter E. Edge and other dignitaries. [8] Between 7 June and 26 August, New Jersey formed part of the first training squadron to cruise Northern European waters since the beginning of World War II. Over two thousand United States Naval Academy and NROTC midshipmen received seagoing experience under the command of Admiral Richard L. Connolly, Commander Naval Forces Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, who broke his flag in New Jersey at Rosyth, Scotland 23 June. She was the scene of official receptions at Oslo, where King Haakon VII of Norway inspected the crew 2 July, and at Portsmouth, England. The training fleet was westward bound 18 July for exercises in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic. [8]

After serving at New York as flagship for Rear Admiral Heber H. McLean, Commander, Battleship Division 1, 12 September – 18 October, New Jersey was inactivated at the New York Naval Shipyard. She was decommissioned at Bayonne 30 June 1948 and assigned to the New York Group, Atlantic Reserve Fleet. [8]

In 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea, prompting the United States to intervene in the name of the United Nations. President Harry S. Truman was caught off guard when the invasion struck, [15] but quickly ordered U.S. Forces stationed in Japan into South Korea. Truman also sent U.S. based troops, tanks, fighter and bomber aircraft, and a strong naval force to Korea to support the Republic of Korea. As part of the naval mobilization New Jersey was recalled from the mothball fleet to provide seaborne artillery support for U.N. and South Korean troops. New Jersey was recommissioned at Bayonne on 21 November 1950, Captain David M. Tyree in command, and proceeded to the Caribbean, where she welded her crew into an efficient body which would meet the demanding requirements of the Korean War. She sailed from Norfolk, Virginia 16 April 1951 and arrived from Japan off the east coast of Korea 17 May. Vice Admiral Harold M. Martin, commanding the United States Seventh Fleet, placed his flag in New Jersey for the next six months. [8]

New Jersey ' s guns opened the first shore bombardment of her Korean career at Wonsan 20 May. During her two tours of duty in Korean waters, she was again and again to play the part of seaborne mobile artillery. In direct support to United Nations troops or in preparation for ground actions, in interdicting Communist supply and communication routes, or in destroying supplies and troop positions, New Jersey used her 16-inch guns to fire far beyond the capacity of land artillery, moved rapidly and free from major attack from one target to another, and at the same time could be immediately available to guard aircraft carriers should they require her protection. It was on this first such mission at Wonsan that she received her only combat casualties of the Korean War. One of her men was killed and two severely wounded when she took a hit from a shore battery on her number one turret and received a near miss aft to port. [8]

Between 23 and 27 May and again 30 May 1951, New Jersey pounded targets near Yangyang and Kansong, dispersing troop concentrations, dropping a bridge span, and destroying three large ammunition dumps. Air spotters reported Yangyang abandoned at the end of this action, while railroad facilities and vehicles were smashed at Kansong. On 24 May, she lost one of her helicopters after the crew pushed their chopper to the limit of its fuel searching for a downed aviator. The helicopter crew was able to reach friendly territory and were later returned to their ship. [8]

With Admiral Arthur W. Radford, Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet, and Vice Admiral C. Turner Joy, Commander Naval Forces Far East aboard, New Jersey bombarded targets at Wonsan 4 June. At Kansong two days later she fired her main battery at an artillery regiment and truck encampment, with 7th Fleet aircraft spotting targets and reporting successes. On 28 July off Wonsan the battleship was again taken under fire by shore batteries. Several near misses splashed to port, but New Jersey ' s precision fire silenced the enemy and destroyed several gun emplacements. [8] Between 4 and 12 July, New Jersey supported a United Nations push in the Kansong area, firing at enemy buildup and reorganization positions. As the Republic of Korea's First Division hurled itself on the enemy, shore fire control observers saw New Jersey ' s salvos hit directly on enemy mortar emplacements, supply and ammunition dumps, and personnel concentrations. New Jersey returned to Wonsan 18 July for an exhibition of perfect firing: five gun emplacements demolished with five direct hits. [8]

New Jersey sailed to the aid of troops of the Republic of Korea once more 17 August, returning to the Kansong area where for four days she provided harassing fire by night, and broke up counterattacks by day, inflicting a heavy toll on enemy troops. She returned to this general area yet again 29 August, when she fired in an amphibious demonstration staged behind enemy lines to ease pressure on the Republic of Korea's troops. The next day she started a three-day saturation of the Changjon area, with one of her own helicopters spotting the results: four buildings destroyed, road junctions smashed, railroad marshaling yards afire, tracks cut and uprooted, coal stocks scattered, and many buildings and warehouses set blazing. [8]

Aside from a brief break in firing 23 September to take aboard wounded from the Korean frigate Apnok (PF-62) , damaged by gunfire, New Jersey was heavily engaged in bombarding the Kansong area, supporting the movement of the U.S. X Corps. The pattern again was harassing fire by night, destruction of known targets by day. Enemy movement was restricted by the fire of her big guns. A bridge, a dam, several gun emplacements, mortar positions, pillboxes, bunkers, and two ammunition dumps were demolished. [8] On 1 October 1951, General Omar Bradley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and General Matthew B. Ridgeway, Commander in Chief Far East, came on board to confer with Admiral Martin. [8]

Between 1 and 6 October New Jersey was in action daily at Kansong, Hamhung, Hungnam, Tanchon, and Songjin. Enemy bunkers and supply concentrations provided the majority of the targets at Kansong at the others New Jersey fired on railroads, tunnels, bridges, an oil refinery, trains, and shore batteries. She also engaged an enemy gun emplacement with her five-inch (127 mm) gun mounts, which New Jersey successfully destroyed. The Kojo area was her target 16 October as she sailed in company with HMS Belfast, pilots from HMAS Sydney spotting. The operation was well-planned and coordinated, and excellent results were obtained. [8] Another highly satisfactory day was 16 October, when the spotter over the Kansong area reported "beautiful shooting every shot on target-most beautiful shooting I have seen in five years." This five-hour bombardment leveled ten artillery positions, and in smashing trenches and bunkers inflicted some 500 enemy casualties. [8]

New Jersey dashed up the North Korean coast raiding transportation facilities from 1 to 6 November. She struck at bridges, road, and rail installations at Wonsan, Hungnam, Tanchon, Iowon, Songjin, and Chongjin, leaving four bridges destroyed, others badly damaged, two marshaling yards badly torn up, and many feet of track destroyed. With renewed attacks on Kansong and near the Chang-San-Got Peninsula 11 and 13 November, New Jersey completed her first tour of duty in Korea. [8] Relieved as flagship by Wisconsin, New Jersey cleared Yokosuka for Hawaii, Long Beach and the Panama Canal, and returned to Norfolk 20 December for a six-month overhaul. Between 19 July 1952 and 5 September, she sailed as flagship for Rear Admiral H. R. Thurber, who commanded the NROTC midshipman training cruise to Cherbourg, Lisbon, and the Caribbean. Now New Jersey prepared and trained for her second Korean tour, for which she sailed from Norfolk 5 March 1953. [8]

Shaping her course via the Panama Canal, Long Beach, and Hawaii, New Jersey reached Yokosuka 5 April, and next day relieved Missouri as flagship of Vice Admiral Joseph H. Clark, Commander 7th Fleet. On 12 April New Jersey returned to action by shelling Chongjin in seven minutes she scored seven direct hits, blowing away half the main communications building there. At Pusan two days later, New Jersey manned her rails to welcome the President of the Republic of Korea and Madame Rhee, and American Ambassador Ellis O. Briggs. [8] New Jersey fired on coastal batteries and buildings at Kojo 16 April on railway track and tunnels near Hungnam 18 April and on gun emplacements around Wonsan Harbor 20 April, silencing them in five areas after she had herself taken several near misses. Songjin provided targets 23 April. Here New Jersey scored six direct 16 inch (406 mm) hits on a railroad tunnel and knocked out two rail bridges. [8]

New Jersey provided artillery support for a major air and surface strike on Wonsan 1 May, as 7th Fleet planes both attacked the enemy and spotted for the battleship. She knocked out eleven Communist shore guns that day, and four days later destroyed the key observation post on the island of Hodo Pando, commanding the harbor. Two days later Kalmagak at Wonsan was her target. [8] New Jersey ' s tenth birthday, 23 May 1953, was celebrated at Incheon with President and Madame Rhee, Lieutenant General Maxwell D. Taylor, and other dignitaries on board. Two days later New Jersey returned to action along the west coast at Chinampo to knock out harbor defense positions. [8]

The battleship was under fire at Wonsan 27–29 May, but her five-inch (127 mm) guns silenced the counter-fire, and her 16-inch shells destroyed five gun emplacements and four gun caves. She also hit a target that flamed spectacularly: either a fuel storage area or an ammunition dump. [8] New Jersey returned to the key task of direct support to troops at Kosong 7 June. On her first mission, she completely destroyed two gun positions, an observation post, and their supporting trenches, then stood by on call for further aid. She then sailed back to Wonsan for a day-long bombardment 24 June, aimed at guns placed in caves. The results were excellent, with eight direct hits on three caves, one cave demolished, and four others closed. Next day she returned to troop support at Kosong, her assignment until 10 July, aside from necessary withdrawal for replenishment. [8]

At Wonsan 11–12 July, New Jersey fired one of the most concentrated bombardments of her Korean duty. For nine hours the first day, and for seven the second, her guns opened fire on gun positions and bunkers on Hodo Pando and the mainland with telling effect. At least ten enemy guns were destroyed, many damaged, and a number of caves and tunnels sealed. New Jersey smashed radar control positions and bridges at Kojo 13 July, and was once more on the east coast bombline 22–24 July to support South Korean troops near Kosong. These days found her gunners at their most accurate: A large cave, housing an important enemy observation post was closed, the end of a month-long United Nations effort, and a great many bunkers, artillery areas, observation posts, trenches, tanks and other weapons were destroyed. [8]

At sunrise on 25 July 1953 New Jersey was off the key port, rail and communications center of Hungnam, pounding coastal guns, bridges, a factory area, and oil storage tanks. She sailed north that afternoon, firing at rail lines and railroad tunnels as she made for Tanchon, where she launched a whaleboat in an attempt to spot a train known to run nightly along the coast. Her big guns were trained on two tunnels between which she hoped to catch the train, but in the darkness she could not see the results of her six-gun salvo. [8]

Post Korean War (1953–1967) Edit

New Jersey's mission at Wonsan, the next day, was her last. Here she destroyed large-caliber guns, bunkers, caves and trenches. Two days later, she learned of the truce. Her crew celebrated during a seven-day visit at Hong Kong, where she anchored 20 August. Operations around Japan and off Formosa were carried out for the remainder of her tour, which was highlighted by a visit to Pusan. Here president Rhee came aboard on 16 September to present the Korean Presidential Unit Citation to the 7th Fleet. [8]

Relieved as flagship at Yokosuka by Wisconsin 14 October, New Jersey was homeward bound the next day, reaching Norfolk on 14 November. During the next two summers she crossed the Atlantic with midshipmen on board for training, and during the rest of the year sharpened her skills with exercises and training maneuvers along the Atlantic coast and in the Caribbean. [8] New Jersey stood out of Norfolk 7 September 1955 for her first tour of duty with the United States Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean. Her ports of call included Gibraltar, Valencia, Cannes, Istanbul, Souda Bay and Barcelona. She returned to Norfolk 7 January 1956 for the spring program of training operations. That summer she again carried midshipmen to Northern Europe for training, bringing them home to Annapolis 31 July. New Jersey sailed for Europe once more 27 August as flagship of Vice Admiral Charles Wellborn Jr., Commander United States Second Fleet. She called at Lisbon, participated in NATO exercises off Scotland, and paid an official visit to Norway where Crown Prince Olav was a guest. She returned to Norfolk 15 October, and 14 December arrived at New York Naval Shipyard for inactivation. She was decommissioned and placed in reserve at Bayonne 21 August 1957. [8]

Due to heavy loss rates of U.S. aircraft (commencing with Operation Rolling Thunder in 1965), studies were conducted on ways of alleviating those air losses while at the same time delivering the ordnance payloads required by the escalation of the war. On 31 May 1967 the Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara authorized a study aimed at determining what would be required to get New Jersey reactivated in her present condition, and when the results of the submitted study proved favorable toward the reactivation he took action. [16] In August 1967 the Secretary of Defense made the decision to recommission a battleship "for employment in the Pacific Fleet to augment the naval gunfire support force in Southeast Asia". [17] New Jersey was selected for this task because she was in better material condition than her sisters, having received an extensive overhaul prior to decommissioning. Upon her reactivation she underwent a period of modernization during which the 20 mm and 40 mm anti-aircraft guns on the battleship were removed, and she received improved electronic warfare systems and improvements to her radar. Armed as such New Jersey was formally recommissioned 6 April 1968 at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Captain J. Edward Snyder in command. [8] During sea trials following her modernization, New Jersey set the battleship world speed record by achieving a speed of 35.2 knots (62.5 km/h 40.5 mph), maintaining this speed for six hours. [18]

New Jersey, then the world's only active battleship, departed Philadelphia 16 May, calling at Norfolk and transiting the Panama Canal 4 June before arriving at her new home port of Long Beach, California, 11 June. Further training off Southern California followed. On 24 July New Jersey received 16 inch shells and powder tanks from Mount Katmai by conventional highline transfer and by helicopter lift, the first time heavy battleship ammunition had been transferred by helicopter at sea (now known as vertical replenishment). [8]

Departing Long Beach 2 September, New Jersey touched at Pearl Harbor and Subic Bay before sailing 25 September for her first tour on the gun line [19] along the Vietnamese coast. Near the 17th parallel on 30 September, the battleship fired her first shots in battle in over sixteen years, expending a total of 29 sixteen inch rounds against People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) targets in and near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) at the 17th parallel. [17] New Jersey took up station off Tiger Island 1 October and fired at targets north of the DMZ before moving south that afternoon to engage Viet Cong targets. She accounted for six bunkers, a supply truck and an anti-aircraft site that day additionally, she helped rescue the crew of a Marine spotting plane forced down at sea by anti-aircraft fire. On 3 October New Jersey fired on targets south of Tiger Island, and on 4 October the battleship fired on a Communist troop concentration and destroyed several bunkers. On the evening of 7 October New Jersey received reports that a number of waterborne logistics craft were moving south near the mouth of the Song Giang River. New Jersey responded by closing on the formation, and succeeded in sinking eleven of the craft before they could beach. [17]

On 11 October New Jersey engaged a coastal installation with her guns however, she shifted her fire when a recon plane spotting for the battleship reported an enemy truck concentration north of Nha Ky. New Jersey gunners quickly retrained the battleship's big guns and managed to inflict heavy damage on six of the vehicles. [17] Early on the morning of 12 October New Jersey trained her guns in anticipation of shelling the heavily fortified and well protected Vinh caves. For the next three days New Jersey pounded the area with her 16 in shells in an effort to eliminate the Viet Cong presence in the region. Aided by spotter aircraft from the aircraft carrier USS America, New Jersey engaged enemy targets, setting several enemy positions on fire and sealing one cave. On 14 October New Jersey shifted her gunfire to the coastal artillery sites on Hon Matt Island, destroying one battery on the island. [17]

On 16 October New Jersey took up station in support of the U.S. 3rd Marine Division. Using both the 16 in and 5 in guns New Jersey engaged and destroyed 13 structures and an artillery site, in the process halting an enemy platoon moving through the DMZ. New Jersey continued to lend firepower support on the 17th until departing to lend her gunfire to the First Field Force. Foul weather prevented spotter aircraft from flying until 20 October however, New Jersey quickly made up for lost time on the gun line by destroying a Viet Cong command post and nine bunkers in support of the 173rd Airborne Brigade, who were operating about 50 miles (80 km) north of Nha Trang. The next day New Jersey maneuvered into the waters of the Baie de Van Fong to fire at Viet Cong command posts, but poor visibility of the target area prevented any damage estimates. [17]

On the night of 23 October New Jersey steamed north to rearm before taking up position in support of the 3rd Marine Division 25 October. That day she shelled enemy troops located by a spotter plane. The next day New Jersey engaged targets of opportunity, destroying 11 structures, seven bunkers, a concrete observation tower, and an enemy trench line. She also received hostile fire when North Vietnamese gunners attempted to strike at New Jersey with artillery positioned near Cap Lay. Some ten to twelve rounds were launched at New Jersey however, the rounds fired landed well short of the battleship. Aerial spotters were called in to look at the suspected gun position they reported no artillery present but fresh tire tracks leading to a concealed area, suggesting that there had been artillery there earlier. Armed with this information New Jersey fired five 16 inch shells at the site, but in the darkness spotters were unable to confirm any hits. [17]

On 28 October New Jersey steamed south to engage Communist targets. During the shelling aircraft spotting for the battleship reported taking heavy anti-aircraft fire to the extreme north of the target zone subsequently, New Jersey altered her fire to silence the site with her big guns. The next day New Jersey leveled 30 structures, destroyed three underground bunkers, and shelled a Viet Cong trench line. That afternoon an aerial observer located an enemy artillery position on a hilltop southwest of Cap Lay. New Jersey responded by firing six 16 inch rounds at the site, destroying it. Follow up assaults on 30 October destroyed a Communist resupply area and an anti-aircraft site. [17] The official PAVN history claims that on 28 October their 25th Battery, 21st Artillery Battalion using 130mm guns hit the New Jersey setting it ablaze. [20]

Upon completion of this mission New Jersey steamed south, taking a position off Da Nang and Point DeDe to lend naval gunfire support to the U.S. 1st Marine Division operating in the area. On 2 November New Jersey commenced firing operations against nine positions, but the heavy foliage in the area prevented spotters from seeing the results of the shelling. [17] On 4 November New Jersey received orders to reinforce southern II Corps near Phan Thiết she arrived on station later that night. The next day she answered eight call for fire support missions from the 173rd Airborne Brigade, in the process destroying eight Viet Cong bunkers and five structures. On 11 November New Jersey departed Vietnamese waters to replenish she returned to the gunline 23 November and relieved USS Galveston, taking up position in support of the U.S. Army's Americal Division. That afternoon New Jersey ' s 5 inch guns shelled enemy buildings, destroying 15 structures and inflicted heavy damage on 29 others. [17]

On 25 November New Jersey launched the most destructive shore bombardment of her Vietnam tour. For the next two days the battleship concentrated her fire at Viet Cong storage areas near Quảng Ngãi, destroying 182 structures and 54 bunkers, inflicting heavy damage to 93 structures, and demolishing several tunnel complexes before departing for Point Betsy near Hue 27 November to support the 101st Airborne Division. [17] Between 2 and 8 December New Jersey returned to aid the 3rd Marine Division, shelling Viet Cong bunker complexes for the Marines operating around the Da Nang area before departing for Singapore 9 December. On 26 December New Jersey returned to the gunline, taking up station off Tuy Hòa in support of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam 47th Regiment. For the next three days New Jersey fired her guns to support the II Corps, in the process destroying Viet Cong bunkers and supply depots and neutralizing enemy cave posts. New Jersey would remain in the waters of the DMZ until after New Years, shelling Communist bunkers for ground troops until leaving to support the 1st Marine Division 3 January. [17]

Throughout January and into February New Jersey operated in support of the Marines. On 10 February the battleship left to reinforce the Korean 2nd Marine Brigade operating near Da Nang. The battleship's target was a suspected subterranean staging area for a Viet Cong regiment. New Jersey ' s big guns went to work on the complex, firing 16 inch shells into tunnels and bunkers to aid the ground troops. On 14 February the battleship steamed south of the DMZ to provide support for the 3rd Marine Division, in the process destroying an anti-aircraft site with her big guns. The next day New Jersey fired on an enemy rocket site northeast of Con Thien, destroying the facility, then trained her guns on known Communist positions to harass PAVN forces. On 22 February New Jersey responded to an urgent request for fire support from the besieged Oceanview observation post near the DMZ. For the next six hours New Jersey fired her guns, ultimately repelling the attacking force. [21]

For the remainder of February and into March New Jersey shelled targets along the DMZ. On 13 March the battleship departed the gunline bound for Subic Bay. She returned to action on 20 March, operating near Cam Ranh Bay in support of the Korean 9th Infantry Division. For the next week New Jersey patrolled the waters between Phan Thiet and Tuy Hoa, shelling targets of opportunity along the coast. On 28 March New Jersey took up station south of the DMZ to aid the 3rd Marine Division, remaining there until 1 April, whereupon New Jersey departed for Japan. [21] During the battleship's tour of duty along the gunline in Vietnam, New Jersey had fired 5,688 rounds of 16 inch shells, and 14,891 rounds of 5-inch shells. [19] [22]

Post Vietnam War (1969–1982) Edit

Her first Vietnam combat tour completed, New Jersey departed Subic Bay 3 April 1969 for Japan. She arrived at Yokosuka for a two-day visit, sailing for the United States 9 April. Her homecoming, however, was to be delayed. On the 15th, while New Jersey was still at sea, North Korean jet fighters shot down an unarmed EC-121 Constellation electronic surveillance plane over the Sea of Japan, killing its entire crew. A carrier task force was formed and sent to the Sea of Japan, while New Jersey was ordered to come about and steam toward Japan. On the 22nd she arrived once more at Yokosuka, and immediately put to sea in readiness for what might befall. [8]

As the crisis eased, New Jersey was released to continue her interrupted voyage. She anchored at Long Beach 5 May 1969, her first visit to her home port in eight months. Through the summer months, New Jersey ' s crew toiled to make her ready for another deployment, and deficiencies discovered on the gun line were remedied. According to official reports, though, reasons of economy were to dictate otherwise: on 22 August 1969 the United States Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird released a list of names of ships to be inactivated at the top of the list was New Jersey. [23] Five days later, Captain Snyder was relieved of command by Captain Robert C. Peniston. [8]

Assuming command of a ship already earmarked for the "mothball fleet", Captain Peniston and his crew prepared for their task. New Jersey got underway on the voyage 6 September, departing Long Beach for Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. She arrived on the 8th, and began preinactivation overhaul to ready herself for decommissioning. On 17 December 1969 New Jersey ' s colors were hauled down and she entered the inactive fleet, following the words of her last commanding officer: "Rest well, yet sleep lightly and hear the call, if again sounded, to provide fire power for freedom." [8]


Contents

New Jersey was one of the original thirteen colonies and was admitted as a state on December 18, 1787. Prior to declaring its independence, New Jersey was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

The first New Jersey State Constitution, ratified in 1776, provided that a governor be elected annually by the state legislature, the members of which were selected by the several counties. [3] Under this constitution, the governor was president of the upper house of the legislature, then called the Legislative Council. [3] The 1844 constitution provided for a popular vote to elect the governor, [4] who no longer presided over the upper house of the legislature, now called the Senate. The 1844 constitution also lengthened the governor's term to three years, set to start on the third Tuesday in January following an election, and barred governors from succeeding themselves. [5] The 1947 constitution extended terms to four years, and limits governors from being elected to more than two consecutive terms, though they can run again after a third term has passed. [6] Joseph Bloomfield, Peter Dumont Vroom, Daniel Haines, Joel Parker, Leon Abbett, and Walter Evans Edge each served two non-consecutive stints as governor while A. Harry Moore served three non-consecutive stints. Foster McGowan Voorhees, James Fairman Fielder, and Richard Codey each served two non-consecutive stints, one as acting governor and one as official governor.

The 1776 constitution provided that the vice-president of the Legislative Council would act as governor (who was president of the Council) should that office be vacant. [3] The 1844 constitution placed the president of the Senate first in the line of succession, [7] as did the subsequent 1947 constitution. [8] A constitutional amendment in 2006 created the office of lieutenant governor, [9] to be elected on the same ticket for the same term as the governor, [10] and if the office of governor is vacant, the lieutenant governor becomes governor. [11] This office was first filled in 2010.

Governors of the State of New Jersey
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor [b]
1 William Livingston August 31, 1776

July 25, 1790
Federalist 1776 Office did not exist
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
[c]
Elisha Lawrence July 25, 1790

October 29, 1790 [d]
Federalist
2 William Paterson October 29, 1790 [d]

March 30, 1793
Federalist 1790
1791
1792
[e]
Thomas Henderson March 30, 1793

June 3, 1793
Federalist
3 Richard Howell June 3, 1793

October 31, 1801
Federalist 1793
1794
[f]
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
4 Joseph Bloomfield October 31, 1801

October 28, 1802
Democratic-
Republican
1801
John Lambert October 28, 1802

October 29, 1803
Democratic-
Republican
1802
[g]
4 Joseph Bloomfield October 29, 1803

October 29, 1812
Democratic-
Republican
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
[h]
5 Aaron Ogden October 29, 1812

October 29, 1813
Federalist 1812
6 William Sanford Pennington October 29, 1813

June 19, 1815
Democratic-
Republican
1813
1814
[i] [j]
William Kennedy June 19, 1815

October 26, 1815
Democratic-
Republican
7 Mahlon Dickerson October 26, 1815

February 1, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
1815
1816
[k]
8 Isaac Halstead Williamson February 6, 1817

October 30, 1829
Federalist [l]
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
Garret D. Wall Democratic 1829
[m]
9 Peter Dumont Vroom November 6, 1829

October 26, 1832
Democratic
1830
1831
10 Samuel L. Southard October 26, 1832

February 27, 1833
Whig 1832
[n]
11 Elias P. Seeley February 27, 1833

October 25, 1833
Whig
9 Peter Dumont Vroom October 25, 1833

November 3, 1836
Democratic 1833
1834
1835
12 Philemon Dickerson November 3, 1836

October 27, 1837
Democratic 1836
13 William Pennington October 27, 1837

October 27, 1843
Whig 1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
14 Daniel Haines October 27, 1843

January 21, 1845
Democratic 1843
15 Charles C. Stratton January 21, 1845

January 18, 1848
Whig 1844
[o]
14 Daniel Haines January 18, 1848

January 21, 1851
Democratic 1847
16 George Franklin Fort January 21, 1851

January 17, 1854
Democratic 1850
17 Rodman M. Price January 17, 1854

January 20, 1857
Democratic 1853
18 William A. Newell January 20, 1857

January 17, 1860
Republican 1856
19 Charles Smith Olden January 17, 1860

January 20, 1863
Republican 1859
20 Joel Parker January 20, 1863

January 16, 1866
Democratic 1862
21 Marcus Lawrence Ward January 16, 1866

January 19, 1869
Republican 1865
22 Theodore Fitz Randolph January 19, 1869

January 16, 1872
Democratic 1868
20 Joel Parker January 16, 1872

January 19, 1875
Democratic 1871
23 Joseph D. Bedle January 19, 1875

January 15, 1878
Democratic 1874
24 George B. McClellan January 15, 1878

January 18, 1881
Democratic 1877
25 George C. Ludlow January 18, 1881

January 15, 1884
Democratic 1880
26 Leon Abbett January 15, 1884

January 18, 1887
Democratic 1883
27 Robert Stockton Green January 18, 1887

January 21, 1890
Democratic 1886
26 Leon Abbett January 21, 1890

January 17, 1893
Democratic 1889
28 George Theodore Werts January 17, 1893

January 21, 1896
Democratic 1892
29 John W. Griggs January 21, 1896

January 31, 1898
Republican 1895
[p]
Foster McGowan Voorhees January 31, 1898

October 18, 1898
Republican
David Ogden Watkins October 18, 1898

January 17, 1899
Republican
30 Foster McGowan Voorhees January 17, 1899

January 21, 1902
Republican 1898
[q]
31 Franklin Murphy January 21, 1902

January 17, 1905
Republican 1901
[r]
32 Edward C. Stokes January 17, 1905

January 21, 1908
Republican 1904
33 John Franklin Fort January 21, 1908

January 17, 1911
Republican 1907
[s]
34 Woodrow Wilson January 17, 1911

March 1, 1913
Democratic 1910
[t] [u]
James Fairman Fielder March 1, 1913

October 28, 1913
Democratic
Leon R. Taylor October 28, 1913

January 20, 1914
Democratic
35 James Fairman Fielder January 20, 1914

January 16, 1917
Democratic 1913
[v] [w]
36 Walter Evans Edge January 16, 1917

May 16, 1919
Republican 1916
[w] [x] [y]
William Nelson Runyon May 16, 1919

January 13, 1920
Republican
Clarence E. Case January 13, 1920

January 20, 1920
Republican
37 Edward I. Edwards January 20, 1920

January 15, 1923
Democratic 1919
38 George Sebastian Silzer January 15, 1923

January 19, 1926
Democratic 1922
39 A. Harry Moore January 19, 1926

January 15, 1929
Democratic 1925
40 Morgan Foster Larson January 15, 1929

January 19, 1932
Republican 1928
39 A. Harry Moore January 19, 1932

January 3, 1935
Democratic 1931
[z]
Clifford Ross Powell January 3, 1935

January 8, 1935
Republican
Horace Griggs Prall January 8, 1935

January 15, 1935
Republican
41 Harold G. Hoffman January 15, 1935

January 18, 1938
Republican 1934
39 A. Harry Moore January 18, 1938

January 21, 1941
Democratic 1937
42 Charles Edison January 21, 1941

January 18, 1944
Democratic 1940
36 Walter Evans Edge January 18, 1944

January 21, 1947
Republican 1943
43 Alfred E. Driscoll January 21, 1947

January 19, 1954
Republican 1946
1949
[aa]
44 Robert B. Meyner January 19, 1954

January 16, 1962
Democratic 1953
1957
45 Richard J. Hughes January 16, 1962

January 20, 1970
Democratic 1961
1965
46 William T. Cahill January 20, 1970

January 15, 1974
Republican 1969
47 Brendan Byrne January 15, 1974

January 19, 1982
Democratic 1973
1977
48 Thomas Kean January 19, 1982

January 16, 1990
Republican 1981
1985
49 James Florio January 16, 1990

January 18, 1994
Democratic 1989
50 Christine Todd Whitman January 18, 1994

January 31, 2001
Republican 1993
1997
[ab]
51 Donald DiFrancesco January 31, 2001

January 8, 2002
Republican
John Farmer Jr. January 8, 2002

January 8, 2002
Republican
John O. Bennett January 8, 2002

January 12, 2002
Republican
Richard Codey January 12, 2002

January 15, 2002
Democratic
52 Jim McGreevey January 15, 2002

November 15, 2004
Democratic 2001
[ac]
53 Richard Codey November 15, 2004

January 17, 2006
Democratic
54 Jon Corzine January 17, 2006

January 19, 2010
Democratic 2005
[ad]
55 Chris Christie January 19, 2010

January 16, 2018
Republican 2009 Kim Guadagno
2013
56 Phil Murphy January 16, 2018

Present
Democratic 2017
[ae]
Sheila Oliver

Prior to 2010, unlike most other states, New Jersey did not have the office of lieutenant governor. Until 2010, when the office of governor was vacant or the governor was unable to fulfill his/her duties through injury, the President of the State Senate served as the acting governor. The Senate President continued in the legislative role during his/her tenure as the state's acting chief executive, thus giving the person control over executive and legislative authority. The acting governor served either until the a special election (which would occur if the governor died, resigned or was removed from office with more than 16 months before the end of the term), until the governor recovered from his/her injuries, or, if the governor died, resigned or was removed from office less than 16 months before end of the term, until the end of the term. Richard Codey served as acting governor of New Jersey until January 2006, following the resignation of Jim McGreevey in late 2004. Following the resignation of Christine Todd Whitman in 2001 to become EPA Administrator, Donald DiFrancesco assumed the acting governor's post. The position of lieutenant governor was created in the 2005 state election effective with the 2009 election.

Following Whitman's resignation and DiFrancesco's departure, John O. Bennett served as acting governor for three and a half days. During that time, he signed a few bills into law, gave a State of the State Address, and held parties at Drumthwacket, the New Jersey governor's mansion. Similarly, Richard J. Codey served as acting governor as well. Because control of the New Jersey State Senate was split, resulting in two Senate co-presidents, Codey and Bennett, each held the office of acting governor for three days. Perhaps this spectacle as much as any other factor led to the voters' decision to amend the state constitution to create the office of Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey.

This is a table of congressional seats, other federal offices, and other governorships held by governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented New Jersey. Acting governors are included only when they filled a vacancy in the office of governor, not when they acted for a time when the governor was out of state or unable to serve.

* Denotes an office for which the governor resigned the governorship, in order to assume the noted office.Denotes an office that the person resigned, to become governor.

Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held Source
U.S. House U.S. Senate
William Livingston 1776–1790 Continental Delegate (1774–1776) [43]
William Paterson 1790–1793 S† Continental Delegate, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court* [44]
Thomas Henderson 1793 H Elected as a Continental Delegate but declined [45]
Joseph Bloomfield 1801–1802
1803–1812
H [46]
John Lambert 1802–1803 S [47]
Aaron Ogden 1812–1813 S [48]
Mahlon Dickerson 1815–1817 S* U.S. Secretary of the Navy (1834–1838) [49] [50]
Peter Dumont Vroom 1829–1832
1833–1836
H Minister to Prussia [51]
Samuel L. Southard 1832–1833 S* President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate, U.S. Secretary of the Navy [52]
Philemon Dickerson 1836–1837 H† [53]
William Pennington 1837–1843 H Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (Feb. 1, 1860 – Mar. 3, 1861) [54]
Charles C. Stratton 1845–1848 H [55]
Rodman M. Price 1854–1857 H [56]
William A. Newell 1857–1860 H Governor of the Territory of Washington (1880–1884) [57]
Marcus Lawrence Ward 1866–1869 H [58]
Theodore Fitz Randolph 1869–1872 S [59]
Robert Stockton Green 1887–1890 H† [60]
John W. Griggs 1896–1898 U.S. Attorney General* [61]
Woodrow Wilson 1911–1913 President of the United States* [62]
Walter Evans Edge 1917–1919
1944–1947
S* Ambassador to France (1929–1933) [63]
Edward I. Edwards 1920–1923 S [64]
A. Harry Moore 1926–1929
1932–1935
1938–1941
S†* [65] [66]
Harold G. Hoffman 1935–1938 H [67]
Charles Edison 1941–1944 U.S. Secretary of the Navy [68]
William T. Cahill 1970–1973 H† [69]
James Florio 1990–1994 H† [70]
Christine Todd Whitman 1994–2001 Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency* (2001–2003) [71]
Jon Corzine 2006–2010 S† [72]
Phil Murphy 2018–present Ambassador to Germany (2009–2013)

As of January 2018 [update] , there are eight former governors of New Jersey and two former acting governors of New Jersey who are living, the oldest of which is Thomas Kean (served 1982–1990, born 1935). The most recent former governor to die and the most recently serving former governor to have died was Brendan Byrne (served 1974–1982), on January 4, 2018.


Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 816

    Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon, British Governor of New York and New Jersey (d. 1723) John Woolman, American Quaker preacher and abolitionist, born in Province of New Jersey (d. 1772)

John Witherspoon

1723-02-05 John Witherspoon, Scottish-American president of the College of New Jersey who signed the Declaration of Independence, born in Gifford, Scotland (d. 1794)

    William Livingston, American politician and 1st revolutionary Governor of New Jersey, born in Albany, Province of New York (d. 1790) Abraham Clark, American politician, signed US Declaration of Independence, born in Elizabethtown, New Jersey (d. 1794) Joseph Hewes, American merchant (Declaration of Independence signatory), born in Princeton, New Jersey (d. 1779) Richard Stockton, American attorney and signer of Declaration of Independence, born in Princeton, New Jersey (d. 1781) Isaac Low, American delegate to the Continental Congress, born in Piscataway, Province of New Jersey, British America (d. 1791) James Lyon, American composer, born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1794) Daniel Morgan, American soldier and politician (Battle of Cowpens, Whiskey Rebellion), born in Hunterdon County, New Jersey (d. 1802) Oliver Cromwell, decorated African American soldier who served with Washington in US War of Independence, born in Burlington, New Jersey

Aaron Burr

1756-02-06 Aaron Burr, 3rd US Vice President (D-R: 1801-05) who killed Alexander Hamilton in a pistol duel, born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1836)

    William Bainbridge, American naval officer, born in Princeton, New Jersey (d. 1833) Anna Symmes Harrison, 9th 1st lady (1841), born in Morristown, New Jersey (d. 1864) Zebulon Pike, American brigadier general and explorer (Pike's Peak), born in Lamington, New Jersey (d. 1813) James Lawrence, American naval hero (War of 1812-"Don't give up the ship!"), born in Burlington, New Jersey (d. 1813) Ner Alexander Middleswarth, American politician, born in New Jersey (d. 1865) John McLean, American Supreme Court Justice (1829-61) and Postmaster General, born in Morris County, New Jersey (d. 1861) David G. Burnet, interim president of the Republic of Texas, born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1870)

James Fenimore Cooper

1789-09-15 James Fenimore Cooper, 1st major American novelist (Last of Mohicans), born in Burlington, New Jersey

    Gershom Jaques Van Brunt, U.S. Army (Union Navy), born in Monmouth County, New Jersey (d. 1863) Samuel Francis DuPont, American Rear Admiral (Union Navy), born in Bayonne, New Jersey (d. 1865) John Stephens, American explorer and archaeologist (pivotal figure in the rediscovery of Maya civilization throughout Middle America), born in Shrewsbury, New Jersey (d. 1852) Joshua Blackwood Howell, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Woodbury, New Jersey (d. 1864) Alfred Vail, American inventor and early telegraph pioneer, born in Morristown, New Jersey (d. 1859) Horatio Phillips Van Cleve, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Princeton, New Jersey (d. 1891) Daniel Henry Rucker, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Belleville, New Jersey (d. 1910) James Roosevelt Bayley, first Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, and the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore, born in NYC, New York (d. 1877) Lewis Golding Arnold, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Perth Amboy, New Jersey (d. 1871) Samuel Gibbs French, American Major General (Confederate Army), born in Mullica Hill, New Jersey (d. 1910) Isaac Ferdinand Quinby, American General (Union Army), born in Morristown, New Jersey (d. 1891) William Henry Vanderbilt, American businessman, member of the Vanderbilt family, born in New Brunswick, New Jersey (d. 1885)

Bill the Butcher

1821-07-24 William Poole, American gang member (New York City's Bowery Boys), born in Sussex County, New Jersey (d. 1855)

    Gershom Mott, American Major General (Union Army), born in Lamberton, New Jersey (d. 1884) Julius A. De Lagnel, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1912) John Batterson Stetson, American hat manufacturer, born in Orange, New Jersey (d. 1906) Henry Steel Olcott, American military officer and co-founder of the Theosophical Society, born in Orange, New Jersey (d. 1907) Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, American Major General (Union Army), born in Wantage Township, New Jersey (d. 1881)

Grover Cleveland

1837-03-18 Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th US President (1885-89, 1893-97), born in Caldwell, New Jersey (d. 1908)

    Charles Garrison Harker, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Swedesboro, New Jersey (d. 1864) William Graham Sumner, American sociologist (Folkways), born in Paterson, New Jersey (d. 1910) Edward Burd Grubb, American Civil War Union Brevet Brigadier General, born in Burlington, New Jersey (d. 1913) William Wallace Gilchrist, American composer, born in Jersey City, New Jersey (d. 1916) David Jayne Hill, American diplomat and author, born in Plainfield, New Jersey (d. 1932) Nicholas Murray Butler, American philosopher, diplomat (Nobel Peace Prize 1931), educator (Columbia University President), born in Elizabeth, New Jersey (d. 1947) Henry Holden Huss, American composer, born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1953) Amos Alonzo Stagg, American athlete and American football pioneer, born in West Orange, New Jersey (d. 1965) Edward Stratemeyer, American author (The Rover Boys), born in Elizabeth, New Jersey (d. 1930)

Alfred Stieglitz

1864-01-01 Alfred Stieglitz, American photographer/art dealer (Camera Work), born in Hoboken, New Jersey

    T. Frank Appleby, American Republican Party politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New Jersey), born in Old Bridge Township, New Jersey (d. 1924) Lindley M. Garrison, American lawyer and 46th U.S. Secretary of War (1913-16), born in Camden, New Jersey (d. 1932)

Stephen Crane

1871-11-01 Stephen Crane, American novelist (Red Badge of Courage), born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1900)

    Albert Payson Terhune, American novelist (Lad, a Dog), born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1942) William Larned, American tennis player (US Nationals 1901-02, 07-11), born in Summit, New Jersey (d. 1926) Juliette Atkinson, American tennis player (US Nat C'ship 1895, 97-98), born in Rahway, New Jersey (d. 1944) Alfred L. Kroeber, American anthropologist and author (Anthropologist looks at History), born in Hoboken, New Jersey (d. 1960) Ernest Schelling, American composer and conductor (Victory Ball), born in Belvidere, New Jersey (d. 1939) Ruth St. Denis, ballerina (Dances of the 5 Senses), born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1968) Helen Homans, American tennis player (US Nat C'ship 1906), born in Englewood, New Jersey (d. 1949) Taylor Holmes, American actor (Sleeping Beauty, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes), born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1959) Joe Jeannette, American boxer (world coloured champion 1909), born in West Hoboken, New Jersey (d. 1958) Fred Alexander, American tennis player (Australasian C'ship 1908, 5-time US Indoor winner), born in Sea Bright, New Jersey (d. 1969) George Mehnert, American wrestler (Olympic gold flyweight 1904, bantamweight 1908), born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1948) Joel H. Hildebrand, American chemist and educator (research led to new treatments for divers with the 'bends' through the use of helium and oxygen breathing mixtures), born in Camden, New Jersey (d. 1983) Colin G Fink, American chemist (electro chemistry), born in Hoboken, New Jersey Seth Bingham, American organist and composer (Six Pieces for Organ), born in Bloomfield, New Jersey (d. 1972) William Halsey Jr., US vice-admiral (WW II Pacific), born in Elizabeth, New Jersey (d. 1959) William Carlos Williams, American physician and poet, born in Rutherford, New Jersey (d. 1963) Harvey Spencer Lewis, American Rosicrucian author and mystic, born in Frenchtown, New Jersey (d. 1939) A[braham] Merritt, American sci-fi author (The Moon Pool, Burn Witch Bun), born in Beverly, New Jersey (d. 1943) Jimmy Conlin, American actor (Sin of Harold Diddlebock), born in Camden, New Jersey (d. 1962)

Alice Paul

1885-01-11 Alice Paul, American suffragist (National Woman's Party), born in Mount Laurel Township, New Jersey (d. 1977)

Joyce Kilmer

1886-12-06 Joyce Kilmer, American poet (Trees), born in New Brunswick, New Jersey (d. 1918)

    Alexander Woollcott, American critic and short story writer (The Man Who Came to Dinner), born in Phalanx, New Jersey (d. 1943) Harold Lockwood, American actor (Tess of the Storm Country), born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1918) Joseph Lamb, American ragtime composer, born in Montclair, New Jersey (d. 1960) James Waddell Alexander II, American mathematician and topologist, born in Sea Bright, New Jersey (d. 1971) Franklin Pangborn, American actor (My Best Gal, Hats Off, Easy Living), born in Newark, New Jersey (d. 1958) Philip James, American composer, and conductor (New Jersey Symphony, 1922-29 Bamberger Little Symphony, 1929-36), and educator (NYU, 1934-56), born in Jersey City, New Jersey (d. 1975) James Barton, American actor (Tobacco Road, Iceman Cometh), born in Gloucester City, New Jersey (d. 1962) George Seldes, American investigative journalist, born in Alliance Colony, New Jersey (d. 1995) Victor Kilian, actor (Gentleman's Agreement), born in Jersey City, New Jersey Nell Craig, American actress (Calling Dr Kildare, Queen of Sheba), born in Princeton, New Jersey (d. 1965) Henry O'Neill, actor (Lady Killer, Nothing But Trouble), born in Orange, New Jersey Thomas Mitchell, American Academy Award-winning actor (Gone With The Wind High Noon), born in Elizabeth, New Jersey (d. 1962) Otto Messmer, American cartoonist (Felix the Cat), born in Union City, New Jersey (d. 1983)

Dorothy Parker

1893-08-22 Dorothy Parker, American short story writer (1958 Marjorie Peabody Award), born in Long Branch, New Jersey (d. 1967)


The journal New Jersey History (NJH), founded as the Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society in 1845 and published under the direction of the Society until 2005, was re-launched in 2009 under the editorial direction of historians at the New Jersey Historical Commission, Kean University, and the Society. For four years, this peer-reviewed journal was published online twice a year by the Rutgers University Libraries. NJH is also supported by the New Jersey Digital Highway, which provides an additional access point for the journal from its website. All NJH digital content is archived in RUcore, the Rutgers University institutional repository. As of 2013, the online version of NHJ has ceased publication. Readers interested in New Jersey history may want to view a new journal, New Jersey Studies, which is freely available online at http://njs.libraries.rutgers.edu. New Jersey Studies is published by the New Jersey Historical Commission and Rutgers University Libraries.

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All work published in New Jersey History is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 Unported License, unless otherwise noted.

Masthead design: Marybeth Kayne. Image of NJ state seal courtesy of NJ State Archives.


Overview of New Jersey History and Heritage

Native Americans from the Delaware tribe lived in New Jersey when Europeans explorers first arrived. They built villages along the Delaware River, spending most of their time hunting and planting corn, beans, and other crops for food.

Giovanni da Verrazano was the first to explore the coast of New Jersey in 1524 for France. In 1609, Henry Hudson sailed up the Hudson River and claimed New Jersey and New York for the Dutch. Although Hudson was British, he worked for the Netherlands, so he claimed the land for the Dutch. It was called New Netherlands. Many other Dutch explorers followed. In 1614, the Dutch explorer Cornelius Mey (for whom Cape May, the southern tip of the state is named) sailed into the mouth of the Delaware River and built a tiny fort.

By 1630, Dutch settlement of New Jersey began along the western bank of the Hudson, with one on the Delaware at Fort Nassau but these settlements were insignificant, and the history of the colony properly begins with the occupation of the territory by the English. Due to Indian attacks, the first permanent town, Bergen, wasn't established until 1660. Swedish fur traders began settling southern New Jersey in 1638, but were quickly forced out of the area by the Dutch.

New Jersey's early colonial history was involved with that of New York (New Netherlands), of which it was a part. In 1664 the Dutch lost New Netherlands when the British took control of the land and added it to their colonies. New Jersey was organized as an English colony under Gov. Philip Carteret. Many settlers arrived as land was sold inexpensively with the promise of political and religious freedom. In 1674, a Quaker colony arrived. In 1676 the colony was divided between Carteret (who was in charge of the east side) and a company of English Quakers who had obtained the rights belonging to John, Lord Berkeley (who was in charge of the west side) into West and East Jersey. The land was officially named New Jersey after the Isle of Jersey in the English Channel. Carteret had been governor of the Isle of Jersey.

Two wholly separate governments were now set up, and they were as different as white from black. The stern New England Puritans had settled in East Jersey in sufficient numbers to give coloring to the laws, and in these laws (enacted by the first assembly before the division) we find enumerated thirteen crimes for which the penalty was death. In West Jersey the government was exceedingly mild. A code of laws with the name of Penn at the top gave all power to the people, and made no mention of capital punishment. This was the first example of Quaker legislation in America.

When James II became king of England he demanded the charters of the Jerseys on writes of quo warranto, leaving the ownership of the soil to the people, and united East and West Jersey to New York and New England under the government of Andros. At the fall of the king and the expulsion of Andros the Jerseys were left in a state of anarchy, and so it continued for more than ten years. The heirs of Carteret and the Quakers laid claim to the colony and New York made a similar claim. After a long season of confusion it was decided to surrender the whole colony to the Crown, and in 1702 New Jersey became a royal province administered by the royal governor of New York initiated by Queen Anne. Finally, in 1738, New Jersey was separated from New York under its own royal governor, Lewis Morris.

During the 1760s, colonists began protesting high taxation and trade restrictions by England. In 1774, colonists from New Jersey burned a supply of tea from a British ship in what became known as the Greenwich Tea Burning. As the Revolutionary War began in 1775, New Jersey's loyalties were split. About one-third of the people living here supported the rebels, one-third supported England, and one-third remained neutral.

New Jersey was an important state during the Revolutionary War because of its location near the center of the thirteen colonies and between New York City and Philadelphia. Because of this, more battles were fought in New Jersey than in any other state. The Americans and British fought 100 battles, both large and small, here. Several important battles were fought in New Jersey, most importantly the battles of Trenton in 1776, which many consider to be the turning point of the Revolution. Immediately after winning Trenton, General George Washington won the battle of Princeton in 1777. Having lost two battles in a matter of hours, the British fled New Jersey for New York. Washington and his troops spent the rest of the winter in Morristown. Including the battle of Monmouth in 1778.

In 1776, New Jersey claimed independence from Great Britain. Two years later it adopted the Articles of Confederation. Finally, on December 18, 1787, New Jersey became the 3rd state of the Union as it ratified the US Constitution and the first state to sign the Bill of Rights. Trenton became the capital in 1790.

New Jersey became a massive industrial center during the early 1800s. Trenton, Camden, Passaic, Jersey City and Newark all became major manufacturing cities. Paterson became a textile center and later became known for producing trains and silk. Trenton produced clay products, iron, and steel. Industries increased as transportation expanded in South Jersey seashore areas by railroad and canal construction. Thousands came from Europe to work in the factories.

Although many sympathized with the South, New Jersey soldiers fought for the Union during the Civil War (1861-1865). During the Civil War, New Jersey provided 31 regiments (groups of soldiers), including cavalry (soldiers on horseback) and infantry (soldiers on foot). Over 25,000 New Jersey men fought for the Union, and New Jersey soldiers participated in almost every major Eastern battle.

After the war, several large corporations moved to New Jersey and cities like Trenton, Newark, Paterson, and Camden got bigger as immigrants from Europe came to work in them. The state then passed several laws that restricted business monopolies and provided workers' compensation and a public utilities commission.

At first, most immigrants came from Ireland and Germany. Later, people came from Italy and from countries throughout Eastern Europe. In 1910 half the state's population was born or had parents who were born outside the United States. As city populations grew, farm populations shrank.

With so many people working in factories, issues like child labor and protection for workers became important. The popularity of these reforms brought Woodrow Wilson to power as governor in 1910. He left office in 1913 to become President of the United States and is the only New Jersey governor to become president.

The state's economic expansion had a lot to do with the genius of its inventors. Thomas Edison is probably most famous. Among his thousands of inventions, including the light bulb, Edison helped develop the motion picture while working in New Jersey.

During World War I (1914-1918), thousands of soldiers left for Europe from the Hudson River. New Jersey factories made chemicals. Soldiers trained at Fort Dix. When the Great Depression hit in 1929, factories closed and many lost their jobs. The state rebounded during World War II (1939-1945) as New Jersey's electronics and chemical industries began large-scale operations.

After the war, people began moving back into the rural areas from the overcrowded cities. A number of transportation projects helped better connect New Jersey. The New Jersey Turnpike was completed in 1952 and the Garden State Parkway opened in 1955.

Poverty stricken and overcrowded cities led to riots during the 1960s. New Jersey's state government started rebuilding inner cities. Several bonds were issued to provide money for better government programs. The Pinelands National Reserve was established to protect plants, animals, land, and water.

In 1969, a state lottery was approved to raise money for education. Several schools were built or expanded. Gambling casinos were also allowed in 1977, to raise money for the disabled and the elderly.

The history of air travel has close ties to New Jersey. On May 3, 1919, the first passenger flight in American history was flown from New York to Atlantic City. Today, New Jersey is home to two international airports, Newark and Atlantic City. Newark Airport expanded its passenger and cargo services in 1963. In the 1980s, it became one of the world's busiest airports.

Recently New Jersey is attracting new industries. Several computer companies have created thousands of jobs. The state is still facing problems of pollution and high government costs.


New Jersey

The first people came to the area that’s now New Jersey at least 12,000 years ago. Thousands of years later, Native American tribes including the Lenape, Munsee (or Minsi), and Unalachtigo lived on the land.

Around 1524 Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano became the first European to arrive in the region. Then Swedish, Finnish, and Dutch colonists built settlements and fought over land until England took control of the region in 1664. New Jersey became one of 13 American colonies ruled by the British.

But eventually the colonists living here wanted independence. This led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. New Jersey was the site of more Revolutionary War battles than any other state. In 1776 George Washington crossed of the Delaware River into Trenton, New Jersey, where he defeated British forces. The battle was a turning point in the war, as one of the first major military victories in the Revolutionary War. In 1787 New Jersey became the third U.S. state and the first to sign the Bill of Rights.

WHY’S IT CALLED THAT?

The state was named in honor of British colonist George Carteret, who’d previously been governor of the Isle of Jersey, a British island in the English Channel, between the United Kingdom and France.

New Jersey was nicknamed the Garden State in 1876, because of the huge amount of food grown there during that time.


Watch the video: 10 Places in NEW JERSEY You Should NEVER Move To (January 2022).