History Podcasts

Hanover APA-116 - History

Hanover APA-116 - History

Hanover

A county in Virginia.

(APA-116: dp. 8,100 It.; 1. 492', b. 69'6", dr. 26'6"; s. 16 k.; cpl. 479; a. 2 5", 8 40 mm.; cl. Bagfield; T. C3S-A2)

Hanover (APA-116) was launched under Maritime Commission contract by Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp., Pascagoula, Miss., 18 August 1944; sponsored by Mrs Stanley M. Bebler; loaned to the Navy and simultaneously commissioned 31 March 1945, Comdr. J. H. Henderson in command.

After conducting a brief shakedown cruise off Galveston, Tex., Hanover arrived Gulfport, Miss., 3 May 1945 and began loading Marines and Seabee for transportation to the Pacific. She got underway 6 May and sailed to Pearl Harbor, carrying out training operations en route. After her arrival 24 May, the ship unloaded her troops for further transfer and until 6 June took part in underway training operations in Hawaiian waters. She then sailed for San Francisco in company with other transports, and just before reaching California was diverted to Portland, Oreg., where she arrived 19 June.

Hanover got underway 1 July for Eniwetok Atoll, an important Pacific staging area, expecting to take part in the final assault on Japan. Arriving 14 July, she sailed in convoy 3 days later, bound for Ulithi. The ship remained at this base briefly, for she was soon bound for Okinawa, where she arrived 12 August 1945. Hanover unloaded replacement troops on this battle-scarred island, and after the close of the war prepared to take part in the occupation.

After embarking Army units Hanover sailed 5 September for Jinsen, Korea, to aid in the occupation, and unloaded her troops 3 days later. The transport returned to Okinawa 14 September but was soon forced to stand out to sea to ride out the great hurricane of September 1945. After the severe weather subsided, Hanover returned to Okinawa and loaded troops for the occupation of China. She arrived Taku 30 September to help stabilize the troubled.situation there and aid in the consolidation of the area by Nationalist forces.

Hanover’s next assignment was with the "Magic-Carpet" fleet, bringing home American troops from the Pacific. She arrived San Francisco on her last voyage 6 February 1946, and was ordered to steam via the Panama Canal to Norfolk, VA., where she arrived 9 March. The ship decommissioned 11 May 1946 and was returned to the Maritime Commission the next day. Sold to the Matson Navigation Co. in 1947, she sailed as Hawaiian Wholesaler until 1961, when she became Ventura for Matson's Oceanic Steamship Co.


Hanover College

A Historical Perspective of Equity and Diversity at Hanover College

The history of equity and diversity at Hanover is complex and not always proud. In 1823, John Finley Crowe described Hanover, Indiana, as “the land of civil and religious liberty.” Crowe had just fled Kentucky, where his work as an anti-slavery preacher and publisher had caused his friends and neighbors to turn against him. On the northern bank of the Ohio, Crowe believed he would be free to educate both whites and blacks for the ministry and to help erase the “foul stain” of slavery from the world. The Preparatory Department at Hanover Academy took a step toward realizing this dream in 1832 when it admitted Benjamin Templeton, a free black man who came to Indiana after he was driven out of a less progressive Ohio college, and who went on to serve as a minister in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia.

Crowe’s record on slavery, however, is less honorable than appears at first blush. He favored the repatriation of African Americans to Liberia rather than their full citizenship. And by 1836, the College’s voice for racial justice had gone silent. In the face of financial strain and fears that Southern students would leave in protest of abolitionist rhetoric, Crowe and the College’s trustees banned any discussion of slavery on the Hanover campus. The decision mirrored a similar prohibition in the U.S. Congress, but silenced debate at a time when it was needed most. Templeton left campus that year without finishing his studies and without every actually being officially enrolled in the college. In 1857, the College turned away Moses Broiles and voted to return a scholarship earmarked for him and other black students.

While Hanover welcomed other diverse elements to campus – opening to women starting in 1880 and hosting international students starting in the early 20th century – it would be 112 years before Hanover admitted another American student of color. Alma Gene Prince arrived in 1948, long after most other Indiana colleges began enrolling black students. She was welcomed by many faculty and students, who strongly supported desegregation of the College, but at the trustee level, some worked behind the scenes to discourage her attendance. Several board members opposed Prince’s presence and discussed helping her to “move along to another school.” Prince graduated in 1951 with the help of Katherine Parker and other supporters, and in 1952 the Board of Trustees voted officially to remove any remaining barriers to African American admission to the College.

Change, however, came slowly. A 1954 survey of racial attitudes in the Triangle found that the vast majority of Hanoverians said they were ready to live and learn with black students. In the 1960s, students worked to start a local chapter of the NAACP and participated in the Selma to Montgomery March. The innovative Hanover Plan, which created Spring Term, also added the requirement that all juniors take one course each in World Literature and Non-Western Studies.

The 1962-63 Hanover College Catalog reads, “Education must liberate men from dislike of each other based on ignorance of different cultural patterns and prejudices against them. It is essential today that Western nations study other cultures.”

However, at a 1969 group interview conducted by the student newspaper, Hanover’s 13 African American students reported that the College’s acceptance and understanding were conditional at best. Anyone who did not conform to white expectations or expressed strong opinions faced administrative censure or social isolation. White students were naïve about the black experience, and the African Americans said they felt like tokens, there only to help educate the majority. They also bemoaned the lack of black faculty role models who could help navigate or mitigate the experience. “It seems like to come here, you have to pay the price to be part of the system,” one student said (“Hanover: Negroes are here really as tokens”).

The Fall of 1969 saw the arrival of Anwarul and Mythili Haq. A sociologist, Mythili had received her Ph.D. from the University of Bombay in 1959, a time in which few women were awarded advanced degrees anywhere on the globe. The Haqs used the newly created Spring Term to take students to India, Afghanistan, and Hawaii. A scholar of Asian Studies, Anwarul helped found Hanover’s Cross-Cultural Studies major in 1973 and, as the primary instructor of the Non-Western Studies requirement, helped shape the worldview of generations of Hanover students. After the Haqs’ deaths in the early 1990s, gifts from their family and the Haq estate helped develop the multi-cultural center that now bears their name.

By 1993, there were 55 international and minority students on Hanover’s campus, comprising 5.3 percent of the student body. While residence halls and classrooms appeared slightly more diverse, they still did not match the U.S. population as a whole. The College “seems to be progressing” toward inclusion, one Triangle editor wrote, despite continuing “cross-cultural ineptitude.” That year, the campus Multi-Cultural Center, the chaplain’s office, and Student Life sponsored a series of workshops called “Disunity to Community.” Conducted by the Indiana Interreligious Commission on Human Equality, the workshops featured interactive sessions designed to promote cultural awareness and develop skills for cross-cultural communication. That year, black students founded the group Positive Image to reach across racial boundaries and decrease prejudice, but then pulled their women’s intramural team out of competition because of tensions over football. The only black team in the league had been accused of rough play and violating the rules. The Positive Image women said the real problem was the lack of multi-cultural understanding.

As the 20th century came to a close, LGBTQ students and their allies also began to advocate for acceptance. Seniors Maggie Clifton and January Simpson were crowned members of the Fall 1997 Homecoming court, but most LGBTQ students on campus were deeply closeted. Harassment was common and pervasive. Clifton approached President Russell Nichols that year with a request to start a group for gay and lesbian students. Nichols deemed the campus “unready” for an official PFLAG organization but agreed to a group advocating diversity – including sexual orientation.

Love Out Loud quickly made its real intentions clear, sponsoring the annual National Freedom to Marry Day, a week-long installation of the National AIDS quilt in Lynn Gym, and the College’s first-ever drag performance. Ten years later, LOL celebrated its first decade by hoisting a rainbow flag in the tailgate lot and sponsoring its own tent at Homecoming.

Despite a number of initiatives, Hanover continued to struggle in the early 2000s to attract students from diverse racial, ethnic, and national backgrounds. In 2001-2003, the Haq Center and Student Life partnered with Central High School in Louisville to host summer programs for economically disadvantaged and minority students and to send faculty to the Louisville school for lectures and workshops.

In 2011, however, Hanover recalled its roots and found a path forward, launching a scholarship program named after its first black student and aimed at recruiting and retaining undergraduates with a commitment to social justice and campus change. The Benjamin Templeton Scholarship offers full tuition to 10 first-year students per year based on their strong academic backgrounds and work in high school to build bridges among socially, economically, and racially diverse groups.

President Sue DeWine inaugurated the Templeton Scholarship and also authorized the creation of Hanover’s first Disability Services program. Until that time, there was no coordinated effort to provide accommodations for students with physical or learning differences. Eight students received DS accommodations that fall. During the 2010s, concerned members of the College community also launched the Community Alliance and Resource Team, a group of faculty and staff from all branches of the College who serve as allies to support those who have experienced bias incidents and who work to provide education and training to faculty, staff, and students.

Throughout its history, Hanover also has made it a priority to educate first-generation college students. John Finley Crowe established the college to educate the young men of the frontier for the ministry. Today, 22 percent of students identify as first-generation and nearly a third are Pell Grant recipients, coming from families earning less than $50,000 per year.

Both DeWine and current President Lake Lambert have made diversity and inclusion pillars of their strategic plans as well as their aspirational goals. Hanover should be a place where all are welcome and feel at home. In the last 10 years, there have been some notable successes:

  • Between 2008 and 2018, the number of African American students more than doubled.
  • More than 160 international and minority students live and learn here, making up 15.7 percent of the student body.
  • Student groups on campus now include Black Student Union, the drag group Hanover Queens and Kings, and the Latino Student Union, as well as long-standing organizations like Kaleidoscope (formerly Positive Image), Love Out Loud and the International Club.
  • The College hosts a LGBTQ+ Center in Lynn Hall as well as the Haq Multi-Cultural Center in the J. Graham Brown Campus Center.
  • In classrooms and residence halls, the College meets the accessibility needs of more than 150 students per year.
  • Students, faculty, and staff sporting “I’m First!” buttons recently gathered in the Campus Center lobby to celebrate first-generation student day.

At the same time, these statistics fall short of the goals set forth by President Lambert in the Hanover 2020 Clear Vision Strategic Plan.

A series of focus groups found that students of color still echo some of the same concerns voiced by the 13 interviewed by the Triangle in 1969. While many students say they’ve found a home here and the campus appears more diverse, sometimes appearance does not equal reality. Microaggressions continue to be a problem, and the campus continues to need multi-cultural education.

While Hanover has made strides in hiring more international faculty and those from the LGBTQ community, focus group participants noted that the College still has no African American faculty.

Beyond the Point, America itself continues to struggle to make everyone feel welcome. National politics has turned rancorous, and bias incidents are on the upswing. Hanover students have often encountered bias, both implicit and explicit, in the surrounding community. Jefferson County, Indiana, has been the target of Ku Klux Klan rallies for the last four years. Hanover is committed to working with community leaders to address bias incidents off campus as well as those that happen on its 650 acres.

As Hanover looks ahead to its third century, it cannot forget the past. Our work is far from done. The College must remember both its successes and its failures and use the lessons learned to meet the long-term needs of an increasingly diverse world. The 2019 Diversity and Inclusion Plan contains long-standing goals and yet has a short enough time frame to ensure we remain engaged and focused on our continuing mission. We set out these goals to hold ourselves accountable for becoming the place we have always wanted to be.


History

The town of Hanover in York County, Pennsylvania was laid out in 1763 around a hub of five radiating streets which led to towns and cities in southern Pennsylvania and in Maryland (Abbottstown, Baltimore, Carlisle, Frederick and York). The Monocacy Road also passed through Hanover close to this central core. This ancient route, originally an Indian trail, was heavily used by settlers traveling from Philadelphia across York Country and into western Maryland and Virginia. Because of this lucrative location at the intersection of six major public highways, Hanover became a prominent center of commerce providing goods and services to scores of travelers.

In 1852 Hanover’s first railroad was constructed furnishing an indirect route to York City (the county seat) and Harrisburg as well as Gettysburg and Littlestown in adjoining Adams County. A more direct line to York was built in 1873 and four years later a line connecting Hanover to Baltimore was constructed. The railroads brought further economic wellbeing to the town and its prominence as a trade center increased. Industries anxious to take advantage of this profitable access to outlying markets began to locate along the railroad tracks in northern Hanover.

Because of this economic boom prompted by railroad activity, Hanover entered into its most prolific period of building construction during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. The most commonly used architectural styles and forms include Colonial Revival, Pennsylvania German vernacular, Queen Anne and American Four-Square. The boundaries of the Hanover Historic District were selected in order to encompass the oldest portion of the town containing the highest number of contributing architectural resources. Very few buildings from Hanover’s earliest years exist today the oldest is the c. 1783 Neas House. The period of significance for the Historic District therefore begins with this date and continues to 1946 (or fifty years ago as indicated by National Register eligibility requirements).

Battle of Hanover

Hanover is one of seven communities designated as a Pennsylvania Civil War Trails community. Relive the encounter known as the Battle of Hanover through a two-mile self-guided walking tour laid out by wayside markers. Brochures are available at the Hanover Area Chamber of Commerce, Guthrie Memorial Library and area lodging establishments.

Hanover Area Historical Society

Local citizens founded the Historical Society in 1965 to preserve and promote the history of the Hanover area. The Society currently runs the Neas House at 103 W. Chestnut St., the Warehime-Myers Mansion at 305 Baltimore St. and the Yelland Research Library at 21 Baltimore St. Tours of the Neas House and Warehime-Myers Mansion are available. The Research Library is open to the public by appointment only. To learn more, click here.

Pipe Organ at St. Matthew Lutheran Church

Did you know that Hanover is home to one of the largest pipe organs in the world? The pipe organ at St. Matthew currently ranks ninth on the list of the world’s largest organs. Dedicated in 1925, the original organ, built by Austin Organs Inc., had nearly 5,000 pipes. Over the years, the pipe organ has been enlarged. Today’s organ features 14,581 pipes and 245 ranks with an additional 22 digital stops. The organ recently underwent a five-year restoration, which was completed in October 2016. The Church offers frequent tours of the organ and pipe chambers. To learn more, click here.

Conewago Chapel

The original Conewago Chapel was built by Jesuits in 1741 as a log dwelling and chapel. Even after the original chapel was demolished, the name remained. The present-day chapel is constructed out of locally quarried brownstone. Dedicated in 1787, the Conewago Chapel is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Only a few Catholic churches in the United States predate the Conewago Chapel, which is officially known as the Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The chapel remains an active parish and is one of the oldest continually operating in the country. It is generally open to visitors during the week, but it is recommended that visitors call ahead at 717-637-2721. To learn more, click here.

Hanover Fire Museum

Established in 1980, the Hanover Fire Museum houses 200 years of Hanover’s fire service history and honors those who dedicated their lives to protecting the community. Visitors can pull an actual fire alarm box and see and hear an original Gamewell Fire Alarm System from 1911 that served the Hanover Borough community. See photos and read names of the old fire horses that served the Hanover Fire Department! Exhibits showcase fire vehicles of all types, including an 1882 Silsby Steamer, hand-pulled pumps and a coffee grinder type fire pump. Staff is made up of past volunteer or career firefighters who are very knowledgeable of the items on display. To learn more, click here.


Hanover College

If you love watching movies set in the past, reading historical fiction or re-enacting history at military encampments, you understand history is alive. As a Hanover history major, you'll study much more than just names and dates.

You may delve into the causes of the Holocaust, the sources of Lincoln's greatness, the role of technology in war, our roles as members of a family, the triumph of Enlightenment rationalism, the meaning of our Constitution and much more.

In other words, you learn to search for an interpretation of the past. At Hanover, as you learn to understand the past, you build the perspective and critical-thinking skills that enable you to succeed in a fast-changing world.

Learning in and outside the classroom

A typical history class involves discussing big ideas and doing close analysis of texts, especially primary sources. Outside the classroom, you'll enjoy:

  • The History Club, a student organization that sponsors a variety of fun academic and social activities to bring history enthusiasts together, such as film screenings and discussions
  • The Hanover Historical Review, which publishes original historical research by students
  • Summer internships with historical groups and societies
  • Independent research projects under faculty guidance

What do history majors study?

History majors work with their advisors to develop a well-balanced program from different areas of the history curriculum. You can choose from a wide array of topics such as:

  • American military history
  • Tsarist Russia
  • Early modern Europe
  • Greek history
  • Roman history
  • The Renaissance
  • French Revolution and Napoleon
  • And many more

A sampling of the graduate schools recent history students have entered:

  • Indiana University (law)
  • New England Culinary Institute
  • Morehead State University (history)
  • Purdue University (sports management)
  • University of Cincinnati (art history)
  • University of Sydney, Australia (museum studies)
  • University of Texas at Austin (history)
  • Wake Forest University (law)

A sampling of the careers recent history students have entered:


History Department

Footnotes are a conventional way to tell your readers where you got the information and quotes that appear in your paper. Your goal is to make it easy for your readers to see what sources you used -- and easy to find any that they might want to study further. To do that, you need to provide complete citations in a consistent citation style. Leading publishers of historical scholarship (such as the American Historical Review and the Journal of American History) require Chicago Manual style footnotes.

Below you will find model footnotes that cite various types of sources. (Using the search function of your browser is an easy way to find the type of source you need.) Those models illustrate the format for the first reference to a particular item. A second reference to the same item can be shortened -- as illustrated below.

For more on what footnotes are and how they work, see below. See also the Chicago Manual itself (available at the Duggan Library) or the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide.

This document was developed to provide illustrations of the types of citations our students use most. It includes examples from a version of "History: Documenting Sources" by Diana Hacker that is no longer available online.

Books

Book, most basic citation
1. Mark E. Neely, Jr., The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 204.

For any book, follow this basic model for punctuation, capitalization, and italics -- providing author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, and the page where the information you are citing can be found. Variations on this basic cite are modeled below. Note that a complete citation is needed for the first reference you make to any item a shortened cite can be used thereafter (see below).

Book, online or e-book version
2. Gordon S. Wood, The Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787 (Chapel Hill London: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 85, https://doi.org/10.5149/9780807899816_wood.

3. Heinz Kramer, A Changing Turkey: The Challenge to Europe and the United States (Washington, DC: Brookings Press, 2000), 85, http://brookings.nap.edu/books/0815750234/html/index.html.

4. Robert Louis Stevenson, Treasure Island, location 871, Kindle.

For e-books or online editions of books, attend to whether the text appears exactly as it did in print or whether it was reformatted.

If the book appears exactly as it did in print (i.e. in a pdf file or in another file type that provides page images), adding the DOI to the end of the citation is helpful. (The DOI -- which stands for digital object identifier -- is a unique and permanent identification number assigned to books and other pieces of intellectual property when provided in the form of a URL, as in footnote model 2, it allows readers to locate online further information about the item.)

If the book was reformatted (i.e. for an html, epub, or kindle file), provide a stable URL, as in model 3. If a stable URL is not available, supply the name of the database where you found the book. If page numbers matching the print edition are not available, provide another locator, such as chapter or paragraph number.

Book, with two or three authors
5. Michael D. Coe and Mark Van Stone, Reading the Maya Glyphs (London: Thames & Hudson, 2002), 129-30.

Book, with four or more authors
6. Lynn Hunt et al., The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures (Boston: Bedford, 2001), 541.

Book, for which the author's name is not provided
7. The Men's League Handbook on Women's Suffrage (London: Thames & Hudson, 1912), 23.

Book, with an editor instead of an author
8. Jack Beatty, ed., Colossus: How the Corporation Changed America (New York: Broadway Books, 2001), 127.

Book, with an editor or translator in addition to the author
9. Ted Poston, A First Draft of History, ed. Kathleen A. Hauke (Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 2000), 46.

10. Tonino Guerra, Abandoned Places, trans. Adria Bernardi (Barcelona: Guernica, 1999), 71.

Book, in an edition other than the first
11. Andrew F. Rolle, California: A History, 5th ed. (Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1998), 243.

12. Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull House (1910 repr., New York: Signet Classics, 2010), 44.

Use model footnote 11 for a book for which there are multiple revised editions. Use model footnote 12 when your readers need to know the original publication date as well as the specific reprint (abbreviated repr.) that you used.

Book, from a multi-volume work
13. James M. McPherson, Ordeal by Fire, vol. 2, The Civil War (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993), 205.

14. Peter N. Stearns, ed., Encyclopedia of European Social History: From 1350 to 2000 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2001), 3:271.

For a separately titled volume, see model footnote 13 for volumes without individual titles, provide the volume number with the pagination (as with model footnote 14). Note that the cite to 3:271 means page 271 of the third volume of the multi-volume set.

Sacred texts
15. Matt. 20:4-9 (Revised Standard Version).

For the Bible, provide the book, followed by chapter and verse and the version you used (i.e. model 15 refers to the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 20, verses 4 through 9, as it appears in the Revised Standard Version). For the Koran, provide sura and verse (i.e. model footnote 16 refers to sura 19, verses 19 through 21).

Articles and other short works

Article in a scholarly journal
17. Jonathan Zimmerman, "Ethnicity and the History Wars in the 1920s," Journal of American History 87, no. 1 (2000): 101, https://doi.org/10.2307/2567917.

18. Linda Belau, "Trauma and the Material Signifier," Postmodern Culture 11, no. 2 (2001), par. 6, http://www.iath.virginia.edu/pmc/text-only/issue.101/11.2belau.txt.

For scholarly articles you consult online, attend to whether the article appears exactly as it did in print or whether it was reformatted.

If the article appears exactly as it did in print (i.e. in a pdf file or in another file type that provides page images), provide the DOI-based URL if possible, as in model 17. (The DOI -- which stands for digital object identifier -- is a unique and permanent identification number assigned to journal articles and other pieces of intellectual property when provided in the form of a URL as in footnote model 17, it allows readers to locate online further information about the item.)

If the article was reformatted (i.e. for an html, epub, or kindle file) or if the DOI is not available, provide a stable URL, as in model 18. If neither DOI nor stable URL is available, supply the name of the database where you found it. If page numbers matching the print edition are not available, provide another locator, such as paragraph number.

If you read the article in print form, the DOI-based URL is optional.

Note that a complete citation is needed for the first reference you make to any item a shortened cite can be used thereafter (see below).

Book review
19. Nancy Gabin, review of The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment, by Susan M. Hartman, Journal of Women's History 12, no. 3 (2000): 230, https://doi.org/10.1353/jowh.2000.0054.

Note that the reviewer's name comes first and the name of the book's author comes after the title of the book.

Article in a newspaper or popular magazine
20. Joy Williams, "One Acre," Harper's, Feb. 2001, 62.

21. Dan Barry, "A Mill Closes, and a Hamlet Fades to Black," New York Times, Feb. 16, 2001, A1.

22. Fiona Morgan, "Banning the Bullies," Salon, March 15, 2001, http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2001/03/15/bullying/index.html.

23. "Renewable Energy Rules," Boston Globe, Aug. 11, 2003, sec. A1.

For an article you consulted online, attend to whether the article appears exactly as it did in print or whether it was reformatted.

If the article appears exactly as it did in print (i.e. in a pdf file or in another file type that provides page images), follow model 20 for magazines and model 21 for newspapers.

If the article was reformatted (i.e. for an html, epub, or kindle file), provide a stable URL, as in model 22. If a stable URL is not available, supply the name of the database where you found it.

If you read the article in print form, the DOI-based URL is optional.

When the author of an article is unknown, begin with the article title, as in model 23.

For newspaper articles, provide page and section numbers as the newspaper does (i.e. A1 means page 1 of section A).

Work in an anthology
24. Rebecca Harding Davis, "Life in the Iron-Mills," in The Norton Anthology of American Literature, ed. Nina Baym, shorter 6th ed. (New York: Norton, 2003), 1205.

25. Thomas Gainsborough to Elizabeth Rasse, Oct. 13, 1753, in The Letters of Thomas Gainsborough, ed. John Hayes (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001), 5.

For a short story or article, follow model footnote 24. For primary sources or art reproduced in a book, begin with the information you would have provided for the item in its original form, substituting the information about the anthology for the location information. Thus, model footnote 25 directs readers to an anthology that includes a letter written by Thomas Gainsborough and received by Elizabeth Rasse.

Note that a complete citation is needed for the first reference you make to any item a shortened cite can be used thereafter (see below).

Encyclopedia entries (and other reference books)
26. Robert W. Rydell, "World's Columbian Exposition," in The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago, ed. Janice L. Reiff, Ann Durkin Keating, and James R. Grossman (Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 2005), http://encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/1386.html.

27. Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, s.v. "them," accessed August 26, 2020, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/them.

Information from encyclopedias and other reference works is generally cited following the models for other similar material. (Thus, you should cite print encyclopedias and other reference books according to the models for edited books or multi-volume books, and cite e-books or online editions of print books according to whether they appear exactly as they did in print or whether they are reformatted. If you are consulting an entry with its own title and author, provide that information according to the model for an anthology.)

If you are consulting an online-only reference work or a print book arranged like a dictionary, provide the keyword your readers should look for, designated with "s.v." (Note that "s.v." stands for the Latin sub verbo, or "under the word.")

For continually updated online resources, include the posted revision date for the entry, or the accessed date if a revision date is not provided.

Primary sources

Manuscript material
28. Joseph Adkinson to Irvin Adkinson, 10 Feb. 1863, folder 11, box 1, Adkinson Family Civil War Letters, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).

29. Edward M. House diary, 6 Nov. 1918, Edward M. House Papers, Yale University Library (New Haven, Conn.).

Archival material comes in many forms, and information about individual items is not always complete. Within those limits, do your best to provide the information needed for your readers to find the source you used, and order the information from the specific to the general. Usually, you will include the following in this order: author type of document title and/or recipient date folder number box number collection name archive name and geographic location. When in doubt about what to include, follow the archivist's recommendation. Note that "letter" is assumed for items written from one person to another otherwise, specify "telegram," "memorandum," etc. Also, the European order for dates is helpful when you are citing many dated manuscript items.

Hanover College material often cited by students
30. "Charles Alling, Class of 1885," Alumni File, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.).

31. Hanover College, Revonah (2009 yearbook), 24.

32. Michael R. Pence, "The Religious Expressions of Abraham Lincoln" (BA thesis, Hanover College, 1981), 10-11.

Primary sources reproduced online
33. John Locke, The Second Treatise on Government (1690), excerpted, Hanover College History Department, http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/165locke.html (accessed 24 Oct. 2003), para. 3.

34. Maggie Monfort to Elias Monfort, 23 Jan. 1862, Hanover College History Department, https://history.hanover.edu/texts/hc/Monfort-M.html (accessed 24 Oct. 2017), para 1.

To the extent possible, combine the information you would have provided for the primary source in its original form with identifying information for the online version of it. As a general rule, provide 1) author's name, 2) title of the original work, 3) date of original work, 4) "excerpted" or "translated" as appropriate, 5) title and/or sponsor of the site, 6) stable URL (if provided and if it can be conveniently transcribed) or the website's homepage or search page (if a stable URL is not provided or is very long), 7) date on which you accessed the page, 9) page or paragraph number. Note that the European order for dates is helpful when you are citing many dated manuscript items.

Unpublished thesis or dissertation
35. Stephanie Lynn Budin, "The Origins of Aphrodite" (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2000), 301-2.

Census records (through a commercial database)
36. 1880 United States Census, Madison, Jefferson County, Indiana, digital image s.v. "Callie J. Harrison," Ancestry.com.

The citation begins by specifying the date and government agency for the census you consulted and continues with the geographic location where the person was counted (the town or township, the county, and the state). Be sure to note if a digital image is provided. (Otherwise, your readers will assume that the site provides only transcriptions, without reproducing the enumerator's notebook.) Provide the person's name as the commercial site indexed it. (The "s.v." stands for the Latin sub verbo, or "under the word.") Even if the enumerator or the commercial site had the person's name wrong, your readers will need to search for the name as the commercial site has it. Finally, provide the name of the commercial site you used.

Indexes and databases within a commercial site
37. "Social Security Death Index," s.v. "Richard W. Nixon" (1920-1991), Ancestry.com.

38."Kentucky, County Marriages, 1797-1954," digital image s.v. "Olive Ellis" (m. 1914), FamilySearch.

Commercial sites like Ancestry.com may contain within them separate indexes or databases. Cite information from them by providing the title of the index/database, as given by the commercial site. Be sure to note if a digital image is provided. (Otherwise, your readers will assume that the index or database provides only transcriptions, without reproducing the original source.) Provide the person's name as the commercial site indexed it. (The "s.v." stands for the Latin sub verbo, or "under the word." Even if the commercial site has the person's name wrong, your readers need to search for the name as the commercial site has it.) You may also need to supply birth and/or death dates to distinguish among people with the same name. Finally, provide the name of the commercial site you used.

More details and examples for genealogical sources are available here.

Other media

Webpages (original content online)
39. Sheila Connor, "Historical Background," Garden and Forest, Library of Congress, http://lcweb.loc.gov/preserv/prd/gardfor/historygf.html (accessed Mar.13, 2007).

40. PBS Online, "Media Giants," Frontline: The Merchants of Cool, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/giants (accessed Oct. 12, 2007).

Provide as many of the following elements as are available: 1) author's name, 2) title of the page, 3) creation date if provided, 5) title and/or sponsor of the site, 6) stable URL (if it can be conveniently transcribed) or the website's homepage or search page (if a stable URL is not provided or is very long), 7) date on which you accessed the page (if no creation date was provided). When no author is named, treat the site's sponsor as the author.

Film (movie)
41. The Secret of Roan Inish, dir. by John Sayles (1993 Columbia TriStar, 2000 dvd).

Provide 1) the title, 2) the director, 3) theatrical release date, 4) if viewed as dvd or video, specify the distributor, date of dvd or video release, and format.

Television or radio program
42. "A Place of His Own," 1976 episode of Happy Days (ABC, 1974-1984 Paramount, 2008 dvd).

Provide 1) the title of the episode, 2) broadcast date of the episode, 3) title of series, 4) network, 5) inclusive dates of the series, 6) if viewed as dvd or video, specify the distributor, date of dvd or video release, and format.

Broadcast interview
43. Ron Haviv, interview by Charlie Rose, 12 Feb. 2001, The Charlie Rose Show (PBS).

Provide 1) person being interviewed, 2) the interviewer, 3) title of the episode, if given, 4) the date of the interview, 5) name of the program, 6) the network.


Song or album
44. Gustav Holst, The Planets, performed by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra with Andre Previn, Holst: The Planets (1990 Telarc, 1990).

45. Pharrell Williams, "Happy," performed by Pharrell Williams, in Despicable Me 2 Soundtrack (2013 Back Lot Music, 2013).

Provide 1) songwriter or composer, 2) name of song or piece, 3) performer(s), 4) title of album, in italics, 5) date of performance, if available, 6) distributor, 7) release date.

Paintings, Photographs, and Sculpture
46. Cecilia Beaux, Les Derniers Jours d'Enfance, painting, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, available at https://library.artstor.org/asset/AMCADIG_10313213807.

47. Tintype of John Finley Crowe, c. 1856-1860, Duggan Library, Hanover College (Hanover, Ind.), available at https://palni.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/hcarchive/id/106/rec/1.

48. Frank Blackwell Mayer, Independence (Squire Jack Porter), painting, in Kenneth L. Ames, Death in the Dining Room, and Other Tales of Victorian Culture (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992), 205.

For items you have consulted in person or online, provide as much of the following as is available 1) artist, 2) title of the piece, 3) medium, 4) physical location of the piece, if provided, 5) URL, if image was consulted online.

For items reproduced in books, follow the model for a work in an anthology.

If the item has neither a title nor known creator, include a subject and date or other descriptive detail to distinguish it from similar items in that collection.

Social media posts
49. Donald Trump (@realDonaldTrump) "Sorry losers and haters, but my I.Q. is one of the highest -and you all know it," Twitter, May 8, 2013, 9:37 p.m., https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/332308211321425920.

Provide as many of the following as are available: 1) the author's real name, 2) the author's screen name, 3) the opening text of the post, provided as a title, 4) the social media service, 5) the date, including month, day, and year - and time, if relevant, 6) the URL.

Use this model for posts that are available to the public. If you are citing content available to you but not to the public (as in a private message or a posting to a selected group of people), use the model (found below) for "personal communication."

Miscellany

Personal communication
50. Abby Labille, "News from Home," email to author, Oct. 24, 2007.

51. Thomas Anderson, conversation with author, Oct. 24, 2007.

52. Muse fan, Hollywood Casino Amphitheatre, St. Louis, Missouri, June 13, 2017.

Use these models for information people have communicated to you directly. Model footnote 50 is appropriate for informal oral history interviews. If you don't have the name of the person you are citing, provide a description of the person, as well as the location and date (as with model footnote 51).

Collegelectures

53. Charles Chipping, lecture for "Introduction to English Literature," Hanover College, May 17, 2003.

Provide the name of the class and the date of the lecture. (The name of a classroom lecture is not usually necessary.)

One source quoted in another
54. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (New York: Random House, 1965), 11, quoted in Mark Skousen, The Making of Modern Economics: The Lives and the Ideas of the Great Thinkers (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2001), 15.

If you wish to refer to a source that the source you are consulting quotes, provide as much information as is available about the quoted source, and also provide the relevant information for the item in which it appears.

Shortened Citations


55. Neely, Fate of Liberty, 21.

56. Zimmerman, "Ethnicity and the History Wars," 100.

57. Gainsborough to Rasse, 13 Oct. 1753, in Letters of Thomas Gainsborough, 5.

Use this shortened style on second and subsequent cites to a particular item. The usual pattern is to give the last name of the author, the main title of the item (or the first four words or so, if the item is still recognizable that way), followed by the page number or other location information. The first model is for a book, the second for an article, and the third for a letter in an anthology.

More on what footnotes are and how they work.

Footnotes are a conventional way to tell your readers where you got the information and quotes that appear in your paper. Complete citations in a consistent citation style make it easier for your readers to scan through your citations and find what they want quickly.

If you are reading this page from the Hanover College campus, you can click here to see an example of a published article using Chicago Manual style footnotes. (If this link does not work for you, contact your library to see if your institution provides access to scholarly journals through some other means.)

Suppose the second paragraph of your paper mentions Horatio Nelson Taft visiting the White House, and suppose one of your readers is curious about where she could read more about Taft. She will look for the next superscript number after your mention of Taft. (For most papers, there is a footnote at the end of each paragraph of text in the body of the paper, so she'll look first at the end of the paragraph.) The superscript number she finds in the text directs her to the appropriate spot on the numbered list that runs along the bottom of all your pages. There, your citation tells her that you learned about Taft's visit by reading his diary, and you give her all the information she needs to find a copy of the diary to read herself. (Standard citation styles give her enough information to find it online or to order it through interlibrary loan, for instance). If you quote Taft again later in your paper, she'll want to know more about that information too, and so she'll again look to the end of the paragraph for the superscript number that will direct her to the bottom of your page. There she'll find your shortened reference to the Taft diary, with the page where she can read the quote in context. If she has forgotten the diary's publication details, she can look back to your first footnote for all the specifics. If you follow a consistent citation style, she'll be able to find the first full cite easily by scanning up through your earlier footnotes.

Notice that footnotes are numbered consecutively over the course of the whole paper. (That is, the paragraph that mentions Taft the second time gets its own footnote don't re-use the number found in the earlier paragraph.)

If you are confused about how to punctuate sentences with quotations and footnotes, remember that "the end punctuation goes first, followed by quotation marks as appropriate, and then the superscript number." 1

Older publications may include the abbreviations ibid. (for the item just cited in the previous note) or op. cit. (for the title of the previously cited item). Those abbreviations are no longer used -- simply use the shortened form for second or subsequent cites to a particular item.

Be careful to avoid accidental plagiarism. If you do not provide a footnote for information that you have learned from someone else, you are implying that you know that information from your own experience. You are thus stealing the credit for someone else's hard work, and academics take theft of intellectual property seriously.


Hanover Area Historical Society

Click the Calendar on the Program tab for a complete schedule of upcoming events, including the Summer Lawn Concert series! The Fee Schedule for admissions to the Mansion and the Museum can also be found there.

THE SOCIETY

Mission Statement

The Hanover Area Historical Society’s mission is to protect and promote the historical heritage of the greater Hanover area. The Society will selectively acquire, preserve, and provide access to historical buildings and sites and to artifacts and archives that have unique historical significance for this area. The Society will undertake related programs and activities for the educational, recreational, and cultural benefit of the people of the greater Hanover Area. Purpose The Society exists to foster interest in the historical heritage of the greater Hanover Area.

About Our Society

The Society was founded in 1965 by local citizens interested in protecting and promoting the historical heritage of the greater Hanover area. In 1974 the Society purchased and restored the Neas House. The process included eliminating a wing. More recently, all the windows were repaired in the original style. All the funding for the purchase and the repairs came from the community. In October, 2007 the Society was given the Warehime-Myers Mansion at 305 Baltimore St. The Mansion is open for public tours Wednesdays 10-3:15 and Saturdays 12-3:15. Rental space is also available. In 2014, the Society acquired spaces at 21 Baltimore Street, where it now has its office and the Yelland Research Library. The Yelland Library offers a collection pertaining to the area’s history. The Yelland Library’s resources are available to the public by appointment only.

The Hanover Area Historical Society is registered as a Charitable Organization with the Department of State, Bureau of Corporations and Charitable Organizations under The Solicitation of Funds for Charitable Purposes Act, 10 PS 162.1 et seq., and is authorized to solicit charitable contributions under the conditions and limitations set forth under the Act.


Our History

Hanover Displays is a family owned, UK based company designing and manufacturing passenger information systems for the public transport industry since 1985. With subsidiary offices in France, Spain, Germany, Italy and Australia plus a second production facility in the US and representatives all over the world, Hanover Displays has satisfied customers in over 75 countries worldwide. The security is afforded by more than 35 years’ industry experience, financial independence and a continuous product development program is further assurance of the company’s dependability.

Hanover Displays Ltd is established by Gavin Williams

The first Flip Dot sign is developed

Hanover Sarl (France) is established

Received the Queen’s Award for Export and Technology

Hanover became a sole supplier to Stagecoach UK and First Group UK

Hanover SL (Spain) and SRL (Italy) are both established

The UK move sites after major flooding in Lewes, moving to our current location


45 CFR § 46.116 - General requirements for informed consent.

(a) General. General requirements for informed consent, whether written or oral, are set forth in this paragraph and apply to consent obtained in accordance with the requirements set forth in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section. Broad consent may be obtained in lieu of informed consent obtained in accordance with paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section only with respect to the storage, maintenance, and secondary research uses of identifiable private information and identifiable biospecimens. Waiver or alteration of consent in research involving public benefit and service programs conducted by or subject to the approval of state or local officials is described in paragraph (e) of this section. General waiver or alteration of informed consent is described in paragraph (f) of this section. Except as provided elsewhere in this policy:

(1) Before involving a human subject in research covered by this policy, an investigator shall obtain the legally effective informed consent of the subject or the subject's legally authorized representative.

(2) An investigator shall seek informed consent only under circumstances that provide the prospective subject or the legally authorized representative sufficient opportunity to discuss and consider whether or not to participate and that minimize the possibility of coercion or undue influence.

(3) The information that is given to the subject or the legally authorized representative shall be in language understandable to the subject or the legally authorized representative.

(4) The prospective subject or the legally authorized representative must be provided with the information that a reasonable person would want to have in order to make an informed decision about whether to participate, and an opportunity to discuss that information.

(5) Except for broad consent obtained in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section:

(i) Informed consent must begin with a concise and focused presentation of the key information that is most likely to assist a prospective subject or legally authorized representative in understanding the reasons why one might or might not want to participate in the research. This part of the informed consent must be organized and presented in a way that facilitates comprehension.

(ii) Informed consent as a whole must present information in sufficient detail relating to the research, and must be organized and presented in a way that does not merely provide lists of isolated facts, but rather facilitates the prospective subject's or legally authorized representative's understanding of the reasons why one might or might not want to participate.

(6) No informed consent may include any exculpatory language through which the subject or the legally authorized representative is made to waive or appear to waive any of the subject's legal rights, or releases or appears to release the investigator, the sponsor, the institution, or its agents from liability for negligence.

(b) Basic elements of informed consent. Except as provided in paragraph (d), (e), or (f) of this section, in seeking informed consent the following information shall be provided to each subject or the legally authorized representative:

(1) A statement that the study involves research, an explanation of the purposes of the research and the expected duration of the subject's participation, a description of the procedures to be followed, and identification of any procedures that are experimental

(2) A description of any reasonably foreseeable risks or discomforts to the subject

(3) A description of any benefits to the subject or to others that may reasonably be expected from the research

(4) A disclosure of appropriate alternative procedures or courses of treatment, if any, that might be advantageous to the subject

(5) A statement describing the extent, if any, to which confidentiality of records identifying the subject will be maintained

(6) For research involving more than minimal risk, an explanation as to whether any compensation and an explanation as to whether any medical treatments are available if injury occurs and, if so, what they consist of, or where further information may be obtained

(7) An explanation of whom to contact for answers to pertinent questions about the research and research subjects' rights, and whom to contact in the event of a research-related injury to the subject

(8) A statement that participation is voluntary, refusal to participate will involve no penalty or loss of benefits to which the subject is otherwise entitled, and the subject may discontinue participation at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which the subject is otherwise entitled and

(9) One of the following statements about any research that involves the collection of identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens:

(i) A statement that identifiers might be removed from the identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens and that, after such removal, the information or biospecimens could be used for future research studies or distributed to another investigator for future research studies without additional informed consent from the subject or the legally authorized representative, if this might be a possibility or

(ii) A statement that the subject's information or biospecimens collected as part of the research, even if identifiers are removed, will not be used or distributed for future research studies.

(c) Additional elements of informed consent. Except as provided in paragraph (d), (e), or (f) of this section, one or more of the following elements of information, when appropriate, shall also be provided to each subject or the legally authorized representative:

(1) A statement that the particular treatment or procedure may involve risks to the subject (or to the embryo or fetus, if the subject is or may become pregnant) that are currently unforeseeable

(2) Anticipated circumstances under which the subject's participation may be terminated by the investigator without regard to the subject's or the legally authorized representative's consent

(3) Any additional costs to the subject that may result from participation in the research

(4) The consequences of a subject's decision to withdraw from the research and procedures for orderly termination of participation by the subject

(5) A statement that significant new findings developed during the course of the research that may relate to the subject's willingness to continue participation will be provided to the subject

(6) The approximate number of subjects involved in the study

(7) A statement that the subject's biospecimens (even if identifiers are removed) may be used for commercial profit and whether the subject will or will not share in this commercial profit

(8) A statement regarding whether clinically relevant research results, including individual research results, will be disclosed to subjects, and if so, under what conditions and

(9) For research involving biospecimens, whether the research will (if known) or might include whole genome sequencing ( i.e., sequencing of a human germline or somatic specimen with the intent to generate the genome or exome sequence of that specimen).

(d) Elements of broad consent for the storage, maintenance, and secondary research use of identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens. Broad consent for the storage, maintenance, and secondary research use of identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens (collected for either research studies other than the proposed research or nonresearch purposes) is permitted as an alternative to the informed consent requirements in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. If the subject or the legally authorized representative is asked to provide broad consent, the following shall be provided to each subject or the subject's legally authorized representative:

(1) The information required in paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(3), (b)(5), and (b)(8) and, when appropriate, (c)(7) and (9) of this section

(2) A general description of the types of research that may be conducted with the identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens. This description must include sufficient information such that a reasonable person would expect that the broad consent would permit the types of research conducted

(3) A description of the identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens that might be used in research, whether sharing of identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens might occur, and the types of institutions or researchers that might conduct research with the identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens

(4) A description of the period of time that the identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens may be stored and maintained (which period of time could be indefinite), and a description of the period of time that the identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens may be used for research purposes (which period of time could be indefinite)

(5) Unless the subject or legally authorized representative will be provided details about specific research studies, a statement that they will not be informed of the details of any specific research studies that might be conducted using the subject's identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens, including the purposes of the research, and that they might have chosen not to consent to some of those specific research studies

(6) Unless it is known that clinically relevant research results, including individual research results, will be disclosed to the subject in all circumstances, a statement that such results may not be disclosed to the subject and

(7) An explanation of whom to contact for answers to questions about the subject's rights and about storage and use of the subject's identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens, and whom to contact in the event of a research-related harm.

(e) Waiver or alteration of consent in research involving public benefit and service programs conducted by or subject to the approval of state or local officials -

(1) Waiver. An IRB may waive the requirement to obtain informed consent for research under paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, provided the IRB satisfies the requirements of paragraph (e)(3) of this section. If an individual was asked to provide broad consent for the storage, maintenance, and secondary research use of identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens in accordance with the requirements at paragraph (d) of this section, and refused to consent, an IRB cannot waive consent for the storage, maintenance, or secondary research use of the identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens.

(2) Alteration. An IRB may approve a consent procedure that omits some, or alters some or all, of the elements of informed consent set forth in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section provided the IRB satisfies the requirements of paragraph (e)(3) of this section. An IRB may not omit or alter any of the requirements described in paragraph (a) of this section. If a broad consent procedure is used, an IRB may not omit or alter any of the elements required under paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) Requirements for waiver and alteration. In order for an IRB to waive or alter consent as described in this subsection, the IRB must find and document that:

(i) The research or demonstration project is to be conducted by or subject to the approval of state or local government officials and is designed to study, evaluate, or otherwise examine:

(A) Public benefit or service programs

(B) Procedures for obtaining benefits or services under those programs

(C) Possible changes in or alternatives to those programs or procedures or

(D) Possible changes in methods or levels of payment for benefits or services under those programs and

(ii) The research could not practicably be carried out without the waiver or alteration.

(f) General waiver or alteration of consent -

(1) Waiver. An IRB may waive the requirement to obtain informed consent for research under paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, provided the IRB satisfies the requirements of paragraph (f)(3) of this section. If an individual was asked to provide broad consent for the storage, maintenance, and secondary research use of identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens in accordance with the requirements at paragraph (d) of this section, and refused to consent, an IRB cannot waive consent for the storage, maintenance, or secondary research use of the identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens.

(2) Alteration. An IRB may approve a consent procedure that omits some, or alters some or all, of the elements of informed consent set forth in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section provided the IRB satisfies the requirements of paragraph (f)(3) of this section. An IRB may not omit or alter any of the requirements described in paragraph (a) of this section. If a broad consent procedure is used, an IRB may not omit or alter any of the elements required under paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) Requirements for waiver and alteration. In order for an IRB to waive or alter consent as described in this subsection, the IRB must find and document that:

(i) The research involves no more than minimal risk to the subjects

(ii) The research could not practicably be carried out without the requested waiver or alteration

(iii) If the research involves using identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens, the research could not practicably be carried out without using such information or biospecimens in an identifiable format

(iv) The waiver or alteration will not adversely affect the rights and welfare of the subjects and

(v) Whenever appropriate, the subjects or legally authorized representatives will be provided with additional pertinent information after participation.

(g) Screening, recruiting, or determining eligibility. An IRB may approve a research proposal in which an investigator will obtain information or biospecimens for the purpose of screening, recruiting, or determining the eligibility of prospective subjects without the informed consent of the prospective subject or the subject's legally authorized representative, if either of the following conditions are met:

(1) The investigator will obtain information through oral or written communication with the prospective subject or legally authorized representative, or

(2) The investigator will obtain identifiable private information or identifiable biospecimens by accessing records or stored identifiable biospecimens.

(h) Posting of clinical trial consent form.

(1) For each clinical trial conducted or supported by a Federal department or agency, one IRB-approved informed consent form used to enroll subjects must be posted by the awardee or the Federal department or agency component conducting the trial on a publicly available Federal Web site that will be established as a repository for such informed consent forms.

(2) If the Federal department or agency supporting or conducting the clinical trial determines that certain information should not be made publicly available on a Federal Web site ( e.g. confidential commercial information), such Federal department or agency may permit or require redactions to the information posted.

(3) The informed consent form must be posted on the Federal Web site after the clinical trial is closed to recruitment, and no later than 60 days after the last study visit by any subject, as required by the protocol.

(i) Preemption. The informed consent requirements in this policy are not intended to preempt any applicable Federal, state, or local laws (including tribal laws passed by the official governing body of an American Indian or Alaska Native tribe) that require additional information to be disclosed in order for informed consent to be legally effective.

(j) Emergency medical care. Nothing in this policy is intended to limit the authority of a physician to provide emergency medical care, to the extent the physician is permitted to do so under applicable Federal, state, or local law (including tribal law passed by the official governing body of an American Indian or Alaska Native tribe).


Hanover APA-116 - History

Papers (1942-1997) of U.S. naval officer, who rose to the rank of rear admiral commanding the Navy's Recruiting Command and the Naval Inshore Warfare Forces, Atlantic Fleet, 1943-1973 East Carolina University graduate, (1943) businessman, 1973-1977 and head of North Carolina State Ports Authority (1979-1985), including documents, photographic prints and negatives, correspondence, certificates, clippings, printed forms, and printed materials.

Biographical/historical information

William Morris Arl Greene (June 17, 1920-December 8, 2007) was born in Linville, Avery County, North Carolina, to Carl B. Greene and Naomi C. Gragg Greene. He graduated from Crossnore School in 1937, attended Brevard College, and received his B.S. degree in Physical Education from East Carolina Teachers College in 1943. He then entered the U.S. Navy through the Naval Reserve Midshipmen School at Northwestern University in Chicago and was commissioned an ensign in December 1943. Later education included the U.S. Naval War College, the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, and earning a Master's in International Affairs from George Washington University (1967).

His naval service included World War II service at the Naval Amphibious Base at Fort Pierce (Florida) and aboard the USS Hanover (as 1st Lieutenant). Post-war service included operations officer with the Atlantic Fleet aboard the USS Burdo (1947-1948) and the USS James C. Owens (1948-1950), staff commander with Amphibious Group 4 (1951-1952), instructor at the U.S. Naval Academy (1952-1954), executive officer aboard the USS Nicholas (1954), with BUPERS (1955), executive officer aboard the USS Mitscher (1956-1957), commanding officer aboard the USS Tabberer (1957-1958), at the U.S. Naval Academy (1958-1962), commanding officer aboard the USS Joseph Strauss (1962-1964), and with the Office of Chief of Naval Operations (1964-1967). He then attended the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (1966-1967), subsequently serving as commanding officer aboard the fleet oiler USS Ponchatoula (1967-1968) and the guided missile frigate USS William H. Standley (1968-1970). In 1970 Greene was selected for the rank of Rear Admiral and became Director of Navy Recruiting with BUPERS. In 1971 the Navy Recruiting Command was created and he became its first commander. He became Commander Cruiser-Destroyer Flotilla 4 and Commander Cruiser-Destroyer Force Atlantic Representative (1972), assumed command of the Naval Inshore Warfare Command, Atlantic (1973), and retired in 1973.

After retiring from the U.S. Navy, Greene was general manager at Marine and Industrial Wholesale Distributorship until 1977 when he was appointed executive director of the North Carolina State Ports Authority, a positition he held until 1985. He subsequently established tihe Small Business and Technology Development Center at East Carolina University in 1986. He was married to Virginia Ann Cooke (May 10, 1924-December 17, 2016) of Greenville, North Carolina, in 1944, and they had children Virginia Ruth Greene, Carolyn Greene Myers and William M. A. Greene, Jr.

Scope and arrangement

This collection mainly documents Rear Admiral Greene's Naval service, but there is also some information concerning his education as an adult and his post-Navy career.

Materials related to his undergraduate education at East Carolina Teachers College (now East Carolina University) in Greenville, North Carolina, include his Who's Who certificate for the 1942/43 year and a letter he wrote to fellow alumni in 1968 on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of his graduation class.

Documents related to his education while serving in the U.S. Navy include official paperwork, graduation programs, and an undated listing of alumni with contact information for his time (1943) at the U.S. Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School (Northwestern University, Chicago, IL) papers written while attending the Naval War College, Command and Staff Class (1959) class notes, papers, book reports, exam, and transcript for the Program in International Affairs at George Washington University (1965-1967) and course material, catalog, graduation program, and his thesis titled The Influence of Data Systems on the Industro-Economic Posture of Soviet Russia (1967) from his time (1965-1968) at Industrial College of the Armed Forces at Fort Leslie J. McNair, washington, DC.

The majority of the material in this collection documents Greene's Naval career from his commissioning as an ensign in December 1943 through his retirement in 1973. Included are correspondence biographical sketches clippings awards and certificates and paperwork documenting duty assignments, changes of command, travel orders, vouchers, physical examination reports, oaths of office, qualification reports, records of duties performed, leave requests, and authorization forms and retirement-related documents. Correspondence is limited and often consists of casual thank-you letters (1960-1967) and congratulatory letters (1970) concerning Greene attaining the rank of Rear Admiral. An August 6, 1945, letter contains a descriptive narrative of a typical voyage of a ship (name not mentioned) carrying occupation troops in the South Pacific. 1970 correspondence also discusses Greene's appointment as Director of Navy Recruiting and the gearing up to start an all-volunteer Navy.

Awards and certificates reward Greene for duty during World War II (1946), and also inclued the Vietnam Service Medal (1968-1969), Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal (1968-1969), Bronze Star (1969), and the Legion of Merit (1972). Clippings (1958-1973) mostly document Greene's service and the ships he commanded. The Navy Recruiter issue of June 1972 contains an article on the change of command ceremony from Rear Admiral Greene to Admiral E. H. Tidd as commander of the Navy Recruiting Command in April 1972. A very interesting item in this collection is sheet music for a piece titled The Destroyermen written by William and Virginia Greene in 1958 for the Destroyer Force, Atlantic Fleet. His retirement file contains correspondence, regulations, and forms related to his appointment as rear admiral and his retirement in 1973. Also included are autographed letters from Secretaries of the Navy John W. Warner and John H. Chafee, and also from Admiral E. R. Zumwalt, Jr.

Other material related to Greene's Naval Service includes materials concerning specific ships he commanded and/or served on, a seminar he gave that led to an award nomination, and speeches. Material concerning specific ships includes a list (1945-1946) of travels and "situations" the USS Hanover had experienced since its commissioning, Westpac Newsletter issues (November 1967-January 1968, April and May 1968) for the USS Ponchatoula , a booklet and clippings (1958) about the USS Tabberer , and Crossing the Line initiation ceremony documents for the USS William H. Standley (1969). Greene led a Navy Recruiting Executive Development Seminar at Ohio State University in 1971 that led to a nomination of him for the Freedoms Foundation Award the scrapbook sent forward for the nomination is found here.

This collection contains several speeches that Greene gave in 1972 and 1973 as well as undated speeches and speech material. The speeches were given at change of command occasions, the decommissioning/transfer of the USS Willard Keith , the commissioning of Coastal River Division 21, and to various groups with topics concerning the Navy's mission, the inportance of the Cruiser-Destroyer force to sea control, and "Environmental Hindrances to Navy Combat Readiness." Also included is a speech (1972) by Admiral E. R. Zumwalt, Jr., addressing the need for the NROTC and the importance of encouraging more units at predominantly black schools and encouraging the recruitment of more women in the Navy.

There are several photographs related to his Naval service and to his time with the North Carolina State Ports Authority after he retired from the Navy. Topics include official Navy portraits of Greene, officers aboard the USS Tabberer , N.C. States Ports Authority business, and the North Carolina World Trade Association meeting (1985?) at the Marriott Hotel in Charlotte, N.C., which includes shots of Henry Kissinger, and N.C. Governor James Hunt.

The remainder of the collection deals with Greene's post-Naval career time at the North Carolina State Ports Authority (1977-1985). Included is correspondence mostly related to his retirement and praise for his tenure, and retirement documents. Clippings discuss issues related to improvements at and the development of the Morehead City Port and the Wilmington Port, visits to Japan and Taiwan, and opposing President Reagan's budget cuts that make states pay for dredging waterways. A January 8, 1978, clipping has Greene as Tar Heel of the Week in the Raleigh News and Observer paper. Personal clippings include 1971-1972 Raleigh News and Observer columns "Byways of the News" by Charles Craven which talk about Greene as a student at East Carolina Teachers College where both Craven and Greene were classmates.

At the end of the collection are Greene's personal copies of the U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings for July 1959-June 1962, Vol. 85 Nos. 7-12, Vol. 86, Vol. 87, and Vol. 88, Nos. 1-6. During this time Greene held such positions in the U.S. Naval Institute as the secretary-treasurer, on the Board of Control, and editor of the Proceedings.

Oversize items include an appeal presented by the Korean Labour Union of Chemulpo, Korea, to Greene on September 9, 1945, as Boat Group Commander in USS Hanover , part of the U.S. Amphibious Force of occupation troops deck logs for USS Tabberer (Jan. 1, 1958) and USS Mitscher (June 17, 1957) and a certificate naming Greene as honorary member of Coastal River Division Twenty-One (1973).

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September 6, 2002 , 6 containers, 2.37 cubic feet Papers (1942-1997) of U.S. naval officer, who rose to the rank of rear admiral commanding the Navy's Recruiting Command and the Naval Inshore Warfare Forces, Atlantic Fleet, 1943-1973 East Carolina University graduate, (1943) businessman, 1973-1977 and head of North Carolina State Ports Authority (1979-1985), including documents, photographic prints and negatives, printed forms, printed materials. Donor: Rear Adm. William M. A. Greene (US Navy Ret.).

January 28, 2019 , containers, 26 cubic feet Included is extensive correspondence (1943-1969) between William Greene and Virginia Ann Cooke Greene during their courtship while she was still attending East Carolina Teachers College (ECTC, now East Carolina University) and throughout Rear Admiral Greene's Naval career. Also included is material (1917-1965) related to Virginia Greene's mother Ivy Ruth Modlin Cooke Snyder including her time at ECTC photographs related to family, ECTC, and Admiral Greene's Naval career material related to ECTC including diplomas, clippings, yearbooks, football programs, and Chi Pi Players items items related to his attendance at Crossnore High School and Brevard College (1932-1940) and documents, clippings, and photographs related to Greene's Naval career. There are numerous photograph albums and scrapbooks, plaques, framed photographs, and memorabilia. Also included are 6 cubic feet of Admiral Greene's books. Gift of Carolyn Greene Myers.


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