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Review: Volume 45 - Media Studies

Review: Volume 45 - Media Studies


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In this fresh and provocative book, Anthony DiMaggio uses the war in Iraq and the United States confrontations with Iran as his touchstones to probe the sometimes fine line between news and propaganda. Using Antonio Gramsci’s concept of hegemony and drawing upon the seminal works of Noam Chomsky, Edward Herman, and Robert McChesney, DiMaggio combines a rigorous empirical analysis and clear, lucid prose to enlighten readers about issues essential to the struggle for a critical media and a functioning democracy.

In the 1940s, at the height of segregation, Charles Preston became the unlikely newest worker at a black owned-and-operated newspaper. Preston, a white man and, unbeknownst to most of his colleagues, member of the Communist Party, quickly came face to face with issues of race and injustice that would profoundly impact his life and change the way he understood society in the United States. This fictionalized account of his experience tells readers what it was like to be the only white worker, and a communist at that, at a black newspaper, while unflinchingly depicting the racism that was so common and accepted in the 1950s.


The use of cephalosporins in penicillin-allergic patients: a literature review

Background: The practice of avoiding cephalosporin administration to penicillin-allergic patients persists despite the low rate of cross reactions between both groups of antibiotics.

Objective: The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the published evidence regarding the commonly held belief that patients with a history of an allergic reaction to penicillin have a significantly increased risk of an allergic reaction to cephalosporins.

Materials and methods: Articles were identified through a computerized search of MEDLINE from 1950 to the present using the search terms "penicillin$," "cephalosporin$," "allerg$," "hypersensitivity," and "cross-react$." All articles were reviewed, and additional sources cited in them were added to the literature review.

Results: Penicillins have a cross allergy with first-generation cephalosporins (odds ratio 4.8 confidence interval 3.7-6.2) and a negligible cross allergy with second-generation cephalosporins (odds ratio 1.1 confidence interval 0.6-2.1). Laboratory and cohort studies confirm that the R1 side chain is responsible for this cross reactivity. Overall cross reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins is lower than previously reported, though there is a strong association between amoxicillin and ampicillin with first- and second-generation cephalosporins that share a similar R1 side chain.

Conclusions: Although a myth persists that approximately 10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy will have an allergic reaction if given a cephalosporin, the overall cross-reactivity rate is approximately 1% when using first-generation cephalosporins or cephalosporins with similar R1 side chains. However, a single study reported the prevalence of cross reactivity with cefadroxil as high as 27%. For penicillin-allergic patients, the use of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins or cephalosporins with dissimilar side chains than the offending penicillin carries a negligible risk of cross allergy.


Background

Media interventions are defined as organized and purposive activities that utilize a variety of media channels to inform, persuade, or motivate populations [1]. In health care, media interventions can convey health-related information including research evidence to the public, policymakers, and health professionals [2–6]. They can also influence individual health behaviors [7]. For instance, media campaigns were shown to be effective in decreasing tobacco uptake, reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes and influencing health services utilization [8–10].

In the area of policy-making, media can contribute to setting the agenda for the press, the public, and policymakers through highlighting what issues are newsworthy at a particular time [11]. Media can also influence how the public and policymakers view or think about certain issues through selecting some aspects of a perceived reality and making them more salient in a communicating text [12]. Another way media can influence policymakers is through shaping public opinion, which in turn, exerts pressure on policymakers to respond [13]. For instance, media advocacy is known as a popular strategy in public health that can assist in increasing public awareness and mobilizing decision-makers for policy change [14, 15].

When examining the various functions that media interventions can play in the health field, it is important to consider new interactive information and communication platforms, particularly social media including blogs, social networking sites, and interactive websites. While traditional media, mainly television, still account for a large audience, the influence of social media is constantly increasing and cannot be ignored [16, 17]. Social media increase user interaction, provide peer support, and extend access to health interventions [16, 17]. Social media also bring a new dimension to health care as they provide the public, patients, and health professionals with a platform to exchange on different health matters potentially affecting population health outcomes [18].

A number of systematic reviews on the impact of media interventions on health behavior and their use in increasing awareness and education exist [16, 19, 20]. However, to our knowledge, there is no systematic review assessing the role of media interventions in the different stages of health policy-making. Our objective is to better inform those considering the use of media interventions to influence health policy-making. Therefore, we conducted this integrative review to assess the effects of planned media interventions on the health policy-making process.


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Multimedia

Next Steps for the Caliphate in Iraq and Syria: What Does ISIS Look Like in the Middle East by 2018?

Call with the Experts: Update on Iran Nuclear Negotiations

In Brief: Lynn E. Davis on the Use of Long-Range Armed Drones: Fact v. Myth

The Use of Long-Range Armed Drones: Fact v. Myth

Days After A Deal: Looking Forward

Iran Nuclear Negotiations Extended: Reactions and Implications

Media Conference Call on Iran's Nuclear Program — U.S. Policy Choices and the Challenges Ahead

Israeli, Saudi, and Iranian Responses in the Days After a Deal With Iran: What Are the U.S. Options?

Media Call on Armed Aerial Drones and U.S. Security

Getting to a Final Deal

How to Defuse Iran's Nuclear Threat: Bolster Diplomacy, Israeli Security, and the Iranian Citizenry


Referral

Not all patients with vertigo need to be referred to a subspecialist. Family physicians should consider referral to the appropriate subspecialist (e.g., otolaryngologist, head and neck surgeon, neurologist, neurosurgeon) if the diagnosis of vertigo is unclear or if the patient has a medical problem requiring further subspecialty care.

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The Author

RONALD H. LABUGUEN, M.D., is associate program director of the USC/California Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program and assistant professor of clinical family medicine at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. A graduate of the University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, he completed his residency in family medicine at Virginia Commonwealth University-Hanover Family Practice Residency Program, Mechanicsville, Va. .

Address correspondence to Ronald H. Labuguen, M.D., University of Southern California, 1400 S. Grand Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90015 (e-mail:[email protected]). Reprints are not available from the author .

Author disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

The author thanks Lyndee Knox, Ph.D., for assistance with the preparation of the manuscript.

REFERENCES

1. Hanley K, O𠆝owd T, Considine N. A systematic review of vertigo in primary care. Br J Gen Pract. 200151:666�. .

2. Kroenke K, Lucas CA, Rosenberg ML, Scherokman B, Herbers JE Jr, Wehrle PA, et al. Causes of persistent dizziness. A prospective study of 100 patients in ambulatory care. Ann Intern Med. 1992117:898�.

3. Derebery MJ. The diagnosis and treatment of dizziness. Med Clin North Am. 199983:163�.

4. Brandt T, Bronstein AM. Cervical vertigo. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 200171:8�.

5. Tusa RJ, Herdman SJ. Diagnosis and treatment of the dizzy patient. Hospital Physician. 199733:22�.

6. Solomon D. Distinguishing and treating causes of central vertigo. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 200033:579�.

7. Hanley K, O𠆝owd T. Symptoms of vertigo in general practice: a prospective study of diagnosis. Br J Gen Pract. 200252:809�.

8. Drozd CE. Acute vertigo: peripheral versus central etiology. Nurse Pract. 199924:147𠄸.

9. Baloh RW. The dizzy patient. Postgrad Med. 1999105:161𠄴,167�.

10. Hoffman RM, Einstadter D, Kroenke K. Evaluating dizziness. Am J Med. 1999107:468�.

11. Evans JG. Transient neurological dysfunction and risk of stroke in an elderly English population: the different significance of vertigo and non-rotatory dizziness. Age Ageing. 199019:43𠄹.

12. Rosenberg ML, Gizzi M. Neurootologic history. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 200033:471�.

13. Froehling DA, Silverstein MD, Mohr DN, Beatty CW. The rational clinical examination. Does this dizzy patient have a serious form of vertigo? [published correction appears in JAMA 1998279:584]. JAMA. 1994271:385𠄸.

14. Baloh RW. Differentiating between peripheral and central causes of vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998119:55𠄹.

15. Buttner U, Helmchen C, Brandt T. Diagnostic criteria for central versus peripheral positioning nystagmus and vertigo: a review. Acta Otolaryngol. 1999119:1𠄵.

16. Berkowitz BW. Matutinal vertigo. Clinical characteristics and possible management. Arch Neurol. 198542:874𠄷.

17. Froehling DA, Silverstein MD, Mohr DN, Beatty CW, Offord KP, Ballard DJ. Benign positional vertigo: incidence and prognosis in a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc. 199166:596�.

18. Kentala E, Rauch SD. A practical assessment algorithm for diagnosis of dizziness. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003128:54𠄹.

19. Drachman DA. A 69-year-old man with chronic dizziness [published correction appears in JAMA 1999281:899]. JAMA. 1998280:2111𠄸.

20. Saeed SR. Fortnightly review. Diagnosis and treatment of Ménière’s disease. BMJ. 1998316:368�.

21. Cass SP, Furman JM, Ankerstjerne K, Balaban C, Yetiser S, Aydogan B. Migraine-related vestibulopathy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1997106:182𠄹.

22. Herr RD, Zun L, Mathews JJ. A directed approach to the dizzy patient. Ann Emerg Med. 198918:664�.

23. Minor LB, Solomon D, Zinreich JS, Zee DS. Sound- and/or pressure-induced vertigo due to bone dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998124:249�.

24. Ojala M, Ketonen L, Palo J. The value of CT and very low field MRI in the etiological diagnosis of dizziness. Acta Neurol Scand. 198878:26𠄹.

25. Norrving B, Magnusson M, Holtas S. Isolated acute vertigo in the elderly vestibular or vascular disease?. Acta Neurol Scand. 199591:43𠄸.

26. Hasso AN, Drayer BP, Anderson RE, Braffman B, Davis PC, Deck MD, et al American College of Radiology ACR Appropriateness Criteria. Vertigo and hearing loss. Accessed online March 15, 2005, at: http://www.acr.org/s_acr/bin.asp?TrackID=1&ampSID=&ampDID=11800&ampCID=1205&ampVID=2&ampDOC=File.PDF .

27. Gizzi M, Riley E, Molinari S. The diagnostic value of imaging the patient with dizziness. A Bayesian approach. Arch Neurol. 199653:1299�.


Research design

The study at hand aims to examine to what extent sustainability, and its core aspects are integrated in media and communication's curricula of European post-secondary institutions. Thus, n = 1068 bachelor and master degree programs and their related curricula/program specifications from 28 European countries were analyzed by means of content analysis. The designation “European” refers here not to a country's membership in the European Union but to Europe's geographical borders.

The sample of n = 1068 English language degree programs and related curricula results from a keyword search on the leading study choice platforms at European level. The search for bachelor and master study programs was performed separately on two different platforms www.bachelorsportal.eu for study programs on a bachelor level, www.masterportal.com for master’s degree programs. Both platforms are affiliated with studyportals.com and provide information on more than 200,000 study programs offered by more than 3,750 educational institutions (Studyportals, 2020). The keywords used to identify media and communication science study programs were: “communication,” “media,” “journalism” and “public relations,” including its abbreviation “PR.” As a result of this procedure, a total of n = 525 English language bachelor and n = 543 master study programs in the media and communication science's field in 28 European countries [2] were included in the sample.

After completing the sampling process, the official website of each study program was consulted and analyzed together with its related curriculum. We applied the documentary method as an appropriate approach. This means the analysis of documents containing information about the investigated phenomenon (Bailey, 1994). As the present study aims at investigating to what extent sustainability aspects are integrated into media and communication's curricula, the documentary method seems an appropriate choice. In addition, as the main object of research, the curriculum satisfies the quality control criteria for document sources: credibility, authenticity, representativeness and meaning (Scott, 1990). Moreover, the research design is loosely based on the study by Sharp and Brumberger (2013), who analyzed corporate communication curricula at 50 high-level business schools, which was later applied by Koinig et al. (2016, 2017) for the study of convergence (2016) and CSR Communication (2017) in curricula. For this purpose, we ran a second keyword search. The Keywords used for this purpose on the website, as well as in the curricula, were: sustain*, environment*, clima* and ecol*.

In order to investigate to what extent sustainability aspects are integrated into media and communication's curricula, we also took a closer look at online content. We analyze the study program's description on the official website and the curriculum/program specification, including the detailed course descriptions by means of a content analysis. For each hit, the corresponding paragraph was included in the analysis to understand the word in its context. The results obtained by this analysis are presented in detail in the next section.


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Book Description

Teach middle school students to become savvy consumers of the TV, print, and online media bombarding them every day. In this timely book copublished by Routledge and MiddleWeb, media literacy expert Frank W. Baker offers thematic lessons for every month of the school year, so you can engage students in learning by having them analyze the real world around them. Students will learn to think critically about photos, advertisements, and other media and consider the intended purposes and messages. Topics include:

In addition, the book’s lesson plans contain connections to key standards and step-by-step activities you can use immediately. With this practical book, you’ll have all the tools and ideas you need to help today’s students successfully navigate their media-filled world.


Journal of Bodies, Sexualities, and Masculinities

A new peer-reviewed interdisciplinary journal that brings together critical studies of men and masculinities and sexuality studies.

Politics Collection

Berghahn Journals offers a special discount (with the option to purchase backfiles in addition) to the entire Berghahn Collection or journals bundled by subject. View our diverse collection of Politics journals, publishing some of the most innovative and forward-thinking articles in the fields they represent.


Watch the video: Media Studies Textual Analysis for BTEC Media (May 2022).