History Podcasts

31 October 1941

31 October 1941

31 October 1941

Eastern Front

German troops advance in the Ukraine and Crimea

War in the Air

RAF carries out night attacks on German shipping off the coast of Norway and the Frisian Islands as well as raids on Bremen, Hamburg, Dunkirk and Boulogne



Military

Destroyer Squadron 31 has the dual missions of serving as the Immediate Superior in Command to assigned surface combatants, and performing as a sea going Warfare Commander or Major Command asset. As an Immediate Superior in Command, Destroyer Squadron 31 develops the employment schedules, monitors and assesses training, and reports on the readiness status of squadron ships to the Type Commander and numbered Fleet Commander. As an afloat Major Commander, Commander Destroyer Squadron 31 is variously assigned by a numbered Fleet Command as a Battle Group Warfare Commander or as an independent multi-ship Major Commander at sea.

Commander, Destroyer Squadron 31 acts as principal advisor to COMASWFORPAC on surface ASW matters. As directed, Destroyer Squadron 31 conducts surface & coordinated Theater USW OPS. When operating in a theater USW role, CTG 12.6 units will be under CTF 12 OPCON. TACON may be passed to TG/ARG commander when mutually agreed.

DESTROYER SQUADRON 31, under CAPT Wilder D. BAKER, first appeared in the Organization List of the United States Navy in September 1939. During World War II, COMDESRON 31 ships saw duty as members of the Northeastern Escort (later Support) Force in Atlantic Fleet convoy escort operations. One squadron member, USS TRUXTUN was credited with the first sighting of an enemy submarine in the "Short-of-War" period just prior to World War II. On 31 October 1941, another squadron ship, USS REUBEN JAMES became the first U.S. warship lost to enemy action during World War II, when she was torpedoed by a German U-Boat while on convoy escort operations.

Disestablished in San Diego, California following the war, COMDESRON 31 remained inactive until 01 February 1968, when it was reactivated as a unit of the Seventh Fleet operating in the waters of Southeast Asia. Deactivated briefly in early 1970, the squadron was reactivated for a second time on 15 June 1971 and has remained since on continuous active duty, completing twelve deployments to the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. COMDESRON 31 shifted homeports to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii in 1991.

On 1 September 1985, USS HEWITT (DD 966) and other members of Destroyer Squadron THIRTY-ONE became the first Pacific Fleet Anti-Submarine Warfare Squadron. The squadron's basic mission was to locate and track submarines in the Eastern Pacific, to develop USW tactics and training, and to serve as a ready response force under Commander, THIRD Fleet. COMDESRON 31 was designated as the Pacific Fleet Anti-Submarine Warfare Squadron and was tasked with developing interoperability between U.S. and Allied forces. It has served as the core force for Undersea Warfare (USW) training and has fostered USW tactical development. COMDESRON 31 also serves as the USW ready response force under Commander, Anti-Submarine Warfare Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

From April 1993 to December 1994, COMDESRON 31 made three deployments to the Arabian Gulf in support of Maritime Intercept Operations and Operations DESERT STORM, SOUTHERN WATCH and VIGILANT WARRIOR. While in the Gulf, COMDESRON 31 also coordinated and conducted thirteen multi-lateral exercises with naval units from ten different allied and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations.

In October 1995, COMDESRON 31 assumed duties as Intermediate Superior in Command for five ships USS CROMMELIN (FFG 37), USS LEFTWICH (DD 984), USS FLETCHER (DD 992), USS RUSSELL (DDG 59) and USS PAUL HAMILTON (DDG 60). In addition to direct oversight of the training, maintenance and readiness of these ships, the staff has operated with units of USS KITTY HAWK (CV 63) Battle Group, serving as Undersea Warfare and Maritime Intercept Commander during RIMPAC96, JTFEX 97-2 and from October 1996 through April 1997 in the Persian Gulf.

Since this Arabian Gulf deployment, COMDESRON 31 has assumed the duties as Officer In Tactical Command of several USW exercises, and in October and November of 1997 embarked USS RUSSELL (DDG 59) and deployed to Canada for MARCOT 97, a bilateral inter-operability exercise with the Canadian Navy. In March 1998 USS LEFTWICH (DD-984) was decommissioned, and is currently moored in WESTLOC, Hawaii. USS LEFTWICH was the first Spruance class destroyer to be decommissioned. Currenty, Commodore Frank Guest and his stafff are embarked on the USS FORT MCHENRY (LSD 43), homeported out of Sasebo Japan, and fulfilling the duties as Officer in Tactical Command of CARAT 98. CARAT which stands for Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training Exercise is an annual series of bi-lateral exercises with the military forces of the countries of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand.

As of November 1998, COMDESRON 31 was aligned with COMCRUDESGRU 3, and the Lincoln Battle Group. The Battlegroup included DDG 60 PAUL HAMILTON, DD 992 FLETCHER, and FFG 37 CROMMELIN.


Sinking of the USS Reuben James

On October 31, 1941, a German submarine torpedoed the USS Reuben James – the first US Navy ship destroyed during World War II.

The USS Reuben James was named after a naval hero who was born sometime around 1776. James joined the US Navy and served on several ships.

US #2559f – Classic First Day Cover

During the Barbary Wars, James was on the Enterprise with Lieutenant Stephen Decatur in the harbor at Tripoli. They attempted to burn the captured American ship the Philadelphia. When the brave sailors boarded the ship, they realized it was guarded by the pirates who had captured it. During the fighting, James stepped between a pirate’s sword and Lieutenant Decatur and was wounded. He survived the wound and continued to serve in the Navy in the War of 1812 and beyond. He died in a Naval Hospital in 1838.

US #2559f – Fleetwood First Day Cover

The ship named in honor of this brave sailor was commissioned in September 1920. The USS Reuben James sailed in the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas, assisting refugees from Yugoslavia. In October 1921, the ship joined in ceremonies marking the return of the Unknown Soldier to the US. After returning to American shores, the Reuben James patrolled the Nicaraguan coast to prevent weapons from being delivered to revolutionaries. After more than a decade of service, the destroyer was taken out of commission in 1931.

US #2559f – Colorano Silk Cachet First Day Cover

The services of the Reuben James were needed again the next year to patrol the waters around Cuba. When war began in Europe in September 1939, this ship guarded the Atlantic and Caribbean waterways as part of the Neutrality Patrol. In March 1941, the destroyer was part of a convoy that brought war materials safely to Britain.

Item #M10935 includes a stamp honoring the sinking of the Reuben James.

On October 23, 1941, the Reuben James sailed from Newfoundland with four other destroyers escorting a convoy. In the early hours of October 31, the convoy encountered a German “wolfpack” – a group of submarines in position to attack the convoy. The Reuben James positioned itself in front a merchant ship that one of the German U-boats was targeting.

US #3213 – Woody Guthrie wrote a song about the event, titled “The Sinking of the Reuben James.”

The U-boat fired its torpedo, which struck the Reuben James, exploding a magazine and blowing off the entire bow. The bow immediately sank and the rest of the ship floated for about five minutes before sinking as well. The ship had seven officers, 136 enlisted men and one passenger. Of these, 100 were killed – only 44 enlisted men survived the attack. The Reuben James was the first US Navy ship to be destroyed in World War II.

Item #55909 – Fleetwood First Day Proof Card

After this event, the US Navy was ordered to attack German and Italian war vessels in the Atlantic Ocean. In December, the attack on American soil at Pearl Harbor would push the United States into full-scale war.

Click here to listen to Woody Guthrie’s “The Sinking of the Reuben James.”


UPI Almanac for Tuesday, Oct. 31, 2017

Today is Tuesday, Oct. 31, the 304th day of 2017 with 61 to follow.

The moon is waxing. Morning stars are Mars and Venus. Evening stars are Jupiter and Saturn.

Those born on this date are under the sign of Scorpio. They include Dutch painter Jan Vermeer in 1632 English poet John Keats in 1795 Girl Scouts founder Juliette Gordon Low in 1860 Gen. Chiang Kai-shek, the first leader of Nationalist China, in 1887 actor/singer Ethel Waters in 1896 actor Lee Grant in 1927 (age 90) astronaut Michael Collins in 1930 (age 87) former TV news anchorman Dan Rather in 1931 (age 86) actor/director Michael Landon in 1936 folk singer/songwriter Tom Paxton in 1937 (age 80) actor David Ogden Stiers in 1942 (age 75) actor Brian Doyle-Murray in 1945 (age 72) actor Stephen Rea in 1946 (age 71) actor Deidre Hall in 1947 (age 70) actor John Candy in 1950 former Belgian politician and European Council President Herman Van Rompuy in 1947 (age 70) Olympic gold medal marathon runner Frank Shorter in 1947 (age 70) broadcaster Jane Pauley in 1950 (age 67) architect Zaha Hadid in 1950 actor Ken Wahl in 1954 (age 63) actor Brian Stokes Mitchell in 1957 (age 60) New Zealand director and producer Peter Jackson in 1961 (age 56) actor Rob Schneider in 1963 (age 54) rapper Ad-Rock, born Adam Horovitz, in 1966 (age 51) rapper Vanilla Ice, born Robert Matthew Van Winkle, in 1967 (age 50) actor Piper Perabo in 1976 (age 41) actor Eddie Kaye Thomas in 1980 (age 37) actor Vanessa Marano in 1992 (age 25) actor Sydney Park in 1997 (age 20) singer Willow Smith in 2000 (age 17).

In 1517, Martin Luther began the Protestant Reformation by nailing a proclamation -- the 95 theses -- to the door of a church in Wittenberg, Germany.

In 1864, Nevada was admitted to the United States as the 36th state.

In 1926, Harry Houdini, renowned magician, illusionist and escape artist, died of peritonitis in a Detroit hospital following a blow to the abdomen.

In 1931, with the Great Depression in full swing, the U.S. Treasury Department announced that 827 banks had failed during the previous two months.

In 1941, more than a month before the United States entered World War II, a German submarine torpedoed and sunk a U.S. destroyer, the USS Reuben James.

In 1941, the Mount Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota -- consisting of the sculpted heads of U.S. Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln and Teddy Roosevelt -- was completed.

In 1968, U.S. President Lyndon Johnson announced a halt to the bombing of North Vietnam.

In 1984, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated outside her home in a volley of gunfire by Sikh members of her own security force. Her son, Rajiv, succeeded her.

In 1985, salvage divers located the remains of the booty-laden pirate ship Whydah, which sank Feb. 17, 1717, off Cape Cod, Mass.

In 1993, actor River Phoenix died of a drug overdose outside of a West Hollywood, Calif., nightclub, The Viper Room. He starred in Stand By Me and My Own Private Idaho.

In 2005, Samuel Alito, a 55-year-old federal appeals judge, was nominated by U.S. President George W. Bush to the U.S. Supreme Court to succeed Sandra Day O'Connor.

In 2008, U.S. Army Gen. David Petraeus took over as head of the Central Command, in charge of military operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Syria, Iran and other countries.

In 2010, Brazilians elected Dilma Rousseff as their first female president. The former energy minister and choice of outgoing President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva defeated Jose Serra in a runoff with 56 percent of the vote. Rousseff won a second term Oct. 26, 2014.

In 2013, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration announced airlines could soon allow passengers to use laptops, tablets, music players, e-readers, etc., on flights, with certain restrictions, and that cellphones and other devices must be kept in "airplane mode," disabling their wireless features.

In 2014, SpaceShipTwo, Virgin Galactic's effort in spaceflight for tourists, crashes during a test flight in the Mojave Desert, killing one of the pilots and seriously injuring the other.

In 2015, Russian airliner Metrojet Flight 9268 crashed after taking off from Sharm el-Sheikh International Airport in Egypt, killing all 224 on board. Investigators suspected a bomb on the plane caused the crash.

A thought for the day: "Tact is the ability to tell someone to go to hell in such a way that they look forward to the trip." -- Winston Churchill


After the USS Reuben James was sunk (1941 Oct 31) by Germany, why didn't the USA join the war?

The USS Reuben James was a Destroyer protecting a convoy when it was hit and sunk by a torpedo from a German U-Boat. This was on Oct 31, 1941. Most of the people on board were killed.

A Wikipedia article on the US Neutrality Acts also says:

After repeated attacks by German submarines on U.S. ships, Roosevelt announced on September 11, 1941, that he had ordered the U.S. Navy to attack German and Italian war vessels in the "waters which we deem necessary for our defense".

Though it has no citation for that, it makes it sound like Germany had been attacking US shipping for at least a month.

And I guess I'll just explicitly make the obvious comparison to WW1 and the Lusitania. Germany sank the Lusitania in 1915. It was a British ship, but over 100 Americans died in that attack, so American joined WW1 albeit two years later.

In the Rueben James case, it was an American ship and over 100 died according to Larrabee (Commander in Chief: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, His Lieutenants, and Their War, Simon and Schuster, 1988 Google books). So why didn't America join the war after it sank?


Contents

Prayers of thanks and special thanksgiving ceremonies are common among almost all religions after harvests and at other times. [1] The Thanksgiving holiday's history in North America is rooted in English traditions dating from the Protestant Reformation. It also has aspects of a harvest festival, even though the harvest in New England occurs well before the late-November date on which the modern Thanksgiving holiday is celebrated. [1] [2]

In the English tradition, days of thanksgiving and special thanksgiving religious services became important during the English Reformation in the reign of Henry VIII and in reaction to the large number of religious holidays on the Catholic calendar. Before 1536 there were 95 Church holidays, plus 52 Sundays, when people were required to attend church and forego work and sometimes pay for expensive celebrations. The 1536 reforms reduced the number of Church holidays to 27, but some Puritans wished to eliminate all Church holidays, including Christmas and Easter. The holidays were to be replaced by specially called Days of Fasting or Days of Thanksgiving, in response to events that the Puritans viewed as acts of special providence. Unexpected disasters or threats of judgement from on high called for Days of Fasting. Special blessings, viewed as coming from God, called for Days of Thanksgiving. For example, Days of Fasting were called on account of drought in 1611, floods in 1613, and plagues in 1604 and 1622. Days of thanksgiving were called following the victory over the Spanish Armada in 1588 and following the deliverance of Queen Anne in 1705. [3] An unusual annual Day of Thanksgiving began in 1606 following the failure of the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and developed into Guy Fawkes Day on November 5. [3]

In Canada

According to some historians, the first celebration of Thanksgiving in North America occurred during the 1578 voyage of Martin Frobisher from England in search of the Northwest Passage. [4] Other researchers, however, state that "there is no compelling narrative of the origins of the Canadian Thanksgiving day." [5]

The origins of Canadian Thanksgiving are also sometimes traced to the French settlers who came to New France in the 17th century, who celebrated their successful harvests. The French settlers in the area typically had feasts at the end of the harvest season. They continued throughout the winter season, even sharing food with the indigenous peoples of the area. [6]

As settlers arrived in Nova Scotia from New England after 1700, late autumn Thanksgiving celebrations became commonplace. New immigrants into the country—such as the Irish, Scottish, and Germans—also added their own traditions to the harvest celebrations. Most of the U.S. aspects of Thanksgiving (such as the turkey) were incorporated when United Empire Loyalists began to flee from the United States during the American Revolution and settled in Canada. [6]

In the United States

Pilgrims and Puritans who emigrated from England in the 1620s and 1630s carried the tradition of Days of Fasting and Days of Thanksgiving with them to New England. The modern Thanksgiving holiday tradition is traced to a well-recorded 1619 event in Virginia and a sparsely documented 1621 celebration at Plymouth in present-day Massachusetts. The 1619 arrival of 38 English settlers at Berkeley Hundred in Charles City County, Virginia, concluded with a religious celebration as dictated by the group's charter from the London Company, which required "that the day of our ships arrival at the place assigned . in the land of Virginia shall be yearly and perpetually kept holy as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God." The 1621 Plymouth feast and thanksgiving was prompted by a good harvest. The Pilgrims celebrated this with Native Americans, who had helped them get through the previous winter by giving them food in that time of scarcity. [7] [8] [9]

Several days of Thanksgiving were held in early New England history that have been identified as the "First Thanksgiving", including Pilgrim holidays in Plymouth in 1621 and 1623, and a Puritan holiday in Boston in 1631. [10] [11] According to historian Jeremy Bangs, director of the Leiden American Pilgrim Museum, the Pilgrims may have been influenced by watching the annual services of Thanksgiving for the relief of the siege of Leiden in 1574, while they were staying in Leiden. [12] Now called Oktober Feest, Leiden's autumn thanksgiving celebration in 1617 was the occasion for sectarian disturbance that appears to have accelerated the pilgrims' plans to emigrate to America. [13]

Later in Massachusetts, religious thanksgiving services were declared by civil leaders such as Governor Bradford, who planned the colony's thanksgiving celebration and feast in 1623. [14] [15] [16] In the late 1630s, the Pequot were blamed for the killing of a white man, leading to the colonizers burning down Pequot villages and killing those who did not perish in the fires. [17] Hundreds of Pequots were killed, leading Governor Bradford to proclaim that Thanksgiving from then on would be celebrating "the bloody victory, thanking God that the battle had been won." [17] [18] The practice of holding an annual harvest festival did not become a regular affair in New England until the late 1660s. [19]

Thanksgiving proclamations were made mostly by church leaders in New England up until 1682, and then by both state and church leaders until after the American Revolution. During the revolutionary period, political influences affected the issuance of Thanksgiving proclamations. Various proclamations were made by royal governors, and conversely by patriot leaders, such as John Hancock, General George Washington, and the Continental Congress, [20] each giving thanks to God for events favorable to their causes. [21] As President of the United States, George Washington proclaimed the first nationwide thanksgiving celebration in America marking November 26, 1789, "as a day of public thanksgiving and prayer, to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many and signal favours of Almighty God". [22]

Debate about the nation's first celebrations

The question of where the first Thanksgiving was held in the United States has been a subject of dispute, primarily between New England and Virginia. The question is complicated by the concept of Thanksgiving as either a holiday celebration or a religious service. James Baker maintains, "The American holiday's true origin was the New England Calvinist Thanksgiving. Never coupled with a Sabbath meeting, the Puritan observances were special days set aside during the week for thanksgiving and praise in response to God's providence." [10] Baker calls the debate a "tempest in a beanpot" and "marvelous nonsense" based on regional claims. [10] However, the day for Thanksgiving services specifically codified in the founding charter of Berkeley Hundred in 1619 was instrumental in President John F. Kennedy's attempt to strike a compromise between the regional claims, by issuing Proclamation 3560 on November 5, 1963, stating, "Over three centuries ago, our forefathers in Virginia and in Massachusetts, far from home in a lonely wilderness, set aside a time of thanksgiving. On the appointed day, they gave reverent thanks for their safety, for the health of their children, for the fertility of their fields, for the love which bound them together, and for the faith which united them with their God." [23]

Other claims include an earlier religious service by Spanish explorers in Texas at San Elizario in 1598. [24] Historians Robyn Gioia and Michael Gannon of the University of Florida argue that the earliest Thanksgiving service in what is now the United States was celebrated by the Spanish community on September 8, 1565, in current Saint Augustine, Florida. [25] [26]

Fixing date

Canada

The earlier Thanksgiving celebrations in Canada has been attributed to the earlier onset of winter in the North, thus ending the harvest season earlier. [27] Thanksgiving in Canada did not have a fixed date until the late 19th century. Prior to Canadian Confederation, many of the individual colonial governors of the Canadian provinces had declared their own days of Thanksgiving. The first official Canadian Thanksgiving occurred on April 15, 1872, when the nation was celebrating the Prince of Wales' recovery from a serious illness. [27]

By the end of the 19th century, Thanksgiving Day was normally celebrated on November 6. In the late 19th century, the Militia staged "sham battles" for public entertainment on Thanksgiving Day. The Militia agitated for an earlier date for the holiday, so they could use the warmer weather to draw bigger crowds. [28] However, when World War I ended, the Armistice Day holiday was usually held during the same week. To prevent the two holidays from clashing with one another, in 1957 the Canadian Parliament proclaimed Thanksgiving to be observed on its present date on the second Monday of October. [6]

United States

Thanksgiving in the United States has been observed on differing dates. From the time of the Founding Fathers until the time of Lincoln, the date of observance varied from state to state. The final Thursday in November had become the customary date in most U.S. states by the beginning of the 19th century, coinciding with, and eventually superseding the holiday of Evacuation Day (commemorating the day the British exited the United States after the Revolutionary War). [29] Modern Thanksgiving was proclaimed for all states in 1863 by Abraham Lincoln. Influenced by Sarah Josepha Hale, who wrote letters to politicians for approximately 40 years advocating an official holiday, Lincoln set national Thanksgiving by proclamation for the final Thursday in November, explicitly in celebration of the bounties that had continued to fall on the Union and for the military successes in the war, and also explicitly in "humble penitence for our national perverseness and disobedience." [30] Because of the ongoing Civil War, a nationwide Thanksgiving celebration was not realized until Reconstruction was completed in the 1870s.

On October 31, 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a presidential proclamation changing the holiday to the next to last Thursday in November, for business reasons. [31] On December 26, 1941, he signed a joint resolution of Congress changing the national Thanksgiving Day to the fourth Thursday in November. [32]

Since 1971, when the American Uniform Monday Holiday Act took effect, the American observance of Columbus Day has coincided with the Canadian observance of Thanksgiving. [33] [34]

Australia

In the Australian external territory of Norfolk Island, Thanksgiving is celebrated on the last Wednesday of November, similar to the pre–World War II American observance on the last Thursday of the month. This means the Norfolk Island observance is the day before or six days after the United States' observance. The holiday was brought to the island by visiting American whaling ships. [35]

Brazil

In Brazil, National Thanksgiving Day was instituted by President Gaspar Dutra, through Law 781 of August 17, 1949, at the suggestion of Ambassador Joaquim Nabuco, who was enthusiastic about the commemorations he saw in 1909 in St. Patrick's Cathedral as an ambassador in Washington. In 1966, Law 5110 established that the Thanksgiving celebration would take place on the fourth Thursday of November. [36] This date is celebrated by many families of American origin, by some Protestant Christian denominations, such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Brazil (which is of American origin), the Presbyterian Church, the Baptist Church, the Methodist Church, and the Church of the Nazarene, and Methodist denominational universities. The day is also celebrated by evangelical churches such as the Foursquare Gospel Church in Brazil.

Canada

Thanksgiving (French: l'Action de grâce), occurring on the second Monday in October, is an annual Canadian holiday to give thanks at the close of the harvest season. Although the original act of Parliament references God and the holiday is celebrated in churches, the holiday is mostly celebrated in a secular manner. Thanksgiving is a statutory holiday in all provinces in Canada, except for New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. While businesses may remain open in these provinces, the holiday is nonetheless recognized and celebrated regardless of its status. [37] [38] [39] [40] [41]

Grenada

In the West Indian island of Grenada, in the Caribbean, there is a national holiday known as Thanksgiving Day which is celebrated on October 25. Even though it bears the same name, and is celebrated at roughly the same time as the American and Canadian versions of Thanksgiving, this holiday is unrelated to either of those celebrations. Instead, the holiday marks the anniversary of the U.S.-led invasion of the island in 1983, in response to the deposition and execution of the socialist Grenadian Prime Minister Maurice Bishop [42] by a military government from within his own party.

Liberia

In the West African country of Liberia, Thanksgiving is celebrated on the first Thursday of November. [43] The Thanksgiving tradition there is rooted in the nation's founding as a colony of the American Colonization Society in 1821 by free people of color from the United States. Although recognized throughout the country, Thanksgiving is practiced chiefly by Americo-Liberians, descendants of Liberia's original African-American settlers. [ citation needed ]

Netherlands

Many of the Pilgrims who migrated to the Plymouth Plantation resided in the city of Leiden from 1609–1620 and had recorded their births, marriages, and deaths at the Pieterskerk (St. Peter's church). In commemoration, a non-denominational Thanksgiving Day service is held each year on the morning of the American Thanksgiving Day in the Pieterskerk, a Gothic church in Leiden, noting the hospitality the Pilgrims received in Leiden on their way to the New World. [44]

Thanksgiving is observed by orthodox Protestant churches in the Netherlands on the first Wednesday in November (Dankdag [nl] ). It is not a public holiday. Those who observe the day either go to church in the evening or take the day off and go to church in the morning (and occasionally afternoon) too.

Philippines

The Philippines, while it was an American colony in the first half of the 20th century, celebrated Thanksgiving as a special public holiday on the same day as the Americans. During the Japanese occupation during World War II, both the Americans and Filipinos celebrated Thanksgiving in secret. After Japanese withdrawal in 1945, the tradition continued until 1969. It was revived by President Ferdinand Marcos, but the date was changed to be on every September 21, when martial law was imposed in the country. After Marcos' ouster in 1986, the tradition was no longer continued, due to the controversial events that occurred during his long administration. [45]

As of 2020, Thanksgiving has been revived as a commercial and cultural holiday, albeit stripped of its official status. SM Supermalls led the way in the slow revival of Thanksgiving Day on the same day as in the U.S., as in the old days. Many malls and hotels offer special sales on this day, which is part of the long celebration of Christmas in the Philippines, which begins in September (unlike on Black Friday in the United States).

Rwanda

Called Umuganura Day, this is a Thanksgiving festival to mark the start of the harvest in Rwanda. It is celebrated on the first Friday of August. [46]

Saint Lucia

The nation of Saint Lucia celebrates Thanksgiving on the first Monday in October. [47]


Today in History: Born on October 2

Paul von Hindenburg, German Field Marshall during World War I and second president of the Weimar Republic.

Mahatma Mohandas Gandhi, political leader of India and pioneer of nonviolent activism.

Cordell Hull, Secretary of State for President Franklin Roosevelt.

Julius Henry 'Groucho' Marx, comedian, one of the five Marx brothers (the others being Chico, Harpo, Zeppo and Gummo).

William A. 'Bud' Abbot, comedian, the straight man to Lou Costello.

Roy Campbell, poet (The Flaming Terrapin).

Graham Greene, novelist (The Power and The Glory, The Heart of the Matter).

Alexander R. Todd, Baron Todd, Scottish biochemist who won Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1957) for his work on nucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleotide coenzymes.

John Bertrand Gurdon, English developmental biologist who shared Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (2012) for the discovery that mature cells can be converted to stem cells.

Johnnie Cochran, high-profile African American lawyer whose many famous clients included O.J. Simpson and Michael Jackson.

Rex Reed, actor and film critic co-hosted the At the Movies TV show.

Don McLean, singer, songwriter guitarist, best known for "American Pie," his tribute to Buddy Holly and early rock 'n' roll.

Martin Hellman, cryptologist, co-inventor of public key cryptography.

Annie Leibovitz, photographer whose subjects include John Lennon and the Rolling Stones.

Sting (Gordon M.T. Sumner), singer, songwriter, musician, actor lead singer and bass player for the band The Police before launching a successful solo career.

Kelly Ripa, actress, producer, co-host of Live! with Kelly and Michael TV talk show.


The Russian Review

The Russian Review is a multi-disciplinary academic journal devoted to the history, literature, culture, fine arts, cinema, society, and politics of the peoples of the former Russian Empire and former Soviet Union. Each issue features original research articles by established and upcoming scholars, as well as reviews of an extensive range of new publications.
Founded in 1941, The Russian Review stands as a chronicle of the continuing evolution of the field of Russian/Soviet studies in North America. Its articles manifest the changing understandings of Russia through the rise and decline of the Cold War and the ultimate collapse of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Review is an independent journal, not aligned with any national, political, or professional association.
JSTOR provides a digital archive of the print version of The Russian Review . The electronic version of The Russian Review is available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com. Authorized users may be able to access the full text articles at this site.

The "moving wall" represents the time period between the last issue available in JSTOR and the most recently published issue of a journal. Moving walls are generally represented in years. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication.
Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted.
For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available.

Terms Related to the Moving Wall Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive. Absorbed: Journals that are combined with another title. Complete: Journals that are no longer published or that have been combined with another title.


31 October 1941 - History

The United States military enlisted base pay scales effective August 1, 1941 through May 31, 1942 for active components of the Navy, Marine Corps, Army, and Coast Guard.

The United States officially entered World War II on December 8, 1941, the day after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

The pay rates are monthly, US dollar.

1941-1942 Enlisted Military Base Pay Chart

Additional Pay for Specialists' ratings [2].
GradeYears of Service
Over 4See note 2
1st 30.00
2nd 25.00
3rd 20.00
4th 15.00
5th 6.00
6th 3.00

Note 1: The "E" and "O" pay grades did not come until the approval of the Career Compensation Act of 1949 however, for comparison purposes, the 1st Grade, is the same as today's E-7 7th Grade is the same as E-1.

Note 2: Enlisted men of the Army and the Marine Corps shall receive, as a permanent addition to their pay, an increase of 10 per centum of their base pay and pay for specialists' ratings upon completion of the first four years of service, and an additional increase of 5 per centum of such base pay and pay for specialists' ratings for each four years of service thereafter, but the total of such increases shall not exceed 25 per centum. Enlisted men of the Navy shall be entitled to receive at least the same pay and allowances as are provided for enlisted men in similar grades in the Army and Marine Corps.

Effective August 1941 to May 1942.

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Military Pay

1940's Pay Scales

1941-1942 Enlisted Base Pay Chart for active personnel of the United States Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard.


College football history: Notable firsts and milestones

This is a quick guide to some of college football's most notable firsts and historic moments. In 2019, the sport celebrated its 150th anniversary. First, the TL/DR version:

  • The first college football game was played in 1869 between Rutgers University and the College of New Jersey (now known as Princeton University).
  • The first college football rules were written Nov. 23, 1876, in Springfield, Mass., by representatives from Columbia, Harvard, Princeton and Yale.
  • The first college football game on the radio was the contest between West Virginia University and Pittsburgh University on Oct. 8, 1921, broadcast on Pittsburgh radio station KDKA-AM.
  • The first college football game on TV was between Fordham University and Waynesburg University on Sept. 30, 1939. The game was broadcast by NBC and aired on W2XBS.
  • The first use of instant replay during a college football game was in 1963 during a Dec. 7 Army vs. Navy game.
  • College football rankings began in 1939 with the release of the first Associated Press poll. Other notable ranking systems include the BCS (Bowl Championship Series) rankings, which started in 1998, and the CFP (College Football Playoff) rankings, which began in 2014.
  • The first Heisman Trophy was awarded to Jay Berwanger of Chicago University in 1935. The award was created by the New York Downtown Athletic Club.
  • The college football team with the most wins in history is the University of Michigan. The Wolverines have accumulated 962 wins since their first season in 1879.
  • Yale has won the most championships in college football history with 18. Alabama and Princeton are tied for second with 15 each.
Getty The 1883 Navy College Football team

When was the first college football game?

The birth of American football came in 1869 on College Avenue in New Brunswick, New Jersey. The game was between Rutgers University and the College of New Jersey (now known as Princeton University).

There were 25 players on the field for both teams and the rules were based on the London Football Association, which did not allow players to either pick up or throw the ball. The game resembled a form of soccer or rugby — something that if viewed in the context of football today, would look like one extended fumble with players trying to kick or hit the ball across the opposing team's goal line.

The game resulted in a 6-4 victory for Rutgers and attracted around 100 spectators.

When were the first rules established?

Getty />"The Father of American Football," Walter Camp

Just seven years after the first game was played, representatives from Columbia, Harvard, Princeton and Yale came together to propose the first rules of what is recognized today as American football.

The representatives met at Massasoit House in Springfield, Mass., on Nov. 23, 1876. This is where Walter Camp emerged as the legendary father of American football. Camp created guidelines fans are familiar with today such as the line of scrimmage, the center-to-quarterback snap, a system of downs and proposed that each team should have no more than 11 players on the field.

When was the first college football game on radio?

On Oct. 8, 1921, one of the early installments of the "Backyard Brawl," the rivalry between West Virginia University and Pittsburgh University made history, as the game was the first to be broadcast across the airwaves. The game was on the first commercial radio station in the country, KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh won the game 21-13.

When was the first college football game on TV?

The first game to shoot across television screens came on Sept. 30, 1939, when Fordham hosted Waynesburg for a season-opener. The game was broadcast by NBC on W2XBS. Fordham, a powerhouse football program at the time, won, 34-7. The number of viewers was estimated to be between 500-5,000.

When was the first use of instant replay?

Instant replay made its debut on television screens Dec. 7, 1963, during an Army vs. Navy game. The production used a 1,300-pound machine to wind back the reel and show a touchdown over again as commentator Lindsey Nelson warned viewers, "Ladies and gentlemen, Army did not score again!"

When did college football rankings begin?

Harry How | Getty Images Levonte Whitfield celebrates after scoring during the final BCS National Championship in January 2014.

The first Associated Press rankings were released in 1936. The rankings included 20 teams and helped determine a college football champion. Minnesota was the first team to sit atop the AP rankings at the end of the season, becoming the 1936 college football champs.

The Bowl Championship Series (BCS) was created in 1998. The BCS integrated a system that matched top-10 teams together in marquee bowl games at the end of the season, including putting together the No. 1 and 2 teams in a the BCS national championship game. The first BCS national championship game featured Tennessee beating Florida State 23-16.

The College Football Playoff (CFP) was created 14 years after the BCS was established. The CFP committee ranks teams 1-25, similar to the AP and BCS rankings, each week before determining the top four teams after the final week of play. The top four teams then face-off in a playoff where the first ranked team plays the fourth-ranked team and the second-ranked team plays the third-ranked team. The winners then play each other in the CFP final to determine a champion. The first CFP national championship game pitted Ohio State against Oregon in 2014. Ohio State won, 42-20.

Jaime Squire/Getty Ohio State head coach Urban Meyer lifts the CFP championship trophy after his team won the first ever College Football Playoff National Championship in January 2015.

When was the first Heisman Trophy awarded?

The Heisman Trophy award was created in 1935 and members of New York's Downtown Athletic Club (DAC) presented the first to Jay Berwanger of Chicago University. The trophy was named after John W. Heisman in 1936. On Dec. 2, 1975, Ohio State running back Archie Griffin became the first and only player to win the Heisman Trophy in consecutive seasons.

Heisman Trophy winners: History

YEAR WINNER SCHOOL POSITION
2019 Joe Burrow LSU QB
2018 Kyler Murray Oklahoma QB
2017 Baker Mayfield Oklahoma QB
2016 Lamar Jackson Louisville QB
2015 Derrick Henry Alabama RB
2014 Marcus Mariota Oregon QB
2013 Jameis Winston Florida State QB
2012 Johnny Manziel Texas A&M QB
2011 Robert Griffin III Baylor QB
2010 Cam Newton Auburn QB
2009 Mark Ingram Jr. Alabama RB
2008 Sam Bradford Oklahoma QB
2007 Tim Tebow Florida QB
2006 Troy Smith Ohio State QB
2005 Reggie Bush* Southern California RB
2004 Matt Leinart Southern California QB
2003 Jason White Oklahoma QB
2002 Carson Palmer Southern California QB
2001 Eric Crouch Nebraska QB
2000 Chris Weinke Florida State QB
1999 Ron Dayne Wisconsin RB
1998 Ricky Williams Texas RB
1997 Charles Woodson Michigan CB/returner
1996 Danny Wuerffel Florida QB
1995 Eddie George Ohio State RB
1994 Rashaan Salaam Colorado RB
1993 Charlie Ward Florida State QB
1992 Gino Torretta Miami QB
1991 Desmond Howard Michigan WR/returner
1990 Ty Detmer BYU QB
1989 Andre Ware Houston QB
1988 Barry Sanders Oklahoma State RB
1987 Tim Brown Notre Dame WR
1986 Vinny Testaverde Miami QB
1985 Bo Jackson Auburn RB
1984 Doug Flutie Boston College QB
1983 Mike Rozier Nebraska RB
1982 Herschel Walker Georgia RB
1981 Marcus Allen Southern California RB
1980 George Rogers South Carolina RB
1979 Charles White Southern California RB
1978 Billy Sims Oklahoma RB
1977 Earl Campbell Texas RB
1976 Tony Dorsett Pitt RB
1975 Archie Griffin Ohio State RB
1974 Archie Griffin Ohio State RB
1973 John Cappelletti Penn State RB
1972 Johnny Rodgers Nebraska WR/RB
1971 Patt Sullivan Auburn QB
1970 Jim Plunkett Stanford QB
1969 Steve Owens Oklahoma FB
1968 O.J. Simpson Southern California HB
1967 Gary Beban UCLA QB
1966 Steve Spurrier Florida QB
1965 Mike Garrett Southern California HB
1964 John Huarte Notre Dame QB
1963 Roger Staubach Navy QB
1962 Terry Baker Oregon State QB
1961 Ernie Davis Syracuse HB/LB/FB
1960 Joe Bellino Navy HB
1959 Billy Cannon LSU HB
1958 Pete Dawkins Army HB
1957 John David Crow Texas A&M HB
1956 Paul Hornung Notre Dame QB
1955 Howard Cassady Ohio State HB
1954 Alan Ameche Wisconsin FB
1953 Johnny Lattner Notre Dame HB
1952 Billy Vessels Oklahoma HB
1951 Dick Kazmaier Princeton HB
1950 Vic Janowicz Ohio State HB/P
1949 Leon Hart Notre Dame End
1948 Doak Walker SMU HB
1947 Johnny Lujack Notre Dame QB
1946 Glenn Davis Army HB
1945 Doc Blanchard Army FB
1944 Les Horvath Ohio State QB/HB
1943 Angelo Bertelli Notre Dame QB
1942 Frank Sinkwich Georgia HB
1941 Bruce Smith Minnesota HB
1940 Tom Harmon Michigan HB
1939 Nile Kinnick Iowa HB/QB
1938 Davey O'Brien TCU QB
1937 Clint Frank Yale HB
1936 Larry Kelley Yale End
1935 Jay Berwanger Chicago HB

Who has won the most games in college football history?

Although college football started with Rutgers and Princeton, a pair of teams from the Midwest have won the most games. Entering the 2020 season, Michigan wears the crown with 962 wins, followed by rival Ohio State with 923 wins and then Yale with 917 wins. Alabama and Texas follow Yale with 916 wins each. Notre Dame and Oklahoma are also locked even with 908 wins with Nebraska behind them with 902. Penn State and Southern California round out the ten most winningest programs with 898 victories for the Nittany Lions and 847 for the Trojans.

As for the number of National Championships, Yale tops the list, followed by Alabama and Princeton.

Other Notable milestones in college football

  • In 1916, Fritz Pollard became the first African American football player to participate in a Rose Bowl. Pollard went on to live a life full of football, as he would become the first African American to become an NFL head coach in 1921 (back when player-coaches were a thing), and would go on to be the first African American to play quarterback in the NFL in 1923.
  • On October 7, 1916, Georgia launched itself into the college football history books as they knocked off Cumberland College by a whopping score of 222-0. No other game has come close to this blowout, as Georgia Tech scored 32 touchdowns and Cumberland committed 15 turnovers.
  • In 1958, the NCAA implemented a rule allowing two-point conversions. The rule was put into place to try and increase scoring and maintain a balance between offensive play and defensive play. The post-touchdown maneuver was tried 51.4 percent of the time during that first season.
  • In 1966, No.1 Notre Dame and No. 2 Michigan State famously tied 10-10 during a game at the end of the season, which ultimately determined the champion of the 1966 season. Regarded as one of the most controversial games in college football history, Notre Dame coach Ara Parseghian decided to let the clock run from 1:10 down to zero even though Notre Dame had the ball with the game tied 10-10. After the game, Notre Dame went on to defeat Southern California to finish the season 9-0-1 and were voted champion of the NCAA by a majority of polls.
  • In the late 1990s and early 2000s, two place-kickers made history for being the first two women to score points during a college football game. Liz Heaston, for Williamette successfully kicked two extra-points for her team in 1997. Williamette was then an NAIA school but is now apart of Division III. In 2001, Ashley Martin kicked three extra points for Jacksonville State to be the first woman to score during a Division I college football game.

Spencer Parlier has worked at CNN, Heavy Inc., and WFSU-FM. His writing and production have also appeared on CNN.com, Heavy.com and Florida Public Radio. Follow him on Twitter @ParlOfWisdom.

The views on this page do not necessarily reflect the views of the NCAA or its member institutions.


Volume 21 January - October 2012

Mario Bunge: Evaluations of His Systematic Philosophy

Special Issue: History and Philosophy in Science Teaching: A European Project

Thematic Issue: Popularizing and Policing ‘Darwinism’ 1859-1900

Thematic Issue: Application of the History and Philosophy of Science in Science Teaching

Special Issue: First IHPST Latin American Regional Conference: Select Contributions

Thematic Issue: Popular Science Between News and Education: A European Perspective

Thematic Issue: The History of Experimental Science Teaching


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