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Grampus IV SP-1708 - History

Grampus IV SP-1708 - History

Grampus IV

(SP-1708-: 1. 126')

The fourth Grampus, originally Boothbay, was built by Neafie and Levy, Philadelphia, purchased from the Eastern Steamship Line of Boston, and commissioned 14 December 1917 at the Boston Navy Yard. Her name was changed to Grampus November 1920. Assigned to ferry service between the Washington Navy Yard, Indian Head, MD., and Dahlgren, VA., Grampus decommissioned 11 December 1930. Her name was struck from the Navy List on 30 December 1930 and she was later sold to the Buxton Line of Norfolk, VA.


USS Grampus (1821)

USS Grampus was a schooner in the United States Navy. She was the first U.S. Navy ship to be named for the Grampus griseus, also known as Risso's Dolphin.

Grampus was built at the Washington Navy Yard under the supervision of naval constructor William Doughty, based on a design by Henry Eckford. Her 73 ft (22 m) keel was laid down in 1820. She was launched in early August 1821. The need to suppress piracy and to maintain ships to catch slavers led to the building of five such schooners, the largest of which was Grampus. This was the first building program undertaken by the Navy since the War of 1812.


Risso's dolphins are often covered with scars. The older the dolphin, the more scratches on its body. These scars are probably caused by the teeth of other Risso's dolphins, made during fights or while playing. Squid can also leave scars, when they are caught and eaten by the animal.

Description

"Much of what we know about Risso's dolphin, also called grampus, comes from studying stranded animals. They inhabit deep tropical and warm-temperate waters worldwide, usually where the water is deeper than 180 m, making them hard to study. The remains found in stomachs show they prey upon squid exclusively. Scars are often found on their skin, which may be the results of wounds produced by squid beaks and tentacles. Some researchers believe these marks may also reflect the highly physical ways these dolphins interact - by slapping, splashing, and leaping on one another. Risso's dolphin is highly social. Hundreds of them have been seen swimming on the surface, leaping clear of the water, and ""bow-riding"" on waves, sometimes with Pacific white-sided dolphins and northern right whale dolphins."

Original description: Cuvier G., 1812. in Nouvelles annales du Muséum d?histoire naturelle, Paris, Tome 19, p. 13.

Biology

Risso's dolphin feeds largely on squid, although other cephalopods are also taken, as well as fish and crustaceans (2). Like most dolphins, this species is a highly social animal, typically occurring in groups of between 3 to 50 individuals (2), and may mix with different species of cetaceans (whales and dolphins) (8). When groups are hunting they spread out into a long line (5). This species tends to ride alongside or in the wake of boats, and young individuals often breach (clear the water), slap their flippers on the surface of the water or 'spyhop' (lift their heads clear of the water) (5). A number of sounds are produced, including characteristic 'signature whistles' (6), many of these vocalisations are important in detecting prey through echolocation (8).

Description

Risso's dolphin is a large, stocky species with a blunt head (2). They are easily recognised as they are heavily scared and become whiter with age as the number of scars increases (2). Calves are born with grey skin that turns chocolate brown as they age (5), eventually they take on the adult colouring of a grey back and white underside with darker flippers and tail (5). The scars are thought to be caused by the teeth of other Risso's dolphins, due to playing or fighting, however it is also thought that some of the scars are the result of squid bites (2). The tall, centrally positioned sickle-shaped dorsal fin is even taller and more erect in adult males than in females (7).


Service [ edit | edit source ]

On 1 April 1963, Grampus returned to Gosport after spending three weeks under the polar icecap looking for holes in the ice. During the patrol she superficially damaged her hull on the ice. During 1965 she refitted in Devonport Dockyard. ΐ]

On 11 January 1968, the French trawler Fomalhaut caught Grampus in her nets in the English Channel. Grampus surfaced and both crews spent over three hours disentangling the nets. In 1968 she was part of the First Submarine Squadron based at HMS Dolphin and in that year was present during 'Navy Days' in Portsmouth Dockyard. Α]

Grampus operated with USS Tigrone in a joint American-British oceanographic operation in the eastern Atlantic in 1972.


Contents

1949-1966 [ edit | edit source ]

With her new snorkeling equipment, which permitted her to remain submerged for periods far longer than the World War II fleet submarines, Grampus served as a prototype for the GUPPY submarines and also incorporated many features to appear later in nuclear submarines. Attached to SubDiv 61 at Norfolk, Virginia, she participated in a variety of exercises along the East Coast and in the Caribbean Sea, including torpedo and attack exercises, snorkeling tests and demonstrations, and antisubmarine training. Grampus also did a great deal of work with the early HUK (Hunter-Killer) antisubmarine patrols, now a vital part of American defenses, to whose development she greatly contributed.

From 5 January to 2 April 1955 Grampus proceeded independently to the Mediterranean Sea, where she "showed the flag" at Algiers, Naples, Barcelona, Malta, Beirut, Monaco, and Gibraltar before returning to Norfolk and her routine of exercises and tests, spaced with regular overhauls at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. During the late 1950s and early 1960s Grampus operated out of Norfolk in the North Atlantic.

Under the command of Lieutenant Commander D.A. Kilmer, Grampus sailed with Task Force "Alfa" for six weeks prior to 13 February 1964. On 3 April, she deployed with the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean Sea until 3 August.

She operated out of the Virginia Capes until entering Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in mid-April 1965 for overhaul. After refresher training and shakedown in the fall, Grampus operated along the East Coast engaging primarily in ASW exercises.

She departed Norfolk, Virginia, on 13 May 1966 for the eastern Atlantic and Northern European countries to participate in NATO ASW exercises. Back in Norfolk on 30 August, she resumed operations in the Virginia Capes area and Caribbean Sea until sailing 29 December to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for repairs in the naval shipyard. Shipshape again, she resumed operations with the Atlantic Fleet.

1967-1981 (Decommissioning and service for Brazil) [ edit | edit source ]

Grampus was decommissioned and struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 13 May 1972, and sold under the Security Assistance Program to Brazil, where she became Rio Grande do Sul (S-11). (She replaced the previous Rio Grande do Sul (S-11), ex-Sand Lance.) After six years of service, she was decommissioned on 16 November 1978 and scrapped on 18 June 1981.


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CSS Grampus , a 252-ton stern-wheel river steamer, was built in 1856 at McKeesport, Pennsylvania, for civilian employment. Taken over by the Confederate Army in early 1862, she served as a transport and gunboat on the Mississippi River. Grampus was scuttled off Island Number Ten on 7 April 1862 when that fortification surrendered. However, she was apparently raised by Union forces and was probably destroyed by fire on 11 January 1863 under the name Grampus No. 2 .

This page features our only views of CSS Grampus .

Engraving entitled: "The Confederate Gunboat, Grampus." " Under fire from the Federal Gunboats Benton, Carondelet, St. Louis, Mound City, Cincinnati, Pittsburg and Eight Mortar Boats, at foot of Island No. 8, in Mississippi River, March 5th 1862 ." "Marshall A. Miller, Commander of Grampus."

"View of Steamers Sunk by the Rebels Between Island Number Ten and New Madrid"

Line engraving, based on a sketch by Alexander Simplot, published in "Harper's Weekly", 1862, depicting ships sunk by the Confederates off their fortifications at Island Number 10, circa 7 April 1862.
As identified on the engraving, the ships are (from left to right): Champion , Yazoo , Grampus , John Simonds , Red Rover , Prince , Admiral , Ohio Belle , De Soto , Kanawha Valley , Winchester and Mars . Most of these vessels, some of which were not sunk, were later employed by the Union forces.


Risso's Dolphin : Grampus griseus

This chapter describes the characteristics, distribution, and behavior and conservation status of the Risso's dolphin, which is the fifth largest member of the family Delphinidae, with adults of both sexes reaching up to about 4 m in length. These dolphins are distributed worldwide in temperate and tropical oceans, with an apparent preference for steep shelf-edge habitats between about 400 and 1000 m deep. They are found throughout the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. No worldwide population estimates exist, although a number of regional estimates are available. They are thought to feed almost entirely on squid, and limited behavioral research suggests that they feed primarily at night. Diet may vary by age and sex. Risso's dolphins are relatively gregarious in nature, typically traveling in groups of 10–50 individuals, with the largest group observed estimated to contain over 4000 individuals. Although they occasionally bow-ride on vessels, in most cases Risso's seem indifferent to vessels or actively avoid them. Gestation has been estimated at 13–14 months and calving interval at 2.4 years. There appears to be a peak in calving seasonality during the winter months in the eastern Pacific and in the summer/fall months in the western Pacific. Age at sexual maturity is thought to be 8–10 years for females and 10–12 years for males. The oldest Risso's dolphin estimated by examining growth layer groups in the teeth was 34.5 years old.


Risso's Dolphin : Grampus griseus

This chapter describes the characteristics, distribution, and behavior and conservation status of the Risso's dolphin, which is the fifth largest member of the family Delphinidae, with adults of both sexes reaching up to about 4 m in length. These dolphins are distributed worldwide in temperate and tropical oceans, with an apparent preference for steep shelf-edge habitats between about 400 and 1000 m deep. They are found throughout the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. No worldwide population estimates exist, although a number of regional estimates are available. They are thought to feed almost entirely on squid, and limited behavioral research suggests that they feed primarily at night. Diet may vary by age and sex. Risso's dolphins are relatively gregarious in nature, typically traveling in groups of 10–50 individuals, with the largest group observed estimated to contain over 4000 individuals. Although they occasionally bow-ride on vessels, in most cases Risso's seem indifferent to vessels or actively avoid them. Gestation has been estimated at 13–14 months and calving interval at 2.4 years. There appears to be a peak in calving seasonality during the winter months in the eastern Pacific and in the summer/fall months in the western Pacific. Age at sexual maturity is thought to be 8–10 years for females and 10–12 years for males. The oldest Risso's dolphin estimated by examining growth layer groups in the teeth was 34.5 years old.


Contents

Pacific [ edit | edit source ]

After shakedown in Long Island Sound, Grampus sailed to the Caribbean Sea with Grayback (SS-208) on 8 September to conduct a modified war patrol, returning to New London, Connecticut, on 28 September. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor found Grampus undergoing post-shakedown overhaul at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, but soon ready for war on 22 December, she sailed for the Pacific, reaching Pearl Harbor on 1 February 1942, via the Panama Canal and Mare Island.

On her first war patrol, from 8 February to 4 April 1942, Grampus sank an 8636-ton tanker, the only kill of her short career, and reconnoitered Kwajalein and Wotje atolls, later the scene of bloody but successful landings. Grampus' second and third patrols were marred by a heavy number of antisubmarine patrol craft off Truk Lagoon and poor visibility as heavy rains haunted her path along the Luzon and Mindoro coasts. Both patrols terminated at Fremantle, Australia.

Taking aboard four coast watchers, Grampus sailed on 2 October 1942 for her fourth war patrol. Despite the presence of Japanese destroyers, she landed the coast watchers on Vella Lavella and Choiseul islands while conducting her patrol. This patrol, during the height of the Guadalcanal campaign, took Grampus into waters teeming with Japanese men-of-war. She sighted a total of four enemy cruisers and 79 destroyers in five different convoys. Although she conducted a series of aggressive attacks on the Japanese ships, receiving 104 depth charges for her work, Grampus was not credited with sinking any ships. On 18 October 1942 Grampus even scored a direct hit on the Yura, but the torpedo failed to explode. She returned to Australia on 23 November.

Grampus' fifth war patrol, from 14 December 1942 to 19 January 1943, took her across access lanes frequented by Japanese submarines and other ships. Air and water patrol in this area was extremely heavy and although she conducted several daring attacks on the 41 contacts she sighted, Grampus again was denied a kill.

Sinking [ edit | edit source ]

In company with Grayback, Grampus departed Brisbane on 11 February 1943, for her sixth war patrol from which she failed to return the manner of her loss still remains a mystery. Japanese seaplanes reported sinking a submarine on 18 February in Grampus' patrol area, but Grayback reported seeing Grampus in that same area 4 March. On 5 March 1943, the Japanese destroyers Minegumo and Murasame conducted an attack preceding the Battle of Blackett Strait, near Kolombangara island. A heavy oil slick was sighted there the following day, indicating that Grampus may have been lost there in a night attack or gun battle against the destroyers. The Japanese destroyers had by then already been sunk in a night action with U.S. cruisers and destroyers.

When repeated attempts failed to contact Grampus, the submarine was declared missing and presumed lost with all hands. Her name was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 21 June 1943.


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