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Upshur DD-144 - History

Upshur DD-144  - History

Upshur DD-144

Upshur(Destroyer No. 144: dp. 1,247; 1. 314'4"; b. 30'111/4";dr. 9'1" (mean); s. 34.61 k., cpl. 113; a. 4 4", 2.30-car. mg., 12 21" tt.; cl. Wickes)Upshur (Destroyer No. 144) was laid down on 19 February 1918 at Philadelphia, Pa., by William Cramp and Sons' shipyards; launched on 4 July 1918; sponsored by Mrs. Alexander Gustavus Brown, the granddaughter of Rear Admiral Upshur, and commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 23 December 1918, Comdr. William V. Tomb in command.Following shakedown and fitting out, Upshur departed Newport, R.I., on 20 May 1919, bound via the Azores for north European waters. She arrived at Devonport, England, on 16 June and shifted to Harwich two days later before subsequently calling at Heligoland, Germany; Copenhagen, Denmark, and the free city of Danzig. She eventually returned, via Harwich and Ponta Delgada, to the United States, arriving at New York City on 22 July.Assigned to the Pacific Fleet soon thereafter, Upshur transited the Panama Canal, bound for San Diego, her base of operations until the spring of the following year. During her time at San Diego the ship conducted gunnery and torpedo training and local coastal operations. In April 1920, Upshur got underway and proceeded via Honolulu, Pearl Harbor, Midway, and Guam to the Far East, arriving at Cavite, in the Philippines, on 20 May. She soon sailed for duty on the lower Yangtze River.At Yochow on 16 June, troops of warlord Chang Ching-yao murdered American missionary, William A. Reimert. At Hankow when the incident occurred, Upshur, acting under urgent orders, got underway for the trouble spot on the 22d-departing with such great haste that four of her complement (one officer and three enlisted men) were left behind. Arriving at Yochow on the 23d, Upshur sent ashore a landing party of one officer and 40 men at 1805 on 25 June to protect the American mission. Two days later-when local tensions had eased-they were reembarked.The Standard Oil Company's steamer Mei Foo arrived at Yochow on the 28th and delivered 100 bags of rice for refugees in the vicinity. Over the ensuing days, Upshur delivered that food staple to the American mission. In the meantime, the Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet, Admiral Albert Gleaves, arrived at Yochow in E:lliott (Destroyer No. 146) to observe the local situation. Eventually, the offending Chinese official in charge, Chang Ching-yao, was removed, and the Chinese foreign office, while investigating the incident, expressed its profound regrets.Upshur remained on the Yangtze until 9 July, when she resumed routine operations-target practices and torpedo drills. For her tour on the river, the destroyer received commendation in the Secretary of the Navy's annual report, noted as being "especially serviceable in establishing radio communication along the river."Upshur conducted exercises in the Philippine Islands in the winter and in Chinese waters, off Chefoo, in the summer, with more training and "showing the flag" cruises in between. During her tour in the Asiatic Fleet, Upshur was reclassified DD-144 on 17 July 1920. After completing her assignment in the Far East early in 1922, the destroyer arrived back on the west coast in the spring and was decommissioned at San Diego on 15 May 1922 and placed in reserve.Recommissioned on 2 June 1930, Lt. Comdr. Morton L. Deyo in command, Upshur operated with the Battle Fleet and Scouting Force, first on the west coast and later on the east, until decommissioned on 22 December 1936 at Philadelphia. She was berthed in the Philadelphia Navy Yard until the autumn of 1939.Soon after the outbreak of war in Poland in September 1939, President Roosevelt declared the neutrality of the United States and ordered the establishment of a Neutrality Patrol off the eastern seaboard and gulf coast on 5 September. To augment the ships first assigned to this duty, the Navy began reactivation of 77 light minelayers and destroyers. Accordingly, Upshur went back into commission at Philadelphia on 4 October a little over a month after Germany invaded Poland. Attached to the Atlantic Squadron of the United StatesFleet, Upshur interspersed her routine training evolutions-battle practices, torpedo exercises, and tactical maneuvers-with patrols safeguarding America's neutral shores along the Atlantic and gulf coasts.Upshur's routine was broken briefly in December 1939. On the 13th, the North German Lloyd Line steamship Columbus slipped out of Vera Cruz, Mexico, in an attempt to reach Germany and slip through the British blockade. She had not reckoned with the Neutrality Patrol, however, that persistently shadowed the liner from the moment she stood out of the Mexican port. Upshur participated in the tracking and reporting of the steamer, the 13th largest merchant steamship in the world. Columbus ultimately met her doom on 19 December; she scuttled when confronted by the British destroyer HMS Hyperion. American cruiser Tuscaloosa (CA-37), standing nearby, rescued Columbus' crew.The rapid fall of France in the spring of 1940 caused alarm in the western hemisphere that French possessions in the West Indies might fall into German hands. American planners quickly drew up contingency plans to take these isles by force if necessary. In the event of such an invasion, Upshur and her sisters in Destroyer Squadron 30 were slated to screen the counter battery and gunfire support group built around Texas (BB-35), Vincennes (CA-44), and Chester (CA-27). Fortunately for France and the United States, skillful diplomacy obviated such flexing of America's naval muscles; and the crisis abated by the autumn of 1940.In between the routine neutrality patrol assignments and training, Upshur was called upon to perform a special escort mission. On 23 December 1940, the heavy cruiser Tuscaloosa departed Norfolk with William D. Leahy, Ambassador to Vichy France, and his wife, embarked, bound for Lisbon, Portugal. Upshur and the new destroyer Madison (DD-425) escorted the heavy cruiser, until they were detached on Christmas Day to return to Norfolk while the cruiser proceeded on, unescorted, on her diplomatic mission.In March 1941, the Support Force was established for the United States Fleet, under the command of Rear Admiral Arthur LeRoy Bristol. Based at Narragansett Bay, this group prepared for assignment to "distant seas" and was formed around the nucleaus of Denebola (AD-12), Albemarle (AV-5), Belknap (AVD8), and George E. Badger (AVD-3). Four patrol plane squadrons and three destroyer squadrons-the last including Upshur-rounded out the Support Force.Over the ensuing months, Upshur operated alternately out of Argentia; Newport, R.I.; Philadelphia; Narragansett Bay, Boston, and Reykjavik, Iceland, after its occupation by the United States that summer. On 11 September, the destroyer departed Argentia, bound for a rendezvous with an outward-bound convoy headed for the British Isles.Five days later, a convoy of 60 merchantmen of British and Allied nationalities-class)fied as HX-150 —put to sea from Halifax Nova Scotia, escorted locally by Canadian units. On li September, about 150 miles out of Argentia, the American escort group under Capt. Deyo, which included Upshur, met up with the British convoy. The ensuing days witnessed the five American destroyers shepherding the convoy towards the "Mid-Ocean Meeting Point" (MOMP). Upshur steamed on the port side of the convoy, 500 to 2,000 yards out, searching with her sound equipment on a 30-degree sector during the day, and patrolling 500 to 1,000 yards out at night. The Americans brought the convoy safely to the MOMP, where British ships— two destroyers and four corvettes-picked up the England-bound ships. The five American destroyers then convoyed the Iceland-bound section of the convoy to Reykjavik. This convoy was the first one assisted by the United States Navy in the Battle of the Atlantic.This mission proved to be only the beginning of American escort operations prior to the formal entry of the United States into World War II, as ships of theSupport Force escorted 14 convoys between 16 September and 30 October. As the months wore on, clashes of American warships with German submarines grew in frequency and intensity. Kearny (DD-432) was damaged by a German torpedo on 17 October, and Salinas (AO-19) suffered a similar fate on the 30th. The next day, Reuben James (DD-145) was sunk by U-55~. Over the ensuing period from 1 November to 7 December 1941, Support Force destroyers conducted seven round-trip convoy missions in shepherding 14 convoys consisting of some 550 ships across the North Atlantic.Besides the ever-present danger from lurking U-boats during these missions, there always existed the difficulties posed by the weather of the North Atlantic. Biting cold winds and raging seas combined to make life miserable on board the older destroyers like Upshur. Storm damage often forced ships back into port for repairs, and heavy concentrations of ice formed by the heavy spray and cold temperatures often dangerously increased a ship's top-hamper. Damages inflicted by Neptune often changed the schedules for the escorting destroyers, giving some very little time to rest and refit in port before having to go out on another arduous convoy mission.On the other hand, the weather could also be an effective ally in that convoys were sometimes given the advantage of fogs which blotted out their presence from the prying eyes of U-boat periscopes. While sometimes giving the friendly forces more than a few anxious moments the weather also gave the enemy just as difficult a time. In the period following full-scale American entry into the war with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 and until the middle of February 1942, Support Force destroyers escorted a dozen convoys in each direction across the Atlantic—750 ships-in comparative safety.On the night of 4 February 1942, Upshur departed Londonderry, Northern Ireland, in company with Gleaves (DD-423), Dallas (DD-199), Roper (DD147), and the "Secretary"-class Coast Guard cutter Bingham. Throughout the day on the 5th, the ships hunted a U-boat whose intentions seemed to be to follow the Americans to their outbound convoy assignment. Seven times the destroyers and the Coast Guard cutter attacked the submarine, dropping 30 depth charges, but could not "kill" the elusive submersible.After rendezvousing with Convoy ON-63 on the morning of 7 February, the escorts shaped a course southwest with the 30 merchant vessels, shepherding them along in the wintry seas. Upshur's lookouts spotted a U-boat running on the surface two miles away and gave chase, but the German lookouts were alert, and the submarine submerged before Upshur could attack.For two hours, Upshur and Bingham scoured the area, dropping 15 depth charges before they returned to their stations. Upshur had no sooner returned to station when she again spotted the U-boat~,1000 yards away. Accelerating to flank speed, the flush-decker headed towards the enemy, only to have the U-boat submerge out of sight once more. Upshur fired two rounds from her forward 3 inch gun-both shells splashing around the enemy's disappearing conning tower. Gleaves soon arrived on the scene and assisted Upshur in searching for the U boat. Neither ship was able to make contact with the enemy that day nor the next, but they succeeded in preventing the German submersible from making contact with the convoy and managed to bring all of their charges safely into port.Over the ensuing two years, Upshur operated on convoy escort missions with the Atlantic Fleet. Her duties took her from the eastern seaboard of the United States to the mouth of the Mediterranean Sea, from the inhospitable climes of the North Atlantic to the tropical Caribbean. As the Allies slowly gained the upper hand in the Battle of the Atlantic, newer and more modern destroyers replaced the aging flush-deckers as front line convoy escorts. Throughout 1944, Upshur operated between Norfolk, Va., and Quonset Point, R.I., serving as plane guard and target vessel during qualification trials for aircraft carriers. During this period, she worked successively with Kasaan Bag (CVE-69)Ranger (CV-4),Mission Bay (CVE-69),Tulagi (CVE72), Tripoli (CVE-64), Wake Island (CVE-65), Prince William (CVE-31), and Solomons (CVE-67). Reclassified as a miscellaneous auxiliary, AG-103, on 3 June 1945, Upshur was plane-guarding for the new Essexclass carrier Lake Champlain (CV-39) when Japan capitulated on 15 August, ending the war in the Pacific.Decommissioned at Norfolk, Va., on 2 November 1946, Upshur was struck from the Navy list on 11 November; was sold to the Northern Metals Co. of Philadelphia on 26 September 1947; and was scrapped by April 1948.


Upshur DD-144 - History

USS Upshur , a 1090-ton Wickes class destroyer built at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was commissioned in December 1918. She operated in the western Atlantic for the next several months, and in May 1919 was stationed along the route taken by the Navy's "NC" flying boats during their attempt to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. Upshur spent the next two months in northern European waters, then was transferred to the Pacific Coast. Designated DD-144 in July 1920, the destroyer spent most of that year and all of 1921 as a unit of the Asiatic Fleet. She was decommissioned in May 1922, soon after returning to the U.S., and laid up at San Diego, California.

Recommissioned in June 1930, Upshur served in both the Pacific and the Atlantic before again being laid up in December 1936, this time at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The outbreak of World War II in Europe called her back to active duty in October 1939. As a unit of the Neutrality Patrol, she operated in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, later moving to the north Atlantic where she began convoy escort missions in September 1941. This work became increasingly intense during the next three months, as relations between the United States and Hitler's Germany rapidly deteriorated into a state of undeclared war.

Upshur 's Atlantic convoy duties continued for more than two years after the United States formally entered the conflict in December 1941. With newer escorts available by 1944, she was reassigned to provide plane guard and target services for new aircraft carriers. Redesignated AG-103 in June 1945, shortly before the end of the war, Upshur was decommissioned in early November 1945 and soon stricken from the list of Naval vessels. She was sold for scrapping in September 1947.

This page features all the views we have concerning USS Upshur (Destroyer # 144, later DD-144 and AG-103).

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the digital images presented here, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

In Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, circa 1931-1932.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 80KB 740 x 600 pixels

In Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, circa 1931.
The heavy cruiser in the background is one of the flagship version of the Northampton class, either Chicago (CA-29), Houston (CA-30) or Augusta (CA-31). The boat in the far right foreground is from USS Northampton (CA-26).

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 100KB 740 x 600 pixels

Photographed during the 1930s.

Courtesy of Donald M. McPherson, 1969.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 47KB 740 x 500 pixels

USS Upshur (DD-144)
and
USS Tarbell (DD-142)

Tied up in port, during the later 1930s.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 83KB 600 x 765 pixels

Photographed circa 1940-1941.
Note the degaussing cables installed externally on her hull, just below the main deck level.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 65KB 740 x 610 pixels

Officers and Crew pose beside their ship, circa late 1918.
Note the liferaft alongside Upshur 's forward superstructure, and the 3"/23 anti-aircraft gun alongside her forward smokestack.

Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation, 1972.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 118KB 740 x 450 pixels

Trans-Atlantic Flight of the "NC" Aircraft, May 1919

Diagram of the third leg of the flight of the NC-1, NC-3 and NC-4 aircraft, between Trepassy Bay, Newfoundland, and the Azores, during 16 May to 20 May 1919. It also shows the positions of the 21 U.S. Navy destroyers stationed along the way.
Printed by the Matthews-Northrup Works, Buffalo, New York.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 109KB 900 x 605 pixels

Thirteenth Destroyer Division

Officers & Crews on board their ships in San Diego Harbor, California, 6 December 1919. Signalmen are sending semaphore messages from atop the ships' bridges.
Panoramic photograph by O.A. Tunnell, Masonic Temple Building, San Diego.
Ships present are (from left to right): Upshur (Destroyer # 144), Greer (Destroyer # 145), Elliot (Destroyer # 146), Aaron Ward (Destroyer # 132), Buchanan (Destroyer # 131) and Philip (Destroyer # 76).

Donation of Captain W.D. Puleston, USN (Retired), 1965.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 107KB 1200 x 275 pixels

Destroyers laid up at San Diego, California

Part of the two fleets of 150 World War I destroyers which were laid up during the 1920s at San Diego and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
This view, dated 3 October 1928, was taken from the foremast "crow's nest" of one of the destroyers, shows USS Tattnall (DD-125) at the head of the nest in the center, and USS Upshur (DD-144) at the head of the nest in the right distance.
Note the caps placed over these ships' smokestacks.

Courtesy of the San Francisco Maritime Museum, San Francisco, California, 1969.

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 123KB 740 x 620 pixels

"Red Lead Row", San Diego Destroyer Base, California

Photographed at the end of 1922, with at least 65 destroyers tied up there. Many of the ships present are identified in Photo # NH 42539 (complete caption).

U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.

Online Image: 159KB 740 x 515 pixels

In addition to the views referenced above, the National Archives appears to hold at least one other photograph of USS Upshur (DD-144). The following listing describes this image:

The image listed below is NOT in the Naval Historical Center's collections.
DO NOT try to obtain it using the procedures described in our page "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions".


Reproductions of this image should be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system for pictures not held by the Naval Historical Center.


Right after joining the Convoy ON-63 in September 1941, the Upshur traveled south with over 40 commercial ships, escorting the ships through the treacherous submarine filled seas. The USS Upshur's scouts identified a German submarine, sailing on the top of the water, approximately three miles from the group of commercial ships. The USS Upshur began to pursue the submarine, but the German crew on board the submarine had spotted the warship and the U-boat dived and escaped.

The USS Upshur and USS Ingham patrolled the Atlantic region, dispersing 30 explosive charges prior to turning back and rejoining the convoy. The USS Upshur once again spotted the German submarine a mere thousand yards away from the commercial ships. Snapping to maximum speed, the ship advanced within firing range of the elusive submarine, the ship unleashed a barrage of gunfire but the submarine once again was able to submerge and move away without being damaged. Fortunately, the merchant ships were able to deliver their goods to several European nations in the region. During the next twenty months, the Upshur performed her duties and escorted several merchant ships through the war torn Atlantic. She was also dispatched as far away as the Mediterranean Sea and served as a lead escort ship involving convoys in the Caribbean Sea. The Upshur continued to perform duties state side in Virginia and Rhode Island, operating as an aircraft escort ship and as used as a target ship during training missions for aircraft carriers in the region. The ship was reclassified as AG-103 and was escorting aircraft for USS Lake Champlain when the Japanese surrendered, ending the war. The ship was sold in 1947 to a recycling company in Philadelphia and scrapped one year later. Asbestos in Navy Ships

Although an essential component of the naval fleet, especially during World War II, naval destroyers also pose a lasting health risk to soldiers serving on them. Unfortunately, products containing asbestos were common, especially on older ships, because of the material’s high resistance to heat and fire. Despite its value as an insulator, asbestos fiber intake can lead to several serious health consequences, including mesothelioma, a devastating cancer without cure. Current and former military personnel who came into contact with these ships should seek immediate medical attention in order to detect possible health consequences associated with asbestos exposure.


Upshur DD-144 - History

Due to the Coronavirus, the 2020 reunion was canceled and has been rescheduled for October 25-29, 2021, in Myrtle Beach. Please mark your calendars and plan to attend the final reunion.

Read the message from President Paul Ratcliffe
The Association will be ceasing activity after the final reunion, to be held October 25-29, 2021, in Myrtle Beach, SC.

The Association will be ceasing activity after the final reunion to be held in Myrtle Beach, SC in October, 2021.

Welcome to the website of the USS Bristol DD857. This site was created to share its history with shipmates and others who might be interested.

The USS Bristol Veterans Association was formed in 1998 by several men who had served on the Bristol. Their goal was to bring together shipmates who had served aboard her from commissioning in 1945 until decommissioning in 1969.

During the 22-year life of the Association, the membership grew from 124 in 1998 to a peak of 291 in 2007 to 130 today. The age of the membership today runs from 69 to 99. There have been seven Presidents including our current President Paul Ratcliffe who has served since 2013.

The annual reunions have been very happy occasions. They brought together shipmates who had not seen each other in 40 or more years and allowed them to connect with others that served before or after them. We will miss the camaraderie.

We invite you to spend some time reviewing our website and the wealth of information and history it contains. The following highlights some of the content under the various tabs.

HISTORY

There are several sections here but of particular interest would be the “Photo Album” tab which will bring you to photos grouped by years- 1945-49, 1950 -54, 1955 -1959 and the 1960’s. From the occupation of Japan in 1945 to the crossing of the equator, to the many cruises the ship took during the next 20 years.

IN MEMORIUM

This section honors all shipmates who we know have passed away since the Association was first formed in 1998. If you are aware of any shipmates who have passed away and are not listed please let us know by using the “Contact Us” tab.

MEMBERS

All current members of the association are listed. The members are listed by name, and years of service. The page is designed to allow you to view the names in alphabetical order or by years of service. Just click on either “Sort by name” or “Sort by years of service”

NEWSLETTERS

Quarterly newsletters since Summer 2019 are stored here.

REUNIONS

The annual reunion is the highlight of the year. The shipmates gather to enjoy themselves for several days remembering the highlights of their time aboard the Bristol. Old friendships are renewed and new ones are made. The SEA STORIES get more exciting as the years go on. Our own Duane Haugan has been producing the reunion book by himself for many years now.

To see a list of recent postings and updates click here: What's New

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© Copyright 2021 by Fast Web Now.


File:USS Upshur (DD-144) underway, circa 1940-1941 (NH 99132).jpg

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Contents

1919–1922

Following shakedown and fitting out, Upshur departed Newport, Rhode Island, on 20 May 1919, bound via the Azores for north European waters. She arrived at Devonport, England, on 16 June and shifted to Harwich two days later before subsequently calling at Heligoland, Germany Copenhagen, Denmark and the free city of Danzig. She eventually returned, via Harwich and Ponta Delgada, to the United States, arriving at New York City on 22 July.

Assigned to the Pacific Fleet soon thereafter, Upshur transited the Panama Canal, bound for San Diego, her base of operations until the spring of the following year. During her time at San Diego, the ship conducted gunnery and torpedo training and local coastal operations. In April 1920, Upshur got underway and proceeded via Honolulu, Pearl Harbor, Midway, and Guam to the Far East, arriving at Cavite, in the Philippines, on 20 May. She soon sailed for duty on the lower Yangtze River as part of the Yangtze River Patrol.

At Yochow on 16 June, troops of warlord Chang Ching-yao executed American missionary, William A. Reimert. At Hankow when the incident occurred, Upshur, acting under urgent orders, got underway for the trouble spot on the 22d—departing with such great haste that four of her complement (one officer and three enlisted men) were left behind. Arriving at Yochow on the 23d, Upshur sent ashore a landing party of one officer and 40 men at 1805 on 25 June to protect the American mission. Two days later—when local tensions had eased—they were reembarked.

The Standard Oil Company's steamer Mei Foo arrived at Yochow on the 28th and delivered 100 bags of rice for refugees in the vicinity. Over the ensuing days, Upshur delivered that food staple to the American mission. In the meantime, the Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet, Admiral Albert Cleaves, arrived at Yochow in Elliot to observe the local situation. Eventually, the offending Chinese official in charge, Chang Ching-yao, was removed, and the Chinese foreign office, while investigating the incident, expressed its profound regrets.

Upshur remained on the Yangtze until 9 July, when she resumed routine operations—target practices and torpedo drills. For her tour on the river, the destroyer received commendation in the Secretary of the Navy's annual report, noted as being "especially serviceable in establishing radio communication along the river."

Upshur conducted exercises in the Philippine Islands in the winter and in Chinese waters, off Chefoo, in the summer, with more training and "showing the flag" cruises in between. During her tour in the Asiatic Fleet, Upshur was reclassified DD-144 on 17 July 1920. After completing her assignment in the Far East early in 1922, the destroyer arrived back on the west coast in the spring and was decommissioned at San Diego on 15 May 1922 and placed in reserve.

1923–1941

Recommissioned on 2 June 1930, Lieutenant Commander Morton L. Deyo in command, Upshur operated with the Battle Fleet and Scouting Force, first on the west coast and later on the east, until decommissioned on 22 December 1936 at Philadelphia. She was berthed in the Philadelphia Navy Yard until the autumn of 1939.

Soon after the outbreak of war in Poland in September 1939, President Roosevelt declared the neutrality of the United States and ordered the establishment of a Neutrality Patrol off the eastern seaboard and gulf coast on 5 September. To augment the ships first assigned to this duty, the Navy began reactivation of 77 light minelayers and destroyers. Accordingly, Upshur went back into commission at Philadelphia on 4 October, a little over a month after Germany invaded Poland. Attached to the Atlantic Squadron of the United States Fleet, Upshur interspersed her routine training evolutions—battle practices, torpedo exercises, and tactical maneuvers—with patrols safeguarding America's neutral shores along the Atlantic and gulf coasts.

Upshur ' s routine was broken briefly in December 1939. On the 13th, the North German Lloyd Line steamship Columbus slipped out of Veracruz, Mexico, in an attempt to reach Germany and slip through the British blockade. She had not reckoned with the Neutrality Patrol, however, that persistently shadowed the liner from the moment she stood out of the Mexican port. Upshur participated in the tracking and reporting of the steamer, the 13th largest merchant steamship in the world. Columbus ultimately met her doom on 19 December she was scuttled when confronted by British destroyer Hyperion. Cruiser Tuscaloosa, standing nearby, rescued the Columbus crew.

The rapid fall of France in the spring of 1940 caused alarm in the western hemisphere that French possessions in the West Indies might fall into German hands. American planners drew up contingency plans to take these isles by force if necessary. In the event of such an invasion, Upshur and her sisters in Destroyer Squadron 30 were slated to screen the counter-battery and gunfire support group built around Texas, Vincennes, and Chester. The crisis abated by the autumn of 1940.

In between the routine neutrality patrol assignments and training, Upshur was called upon to perform a special escort mission. On 23 December 1940, the heavy cruiser Tuscaloosa departed Norfolk with William D. Leahy, Ambassador to Vichy France, and his wife, embarked, bound for Lisbon, Portugal. Upshur and Madison escorted the heavy cruiser, until they were detached on Christmas Day to return to Norfolk while the cruiser proceeded on, unescorted, on her diplomatic mission.

In March 1941, the Support Force was established for the United States Fleet, under the command of Rear Admiral Arthur LeRoy Bristol. Based at Narragansett Bay, this group prepared for assignment to "distant seas" and was formed around Denebola, Albemarle, Belknap, and George E. Badger. Four patrol plane squadrons and three destroyer squadrons—the last including Upshur—rounded out the Support Force.

Over the ensuing months, Upshur operated alternately out of NS Argentia, Newfoundland Newport, Rhode Island Philadelphia Narragansett Bay Boston and Reykjavík, Iceland, after its occupation by the United States that summer. On 11 September, the destroyer departed Argentia, bound for a rendezvous with an outward-bound convoy headed for the British Isles.

Five days later, a convoy of 50 merchantmen of British and Allied nationalities—classified as HX-150 —put to sea from Halifax (former city), Nova Scotia, escorted locally by Canadian units. On 17 September, about 150 miles (240 km) out of Argentia, the American escort group under Capt. Morton L. Deyo, which included Upshur, met up with the British convoy. The ensuing days witnessed the five American destroyers shepherding the convoy towards the "Mid-Ocean Meeting Point" (MOMP). Upshur steamed on the port side of the convoy, 500 to 2,000 yards (500 to 2,000 m) out, searching with her sound equipment on a 30 degree sector during the day, and patrolling 500 to 1,000 yards (500 to 1,000 m) out at night. The Americans brought the convoy safely to the MOMP, where British ships— two destroyers and four corvettes—picked up the England-bound ships. The five American destroyers then convoyed the Iceland-bound section of the convoy to Reykjavík. This convoy was the first one assisted by the United States Navy in the Battle of the Atlantic.

This mission proved to be only the beginning of American escort operations prior to the formal entry of the United States into World War II, as ships of the Support Force escorted 14 convoys between 16 September and 30 October. As the months wore on, clashes of American warships with German submarines grew in frequency and intensity. Kearny was damaged by a German torpedo on 17 October, and Salinas suffered a similar fate on the 30th. The next day, Reuben James was sunk by Unterseeboot 552. Over the ensuing period from 1 November to 7 December 1941, Support Force destroyers conducted seven round-trip convoy missions in shepherding 14 convoys consisting of some 550 ships across the North Atlantic.

World War II

In the period following full-scale American entry into the war with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 and until the middle of February 1942, Support Force destroyers escorted a dozen convoys in each direction across the Atlantic—750 ships—in comparative safety.

On the night of 4 February 1942, Upshur departed Londonderry Port, Northern Ireland, in company with Gleaves, Dallas, Roper, and the "Secretary"-class Coast Guard cutter Ingham. Throughout the day on the 5th, the ships hunted a U-boat whose intentions seemed to be to follow the Americans to their outbound convoy assignment. Seven times the destroyers and the Coast Guard cutter attacked the submarine, dropping 30 depth charges, but could not "kill" the elusive submersible.

After rendezvousing with Convoy ON-63 on the morning of 7 February, the escorts shaped a course southwest with the 30 merchant vessels, shepherding them along in the wintry seas. Upshur's lookouts spotted a U-boat running on the surface two miles (3 km) away and gave chase, but the German lookouts were alert, and the submarine submerged before Upshur could attack.

For two hours, Upshur and Ingham scoured the area, dropping 15 depth charges before they returned to their stations. Upshur had no sooner returned to station when she again spotted the U-boat 8,000 yards (7.3 km) away. Accelerating to flank speed, the flush-decker headed towards the enemy, only to have the U-boat submerge out of sight once more. Upshur fired two rounds from her forward 3 inches (76 mm) gun—both shells splashing around the enemy's disappearing conning tower. Gleaves soon arrived on the scene and assisted Upshur in searching for the U-boat. Neither ship was able to make contact with the enemy that day nor the next, but they succeeded in preventing the German submersible from making contact with the convoy and managed to bring all of their charges safely into port.

Over the ensuing two years, Upshur operated on convoy escort missions with the Atlantic Fleet. Her duties took her from the eastern seaboard of the United States to the mouth of the Mediterranean Sea, from the inhospitable climes of the North Atlantic to the tropical Caribbean.


Upshur DD-144 - History

In the Pacific, the first destroyers to carry echo-ranging equipment were DesDiv 19&rsquos Rathburne, Waters, Talbot and Dent while graduates of the first sonar class at New London were assigned to destroyers Du Pont, Bernadou, Ellis and Cole.

Memorial Wall plaque
National Museum of the Pacific War,
Fredericksburg, Texas.

In the spring of 1941, Atlantic Fleet (DesLant) destroyers were engaged in &ldquoshort-of-war&rdquo operations. On 1 March, in preparing for convoy escort duties, the Navy organized a Northeastern Escort Support Force of destroyers, aircraft and support vessels. Three squadrons of destroyers were assigned: DesRon 7, made up entirely of Benson- and Gleaves-class destroyers, and DesRons 30 and 31, all flush deckers.

On 27 May, the same day that British forces sank battleship Bismarck, President Roosevelt declared an &ldquoUnlimited National Emergency&rdquo and extended the patrol into North and South Atlantic waters. On 15 July, bleak Argentia, Newfoundland was commissioned as base for the Support Force, from which patrols ranged as far east as 30 W.

On 1 July, the first American Naval Task Force organized for foreign service stood out from Argentia, escorting Marines to relieve the British garrison in Iceland. Leading the way in the outer screen were DesDiv 60&rsquos Ellis, Bernadou, Upshur and Lea, with Sims-class Buck.

Following the United States&rsquo entry into World War II at the end of the year, DesRon 30 destroyers continued operations in the Atlantic. Later in the year, Bernadou, Cole and Dallas were modified for special operations during the invasion of North Africa in November 1942. All three survived, and received the Presidential Unit Citation for their actions.


Education & Transition Newsletter

However, because the DD 214 has become a touchstone in proving one’s service record, it ballooned to include not only key information like years of service, career field and rank, but awards, education, deployments and units of assignment.

The form itself is an amalgamation of more than 30 bits of information, all pulled from a variety of personnel records, transcripts and other documents that originate from multiple offices and have to be condensed into databases from each service’s human resources directorate and then hand filled-in ― and in many cases, corrected ― on a submission for a DD 214.

In 2015, when the department was about a decade into its ongoing efforts to digitize as many paper processes as possible, DoD began sending electronic service information to the Veterans Affairs Department and the Labor Department ― two key stops on a veteran’s journey back to civilian life, both paying out post-discharge benefits.

But the full gamut of information available was never necessary to send to them, according to an assistant director of officer and enlisted personnel management, so they got a truncated version with all of the need-to-knows, like rank, years of service and so on.

“If VA has everything that they need on you to adjudicate your benefits, then what do you really need to be bringing them on a piece of paper?” Kent Bauer said.

Perhaps, he added, a hard copy “certificate of release or discharge” could be an abbreviated version, with just the information a veteran would need to prove past service, rather than a detailed history of it.

“Ultimately, I’d love to have this down to something that is really useful and succinct for the member,” Bauer said.

But at the same time, that complete list of information could be online, where a veteran could log in to view and it send or download it if there were ever questions about past assignments, deployments or awards.

There are privacy concerns about having all of that data in a centralized location online, just as there are about having hard copy forms floating around.

“We want to understand what the impacts would be, with information that we have and the ability to dispense it electronically, against the requirement to give people this release certificate and to protect their privacy,” Mulcahey said.

The new DD 214 process could only apply to service members who are not yet separated. Current veterans will keep their existing documentation.

So in 2017, DoD asked Rand to study the idea, and they published their results in May.

One of their top findings, according to the report, is that DoD needs new policies and data management processes to make sure the information on a DD 214 is complete and accurate.

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New report looks at how quickly reserve forces can be ready to go.

“Policies are also needed to determine who can change inaccurate data,” the report added. “Interviewees reported that the [Defense Manpower Data Center] will often change DD Form 214 data without relaying those changes back to the services, which has created problems with veterans seeking certain benefits. A policy that requires all data changes to be made at the service level could improve data accuracy.”

Overall, RAND recommended using that feedback to modify the form and update how it’s compiled, while also creating detailed training on the new products, with a phased approach to implementation.

The next step, Mulcahey said, is taking those recommendations and running with them.

The department is looking at about three to five years to get the new DD 214 fully online, Bauer said, which dovetails with the services’ individual efforts to create integrated pay and personnel systems, where something like this form could be accessed in the future.

About Meghann Myers

Meghann Myers is the Pentagon bureau chief at Military Times. She covers operations, policy, personnel, leadership and other issues affecting service members.


Upshur County

Upshur County is in northeastern Texas. The center of the county lies at 32°44' north latitude and 94°54' west longitude. Gilmer, the seat of government, is near the center of the county, twenty-three miles northwest of Longview. The county was named for Abel Parker Upshur, the secretary of state under President John Tyler. Upshur County encompasses 587 square miles of land that slopes gradually from northwest to southeast, with altitudes that range from 225 to 685 feet above sea level. It is in the Piney Woods vegetation region and is covered by grasslands loblolly, shortleaf, longleaf, and slash pines and hardwoods such as oak, hickory, and maple. Generally sandy, acidic, light-colored surface soils cover deep reddish, mottled subsoils. Upshur County straddles both of the major drainage systems of Texas. The northern portion drains into the Mississippi River via Little and Big Cypress creeks, while the waters of the southern portions flow to the Gulf of Mexico by means of the Sabine River, which forms the southwestern border of the county. The county has a subtropical humid climate and an average annual rainfall of 45.74 inches. Temperatures range from an average minimum of 37° F in January to an average maximum of 96° in July the average growing season lasts 245 days. Prehistoric Upshur County was almost entirely forested with a blend of pine, maple, sweet and black gums, hickory, birch, ash, and many kinds of oaks, such as are found in the mixed deciduous-pine forests throughout the Eastern Woodlands region. The lumber industry has been a major operation from the early days of settlement, and none of the area's virgin forest now exists. In the 1980s more than half the county was forested. While the local flora and fauna generally belong to the mixtures common to the Mississippi Valley and the Eastern Woodlands, during the drought of the 1950s road runners, armadillos, and other species from West Texas migrated into the county and have since remained. Mineral resources include oil, natural gas, lignite, and industrial sand.

Artifacts dating from the Paleo-Indian period have been found in Upshur County, indicating that humans have lived in the area for perhaps 10,000 to 12,000 years. Caddoan Indian groups lived in the region during the Late Prehistoric period (1,150 to 250 years ago), but by the 1690s most of the Caddoans had disappeared, probably the victims of disease epidemics. By the 1820s and 1830s Cherokees had crossed into the area as they traveled from Oklahoma toward Nacogdoches using the route called the Cherokee Trace. By 1839, when the Cherokees were expelled from Texas, the area that is now Upshur County was at the intersection of two early immigration routes: the Cherokee Trace and the Jefferson-Dallas Road, which ran across the northern portion of the area. The first settler within the limits of modern Upshur County was probably Isaac Moody, who settled on the Cherokee Trace near West Mountain in 1836. The area that is now Upshur County was originally part of Nacogdoches County and later was incorporated into Harrison County. On April 27, 1846, after Texas was admitted to the Union, the first legislature of the state of Texas established Upshur County at that time the county included the area of present Camp County and part of modern Gregg County. On May 1, 1848, the county's voters chose the location for Gilmer, the county seat, and in August the sale of blocks and lots in the new town began. Some of the earliest residents had been participants in the Regulator-Moderator War. John Hamilton McNairy, for example, signed the treaty that ended the war as a representative of the Regulators in 1847 he bought land near Coffeeville and moved to Upshur County. McNairy was elected the first representative from the new county to the Texas legislature. Analysis of the 1850 and 1860 United States Census returns demonstrates that almost equal numbers of Tennesseans and Alabamans moved to the county during its early period. Planters from the Deep South tended to concentrate in the eastern half of the county, using their slaves to open up large tracts of land and to produce cotton. Meanwhile, farmers from the upper south who owned no slaves tended to settle in the western section of the county they operated smaller, self-sustaining family farms and often lived in log cabins. One of the oldest churches in the county, the Enon Baptist Church of the Missionary Baptist Association, was organized on May 13, 1848 in 1849 the Hopewell Methodist Church organized and constructed its first building. Meanwhile other communities had begun to grow, including Ashland, Lafayette, and Shady Grove. By 1850 there were 3,934 people, including 682 slaves, living in Upshur County. According to the agricultural census for that year, local farmers produced 31,000 bushels of corn, 673 400-pound bales of cotton, and 1,061 pounds of tobacco, along with smaller amounts of wheat, rice, and oats. As the county grew and prospered, new social institutions evolved, and by the mid-1850s schools such as the Gilmer Masonic Female Institute, the Murray Institute, and the Gilmer Male Academy had been established. By 1860 the population had increased to 10,645, including 3,794 slaves. That year 404,000 bushels of corn and 8,000 bales of cotton were produced, and 11,000 cattle were also reported in the area. Lumbering was another important part of the local economy, and by the beginning of the Civil War there were ten to twelve water-powered lumber mills operating in the county.

During the Civil War hat and leather factories in Gilmer made clothing for the Confederacy, and new Confederate recruits were trained at Camp Tally, near Coffeeville. Many local men enlisted to support the Confederate cause, and the resultant manpower drain and other disruptions related to the war caused a decline in agricultural production. According to one account about half of the men from the county who left to join Confederate forces during the Civil War never returned those who did found a different county than they remembered. After the war the emancipation of the many slaves in the area made it difficult for many local planters to continue operations, and a number of plantations were abandoned or divided most ex-slaves became sharecroppers, though some acquired land of their own. Production of corn and cotton dropped significantly during and just after the war and remained below prewar levels as late as 1870, when 7,362 bales of cotton were produced in the area. Nevertheless, the population increased somewhat during the 1860s by 1870 there were 12,695 people, including 4,867 Blacks. Blacks briefly held a number of political offices in the county after the Civil War, but by the late 1860s the White majority was again firmly in control, partly because the Ku Klux Klan intimidated Black leaders. Meshack Roberts, for example, moved from Upshur County to Marshall after a Klan beating in 1867 (see RECONSTRUCTION). Upshur County's economy began to develop more rapidly during the 1870s, especially after railroads tied the region to national markets and encouraged more immigration into the area. On April 7, 1870, O. H. Methvin, Sr., a citizen of the county since at least 1846, sold 100 acres to the Southern Pacific Railroad, which was then building through the county, and in November 1871 the plan for the town of Longview (then in the southeastern corner of Upshur County) was filed. In 1877 the rail link known as the Tyler Tap was built from Tyler to Big Sandy by 1880 the line had become part of the Texas and St. Louis Railway (also known as the Cotton Belt Route) and had been extended to Gilmer and Mount Pleasant. Meanwhile, the railroad construction of the early 1870s had led to a population boom in the southeastern parts of Upshur County, which led to the division of the county. In June 1873 the Texas legislature carved Gregg County out of southern Upshur and northern Rusk counties, and in April 1874 they formed Camp County by lopping off the northern section of Upshur County below the bend in Big Cypress Creek. On January 1, 1877, a newspaper, the Upshur County Democrat, began publication. Although other newspapers had existed briefly in the Gilmer area, this newspaper was the first to become firmly established.

The economy continued to grow during most of the late nineteenth century, as cotton production spread and logging operations intensified. In 1880 the United States census found 10,226 people, including 3,381 Blacks, in Upshur County. The drop in population was caused by the earlier division of the county. The agricultural census for Upshur County that year reported 1,334 farms encompassing more than 211,000 acres and including 59,000 "improved" acres. Local farmers planted 21,000 acres in corn and 19,000 acres in cotton that year. Meanwhile, the lumber industry was also growing, and by 1882 there were eighteen sawmills and many shingle mills in the county. Cotton culture spread to 27,000 acres by 1890 and to 42,000 acres by 1900 during the 1890s yams also began to be an important cash crop for some of the area's farmers. The number of farms in the county increased to 1,763 by 1890 and to 2,711 by 1900. While the county's Black population increased during this period, the number of Whites grew even more quickly, and by 1900 there were 15,266 people, including 4,957 Blacks, living in Upshur County. Immigration to the area by members of the Church of Latter Day Saints helped to diversify the county's population. In the fall of 1897 John and Jim Edgar and their families rode into western Upshur County from Mesa, Arizona. The Edgar brothers bought several square miles of land and laid out the new town of Kelsey, one of the first Mormon communities in the South. The Edgars were rapidly followed by other Mormons, who settled in the neighborhood. In the early twentieth century new railways were built into the county, opening additional areas to development. In 1901 the Texas Southern began to build through the area, and by 1902 it passed through Gilmer to connect Marshall and Winnsboro. After 1909 the line was acquired by the Marshall and East Texas Railroad, dubbed the "Misery and Eternal Torment" line by local wags. The railroad opened the virgin forests in the western part of the county to lumbering operations, and from 1907 to 1917 the county experienced a lumbering boom, especially around Rhonesboro and Rosewood. The last of the virgin forests were cut down during this period. Meanwhile, the Port Bolivar and Iron Ore Railroad, built in 1910, ran north from Longview to open iron deposits in the northeastern part of the county, leading to the establishment of Ore City and the demise of Coffeeville. Cotton cultivation continued to spread. Almost 44,000 acres in Upshur County were planted in cotton in 1910 and 71,000 acres by 1920. Meanwhile, the number of farms in the county rose to 3,313 by 1910 and to 3,690 by 1920. The spread of cotton cultivation, combined with the logging boom, led to a marked increase in the population, and the number of Whites in the Upshur County continued to increase more rapidly than the Black population. The census reported 19,960 people in 1910 and 22,297 (including 6,234 Blacks) by 1920. At least two lynchings of Black men took place during the 1910s.

Upshur County's economy suffered during the 1920s. As the forest areas played out, the Marshall and East Texas Railroad abandoned its tracks in 1923, leaving some towns isolated. Agricultural production also began to decline during this period. Cotton farming continued to expand into the early 1920s, but then fell off due to soil depletion and other problems. During the early 1920s the county's yam fields became infested with sweet potato weevils from 1924 to 1935 the county's entire production was quarantined. One indicator of economic stress, the number of tenant farmers, rose by 30 percent during the 1920s, and by 1930 2,546 of the county's 4,230 farms were operated by tenants. Upshur County's population declined during the decade, dropping to 22,297 by 1930. Among those who left in the 1920s were gospel music singers Virgil Stamps and Frank Stamps. The Stamps brothers had founded the Stamps Music Company (see STAMPS-BAXTER MUSIC AND PRINTING COMPANY) in Jacksonville in 1924 to publish their music, but in 1928 they moved their company to Dallas. Local cotton farmers encountered even greater hardships during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Low prices, federal crop restrictions, and other problems led to severe reductions in cotton production, and by 1940 only 32,000 acres were planted in the fiber. Hundreds of farmers left the land. Between 1930 and 1940 the number of farms dropped by 20 percent, and by 1940 only 3,412 remained. One bright moment for the farmers occurred in 1935, when the yam quarantine was lifted. In celebration, locals organized the East Texas Yamboree, a fall festival with parades, music, and various contests. The county's agricultural difficulties during the depression were offset to some extent by the discovery of oil in the county. On April 26, 1931, the Mudge Oil Company's J. D. Richardson well No. 1 struck oil, demonstrating that the northern limits of the East Texas oilfield extended into Upshur County. By the end of May twelve wells were in production. Thousands of people moved to the area in search of jobs and other opportunities. In 1938 more than 12,366,000 barrels of oil were produced. In addition to providing jobs and stimulating business, the oil boom provided new revenue to the county by the end of 1937, for example, oil money had helped the county to construct a new white brick courthouse. New Deal programs initiated during the depression also helped to change the way people lived. In July 1938 the Upshur Rural Electric Cooperative turned on the lights for its first 139 members. Primarily because of the oil boom Upshur County's population rose significantly during the 1930s to reach 26,178 by 1940. Petroleum remained an important part of the economy for many years, but production declined during and after the 1940s, dropping to just over 9,000,000 barrels in 1944, to about 6,074,000 barrels in 1948, and to 2,971,000 barrels in 1956. Meanwhile cotton production continued to decline, and farm consolidation and mechanization forced many of the rural inhabitants to search for jobs in metropolitan areas. As a result the population declined for two decades after World War II, dropping to 20,822 by 1950 and to 19,793 by 1960.

After the depletion of the soil by a century of planting cotton and corn, the residents began reforestation of the county after World War II about a million pine seedlings had been planted by the early 1980s, and pine seedlings of the reforestation gradually reached cutting size, first as pulp wood and then as timber. Many worn-out cotton fields became improved pastures, and beef and dairy production increased. In addition, local businessmen began to succeed in their search to diversify the economy. An electrical conduit and fittings plant joined the pottery and the lumber mill in hiring local people some people remained in the county and commuted to jobs in adjoining counties. Oil wells in the southern part of the county began to play out, but in 1964 the discovery of gas near Diana in the Cotton Valley formation added another dimension to the economy. Another postwar trend began in the 1960s, when urban dwellers from other counties began buying second homes in Upshur County and moving there after their retirement. As a result, the population grew to 20,796 by 1970, and by 1980 there were 28,595 people living there. In national elections the voters of Upshur County supported the Democratic candidates in virtually every presidential election between 1880 and 1964 the only exception occurred in 1956. In 1968 the voters supported George Wallace, the candidate of the American Independent Party. The county voted Republican in 1972, 1984, and 1988, and Democratic in 1976, 1980, and 1992. In 1982 almost 24,515,000,000 cubic feet of gas-well gas and 753,000 barrels of crude oil were produced. In the late 1980s, 4,395 of the Upshur County's estimated 32,700 residents were employed in the county, and there were 403 businesses. An additional 13,144 persons lived in the county and commuted to adjoining counties to work. At that time most of the county's $40,000,000 average annual agricultural income was derived from beef and dairy cattle, hogs, and poultry production the county is a leading producer of broilers and dairy products. Peaches, vegetable crops, and hay are the principal crops. Only two sawmills and no cotton gins were operating in Upshur County no commercial cotton producers remained, and most of the corn grown in the county was used for domestic purposes. The principal sawmill produced lumber, treated wood products, and wood chips. With the return of the forest cover, the number of game animals had increased deer hunting had revived in the area, and abundant cover had grown for squirrels, quail, and dove. By 2014 Upshur County's population had grown to 40,354. About 81.1 percent were Anglo, 8.7 percent Hispanic, and 7.4 percent Hispanic. Communities include Gilmer (population, 5,127) the county seat Big Sandy (1,359) East Mountain (804) Gladewater (2,447 in Upshur County, mostly in Gregg County) Ore City (1,160) and Union Grove (365). The International Possum Museum opened in Rhonesboro in the 1980s, and each year on the fourth Saturday in October the museum is "re-opened," and a Possum Queen is crowned with a crown of persimmons. Following the tradition begun in 1935, the East Texas Yamboree is held in Gilmer every October. Activities blend original events like the Queen's Parade and the Old Fiddlers' contest with more contemporary contests such as the Tater Trot with its ten and two kilometer races, the cross country bicycle races called Tour D'Yam, and the selection of the Grand Champion Hog and Steer.


References

Brooks, Morgan M. 1934. Pioneer Settlers of the Buckhannon Valley. Master’s Thesis. West Virginia Wesleyan College. Buckhannon, West Virginia.

Cutright, William Bernard. 1977. The History of Upshur County, West Virginia: From its Earliest Exploration and Settlement to the Present Time. Parsons, West Virginia: McClain Printing Company (orig. pub. 1907).

Gilchrist, Joy. 2003. “The Pringle Brothers and the Sycamore Tree.” Internet article. Accessed at: http://www.hackerscreek.com/pringle.htm.

Hardesty, H. H. 1883. Hardesty’s Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia: Special History of the Virginias. NY: H. H. Hardesty and Company Publishers.

Excerpt, “Upshur County, West Virginia.” Accessed on-line at: http://www.conjure.com/GENE/FARNS/hardesty.html. Site maintained by Rowan Fairgrove.

Hornbeck, Betty. 1967. Upshur Brothers of the Blue and the Gray. Parsons, WV: McClain Printing Company.

Phillips, Brad. 1984. The History of Atlas, West Virginia, and Vicinity: Upshur County, 1700s to 1984. Parsons, West Virginia: McClain Printing Company.

Tenney, Noel, Editor. 1993. All About Upshur County: A Bibliography and Resource Guide tothe Published and Unpublished Materials About Upshur County, West Virginia. Buckhannon, West Virginia: Upshur County Historical Society.

Author: Dr. Robert Jay Dilger, Director, Institute for Public Affairs and Professor of Political Science, West Virginia University.


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