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The Château de Chambonneau is a castle in the commune of Gizay in the Vienne département of France that still shows good parts of the original ‘chateau-fort’. The original castle dates from the time of Philippe VI, the beginning of the 14th century. The present château dates between 1335 and 1609. The remaining original parts represent the keep and 75% of the towers and lower buildings.
The former manor (built aside from present day château) lasted until the 14th century. It belonged to the abbey of Ligugé, which sold it in the 11th century to the Anguittard family. At this time, only a feudal motte existed, on the summit of the hill.
At the start of the 14th century, new owners, the Frottiers de Chambonneau, constructed an imposing castle designed to reflect developments in artillery.
Under Louis XI, calmer times allowed work to make the castle more comfortable. The curtain wall and towers were demolished on the west side, the keep and gatehouse towers lowered in height, and accommodation buildings constructed symmetrically either side of the gatehouse.
In the 16th century, by royal edict the manor was auctioned. The new owner built two farms between 1605 and 1609 in an L-shape in front of the castle and, in the corners, two pigeon lofts containing 4,000 pigeon holes. The southern loft still has its spiral staircase dating from the time of Henri IV. Also added at this time were a chapel (1578) and new accommodation extending the earlier building to the south.
The Château de Chambonneau has been listed since 1964 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture.
Château de Chambonneau
The Château de Chambonneau is a castle in the commune of Gizay in the Vienne département of France that still shows good parts of the original "chateau-fort". It is built down a hill, close to the Miosson (a tributary of the Clain river). The original castle dates from the time of Philippe VI, the beginning of the 14th century. The present château dates between 1335 and 1609. The remaining original parts represent the keep and 75% of the towers and lower buildings.
Courtney History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms
The ancestors of the Courtney family brought their name to England in the wave of migration after the Norman Conquest of 1066. They lived in Devon. The name, however, is a reference one of two areas bearing the name Courtenay in Normandy. The names of both of these areas derive from the Gallo-Roman landlord, Curtenus. 
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Early Origins of the Courtney family
The surname Courtney was first found in the Gâtinais province of France, where they held the castle of Courtenay since the 10th century. They claim descent from the Counts of Sens and from Pharamond, reputed founder of the French monarchy in 420. However, historians have only been able to prove the line back to about the year 1020, in the Isles of France where they were descended from the great Emperor Charlemagne. The name was established by this trace only to the year 790.
Regardless of the earliest origin, in the mid-12th century, a branch of the family settled in England, where they obtained the barony of Okehampton and inherited the title of Earls of Devon in 1293. "This illustrious house is descended from Reginald de Courtney, who came over to England with Henry II AD 1151." 
Another source notes that Whitchurch in Devon was home to the family. "Walreddon House, here, the property of William Courtenay, Esq., a descendant of the Courtenays, earls of Devon, is an ancient mansion of the time of Edward VI., whose arms in the hall are still in good preservation." 
"Powderham Castle [in Exeter, Devon] holds the first place among the ancient mansions of the county. No other great house continues so fully its olden glories. Nearly six centuries have passed since the Courtenays first seated themselves by the Exe, at Powderham, and there, amidst many vicissitudes, they have continued. At the compilation of ' Domesday,' Powderham was one of the two Devonshire manors of William de Ow, and on his forfeiture came to a family who thence took name. The attainder of John de Powderham led to the manor becoming the property of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and his daughter Margaret, in 1325, brought it to her husband Hugh, the second Courtenay Earl of Devon." 
"The House of Courtenay is the most distinguished family of Devon. They have been called ' the ubiquitous Courtenays,' for there is hardly a parish in the county which is not linked with their history by some traces of lordship or alliance. The history of the English branch of this great house, whose famous coat of three torteaux 'at once waved over the towers of Edessa, and was reflected by the waters of the Seine/ has been set forth most graphically by Gibbon. Ranked among the chief barons of the realm, it was not 'till after a strenuous dispute that they yielded to the fief of Arundel the first place in Parliament. Their alliances were contracted with the noblest families the Veres, De Spencers, Bonviles, St. Johns, Talbots, Bohuns, and even the Plantagenets themselves and in a contest with John of Lancaster, a Courtenay, Bishop of London and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, might be accused of profane confidence in the strength and numbers of his kindred." 
Wooton-Courtney in Somerset was another ancient family seat. "This parish takes the adjunct to its name from the Courtney family, who formerly held the manor." 
"The manor of Braddock [Cornwall] was at a very early period in the Courtenay family, in which it continued until the attainder of the Marquis of Exeter. In ancient times, St. Bennet's, when in a state of comparative magnificence, was long the seat of the Courtenay family, by a female branch of whom it was sold in 1710 to Bernard Pennington." 
Transformation into a residence
Under Louis XI, calmer times allowed work to make the castle more comfortable. The curtain wall and towers were demolished on the west side, the keep and gatehouse towers lowered in height, and accommodation buildings constructed symmetrically either side of the gatehouse.
In the 16th century, by royal edict the manor was the first to be auctioned in Poitou. Its owner was effectively in debt through gambling. The new owner built between 1605 and 1609 two farms in an L-shape in front of the castle and, in the corners, two pigeon lofts containing 4000 pigeon holes. The southern loft still has its spiral staircase dating from the time of Henri IV. Also added at this time were a chapel (1578) and new accommodation extending the earlier building to the south.
Under the First Empire (1810), the castle was bought by Monsieur de La Chaslerie, maternal ancestor of the count of Beaucorps-Créquy (Créquy family). The two gatehouse towers, already greatly reduced in height, were completely removed in 1953, in order to allow access for the owner&aposs wife&aposs car.
The Château de Chambonneau has been listed since 1964 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. 
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau (1805-1866)
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau is remembered primarily as the son of Sacagawea. His father, Toussaint Charbonneau, was a French-Canadian fur trapper who joined the Lewis and Clark Expedition as an interpreter Sacagawea proved invaluable as the explorers’ interpreter among the Shoshone. Their infant son was carried with them and later managed to travel farther than any other member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, for he was taken to Europe for several years before making his way back to the Far West.
Charbonneau’s records consist of scattered documents and observations made by others. He was born in the Mandan villages (present-day North Dakota) on February 11, 1805, two months before the exploring party broke camp to move west, cross the Rocky Mountains, and descend the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. A few journal entries by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark mention him as “Pomp” and note that Clark named a landmark in Montana Pompey’s Pillar on the Yellowstone River, east of present-day Billings (now Pompey’s Pillar National Monument).
Soon after the expedition members parted on August 20, 1806, after their return to St. Louis, Clark wrote to Jean Baptiste’s father, expressing concern for the family and gratitude for their service and offering several kinds of support. “As to your little son (my boy Pomp)," he wrote, "you well know my fondness for him and my anxiety to take and raise him as my own child.” The child was not yet weaned, but in 1809 the family did move to St. Louis, where Clark had been appointed superintendent of Indian Affairs and had married and begun a family of his own. True to his promises, Clark supported the boy after Sacagawea and Toussaint moved west again in 1811, and paid for his tuition, room, and board for many years.
In 1823, a German aristocrat and adventurer, Paul of Württemberg, traveled up the Missouri River. He met young Charbonneau near the Kansas River and took him to his castle near Stuttgart. There Charbonneau fathered a son, who died within a year. Both men returned to America in 1829. Charbonneau returned to fur trapping and eventually made his way to California as a guide, prospector, and minor official. At age sixty-one, he set out for gold fields in Montana but fell fatally ill along the Owyhee River.
On this bare outline it is tempting to embroider a romantic figure of the Old West: the child of a legendary Native mother, protégé of a great explorer, and chosen companion of an elegant duke, who proved rough and ready on mountain trails, came back to settle on the West Coast, and died while returning to scenes of his infancy. Charbonneau has even been imagined as a man of refined European learning and taste who nonetheless yielded to deep-seated longings for wilderness.
His life was probably far less glamorous. William Clark's support may have begun with the simple affection he expressed as a young bachelor, but in time that motive could have been fused with more practical considerations of a settled official. The education of a half-Indian could produce a model of assimilation, someone useful in negotiations with Indians or in the fur trade. As for Charbonneau's years in Europe, there was a dark side. Many wealthy Europeans brought exotic persons home from abroad, along with other “trophies.” Duke Paul eventually brought two Africans and a Mexican (another part-Indian) back to Germany. A study of the Mexican’s records reveals that he was treated as a servant rather than as a guest—given some schooling but expected to wear the duke’s livery, conform to his religion, and perform menial duties.
Back in America, Charbonneau may have found his way to California simply by making the best of chance opportunities. A long obituary in a California newspaper contains no mention of Lewis and Clark or Duke Paul, but it notes that Charbonneau learned to speak many languages in Europe and describes his mother inaccurately as a “half-breed of the Crow tribe” who gave birth to him in Montana.
In any case, Charbonneau’s time in present-day Oregon was brief and incidental. He spent a winter there as an infant and died of a sudden illness near the Owyhee River on his way to Montana in 1866. He was buried near Danner, southwest of the town of Jordan Valley.
"Lewis and Clark at the mouth of the Columbia River 1805.".
"Lewis and Clark at the mouth of the Columbia River 1805." From Colliers Mag., 1906, by Frederic Remington Courtesy Library of Congress, Mag_LOT 4392-NZoom image
Program for the dedication of the Sacajawea (Sacagawea) National Monument, 1932, Lemhi Pass.
This is Oregon historian Eva Emery Dye's copy of the program, signed by her. Entire document can be viewed on Document tab. Courtesy Oregon Hist. Soc. Research Lib., Sacagawea vertical fileZoom image
Color postcard of the Sacagawea statue at 1905 Lewis and Clark Exposition.
Aerial photo of Danner, Oregon, showing Pomp's grave site, 1963.
Courtesy Oregon Hist. Soc. Research Lib., BLM, Orhi82636Zoom image
Captain William Clark, c. 1810.
Captain William Clark, c. 1810 Courtesy Oreg. Hist. Soc. Research Lib., OrHi97395
Sunday Oregonian, 1931, article on Sacagawea and Pomp statue in Washington Park, Portland.
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The name Eilean Donan, or island of Donan, is most probably called after the 6th century Irish Saint, Bishop Donan who came to Scotland around 580 AD. There are several churches dedicated to Donan in the area and it is likely that he formed a small cell or community on the island during the late 7th century.
The first fortified structure was not built on the island until the early 13th century as a defensive measure, protecting the lands of Kintail against the Vikings who raided, settled and controlled much of the North of Scotland and the Western Isles between 800 and 1266. From the mid 13th century, this area was the quite seperate “Sea Kingdom” of the Lord of the Isles where the sea was the main highway and the power of feuding clan chiefs was counted by the number of men and galleys or “birlinns” at their disposal. Eilean Donan offered the perfect defensive position.
Over the centuries, the castle itself has expanded and contracted in size. The medieval castle was probably the largest, with towers and a curtain wall that encompassed nearly the entire island. The main keep stood on the island’s highest point. Around the end of the 14th century the area of the castle was reduced to about a fifth of its original size and, although the reason is unclear, it probably relates to the number of men required to defend the structure. By the 16th century a hornwork was added to the east wall to offer a firing platform for the newly introduced cannons.
Eilean Donan also played a role in the Jacobite risings of the 17th and 18th centuries, which ultimately culminated in the castle’s destruction…
In 1719 the castle was garrisoned by 46 Spanish soldiers who were supporting the Jacobites. They had established a magazine of gunpowder, and were awaiting the delivery of weapons and cannon from Spain. The English Government caught wind of the intended uprising and sent three heavily armed frigates The Flamborough, The Worcester, and The Enterprise to quell matters. The bombardment of the castle lasted three days, though met with limited success due to the enormity of the castle walls, which in some places are up to 14 feet thick. Finally, Captain Herdman of The Enterprise sent his men ashore and over-whelmed the Spanish defenders. Following the surrender, the government troops discovered the magazine of 343 barrels of gunpowder which was then used to blow up what had remained from the bombardment…
For the best part of 200 years, the stark ruins of Eilean Donan lay neglected, abandoned and open to the elements, until Lt Colonel John Macrae-Gilstrap bought the island in 1911. Along with his Clerk of Works, Farquar Macrae, he dedicated the next 20 years of his life to the reconstruction of Eilean Donan, restoring her to her former glory. The castle was rebuilt according to the surviving ground plan of earlier phases and was formally completed in the July of 1932.
Nearest cities & towns
|Mazerolles||3.4 km (6 min)|
|Sillars||5.8 km (9 min)|
|Gouex||7.1 km (11 min)|
|Civaux||7.6 km (9 min)|
|Persac||8.1 km (9 min)|
|Chapelle-Viviers||10.7 km (15 min)|
|Moulismes||11 km (11 min)|
|Verrières||11.3 km (11 min)|
|Lhommaizé||11.4 km (11 min)|
|Montmorillon||12.2 km (14 min)|
|Bouresse||12.4 km (14 min)|
|Queaux||13.2 km (19 min)|
|Saulgé||14.1 km (19 min)|
|Valdivienne||14.4 km (14 min)|
The adobe fort quickly became the center of the Bent, St. Vrain Company's expanding trade empire, which included Fort Saint Vrain to the north and Fort Adobe to the south, along with company stores in New Mexico at Taos and Santa Fe. The primary trade was with the Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians for buffalo robes.
From 1833 to 1849, the fort was a stopping point along the Santa Fe Trail. It was the only permanent settlement not under the jurisdiction and control of Native Americans or Mexicans. The U.S. Army, explorers, and other travelers stopped at the fort to replenish supplies, such as water and food, and perform needed maintenance to their wagons. The American frontiersman Kit Carson was employed as a hunter by the Bent brothers in 1841, and regularly visited the Fort.  Likewise, the explorer John C. Frémont used the Fort as both a staging area and a replenishment junction, for his expeditions.  During the Mexican–American War in 1846, the fort became a staging area for Colonel Stephen Watts Kearny's "Army of the West". 
Bent's Fort is described as having been a structure built of adobe bricks. It was 180 feet long and 135 feet wide. The walls were 15 feet in height and four feet thick and it was the strongest post at that time west of Ft. Leavenworth. The construction of this fort was commenced in 1828 . at a point on the Arkansas somewhere between the present cities of Pueblo and Canyon City, having been disadvantageously located. Four years were required in which to complete the structure. On the northwest and southeast corners were hexagonal bastions, in which were mounted a number of cannon. The walls of the fort served as walls of the rooms, all of which faced inwardly on a court or plaza. The walls were loopholed for musketry, and the entrance was through large wooden gates of very heavy timbers.
In 1849 when a great cholera epidemic struck the Cheyenne and other Plains Indians, William Bent abandoned Bent's Fort and moved his headquarters north to Fort Saint Vrain on the South Platte. When he returned south in 1852, he relocated his trading business to his log trading post at Big Timbers, near what is now Lamar, Colorado. Later, in the fall of 1853, Bent began building a stone fort on the bluff above Big Timbers, Bent's New Fort, where he conducted his trading business until 1860. 
When the fort was reconstructed in 1976, its authenticity was based on the use of archaeological excavations, paintings and original sketches, diaries and other existing historical data from the period.
'We started looking at manoirs requiring full restoration,' said Erin. 'And then our ideas evolved to a property capable of supporting the two of us full-time.
'Our ideas then grew into something bigger - creating an events venue to serve the local community as well as attracting an international market to host weddings and private events.'
The couple visited more than ten properties (and viewed hundreds more online) before coming across the Château de Bourneau by chance after driving past it, and say it was a complete coup de foudre (love at first sight).
Erin and JB, who live in a small apartment nestled inside the castle, had decided that they wanted to 'take the plunge' and set up home in France - but Erin's language skills were not developed enough to enable her to work as a doctor
Jean-Baptiste Gois (left) and Erin (right) Château de Bourneau in Vendee, Pays de la Loire which they recently purchased after deciding to move into the holiday lettings industry. The castle is thought to have been uninhabited since 1997. Abandoned during the French revolution, it was later restored in the Renaissance style in the 18th century
Hiding behind the back of the chateau is the only remaining turret of the original building that was built on the site in 1564 with permission of Louis XI, according to Erin. It was a fortified chateau surrounded by a moat which still exists to this day
All at sea: JB takes a row around the moat to inspect the damage caused by a leak into the cellars. There are rumours that secret tunnels still exist underground, although the couple admit they haven't found any evidence of them yet
An exterior shot of the sprawling Château de Bourneau in Vendee, Pays de la Loire. The historic building was recently purchased by Jean-Baptiste Gois and his partner Erin, who met during their Erasmus year in Edinburgh, Scotland. The moat is still filled with water and the couple have painted the bridge railings white since this photo was taken
Hidden in the back rooms of the kitchen, the couple recently discovered a collection of various metal fittings that have fallen off the chateau over the years (left) The couple tackle the chateau's front door's which are 4m high and currently covered in 'smurf blue' matte paint that requires chipping and sanding off. The doors then need priming before the final few coats of paint are applied (right)
JB sanding down the 4m high front doors which need repainting. Hidden from view from the local village and just a stone's throw from the Mervent-Vouvent Forest, the château is thought to be inspired by the castle of Azay-le-Rideau, and built in the Renaissance style
Erin off to chop some wood for the fire in an Instagram snap taken in November (left) and in an arched recess which used to be the original corridor on the courtyard side. In the 1960s the corridor was moved centrally to create more bedrooms on either side (right)
JB doing some plastering and painting on the staircase. The sprawling Château de Bourneau and its 16-hectare grounds are built above the ruins of a medieval town square which were inhabited until 1789 it was abandoned during the French Revolution before being rebuilt in the 19th century
Old vintage French doors of varying shapes and sizes, some of which still have keys in them, were found hidden away in the chateau. The site also served as a shelter for refugees under the Maréchal de Lattre Foundation, and is believed to have housed some 528 refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos in the 1970s
Abandoned in one of the turrets in the attics of the chateau was this antique dressing table. The attics had not been lived in for decades and Erin compares them to a 'time capsule', admitting she cannot decide what to do with the vintage piece
'Set in 16 hectares of woodland and park, with its encircling moats and romantic turrets, we completely fell under its spell,' Erin recalled.
As well as depleting their personal savings, the couple had to take out a bank loan and admit buying the country pile was a 'risky investment' they had reservations about restoring the chateau, which is located in Bourneau in the Venée department of western France's Pays de la Loire region .
The sprawling Château de Bourneau and its 16-hectare grounds are built above the ruins of a medieval town square which were inhabited until 1789 it was abandoned during the French Revolution before being rebuilt in the 19th century.
The site also served as a shelter for refugees under the Maréchal de Lattre Foundation, and is believed to have housed some 528 refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos in the 1970s.
Hidden from view from the local village and just a stone's throw from the Mervent-Vouvent Forest, the château is thought to be inspired by the castle of Azay-le-Rideau, and built in the Renaissance style.
Erin in the kitchen with Angel Strawbridge, who appears on the new Channel 4 show as the couple find their feet in Chateau Bourneau. Angel is something of an expert, having bought and renovated a French chateau of her own with husband Dick
'Excited for the arrival of our guests': A dinner table in the ruined orangery is ready for summer fresco dining. The fairytale Château de Bourneau in Vendee, Pays de la Loire was recently purchased by Jean-Baptiste Gois and Erin. The doctor, who did not reveal how much the château cost, is originally from London but met her partner in Edinburgh in 2010
Jean-Baptiste and Erin are now painstakingly restoring the castle to its former glory, most recently painting the moat bridge from green to white after finding a sepia photograph of the grounds from 1908.
'We have only been here six months and so far we have concentrated on catching up with maintenance that has not been done here for the last 30 years,' Erin told MailOnline.
'There were drains that hadn’t been cleared, the moat had a tendency to [leak] into the cellars, many windows that had rotted, leaks in the roof and managing the woods and gardens.
'It’s always a juggling act balancing the ongoing maintenance and pushing forward with the renovations. This year, we also managed to do up a honeymoon suite with adjoining solarium, which is the perfect romantic spot for a glass of wine watching the sun setting over the moat. Our next renovation project is doing up our south turret garden suite.
'The renovation is entirely financed by the income generated from our holiday cottage rentals and our events and weddings business. It is a lifetime project for us so there is no final figure but we renovate little by little, as funds enable.'
Sunset al fresco dining: Dinner is served in the stunning grounds of the Château de Bourneau in Vendee, Pays de la Loire. The French castle was recently purchased by Jean-Baptiste Gois and Erin, who met as students living in Edinburgh. Jean-Baptiste said: 'Initially, we did not consider buying a castle at all. The idea came to us as we went along'
Jean-Baptiste Gois and Erin shared this Instagram snap of recently-unearthed old books at the Château de Bourneau in Vendee, Pays de la Loire. Also pictured is a rusty set of keys to the original library of the historic castle
Speaking about their first few weeks in the chateau, Erin said: 'We are lucky that when we arrived, there was already basic but functional living conditions with running water, bath room facilities and heating.
'This region is France’s second sunniest region and we are lucky that we have very mild winters here but that said, heating a 1000 Sq m building with 4m high ceilings is no mean feat!
'We try to be as energy efficient as possible so when we don’t have any guests, we only heat our flat and maintain the rest of the chateau at a minimum temperature.'
Images posted on the couple's Instagram page reveal the hidden treasures they have discovered while exploring the building's many nooks and crannies, from an antique travel chest to a rusty set of keys for the castle's library.
Erin, who did not reveal how much the château cost, is originally from London but met her partner in Edinburgh in 2010 when they were both enrolled on Erasmus, the European student exchange programme.
Speaking to Ouest-France in August 2018, Jean-Baptiste explained: 'I had to stay [in Edinburgh] for nine months. In the end, I spent nine years.'
One of the many rooms inside the sprawling castle. The couple appear in the new series of Channel 4's Escape to the Chateau: DIY which follows plucky Brits taking on the task of renovating and running their own fairytale properties in France
A sun-filled double bedroom in the castle, which Erin and JB are letting out to guests. The couple plan to let the outbuildings around the castle as holiday homes and will completely renovate the main building, to be used for weddings or events
A cosy corner of the chateau. While the stunning Renaissance property in rural Vendée, Vendee, Pays de la Loire is a feast for the eyes, it was falling apart after three decades of neglect including a leaky moat and rotting window frames
The couple plan to let the outbuildings around the castle as holiday homes and will completely renovate the main building, which they will then rent for weddings or events.
However, Jean-Baptiste reveals the investment near didn't happen: 'Initially, we did not consider buying a castle at all. The idea came to us as we went along.'
Jean-Baptiste admits that he is far from most people's idea of the kind of person who might own a castle most visitors who see him in the grounds only approach him to ask where they can find the owner, he told the publication in an interview this week.
Erin added: 'We have only been here six months and it has been a whirlwind of activity. Our days are long and we work very hard, often clocking up 14-plus hour days and our weekends are also dedicated to the château.
'But it is also our privilege to have this opportunity to be the guardians of this beautiful historical monument and we get a lot of pleasure seeing it come back to life little by little.'
Erin and JB’s episodes start on Monday 11th and are featured every day next week Monday to Friday on Channel 4 at 4pm
Fascinating history of the Chateau de Bourneau
'The original château on this site was built in 1464 by Jacquette de la Ramée who was Dame de Bourneau and received royal permission from King Louis XI to build a fortified château at Bourneau,' says Erin.
'The original château was then abandoned during the French Revolution and fell into ruin. All that remains of this ancient château are the four turrets that delimit the the moat and the vaulted foundations that the current château is built on (our cellars.) There are rumours that secret tunnels still exist here (although we haven't found any yet!)
The sprawling Château de Bourneau and its 16-hectare grounds are built above the ruins of a medieval town square
'The current château you see today is in the style of the French Première Renaissance but is actually younger than most people think since it is a 19th century 'folly' built in 1863, by Edmond Möller, a local gentleman.
'It was inspired by the magnificent royal châteaux of the Loire Valley, in particular Azay-le-Rideau and the Château d'Anet, so the Château de Bourneau's Renaissance design is entirely unique to this region.
'I feel this gives it the best of both worlds - a perfect homage to the French premier Renaissance but with the advantages of Victorian plumbing!
'The château stayed in the same family until 1954, before it was sold to the Foundation Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny in the 1960s, who opened a home for Algerian men and women who fought for France and had lost everything.
'It was called 'Maison Raymond de Fontaines' in memory of the original heir Raymond de Fontaines, who was killed in WW1 aged 25.
'In 1967, the out buildings (old stables, granges and boulangerie) were completely transformed to expand the Foundation's activity in welcoming refugees from wars in South East Asia, notably Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, with the aim to repatriate these people into French Society.
'These outbuildings have now been converted into 4 holiday cottages that can sleep 42 people in total, each with their own swimming pool.'