Pittsburgh is located at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers in Pennsylvania. The area was first settled by Europeans when Fort Duquesne was built by the French in 1754. Four years later the fort was captured by English forces led by General John Forbes. It was now renamed as Fort Pitt after the British prime minister, William Pitt. Emigrants from England and Scotland now began arriving and by 1764 the houses built around the fort became known as Pittsburgh.
Pittsburgh's natural resources encouraged entrepreneurs to move to Pittsburgh. George Anschutz erected the first blast furnace in the area in 1792. Andrew Carnegie, Henry Frick and Andrew Mellon established their businesses in Pittsburgh. Known as Iron City, Pittsburgh had a population of 321,616 by 1900.
In the 20th century Pittsburgh established itself as the largest iron, steel and aluminum producing city in the world. It also manufactured 20 per cent of the country's glass and by the 1960s had the world's largest cork manufacturing factory.
As foreign competition increased, most of the iron and steel plants began closing down during the 1970s and 1980s. The city now concentrates on high-technology industries such as computer software, industrial automation and biomedical technology. The population of the city in 1990 was 369,879.
Long before Colonel George Washington’s arrival in 1755 on a surveying mission, Native Americans such as the Shawnee, Seneca, and Lenape were thriving in the region. Recognizing the advantages the area held, both the French and British coveted the land. While on his mission, Washington saw fit to install a small band of men at the site where the rivers merged. These men built Fort George for the crown. The French soon overwhelmed them and established their own encampment, Fort Duquesne. In 1758, after a treaty was signed that ended the French and Indian War, the British built Fort Pitt on the former site of Fort Duquesne, naming it in honor of William Pitt, their Prime Minister.
With the land now securely held by the British, settlers moved to the area. They were mostly farmers, and since travel over the Allegheny Mountains was difficult, these first inhabitants of Pittsburgh became self-sufficient, learning to make their own goods rather than waiting for them to be shipped over the mountains. By the 1790s, 300 inhabitants occupied the area. Among them were blacksmiths, shoemakers, tanners, brewers, cabinetmakers, tinsmiths and other craftsmen.
The industrious residents became so successful, they experienced an over abundance of grain, which they turned into whiskey. When Alexander Hamilton, the nation’s Secretary of Treasury, urged a tax on those who sold whiskey in order to pay off the national debt, locals protested. In 1794, now President Washington sent nearly 13,000 militia men to quell the uprising, which became known as the Whiskey Rebellion.
The Early History of The Hill
The Penn Avenue Incline From the Hill District to the Strip
This city within a city was born of the marriage of two catalysts: the desire to have a better life and the demand for steel mill workers as men went off to fight in World War I. Recently-freed black men and women found a home in the Hill and quickly made it their own.
Pittsburgh was named in 1758, by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. As Forbes was a Scotsman, he probably pronounced the name / ˈ p ɪ t s b ər ə / PITS -bər-ə (similar to Edinburgh).   Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act:  "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania . by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be . erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."  From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations.   After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed.  The Pittsburgh Press continued without the h in its nameplate until August 1, 1921. 
The area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans.  The first known Europeans to enter the region were the French explorers/traders Robert de La Salle and Martin Chartier from Quebec during their 1669 expedition down the Ohio River.  Chartier is also noted to be the first white man in Nashville, Tennessee. European pioneers, primarily Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, and later that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. 
In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers.  During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off. The French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims. The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne.  The British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes finally took the forks in 1758. He began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". 
During Pontiac's War, a loose confederation of Native American tribes laid siege to Fort Pitt in 1763 the siege was eventually lifted after Colonel Henry Bouquet defeated a portion of the besieging force at the Battle of Bushy Run. Bouquet strengthened the defenses of Fort Pitt the next year.    
During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes. By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the Penns were allowed to purchase the modern region from the Iroquois. A 1769 survey referenced the future city as the "Manor of Pittsburgh".  Both the Colony of Virginia and the Province of Pennsylvania claimed the region under their colonial charters until 1780, when they agreed under a federal initiative to extend the Mason–Dixon line westward, placing Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. On March 8, 1771, Bedford County, Pennsylvania was created to govern the frontier. On April 16, 1771, the city's first civilian local government was created as Pitt Township.   William Teagarden was the first constable, and William Troop was the first clerk. 
Following the American Revolution, the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow. One of its earliest industries was boat building for settlers of the Ohio Country. In 1784, Thomas Viceroy completed a town plan which was approved by the Penn family attorney. Pittsburgh became a possession of Pennsylvania in 1785. The following year, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette was started, and in 1787, the Pittsburgh Academy was chartered. Unrest during the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 resulted in federal troops being sent to the area. By 1797, glass manufacture began, while the population grew to around 1,400. Settlers came via routes over the Appalachian Mountains or through the Great Lakes. Fort Pitt (now Pittsburgh) at the source of the Ohio River became the main base for settlers moving into the Northwest Territory.
1800 to 1900 Edit
The federal government recognizes Pittsburgh as the starting point for the Lewis and Clark Expedition.  Preparations began in Pittsburgh in 1803 when Meriwether Lewis purchased a keelboat that would later be used to ascend the Missouri River. 
The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American industry. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin, and glass. On March 18, 1816, the 46-year-old local government became a city. It was served by numerous river steamboats, that increased trading traffic on the rivers.
In the 1830s, many Welsh people from the Merthyr steelworks immigrated to the city following the aftermath of the Merthyr Rising. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. The Great Fire of Pittsburgh destroyed over a thousand buildings in 1845. The city rebuilt with the aid of Irish immigrants who came to escape the Great Famine. By 1857, Pittsburgh's 1,000 factories were consuming 22 million coal bushels yearly. Coal mining and iron manufacturing attracted waves of European immigrants to the area, the most came from Germany.
While Pennsylvania had been established as a free state after the Revolution, enslaved African Americans sought freedom here through escape as refugees from the South, or occasionally fleeing from travelers they were serving who stayed in the city. There were active stations of the Underground Railroad in the city, and numerous refugees were documented as getting help from station agents and African-American workers in city hotels. The Drennen Slave Girl walked out of the Monongahela House in 1850, apparently to freedom.  The Merchant's Hotel was also a place where African-American workers would advise slaves the state was free and aid them in getting to nearby stations of the Underground Railroad.  Sometimes refugee slaves from the South stayed in Pittsburgh, but other times they continued North, including into Canada. Many slaves left the city and county for Canada after Congress passed the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, as it required cooperation from law enforcement even in free states and increased penalties. From 1850 to 1860, the black population in Allegheny County dropped from 3,431 to 2,725 as people headed to more safety in Canada. 
The American Civil War boosted the city's economy with increased iron and armament demand by the Union. Andrew Carnegie began steel production in 1875 at the Edgar Thomson Steel Works in North Braddock, Pennsylvania, which evolved into the Carnegie Steel Company. He adopted the Bessemer process to increase production. Manufacturing was key to growth of Pittsburgh and the surrounding region. Railroad lines were built into the city along both rivers, increasing transportation access to important markets.
1900 to present Edit
In 1901, J. P. Morgan and attorney Elbert H. Gary merged Carnegie Steel Company and several other companies into U.S. Steel. By 1910, Pittsburgh was the nation's 8th-largest city, accounting for between one-third and one-half of national steel output.
The Pittsburgh Agreement was subscribed in May 1918 between the Czech and Slovak nationalities, as envisioned by T. G. Masaryk, concerning the future foundation of Czechoslovakia. 
The city suffered severe flooding in March 1936.
The city's population swelled to more than a half million, attracting numerous European immigrants to its industrial jobs. By 1940, non-Hispanic whites were 90.6% of the city's population.  Pittsburgh also became a main destination of the African-American Great Migration from the rural South during the first half of the 20th century.  Limited initially by discrimination, some 95% percent of the men became unskilled steel workers. 
During World War II, demand for steel increased and area mills operated 24 hours a day to produce 95 million tons of steel for the war effort.  This resulted in the highest levels of air pollution in the city's almost century of industry. The city's reputation as the "arsenal of democracy"   was being overshadowed by James Parton's 1868 observation of Pittsburgh being "hell with the lid off." 
Following the war, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance," cleaning up the air and the rivers. The "Renaissance II" project followed in 1977, focused on cultural and neighborhood development. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1970s, but beginning in the early 1980s both the area's steel and electronics industries imploded during national industrial restructuring. There were massive layoffs from mill and plant closures. 
In the later 20th century, the area shifted its economic base to education, tourism, and services, largely based on healthcare/medicine, finance, and high technology such as robotics. Although Pittsburgh successfully shifted its economy and remained viable, the city's population has never rebounded to its industrial-era highs. While 680,000 people lived in the city proper in 1950, a combination of suburbanization and economic turbulence resulted in a decrease in city population, even as the metropolitan area population increased again.
During the late 2000s recession, Pittsburgh was economically strong, adding jobs when most cities were losing them. It was one of the few cities in the United States to see housing property values rise. Between 2006 and 2011, the Pittsburgh metropolitan statistical area (MSA) experienced over 10% appreciation in housing prices—the highest appreciation of the largest 25 MSAs in the United States, as 22 of the top 25 MSAs saw a depreciation of housing values.  Pittsburgh's story of economic regeneration was the inspiration of President Barack Obama to host the 2009 G-20 Pittsburgh summit. 
Pittsburgh has an area of 58.3 square miles (151 km 2 ), of which 55.6 square miles (144 km 2 ) is land and 2.8 square miles (7.3 km 2 ) (or 4.75%) is water. The 80th meridian west passes directly through the city's downtown.
The city is on the Allegheny Plateau, within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau,  The Downtown area (also known as the Golden Triangle) sits where the Allegheny River flowing from the northeast and Monongahela River from the southeast form the Ohio River. The convergence is at Point State Park and is referred to as "the Point." The city extends east to include the Oakland and Shadyside sections, which are home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Chatham University, Carnegie Museum and Library, and many other educational, medical, and cultural institutions. The southern, western, and northern areas of the city are primarily residential.
Many Pittsburgh neighborhoods are steeply sloped with two-lane roads. More than a quarter of neighborhood names make reference to "hills," "heights," or similar features. [a]
The steps of Pittsburgh consist of 800 sets of outdoor public stairways with 44,645 treads and 24,090 vertical feet. They include hundreds of streets composed entirely of stairs, and many other steep streets with stairs for sidewalks.  Many provide vistas of the Pittsburgh area while attracting hikers and fitness walkers. 
Bike and walking trails have been built to border many of the city's rivers and hollows. The Great Allegheny Passage and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Towpath connect the city directly to downtown Washington, D.C. (some 335 miles (539 km) away) with a continuous bike/running trail.
The city consists of the Downtown area, called the Golden Triangle,  and four main areas surrounding it. These surrounding areas are subdivided into distinct neighborhoods (Pittsburgh has 90 neighborhoods).  Relative to downtown, these areas are known as the Central, North Side/North Hills, South Side/South Hills, East End, and West End.
Golden Triangle Edit
Downtown Pittsburgh has 30 skyscrapers, nine of which top 500 feet (150 m). The U.S. Steel Tower is the tallest at 841 ft (256 m).  The Cultural District consists of a 14-block area of downtown along the Allegheny River. This district contains many theaters and arts venues and is home to a growing residential segment. Most significantly, the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust is embarking on RiverParc, a four-block mixed-use "green" community, featuring 700 residential units and multiple towers between 20 and 30 stories. The Firstside portion of Downtown borders the Monongahela River, the historic Mon Wharf and hosts the distinctive PPG Place Gothic-style glass skyscraper complex. New condo towers have been constructed and historic office towers are converted to residential use, increasing 24-hour residents. Downtown is served by the Port Authority's light rail system and multiple bridges leading north and south. 
North Side Edit
The North Side is home to various neighborhoods in transition. What is known today as Pittsburgh's North Side was once known as Allegheny City, and operated as a city independently of Pittsburgh until it was merged with Pittsburgh in 1907 under great protest from its citizens. The North Side is primarily composed of residential neighborhoods and is noteworthy for its well-constructed and architecturally interesting homes. Many buildings date from the 19th century and are constructed of brick or stone and adorned with decorative woodwork, ceramic tile, slate roofs and stained glass. The North Side is also home to attractions such as Heinz Field, PNC Park, Carnegie Science Center, National Aviary, Andy Warhol Museum, Mattress Factory art museum, Children's Museum of Pittsburgh, Randyland, Penn Brewery, Allegheny Observatory, and Allegheny General Hospital. 
South Side Edit
The South Side was once the site of the Pennsylvania Railroad railyards and associated dense, inexpensive housing for mill and railroad workers. Since the late 20th century, the city undertook a Main Street program in cooperation with the National Trust for Historic Preservation, encouraging design and landscape improvements on East Carson Street, and supporting new retail. The area has become a local Pittsburgher destination, and the value of homes in the South Side had increased in value by about 10% annually for the 10 years up to 2014.  East Carson Street has developed as one of the most vibrant areas of the city, packed with diverse shopping, ethnic eateries, vibrant nightlife, and live music venues.
In 1993 the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh purchased the South Side Works steel mill property. It collaborated with the community and various developers to create a master plan for a mixed-use development, to include a riverfront park, office space, housing, health-care facilities, and indoor practice fields for the Pittsburgh Steelers and Pitt Panthers. Construction began in 1998. The SouthSide Works has been open since 2005, featuring many stores, restaurants, offices, and the world headquarters for American Eagle Outfitters. 
East End Edit
The East End of Pittsburgh is home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Carlow University, Chatham University, The Carnegie Institute's Museums of Art and Natural History, Phipps Conservatory, and Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall. It is also home to many parks and public spaces including Mellon Park, Westinghouse Park, Schenley Park, Frick Park, The Frick Pittsburgh, Bakery Square, and the Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium. The neighborhoods of Shadyside and Squirrel Hill are large, wealthy neighborhoods with some apartments and condos, and pedestrian-oriented shopping/business districts. Squirrel Hill is also known as the hub of Jewish life in Pittsburgh, home to approximately 20 synagogues.  Oakland, heavily populated by undergraduate and graduate students, is home to most of the universities, and the Petersen Events Center. The Strip District to the west along the Allegheny River is an open-air marketplace by day and a clubbing destination by night. Bloomfield is Pittsburgh's Little Italy and is known for its Italian restaurants and grocers. Lawrenceville is a revitalizing rowhouse neighborhood popular with artists and designers. The Hill District was home to photographer Charles Harris as well as various African-American jazz clubs.  Other East End neighborhoods include Point Breeze, Regent Square, Homewood, Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar, Larimer, East Hills, East Liberty, Polish Hill, Hazelwood, Garfield, Morningside, and Stanton Heights.
West End Edit
The West End includes Mt. Washington, with its famous view of the Downtown skyline and numerous other residential neighborhoods such as Sheraden and Elliott.
Many of Pittsburgh's patchwork of neighborhoods still retain ethnic characters reflecting the city's settlement history. These include:
- German: Troy Hill, Mt. Washington, and East Allegheny (Deutschtown)
- Italian: Brookline, Bloomfield, Morningside, Oakland
- Hispanic/Latino: Beechview/Brookline
- Polish, Austrian, Belgian, Czech, Slovak, German, Greek, Hungarian, Luxembourgish, Dutch, Romanian, Swiss, Slovenia and the northern marginal regions of Italy, Croatian, as well as northeastern France, Central European: South Side, Lawrenceville, and Polish Hill
- Lithuanian: South Side, Uptown
- African American/Multiracial African American: Hill District, Homewood, Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar, Larimer, East Hills, and Hazelwood
- Jewish (Ashkenazi): Squirrel Hill
- Irish: Mt. Washington, Carrick
Population densities Edit
Several neighborhoods on the edges of the city are less urban, featuring tree-lined streets, yards and garages, with a more suburban character. Oakland, the South Side, the North Side, and the Golden Triangle are characterized by more density of housing, walking neighborhoods, and a more diverse, urban feel.
Regional identity Edit
Pittsburgh falls within the borders of the Northeastern United States as defined by multiple US Government agencies, but the Pittsburgh Combined Statistical Area extends into both the Southern United States (West Virginia) and the Midwestern United States (Ohio), with the borders of the three regions meeting 30 miles (48 km) from the city. Pittsburgh is also in the Great Lakes Megalopolis, a collection of primarily Midwestern and nearby Canadian cities, reflecting Pittsburgh's socio-economic connections to Ohio and points west.  
Pittsburgh falls within the borders of Appalachia as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission, and has long been characterized as the "northern urban industrial anchor of Appalachia."  In its post-industrial state, Pittsburgh has been characterized as the "Paris of Appalachia",     recognizing the city's cultural, educational, healthcare, and technological resources, as well as its status as Appalachia's largest city.
Pittsburgh falls within the hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa) zone with warm summers and cold winters.  Despite this, it has one of the most pleasant summer climates between medium and large cities in the U.S.    The city and river valleys lie in the USDA plant hardiness zone 6b while higher elevated areas lie in zone 6a.  The area has four distinct seasons: winters are cold and snowy, springs and falls are mild with moderate levels of sunshine, and summers are warm. As measured by percent possible sunshine, summer is by far the sunniest season. 
The warmest month of the year in Pittsburgh is July, with a 24-hour average of 73.2 °F (22.9 °C). Conditions are often humid, and combined with highs reaching 90 °F (32 °C) on an average 9.5 days a year,  a considerable heat index arises. The coolest month is January, when the 24-hour average is 28.8 °F (−1.8 °C), and lows of 0 °F (−18 °C) or below can be expected on an average 2.6 nights per year.  Officially, record temperatures range from −22 °F (−30 °C), on January 19, 1994 to 103 °F (39 °C), which occurred three times, most recently on July 16, 1988 the record cold daily maximum is −3 °F (−19 °C), which occurred three times, most recently the day of the all-time record low, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 82 °F (28 °C) on July 1, 1901.  [b] Due to elevation and location on the windward side of the Appalachian Mountains, 100 °F (38 °C)+ readings are very rare, and were last seen on July 15, 1995. 
Average annual precipitation is 39.61 inches (1,006 mm) and precipitation is greatest in May while least in October annual precipitation has historically ranged from 22.65 in (575 mm) in 1930 to 57.83 in (1,469 mm) in 2018.  On average, December and January have the greatest number of precipitation days. Snowfall averages 44.1 inches (112 cm) per season, but has historically ranged from 8.8 in (22 cm) in 1918–19 to 80 in (200 cm) in 1950–51.  There is an average of 59 clear days and 103 partly cloudy days per year, while 203 days are cloudy.  In terms of annual percent-average possible sunshine received, Pittsburgh (45%) is similar to Seattle (49%).
|Climate data for Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh International Airport), 1991–2020 normals, [c] extremes 1871–present [d]|
|Record high °F (°C)||75 |
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||61 |
|Average high °F (°C)||36.3 |
|Daily mean °F (°C)||28.8 |
|Average low °F (°C)||21.4 |
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||1 |
|Record low °F (°C)||−22 |
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.96 |
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||13.3 |
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||16.8||13.9||14.0||13.9||13.5||12.4||11.2||10.5||9.8||11.1||12.0||14.6||153.7|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||12.2||9.3||5.9||1.6||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.3||3.3||7.6||40.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||69.9||67.3||64.1||59.8||63.4||66.2||68.8||71.2||72.0||68.3||70.2||71.9||67.8|
|Average dew point °F (°C)||17.2 |
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||93.9||108.5||155.4||182.8||217.4||242.2||254.9||228.4||196.7||167.3||99.4||74.4||2,021.3|
|Percent possible sunshine||31||36||42||46||49||54||56||54||53||48||33||26||45|
|Average ultraviolet index||2||3||4||6||8||9||9||8||6||4||2||2||5|
|Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point and sun 1961–1990)    |
|Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV) |
Air quality Edit
In 2019, the "State of the Air" report from the American Lung Association (ALA) found that air quality in the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV metro area worsened, not only for ozone (smog), but also for the second year in a row for both the daily and long-term measures of fine particle pollution. Outside of California, Allegheny County is the only county in the United States that recorded failing grades for all three.  In a 2013 ranking of 277 metropolitan areas in the United States, the American Lung Association ranked only six U.S. metro areas as having higher amounts of short-term particle pollution, and only seven U.S. metro areas having higher amounts of year-round particle pollution than Pittsburgh. For ozone (smog) pollution, Pittsburgh was ranked 24th among U.S. metro areas.   The area has improved its air quality with every annual survey. The ALA's rankings have been disputed by the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD), since data from only the worst of the region's 20 air quality monitors is considered by the ALA, without any context or averaging. The lone monitor used is immediately downwind and adjacent to U.S. Steel's Clairton Coke Works, the nation's largest coke mill, and several municipalities outside the city's jurisdiction of pollution controls, leading to possible confusion that Pittsburgh is the source or center of the emissions cited in the survey.  The region's readings also reflect pollution swept in from Ohio and West Virginia. 
Although the county was still below the "pass" threshold, the report showed substantial improvement over previous decades on every air quality measure. Fewer than 15 high ozone days were reported between 2007 and 2009, and just 10 between 2008 and 2010, compared to more than 40 between 1997 and 1999.  ACHD spokesman Guillermo Cole stated "It's the best it's been in the lifetime for virtually every resident in this county . We've seen a steady decrease in pollution levels over the past decade and certainly over the past 20, 30, 40, 50 years, or more." 
In the summer of 2017, a crowd sourced air quality monitoring application, Smell PGH, was launched. As air quality is still a concern of many in the area, the app allows for users to report odd smells and informs local authorities. 
The city contains 31,000 trees on 900 miles of streets, by the last count conducted in 2005. A 2011 analysis of Pittsburgh's tree cover, which involved sampling more than 200 small plots throughout the city, showed a value of between $10 and $13 million in annual benefits based on the urban forest contributions to aesthetics, energy use and air quality. Energy savings from shade, impact on city air and water quality, and the boost in property values were taken into account in the analysis. The city spends $850,000 annually on street tree planting and maintenance. 
Water quality Edit
The local rivers continue to have pollution levels exceeding EPA limits.  This is caused by frequently overflowing untreated sewage into local waterways, due to flood conditions and antiquated infrastructure. Pittsburgh has a Combined sewer system, where its sewage pipes contain both stormwater and wastewater. The pipes were constructed in the early 1900s, and the sewage treatment plant was built in 1959.  Due to insufficient improvements over time, the city is faced with public health concerns regarding its water.  As little as a tenth of an inch of rain causes runoffs from the sewage system to drain into local rivers.  Nine billion gallons of untreated waste and stormwater flow into rivers, leading to health hazards and Clean Water Act violations.  The local sewage authority, Allegheny County Sanitary Authority or ALCOSAN, is operating under Consent Decree from the EPA to come up with solutions.  In 2017, ALCOSAN proposed a $2 billion upgrade to the system which is moving closer to EPA approval. 
The Pittsburgh Sewer and Water Authority (PWSA) is the city's agency required to replace pipes and charge water rates. They have come under fire from both city and state authorities due to alleged mismanagement.  In 2017, Mayor William Peduto advocated for a restructuring of the PWSA and a partially privatized water authority.  Governor Wolf subsequently assigned the PWSA to be under the oversight of the Public Utilities Commission (PUC). 
|U.S. Decennial Census |
At the 2010 Census, there were 305,704 people residing in Pittsburgh, a decrease of 8.6% since 2000. 66.0% of the population was White, 25.8% Black or African American, 0.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 4.4% Asian, 0.3% Other, and 2.3% mixed. 2.3% of Pittsburgh's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin of any race. Non-Hispanic Whites were 64.8% of the population in 2010,  compared to 78.7% in 1970. 
|Racial composition||2010 ||1990 ||1970 ||1950 |
|Black or African American||26.1%||25.8%||20.2%||12.2%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||2.3%||0.9%||0.5% ||(X)|
The five largest European ethnic groups in the city are German (19.7%), Irish (15.8%), Italian (11.8%), Polish (8.4%), and English (4.6%), while the metropolitan area is approximately 22% German-American, 15.4% Italian American and 11.6% Irish American. Pittsburgh has one of the largest Italian-American communities in the nation  and the fifth-largest Ukrainian community.  Pittsburgh has one of the most extensive Croatian communities in the United States.  Overall, the Pittsburgh Metro Area has one of the largest populations of Slavic Americans in the country.
Pittsburgh has a sizeable African American population, concentrated in various neighborhoods especially in the East End. There is also a small Asian community consisting of Indian immigrants, and a small Hispanic community consisting of Mexicans and Puerto Ricans. 
According to a 2010 Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) study, residents include 773,341 "Catholics" 326,125 "Mainline Protestants" 174,119 "Evangelical Protestants" 20,976 "Black Protestants" and 16,405 "Orthodox Christians," with 996,826 listed as "unclaimed" and 16,405 as "other" in the metro area.  A 2017 study by the Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies at Brandeis University estimated the Jewish population of Greater Pittsburgh was 49,200. 
According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 78% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 42% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 32% professing Catholic beliefs. while 18% claim no religious affiliation. The same study says that other religions (including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism) collectively make up about 4% of the population. 
There were 143,739 households, out of which 21.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.2% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.4% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.95.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 19.9% under the age of 18, 14.8% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,588, and the median income for a family was $38,795. Males had a median income of $32,128 versus $25,500 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,816. About 15.0% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.5% of those under the age of 18 and 13.5% ages 65 or older.
In a 2002 study, Pittsburgh ranked 22nd of 69 urban places in the U.S. in the number of residents 25 years or older who had completed a bachelor's degree, at 31%.  Pittsburgh ranked 15th of the 69 places in the number of residents 25 years or older who completed a high school degree, at 84.7%. 
The metro area has shown greater residential racial integration during the last 30 years. The 2010 census ranked 18 other U.S. metros as having greater black-white segregation, while 32 other U.S. metros rank higher for black-white isolation. 
Pittsburgh has adapted since the collapse of its century-long steel and electronics industries. The region has shifted to high technology, robotics, health care, nuclear engineering, tourism, biomedical technology, finance, education, and services. Annual payroll of the region's technology industries, when taken in aggregate, exceeded $10.8 billion in 2007,  and in 2010 there were 1,600 technology companies.  A National Bureau of Economic Research 2014 report named Pittsburgh the second-best U.S. city for intergenerational economic mobility  or the American Dream.  Reflecting the citywide shift from industry to technology, former factories have been renovated as modern office space. Google has research and technology offices in a refurbished 1918–1998 Nabisco factory, a complex known as Bakery Square.  Some of the factory's original equipment, such as a large dough mixer, were left standing in homage to the site's industrial roots.  Pittsburgh's transition from its industrial heritage has earned it praise as "the poster child for managing industrial transition".  Other major cities in the northeast and mid-west have increasingly borrowed from Pittsburgh's model in order to renew their industries and economic base. 
The largest employer in the city is the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, with 48,000 employees. All hospitals, outpatient clinics, and doctor's office positions combine for 116,000 jobs, approximately 10% of the jobs in the region. An analyst recently observed of the city's medical sector: "That's both more jobs and a higher share of the region's total employment than the steel industry represented in the 1970s." 
|Top publicly traded companies|
in the Pittsburgh region for 2016
(ranked by revenues)
with Metropolitan and U.S. ranks
|1||The Kraft Heinz Company||153|
|2||PNC Financial Services||171|
|8||Dick's Sporting Goods||365|
|Source: Fortune 500 |
Education is a major economic driver in the region. The largest single employer in education is the University of Pittsburgh, with 10,700 employees. 
Six Fortune 500 companies call the Pittsburgh area home. These include downtown's PNC Financial Services, PPG Industries, U.S. Steel, The Kraft Heinz Company, WESCO International, and the Findlay Township, Pennsylvania based Dick's Sporting Goods.  In 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Pittsburgh among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion. 
The region is home to Allegheny Technologies, American Eagle Outfitters, CONSOL Energy, Kennametal, Mylan Bayer USA, and Alcoa Corporation headquarters. Other major employers include BNY Mellon, GlaxoSmithKline, Thermo Fisher Scientific, and Lanxess. The Northeast U.S. regional headquarters for Chevron Corporation, Nova Chemicals, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, FedEx Ground, Ariba, and the RAND Corporation call the area home. 84 Lumber, Giant Eagle, Highmark, Rue 21, General Nutrition Center (GNC), CNX Gas (CXG), and Genco Supply Chain Solutions are major non-public companies headquartered in the region. The global impact of Pittsburgh technology and business was recently demonstrated in several key components of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner being manufactured and supplied by area companies.  Area retail is anchored by over 35 shopping malls and a healthy downtown retail sector, as well as boutique shops along Walnut Street, in Squirrel Hill, Lawrenceville and Station Square.
The nonprofit arts and cultural industry in Allegheny County generates $341 million in economic activity that supports over 10,000 full-time equivalent jobs with nearly $34 million in local and state taxes raised. 
A leader in environmental design, the city is home to 60 total and 10 of the world's first green buildings while billions have been invested in the area's Marcellus natural gas fields.  A renaissance of Pittsburgh's 116-year-old film industry—that boasts the world's first movie theater—has grown from the long-running Three Rivers Film Festival to an influx of major television and movie productions. including Disney and Paramount offices with the largest sound stage outside Los Angeles and New York City. 
Pittsburgh has hosted many conventions, including INPEX, the world's largest invention trade show, since 1984  Tekko, a four-day anime convention, since 2003 Anthrocon, a furry convention, since 2006 and the DUG East energy trade show since 2009.
Pittsburgh has a rich history in arts and culture dating from 19th century industrialists commissioning and donating public works, such as Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts and the Benedum Center, home to the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra and Pittsburgh Opera, respectively as well as such groups as the River City Brass Band and the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony Orchestra.
Pittsburgh has a number of small and mid-size arts organizations including the Pittsburgh Irish and Classical Theatre, Quantum Theatre, the Renaissance and Baroque Society of Pittsburgh, and the early music ensemble Chatham Baroque. Several choirs and singing groups are also present at the cities' universities some of the most notable include the Pitt Men's Glee Club and the Heinz Chapel Choir.
Pittsburgh Dance Council and the Pittsburgh Ballet Theater host a variety of dance events. Polka, folk, square, and round dancing have a long history in the city and are celebrated by the Duquesne University Tamburitzans, a multicultural academy dedicated to the preservation and presentation of folk songs and dance.
Hundreds of major films have been shot partially or wholly in Pittsburgh. The Dark Knight Rises was largely filmed in Downtown, Oakland, and the North Shore. Pittsburgh has also teamed up with a Los Angeles-based production company, and has built the largest and most advanced movie studio in the eastern United States. 
Pittsburgh's major art museums include the Andy Warhol Museum, the Carnegie Museum of Art, The Frick Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Center for the Arts, and the Mattress Factory. The ToonSeum, one of three museums in the US dedicated to cartoon art, is downtown.  The Carnegie Museum of Natural History is the fourth ranked natural history museum in the US  and has extensive dinosaur, mineral, animal, and Egyptian collections. The Carnegie Science Center and associated SportsWorks has interactive technology and science exhibits. The Senator John Heinz History Center and Western Pennsylvania Sports Museum is a Smithsonian affiliated regional history museum in the Strip District and its associated Fort Pitt Museum is in Point State Park. Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall and Museum in Oakland houses Western Pennsylvania military exhibits from the Civil War to present. The Children's Museum of Pittsburgh on the North Side features interactive exhibits for children. The eclectic Bayernhof Music Museum is six miles (9 km) from downtown while The Clemente Museum is in the city's Lawrenceville section. The Cathedral of Learning's Nationality Rooms showcase pre-19th century learning environments from around the world. There are regular guided and self-guided architectural tours in numerous neighborhoods. Downtown's cultural district hosts quarterly Gallery Crawls and the annual Three Rivers Arts Festival. Pittsburgh is home to a number of art galleries and centers including the Miller Gallery at Carnegie Mellon University, University Art Gallery of the University of Pittsburgh, the American Jewish Museum, and the Wood Street Galleries.
The Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium, Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, and the National Aviary have served the city for over a century. Pittsburgh is home to the amusement park Kennywood. Pittsburgh is home to one of the several state licensed casinos. The Rivers Casino is on the North Shore along the Ohio River, just west of Carnegie Science Center and Heinz Field.
Pittsburgh is home to the world's second largest furry convention known as Anthrocon, which has been held annually at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center since 2006. In 2017, Anthrocon drew over 7,000 visitors and has had a cumulative economic impact of $53 million over the course of its 11 years of being hosted in Pittsburgh. 
Pittsburgh has a long tradition of jazz, blues, and bluegrass music. The National Negro Opera Company was founded in the city as the first all African-American opera company in the United States. This led to the prominence of African-American singers like Leontyne Price in the world of opera. One of the greatest American musicians and composers of the 20th century, Billy Strayhorn, grew up and was educated in Pittsburgh.
Pittsburgh's Wiz Khalifa is a recent artist to have a number one record. His anthem "Black and Yellow" (a tribute to Pittsburgh's official colors) reached number one on Billboard's "Hot 100"  for the Week of February 19, 2011.  Not since Grammy-winning blues guitarist George Benson has a Pittsburgh artist received such national acclaim. Perry Como and Christina Aguilera are from Pittsburgh suburbs. The city is also where the band Rusted Root was formed. Liz Berlin of Rusted Root owns Mr. Smalls, a popular music venue for touring national acts in Pittsburgh.  Hip hop artist Mac Miller's album Blue Slide Park debuted at the top of Billboard's album chart its first No. 1 independent release since Dogg Food in 1995. 
Many punk rock and Hardcore punk acts, such as Aus Rotten and Anti-Flag, originated in Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh has also seen many metal bands gain prominence in recent years, [ when? ] most notably Code Orange, who were nominated for a Grammy.
Throughout the 1990s there was an electronic music subculture in Pittsburgh which likely traced its origins to similar Internet chatroom-based movements in Detroit, Cleveland, Minneapolis, and across the United States.    Pittsburgh promoters and DJs organized raves in warehouses, ice rinks, barns, and fields which eventually attracted thousands of attendees, some of whom were high school students or even younger.    As the events grew more popular, they drew internationally known DJs such as Adam Beyer and Richie Hawtin.  Pittsburgh rave culture itself spawned at least one well-known artist, the drum and bass DJ Dieselboy, who attended the University of Pittsburgh between 1990 and 1995.  
Since 2012, Pittsburgh has been the home of Hot Mass, an afterhours electronic music dance party which critics have compared favorably to European nightclubs and parties.   Electronic music artist and DJ Yaeji credits Hot Mass with her "indoctrination into nightlife" she regularly attended the party while studying at Carnegie Mellon University.  
The city's first play was produced at the old courthouse in 1803  and the first theater built in 1812.  Collegiate companies include the University of Pittsburgh's Repertory Theatre and Kuntu Repertory Theatre, Point Park University's resident companies at its Pittsburgh Playhouse, and Carnegie Mellon University's School of Drama productions and Scotch'n'Soda organization. The Duquesne University Red Masquers, founded in 1912, are the oldest, continuously producing theater company in Pennsylvania. [ citation needed ] The city's longest-running theater show, Friday Nite Improvs, is an improv jam that has been performed in the Cathedral of Learning and other locations for 20 years. The Pittsburgh New Works Festival utilizes local theatre companies to stage productions of original one-act plays by playwrights from all parts of the country. Similarly, Future Ten showcases new ten-minute plays. Saint Vincent Summer Theatre, Off the Wall Productions, Mountain Playhouse, The Theatre Factory, and Stage Right! in nearby Latrobe, Carnegie, Jennerstown, Trafford, and Greensburg, respectively, employ Pittsburgh actors and contribute to the culture of the region.
Pittsburgh is the birthplace of Gertrude Stein and Rachel Carson, a Chatham University graduate from the suburb of Springdale, Pennsylvania.  Modern writers include Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright August Wilson and Michael Chabon with his Pittsburgh-focused commentary on student and college life. Two-time Pulitzer Prize winner and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, David McCullough was born and raised in Pittsburgh.  Annie Dillard, a Pulitzer Prize–winning writer, was born and raised in Pittsburgh. Much of her memoir An American Childhood takes place in post-World War II Pittsburgh. Award-winning author John Edgar Wideman grew up in Pittsburgh and has based several of his books, including the memoir Brothers and Keepers, in his hometown. Poet Terrance Hayes, winner of the 2010 National Book Award and a 2014 MacArthur Foundation Fellow, received his MFA from the University of Pittsburgh, where he is a faculty member. Poet Michael Simms, founder of Autumn House Press, resides in the Mount Washington neighborhood of Pittsburgh. Poet Samuel John Hazo, the first poet Laureate of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, also resides in the city. New writers include Chris Kuzneski who attended the University of Pittsburgh and mentions Pittsburgh in his works and Pittsburgher Brian Celio, author of Catapult Soul who captured the Pittsburgh 'Yinzer' dialect in his writing. Pittsburgh's unique literary style extends to playwrights,  as well as local graffiti and hip hop artists.
Pittsburgh's position as the birthplace for community owned television and networked commercial television helped spawn the modern children's show genres exemplified by Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?, Happy's Party, Cappelli & Company, and The Children's Corner, all nationally broadcast.
The Pittsburgh Dad series has showcased the Pittsburghese genre to a global YouTube audience since 2011.
The modern fantasy, macabre and science fiction genre was popularized by director George A. Romero, television's Bill Cardille and his Chiller Theatre,  director and writer Rusty Cundieff and makeup effects guru Tom Savini.  The genre continues today with the PARSEC science fiction organization,  The It's Alive Show, the annual "Zombie Fest",  and several writer's workshops including Write or Die,  Pittsburgh SouthWrites,  and Pittsburgh Worldwrights   with Barton Paul Levenson, Kenneth Chiacchia and Elizabeth Humphreys Penrose.
Pittsburgh is known for several specialties including pierogies, kielbasa, chipped chopped ham sandwiches, and Klondike bars.   In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed "Food City of the Year" by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co.  Many restaurants were favorably mentioned, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield, Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield, and Rolling Pepperoni in Lawrenceville. 
Local dialect Edit
The Pittsburgh English dialect, commonly called Pittsburghese, was influenced by Scots-Irish, German, and Eastern European immigrants and African Americans.  Locals who speak the dialect are sometimes referred to as "Yinzers" (from the local word "yinz" [var. yunz], a blended form of "you ones," similar to "y'all" and "you all" in the South). Common Pittsburghese terms are: "slippy" (slippery), "redd up" (clean up), "jagger bush" (thorn bush), and "gum bands" (rubber bands). The dialect is also notable for dropping the verb "to be". In Pittsburghese one would say "the car needs washed" instead of "needs to be washed," "needs washing," or "needs a wash." The dialect has some tonal similarities to other nearby regional dialects of Erie and Baltimore, but is noted for its somewhat staccato rhythms. The staccato qualities of the dialect are thought to originate either from Welsh or other European languages. The many local peculiarities have prompted The New York Times to describe Pittsburgh as "the Galapagos Islands of American dialect".  The lexicon itself contains notable loans from Polish and other European languages examples include babushka, pierogi, and halušky. 
Pittsburgh often places high in lists of the nation's most livable cities. After placing fourth and first in the first two editions of Places Rated Almanac, Pittsburgh finished first in 1985, third in 1989, fifth in 1993, 14th in 1997, and 12th in 2000, before reclaiming the number one spot in 2007.  The survey's primary author, David Savageau, has noted Pittsburgh is the only city to finish in the top 20 of every edition.
In 2005, 2009, and 2011, Pittsburgh was ranked as the most livable city in the United States by The Economist and, in those years, between the 26th- and 29th-most livable city worldwide.   Pittsburgh ranked No. 28 in the book Cities Ranked and Rated (2004) by Bert Sperling and Peter Sander.
In 2010, Forbes and Yahoo! ranked Pittsburgh as the most livable city in the United States.   A month later, Forbes named Pittsburgh as the 7th best place to raise a family.  Pittsburgh was ranked as the 4th-best city for working mothers by Forbes in 2010  and the city was ranked as one of the best for entrepreneurs by Entrepreneur.  Forbes ranked Pittsburgh, in an 8-way tie, as the world's 10th cleanest city for 2007. 
The Economist Intelligence Unit named Pittsburgh the top place to live in the United States in 2011,  and behind only Honolulu for 2012 and 2014.  
The city was listed among the 10 best U.S. places to retire in 2012 by CBS Money Watch and U.S. News.   In February 2013 Forbes again placed Pittsburgh among its 10 "most unexpectedly romantic cities" in the world .  In April 2014, Niche rated Pittsburgh the 15th-best city for millennials. 
Livability rankings typically consider factors such as cost of living, crime, and cultural opportunities. Pittsburgh has a low cost of living compared to other northeastern U.S. cities. According to the Federal Housing Board, the average price for a 3- to 4-bedroom, 2-bath family home in Pittsburgh for 2004 is $162,000, well below the national average of $264,540. Average 2010 rent for all bedrooms in Pittsburgh was $789. This compares to the nationwide average of $1,087.  Pittsburgh has five city parks and several parks managed by the Nature Conservancy. The largest, Frick Park, provides 664 acres (269 ha) of woodland park with extensive hiking and biking trails throughout steep valleys and wooded slopes. Birding enthusiasts love to visit the Clayton Hill area of Frick Park, where well over 100 species of birds have been recorded. 
Enhancing Pittsburgh's livability is the fact that the area faces little risk of natural disasters from such causes as earthquake, hurricane, wildfire, or tornado. Forbes ranked Pittsburgh as having the 2nd-lowest natural disaster risk in the nation for 2009.  Greater Pittsburgh is not entirely free of natural disasters, however. Residents living in extremely low-lying areas near the rivers or one of the 1,400 creeks and streams may have occasional floods,  such as those caused when the remnants of Hurricane Ivan hit rainfall records in 2004.  River flooding is relatively rare due to federal flood control efforts extensively managing locks, dams, and reservoirs.    Residents living near smaller tributary streams are less protected from occasional flooding. The cost of a comprehensive flood control program for the region has been estimated at a prohibitive $50 billion. 
Pittsburgh has the greatest number of bars per capita in the nation. 
Pittsburgh hosted the first professional football game and the first World Series. The city boasts several professional teams and in 2009 the city won the Sporting News title of "Best Sports City" in the United States.  and Sperling's Best Places "top 15 cities for baseball" in 2013.  College sports also have large followings with the University of Pittsburgh in football and sharing Division I basketball fans with Robert Morris and Duquesne.
Pittsburgh has a long history with its major professional sports teams—the Steelers of the National Football League, the Penguins of the National Hockey League, and the Pirates of Major League Baseball—which all share the same team colors, the official city colors of black and gold. [e] This tradition of solidarity is unique to Pittsburgh. The black-and-gold color scheme has since become widely associated with the city and personified in its famous Terrible Towel. 
"Rails to Trails", has converted miles of former rail tracks to recreational trails, including a Pittsburgh-Washington D.C. bike/walking trail.  Several mountain biking trails are within the city and suburbs, Frick Park has biking trails and Hartwood Acres Park has many miles of single track trails.  
|Pittsburgh Pirates||1882||Major League Baseball (MLB)||Baseball||PNC Park||7 [o 1]|
|Pittsburgh Steelers||1933||National Football League (NFL)||Football||Heinz Field||6 [o 2]|
|Pittsburgh Penguins||1967||National Hockey League (NHL)||Hockey||PPG Paints Arena||5 [o 3]|
|Pittsburgh Riverhounds||1999||USL Championship (USLC)||Soccer||Highmark Stadium|
|Steel City Yellow Jackets||2014||ABA||Basketball||CCAC Allegheny Arena|
- ^ The Pirates won championships in 1901, 1902, 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, and 1979. 1901 and 1902 were Pre World-Series Era Champions.
- ^ The Steelers won championships in 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979, 2005, and 2008.
- ^ The Penguins won championships in 1991, 1992, 2009, 2016, and 2017.
**Pittsburgh's ABA franchise won the 1968 title, but the Steel City Yellow Jackets franchise is heir to it only in location.
|Division I Athletics||Prominent sports||Venues||Conference||National Championships|
|University of Pittsburgh||Pitt Football (FBS)||Heinz Field||ACC||9 [o 1]|
|Pitt Basketball||Petersen Events Center||1927–28 1929–30|
|Duquesne University||Dukes Football (FCS)||Art Rooney Field||NEC||1941, 1973, 2003|
|Dukes Basketball||Palumbo Center||A10||1954–55 (NIT)|
|Robert Morris University||Colonials Basketball||Sewall Center||NEC|
|Colonials Hockey||Island Sports Center||AHA|
The Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team, often referred to as the Bucs or the Buccos (derived from buccaneer), is the city's oldest professional sports franchise having been founded in 1881, and plays in the Central Division of the National League. The Pirates are nine-time Pennant winners and five-time World Series Champions, were in the first World Series (1903) and claim two pre-World Series titles in 1901 and 1902. The Pirates play in PNC Park, annually ranked as one of the sports best venues ESPN.com stated: "[t]his is the perfect blend of location, history, design, comfort and baseball . The best stadium in baseball is in Pittsburgh."  PNC Park hosted the team's MLB record-tying fifth All-Star game in 2006.
Pittsburgh also has a rich Negro league history, with the former Pittsburgh Crawfords and the Homestead Grays credited with as many as 14 league titles and 11 Hall of Famers between them in the 1930s and 1940s, while the Keystones fielded teams in the 1920s. In addition, in 1971 the Pirates were the first Major League team to field an all-minority lineup. One sportswriter claimed, "No city is more synonymous with black baseball than Pittsburgh." 
Since the late 20th century, the Pirates had three consecutive National League Championship Series appearances (1990–92) (going 6, 7 and 7 games each), followed by setting the MLB record for most consecutive losing seasons, with 20 from 1993 until 2012. This era was followed by three consecutive postseason appearances: the 2013 National League Division Series and the 2014–2015 Wild Card games. Their September pennant race in 1997 featured the franchises' last no-hitter and last award for Sporting News' Executive of the Year. 
The city's professional team, NFL's Pittsburgh Steelers, is named after the distribution company the Pittsburgh Steeling company established in 1927. News of the team has preempted news of elections and other events, and are important to the region and its diaspora. The Steelers have been owned by the Rooney family since the team's founding in 1933, show consistency in coaching (only three coaches since the 1960s all with the same basic philosophy) and are noted as one of sports' most respectable franchises.  The Steelers have a long waiting list for season tickets, and have sold out every home game since 1972.  The team won four Super Bowls in a six-year span in the 1970s, a fifth Super Bowl in 2006, and a league record sixth Super Bowl in 2009. Since the AFL-NFL merger in 1970 they have qualified for the most NFL playoff berths (28) and have played in (15) and hosted (11) the most NFL conference championship games. [ citation needed ]
High school football routinely attract 10,000 fans per game and extensive press coverage. [ citation needed ] The Tom Cruise film All the Right Moves and ESPN's Bound for Glory with Dick Butkus both filmed in the area to capture the tradition and passion of local high school football.
College football in the city dates to 1889 with the Division I (FBS) Panthers of the University of Pittsburgh posting nine national championships and qualifying 34 total bowl games and appearing in the 2018 ACC Championship Game. Local universities Duquesne and Robert Morris have loyal fan bases that follow their lower (FCS) teams. Duquesne, Carnegie Mellon University, and Washington & Jefferson College all posted major bowl games and AP Poll rankings from the 1920s to the 1940s as that era's equivalent of Top 25 FBS programs. [ citation needed ]
Heinz Field serves as home for the Steelers, Panthers, and both the suburban and city high school championships. Playoff franchises Pittsburgh Power and Pittsburgh Gladiators competed in the Arena Football League in the 1980s and 2010s respectively. The Gladiators hosted ArenaBowl I in the city, competing in two, but losing both before moving to Tampa, Florida and becoming the Storm.  The Pittsburgh Passion has been the city's professional women's football team since 2002 and plays its home games at Highmark Stadium. The Ed Debartolo owned Pittsburgh Maulers featured a Heisman Trophy winner in the mid-1980s, former superstar University of Nebraska running back Mike Rozier.
The NHL's Pittsburgh Penguins have played in Pittsburgh since the team's founding in 1967. The team has won 6 Eastern Conference titles (1991, 1992, 2008, 2009, 2016 and 2017) and 5 Stanley Cup championships (1991, 1992, 2009, 2016 and 2017). Since 1999, Hall of Famer and back-to-back playoff MVP Mario Lemieux has served as Penguins owner. Until moving into the PPG Paints Arena in 2010 (when it was known as Consol Energy Center), the team played their home games at the world's first retractable domed stadium, the Civic Arena, or in local parlance "The Igloo". 
Ice hockey has had a regional fan base since the 1890s semi-pro Keystones. The city's first ice rink dates back to 1889, when there was an ice rink at the Casino in Schenley Park. From 1896 to 1956, the Exposition Building on the Allegheny River near The Point and Duquesne Gardens in Oakland offered indoor skating. 
The NHL awarded one of its first franchises to the city in 1924 on the strength of the back-to-back USAHA championship winning Pittsburgh Yellow Jackets featuring future Hall of Famers and a Stanley Cup winning coach. The NHL's Pittsburgh Pirates made several Stanley Cup playoff runs with a future Hall of Famer before folding from Great Depression financial pressures. Hockey survived with the Pittsburgh Hornets farm team (1936–1967) and their seven finals appearances and three championships in 18 playoff seasons.
Robert Morris University fields a Division I college hockey team at the Island Sports Center. Pittsburgh is a hotbed for semi-pro and amateur teams such as the top 50 ranked Junior Penguins, Predators and Viper Stars, with the Hornets a top 20 team for the last 7 years. [ citation needed ] Pro-grade ice rinks such as the Rostraver Ice Garden, Mt. Lebanon Recreation Center and Iceoplex at Southpointe have trained several native Pittsburgh players for NHL play. RMU hosted the city's first Frozen Four college championship in 2013 with the four PPG Paints Arena games televised by ESPN.
Professional basketball in Pittsburgh dates to the 1910s with teams "Monticello" and "Loendi" winning five national titles, the Pirates (1937–45 in the NBL), the Pittsburgh Ironmen (1947–48 NBA inaugural season), the Pittsburgh Rens (1961–63), the Pittsburgh Pipers (first American Basketball Association championship in 1968) led by Connie Hawkins (team then moved) the Pittsburgh Condors (ABA returned in 1970-72), the Pittsburgh Piranhas (CBA Finals in 1995), the Pittsburgh Xplosion (2004–08) and Phantoms (2009–10) both of the ABA. The city has hosted dozens of pre-season and 15 regular season "neutral site" NBA games, including Wilt Chamberlain's record setting performance in both consecutive field goals and field goal percentage on February 24, 1967, NBA records that still stand. 
The Duquesne University Dukes and the University of Pittsburgh Panthers have played college basketball in the city since 1914 and 1905 respectively. Pitt and Duquesne have played the annual City Game since 1932. Duquesne was the city's first team to appear in a Final Four (1940), obtain a number one AP Poll ranking (1954),  and to win a post-season national title, the 1955 National Invitation Tournament on its second straight trip to the NIT title game. Duquesne is the only college program to produce back-to-back NBA No. 1 overall draft picks with 1955's Dick Ricketts and 1956's Sihugo Green.  Duquesne's Chuck Cooper was the first African American drafted by an NBA team. 
The Panthers won two pre-tournament era Helms Athletic Foundation National Championships in 1928 and 1930, competed in a "national title game" against LSU in 1935, and made a Final Four appearance in 1941. Pitt has won 13 conference titles, qualified for the NCAA tournament 26 times including a post season tournament every season between 1999 and 2000 and 2015-2016 during which time it regularly sold out the Petersen Events Center. The program has produced 27 NBA draft picks and 15 All Americans while ranking No. 1 in the nation as recently as 2009.
The suburban Robert Morris University's Colonials have competed in NCAA Division I basketball since the 1970s, qualifying for the NCAA tournament in each of the last four decades (8). In the 2013 National Invitation Tournament the Colonials notched an upset win over the defending national champions Kentucky Wildcats.
Pittsburgh Panthers women's basketball has qualified for 14 post season tournaments (including 4 NCAA tournaments) and boasts of 5 All-Americans selected 6 times with 3 WNBA players. Pitt women began play in 1914 before being reintroduced in 1970. Both Duquesne and Robert Morris also have competitive Division I women's basketball programs.
Pittsburgh launched the nation's first high school all-star game in 1965.  The Roundball Classic annually featured future NBA hall of famers at the Civic Arena with ESPN televising. The Civic Arena also hosted the Championship Tournament for the Eastern Eight Conference from 1978 until 1982.
The Riverhounds, an American professional soccer team, were founded in 1998. Like the major league teams in the city, the Riverhounds wear black and gold kits. The club plays in the Eastern Conference of the USL Championship, the second tier of the American soccer pyramid. The Riverhounds play their home games at Highmark Stadium, a soccer-specific stadium located in Station Square.
Golf has deep roots in the area. The oldest U.S. course in continuous use, Foxburg Country Club dating from 1887 calls the region home. [ citation needed ] Suburban Oakmont Country Club holds the record for most times as host for the U.S. Open (8). [ citation needed ] U.S. Women's Open (2), PGA Championships (3), and U.S. Amateurs (8) have also called Oakmont home.
Golf legends Arnold Palmer, Jim Furyk, and Rocco Mediate learned the game and began their careers on Pittsburgh area courses.  Suburban courses such as Laurel Valley Golf Club and the Fox Chapel Golf Club have hosted PGA Championships (1937, 1965), the Ryder Cup (1975), LPGA Championships (1957–58), Senior Players Championships (2012–14), and the Senior PGA Championship (2005).
Local courses have sponsored annual major tournaments for 40 years:
Annual sports events Edit
Pittsburgh hosts several annual major sporting events initiated in the late 20th century, including the:
The city's vibrant rivers have attracted annual world-title fishing competitions of the Forrest Wood Cup in 2009 and the Bassmaster Classic in 2005.
Annual events continue during the winter months at area ski resorts such as Boyce Park, Seven Springs, Hidden Valley Resort, Laurel Mountain, and Wisp. Ice skating rinks are enjoyed at PPG Place and North Park.
Professional wrestling Edit
Many Wrestlers and promoters in the WWE started their careers in Pittsburgh including Bruno Sammartino, Kurt Angle, Corey Graves, Dominic DeNucci, Elias, and many more.
Pittsburgh was in the Limelight with the Studio Wrestling in the Fineview section of the city. [ citation needed ]
The Keystone State Wrestling Alliance (KSWA) is a professional wrestling promotion founded in Pittsburgh in 2000. It is the only promotion based in Pittsburgh. It operates in the city's Lawrenceville neighborhood. The KSWA performs Monthly on Saturdays at its main venue on 51st Street.
The Government of Pittsburgh is composed of the Mayor of Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh City Council, and various boards and commissions. The mayor and the nine-member council each serve four-year terms. Since the 1950s the Mayor's Chief of Staff has assumed a large role in advising, long term planning, and as a "gatekeeper" to the mayor. City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts. The government's official offices are in the Pittsburgh City-County Building.
The Pennsylvania Supreme Court holds sessions in Pittsburgh, as well as Harrisburg and Philadelphia. Pittsburgh is represented in the Pennsylvania General Assembly by three Senate Districts and nine House Districts. Federally, Pittsburgh is part of Pennsylvania's 18th congressional district.
In 2006, Council President Luke Ravenstahl was sworn in as mayor at age 26, becoming the youngest mayor in the history of any major American city. His successor, Bill Peduto, was sworn in on January 6, 2014. The next Mayoral election is due to take place in 2021.
Prior to the American Civil War, Pittsburgh was strongly abolitionist. It is considered the birthplace of the national Republican Party, [ citation needed ] as the party held its first convention here in February 1856. From the Civil War to the 1930s, Pittsburgh was a Republican stronghold. The effects of the Great Depression, combined with entrenched local GOP scandals, resulted in a shift among voters to the Democratic Party. With the exceptions of the 1973 and 1977 elections (where lifelong Democrats ran off the party ticket), Democrats have been elected consecutively to the mayor's office since the 1933 election. The city's ratio of party registration is 5 to 1 Democrat. 
Pittsburgh is represented in the Pennsylvania General Assembly by three Senate Districts (Lindsey Williams (D)-38, Wayne D. Fontana (D)-42, and Jay Costa (D)-43) and nine House Districts (Jake Wheatley-19, Adam Ravenstahl-20, Sara Innamorato-21, Dan Frankel-23, Ed Gainey-24, Dan Deasy-27, Summer Lee-34, and Harry Readshaw-36, Dan Miller-42).
Federally, Pittsburgh is part of Pennsylvania's 18th congressional district, represented by Democrat Michael F. Doyle since 1995.
Law enforcement Edit
The area's largest law enforcement agency is the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police, with close to 850 sworn officers. The city also has separate housing and school police departments. Other agencies also provide police protection within the city because of overlapping jurisdictional boundaries. The Allegheny County Sheriff focuses on jail and courthouse security. The Allegheny County Police primarily patrols county-owned parks and airports, while providing detective/investigatory functions for smaller suburbs and the Port Authority police patrols rapid transit. Pennsylvania State Police Troop B provides patrols for the city and immediate suburbs.
The county's lead law enforcement officer is Allegheny County District Attorney Stephen Zappala while the Allegheny County Medical Examiner heads forensics. Crimes of a federal nature are covered by the U.S. Attorney for Western Pennsylvania.
Pittsburgh annually ranks as one of America's safest big cities, in 2013 being named the 3rd "most secure" big city by Farmers Insurance.  Among crime rates of the 60 largest U.S. cities, 43 had more instances of property crime while 16 had less when compared to Pittsburgh. More instances of violent crime were reported in 21 of the largest cities while 37 had less. The FBI recommends against using data for ranking.   Per 100,000 persons stats (2012):
|Murder||Rape||Robbery||Assault||Burglary||Theft||Motor Vehicle||Total Violent||Total Property|
At the end of 2019, the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police reported 37 murders in the city that year. 
The campuses of Carlow, Carnegie Mellon, and the University of Pittsburgh are near each other in the Oakland neighborhood that is the city's traditional cultural center. Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), a private research university founded by Andrew Carnegie and Andrew Mellon, is ranked 23rd overall on the US News & World Report list of America's Best National Universities.  CMU is globally respected for its School of Computer Science, College of Engineering, School of Business, Heinz College, College of Fine Arts, writing, Social and Decision Sciences, information systems, statistics, and psychology programs.
Carlow University is a small private Catholic university that while coeducational, has traditionally educated women. Chatham University, a liberal arts college that was founded as a woman's college but became fully coeducational in 2015,  is in the Shadyside neighborhood, but also maintains a 388-acre (157 ha) Eden Hall Farm campus in the North Hills. Duquesne University, a private Catholic university in the Bluff neighborhood and is noted for its song and dance troupe, the Duquesne University Tamburitzans, as well as programs in law, business, and pharmacy. Point Park University was founded in 1961 and is well known for its Conservatory of Performing Arts and its Pittsburgh Playhouse.
Pittsburgh Public Schools teachers are paid well relative to their peers, ranking 17th in 2000 among the 100 largest cities by population for the highest minimum salary. In 2018 the starting teacher salary offered to teachers with a BA was $46,920. The maximum annual salary for a teacher with a master's degree was $95,254. 
Private schools in Pittsburgh include Bishop Canevin High School, Central Catholic High School, Oakland Catholic High School, Winchester Thurston School, St. Edmund's Academy, Hillel Academy of Pittsburgh, Yeshiva Schools and The Ellis School. Shady Side Academy maintains a PK–5 primary school campus in the Point Breeze neighborhood, in addition to its 6–12 middle and upper school campuses in nearby suburban Fox Chapel. Other private institutions outside of Pittsburgh's limits include North Catholic High School and Seton-La Salle Catholic High School.
The city also has an extensive library system, both public and university. Most notable are the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh's University Library System, which rank 9th-largest (public) and 18th-largest (academic) in the nation, respectively. 
There are two major daily newspapers in Pittsburgh: the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review online only (no longer in print for Pittsburgh Area). Weekly papers in the region include the Pittsburgh Business Times, Pittsburgh City Paper, Pittsburgh Catholic, Pittsburgh Jewish Chronicle, The New People, and the New Pittsburgh Courier. Independent student-written university-based newspapers include The Pitt News of the University of Pittsburgh, The Tartan of Carnegie Mellon University, The Duquesne Duke of Duquesne University, and The Globe of Point Park University. The University of Pittsburgh School of Law is also home to JURIST, the world's only university-based legal news service. [ citation needed ]
The Pittsburgh metro area is served by many local television and radio stations. The Pittsburgh designated market area (DMA) is the 22nd-largest in the U.S. with 1,163,150 homes (1.045% of the total U.S.).  The major network television affiliates are KDKA-TV 2 (CBS), WTAE 4 (ABC), WPXI 11 (NBC), WPGH-TV 53 (Fox), KNNP-TV, WPCW 19 (CW), WINP-TV 16 (Ion), WPNT 22 (MyNetworkTV), and WPCB 40 (Cornerstone). KDKA-TV, WPCW, WINP-TV, and WPCB are network owned-and-operated stations. WEPA-CD 16 is an independent station owned and operated by the Bruno-Goodworth Network.
WQED 13 is the local Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) station in Pittsburgh. It was established on April 1, 1954, and was the first community-sponsored television station and the fifth public station in the United States. The station has produced much original content for PBS, including Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, several National Geographic specials, and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego? 
There is a wide variety of radio stations serving the Pittsburgh market. The first was KDKA 1020 AM, also the world's first commercially licensed radio station, airing on November 2, 1920.  Other stations include KQV 1410 AM (news), WBGG 970 AM (sports), KDKA-FM 93.7 FM (sports), WKST-FM 96.1 FM (pop), WAMO-AM 660 AM (hip-hop and R&B) WBZZ 100.7 FM (adult contemporary), WDVE 102.5 FM (album rock), WPGB 104.7 FM (Country), and WXDX 105.9 FM (modern rock). There are also three public radio stations in the area including WESA 90.5 FM (National Public Radio affiliate), WQED 89.3 FM (classical), and WYEP 91.3 FM (adult alternative). Three non-commercial stations are run by Carnegie Mellon University (WRCT 88.3 FM), the University of Pittsburgh (WPTS 92.1 FM), and Point Park University (WPPJ 670 AM).
Pittsburgh's 116-year-old film industry accelerated after the 2006 passage of the Pennsylvania Film Production Tax Credit.  According to the Pittsburgh Film Office, over 124 major motion pictures have been filmed, in whole or in part, in Pittsburgh, including The Mothman Prophecies, Wonder Boys,  Dogma,  Hoffa, The Silence of the Lambs,  Sudden Death, Flashdance,  Southpaw, Striking Distance, Mrs. Soffel, Jack Reacher, Inspector Gadget, The Next Three Days, The Perks of Being a Wallflower,  Zack and Miri Make a Porno, and Fences.   Pittsburgh became "Gotham City" in 2011 during filming of The Dark Knight Rises.  George A. Romero has shot nearly all his films in the area, including his Living Dead series. [ citation needed ]
The city is served by Duquesne Light, one of the original 1912 power companies founded by George Westinghouse.  Water service is provided by the Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority  and Pennsylvania American Water. Natural gas is provided by Equitable Gas, Columbia Gas, Dominion Resources, Direct Energy, and Novec. 
The two largest area health care providers are the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) (since 1893) and Allegheny Health Network (since 1882). Both hospitals annually rank as among the best overall in the United States, with UPMC being among [ when? ] U.S. News and World Report 's "Honor Roll" every year since 2000. [ citation needed ]
The first military hospital in U.S. history as well as the first west of the Atlantic Plain—General Edward Hand Hospital—served the area from 1777 to 1845.  Since 1847, Pittsburgh has hosted the world's first "Mercy Hospital".  This was followed by West Penn hospital in 1848, Passavant Hospital in 1849,  the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in 1883, Children's Hospital in 1887, and Magee Womens Hospital in 1911. In 1954, Allegheny General (AGH) was among the first to administer Cobalt therapy. 
In 1980, UPMC announced a $250 million ($891 million today) expansion and also hired transplant pioneer Dr. Thomas Starzl.  In 1984, Allegheny General surgeons pioneered modern brain surgery. Dr. Starzl arranged the 1985 liver transplant of 5-year-old Amie Garrison as a UPMC surgery team flew to Baylor University, starting its transplant program.  Also in 1985, UPMC surgeons Drs. Griffith, Hardesty, and Trento revealed a new device after a heart-lung transplant. In 1986, UPMC announced a $230 million ($543 million today) modernization. In 1996, UPMC's planned Sicily ISMETT branch was approved by the Italian government as transplant surgeons to supervise and deliver the world's third (both earlier ones done at UPMC)--and first public—cross species marrow transplant at University of California, San Francisco.  UPMC's Thomas Detre founded the International Society for Bipolar Disorders at a world medical conference in Pittsburgh in 1999. 
The $80 million ($120 million today) UPMC Sports Performance Complex for the Pittsburgh Panthers & Pittsburgh Steelers opened in 2000. In 2002, AGH opened its $30 million ($43.8 million today), 5-floor, 100,000 sq. ft., cancer center. The $130 million ($187 million today) 350,000 sq. ft. Hillman Cancer Center opened in 2003 as UPMC entered into an 8-year, $420 million ($575 million today) agreement with IBM to upgrade medical technologies & health information systems. [ citation needed ]
In 2009, the $600 million ($721 million today) UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh opened. The campus was featured in world news in 2012 for several unique approaches to patient care.  UPMC officially adopted in Erie, Pennsylvania's Hamot Medical Center in 2010. The Pittsburgh Penguins announced a state of the art training facility with UPMC in 2012.  UPMC announced in 2013 it had partnered with Nazarbayev University to help found its medical school. 
Health discoveries Edit
While he was a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, American virologist Jonas Salk developed one of the first successful polio vaccines, which came into use in 1955.
UPMC has pioneered several world firsts including the first known cystic fibrosis heart-lung transplant (1983), the world's first simultaneous liver and heart transplant operation on a child (6-year-old Stormie Jones in 1984), the youngest heart-lung transplant (9 years old in 1985), the world's first heart-liver-kidney transplant (1989), the world's first heart-liver transplant on an infant (1997),  the first pediatric heart-double lung-liver transplant (1998), the nation's first double hand transplant (2009), and the first total forearm and hand transplant (2010), as well as the state's first heart transplant (1968).  
The Lancet published a 2012 UPMC study of two 9-year quadriplegics being able to move a robotic arm by thought, to pick up objects, shake hands, and even eat. Wiring the brain around spine damage to restore arm and leg muscle function was successful using robotic arms controlled via an embedded computer to translate signals near a small group of neurons with 200 needles. 
Pittsburgh is a city of bridges. With 446,  it has three bridges more than Venice, Italy, which has historically held the title "City of Bridges."  Around 40 bridges cross the three rivers near the city. The Smithfield Street Bridge was the world's first lenticular truss bridge. The city's Three Sisters Bridges offer a picturesque view of the city from the North. The south-western "entrance" to Downtown for travelers coming in from Interstate 79 and the Pittsburgh International Airport is through the Fort Pitt Tunnel and over the Fort Pitt Bridge. The Fort Duquesne Bridge carrying Interstate 279 is the main gateway from Downtown to both PNC Park, Heinz Field and the Rivers Casino. The Panhandle Bridge carries the Port Authority's Blue/Red/Brown subway lines across the Monongahela River. The renovated J&L Steel Company bridge has been a key traffic/running-biking trail conduit connecting the Southside Works and Pittsburgh Technology Center. Over 2,000 bridges span the landscape of Allegheny County. 
Public transportation statistics Edit
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Pittsburgh, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 73 min. 23% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 17 min, while 33% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 3.9 mi (6.3 km), while 11% travel for over 7.5 mi (12 km) in a single direction. 
Expressways and highways Edit
Locals refer to the interstates fanning out from downtown Pittsburgh as the "parkways." Interstate 376 is both the "parkway east" connecting to Interstate 76 (Pennsylvania Turnpike) and the "parkway west" connecting to Interstate 79, the Pittsburgh International Airport, the Ohio end of the Turnpike and Interstate 80. The "parkway north" is Interstate 279 connecting to I-79. The "crosstown" is Interstate 579 allowing access to the heart of downtown, the Liberty Tunnels and the PPG Paints Arena. The 45-mile-long and 70-mile-long expressway sections of Pennsylvania Route 28 and U.S. Route 22 also carry traffic from downtown to the northeast and western suburbs, respectively. Interstate 70, 79 and 76 (the Turnpike) roughly form a triangular-shaped "beltway" with Interstate 68 and 80 within the media market's northern and southern limits. Turnpike spurs such as the Mon–Fayette Expressway, Pennsylvania Route 576 and Route 66 also help traffic flow. The non-expressway Pittsburgh/Allegheny County Belt System serves navigation in the region.
The city announced plans to make several improvements to the expressways and highways in 2017:
- Interstate 279/Parkway North will have emergency pull-offs and crossover areas constructed in both directions $87.9 million project 
- Interstate 376 will undergo median crossover work $66.3 million project 
- Interstate 79 will be repaved $16.7 million project 
- Route 65 will have improvements such as concrete patching, an asphalt overlay, bridge reconstruction, base repairs, drainage and guide rail updates, new signs, retaining wall repairs and pavement-marking installation $25.3 million project 
Pittsburgh International Airport provides commercial passenger service from over 15 airlines to the Pittsburgh metropolitan area. Arnold Palmer Regional Airport also provides limited commercial passenger service and is 44 miles (71 km) east of Pittsburgh.
Other airports with scheduled commercial service include Morgantown Municipal Airport (79 miles (127 km) south of Pittsburgh), Youngstown–Warren Regional Airport (81 miles (130 km) northwest of Pittsburgh), Akron–Canton Airport (120 miles (190 km) northwest of Pittsburgh), and Erie International Airport (123 miles (198 km) north of Pittsburgh).
Intercity passenger rail and bus Edit
Amtrak provides intercity rail service to Pittsburgh Union Station, via the Capitol Limited between Chicago and Washington D.C, and Pennsylvanian to New York City.
Megabus, Greyhound Lines, and Fullington Trailways connect Pittsburgh with distant cities by bus Greyhound and Fullington Trailways buses stop at the Grant Street Transportation Center intercity bus terminal. Popular destinations include Philadelphia, New York City, and Washington, D.C. 
Until declines in passenger travel in the 1950s and 1960s, several stations served Pittsburgh: Baltimore & Ohio Station, Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad Station, Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal and Pittsburgh Union Station.
Regional mass transit Edit
Port Authority of Allegheny County, commonly known as the Port Authority, but sometimes referred to by its former nickname "PAT" or "PAT Transit", is the region's mass transit system. While serving only a portion of the Pittsburgh area (the nation's 20th largest metro area), it is the 11th largest transit agency in the nation and helped the region rank 8th on commuters that use non-car means to work, second to only Chicago in metros outside the Northeast corridor.  Port Authority runs a network of intracity and intercity bus routes, the Monongahela Incline Funicular railway (more commonly known as an "incline") on Mount Washington, a light rail system that runs mostly above-ground in the suburbs and underground as a subway in the city, and one of the nation's largest busway systems.  The Duquesne Incline is operated by a non-profit preservation trust,  but accepts Port Authority passes and charges Port Authority fares.
The Bus System lines are labeled by number and letter. These are the largest portion of Port Authority and serve on streets and designated busways. Buses serve most of the county, extending as far as Pittsburgh International Airport, Monroeville, McCandless, and the borders of Westmoreland County and Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Meanwhile, the light rail system (commonly known as the "T") runs along both new tracks and those refurbished from the street car area. The light rail currently [ when? ] runs from Heinz Field to South Hills Village and Library, while taking commuters through one of two routes one which serves Castle Shannon, Mt. Lebanon, and Beechview, while the other is an express line using railways through Overbrook
Freight rail Edit
Pittsburgh's rail industry dates to 1851 when the Pennsylvania Railroad first opened service between the city and Philadelphia, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad entered the city in 1871. In 1865 Andrew Carnegie opened the Pittsburgh Locomotive and Car Works which manufactured for the industry until 1919. Carnegie also founded the Union Railroad in 1894 for heavy freight services and it still serves the area's steel industry, while George Westinghouse's Wabtec has been a leader in rail engines and switching since 1869.
Pittsburgh is home to one of Norfolk Southern Railway's busiest freight corridors, the Pittsburgh Line, and operates up to 70 trains per day through the city. The suburban Conway Rail Yard—originally built in 1889—was the largest freight rail center in the world from 1956 until 1980 and is today the nation's second-largest. CSX, the other major freight railroad in the eastern U.S. also has major operations around Pittsburgh.
The Port of Pittsburgh ranks as the 20th-largest port in the United States with almost 34 million short tons of river cargo for 2011, the port ranked 9th-largest in the U.S. when measured in domestic trade. 
- Bilbao, Spain
- Da Nang, Vietnam
- Donetsk, Ukraine
- Fernando de la Mora, Paraguay
- Gaziantep, Turkey
- Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
- Karmiel, Israel
- Matanzas, Cuba
- Misgav, Israel
- Naucalpan, Mexico
- Ostrava, Czech Republic
- Prešov, Slovakia
- Saarbrücken, Germany
- Saitama, Japan
- San Isidro, Nicaragua
- Sheffield, England, United Kingdom a
- Skopje, North Macedonia
- Sofia, Bulgaria
- Taranto, Italy
- Wuhan, China
- Zagreb, Croatia
a. ^ Pittsburgh and Sheffield are both known as Steel City for their connections with the steel industry.
The "H" is Back!
The new official spelling was resisted by many people in the city. The Pittsburgh Gazette refused to adopt the Board's decision, as did the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange and the University of Pittsburgh. Official city documents continued to use the old spelling. Responding to mounting pressure, the Board reversed the decision on July 19, 1911, and the Pittsburgh spelling was restored after 20 years of contention.
Many cities across the United States named after the city of Pittsburgh, such as Pittsburg, Kansas and Pittsburg, California continue to use the "Pittsburg" spelling in their names. Other independent municipalities, such as the borough of East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, reflect the modern spelling.
History of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh stands at the point where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers come together to become the Ohio River. It is the second most populous city in Pennsylvania, after Philadelphia, and the metropolis of the western part of the state. George Washington visited the Pittsburgh area in 1753 on an expedition dispatched by the governor of Virginia. He reported that the site was well suited for a fort. The French thought so as well, and built Fort Duquesne there in 1754. Towards the end of their conflict with the British, the French abandoned and burned the fort in the face of an advance by General John Forbes. The British then built their own fort, which they called Fort Pitt in honor of their prime minister. The first community of settlers was established in 1764 and took the name Pittsburgh. A town was laid out in 1784. That year, Pittsburgh received a charter as a borough and became a city in 1816. Possession of Pittsburgh was disputed between Virginia and Pennsylvania, but the dispute was resolved in Pennsylvania's favor by a joint commission in 1785. Discontent in Western Pennsylvania came to a boil in the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794. The uprising was supported throughout the area and the citizens of Pittsburgh were particularly active in it. In 1877, the first great American railroad strike took place. In Pittsburgh, the state militia refused to fire on strikers, so the governor ordered the National Guard fromPhiladelphia to restore order. Those soldiers were willing to fire on the crowd, which they did with a loss of more than 20 lives, including women and children. A strike in 1892 at the Carnegie plant at Homestead, a few miles outside Pittsburgh, resulted in battles between the company-employed Pinkerton detectives and strikers. Eventually, martial law was declared. Pennsylvania law has made it easy for municipalities to be formed and difficult to merge them. In general, a majority in favor from both municipalities has been required. In 1905, the legislature was persuaded to pass a law allowing a one-time exemption to this rule, in order to combine Pittsburgh with its northern neighbor Allegheny. Under that law, only a majority of the combined voters was required. The following year, voters in Pittsburgh and Allegheny voted on consolidation, with Pittsburgh favoring it and Allegheny opposing. However, Pittsburgh's numerical superiority meant that a majority was in favor. In 1907, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the law was valid and Allegheny was annexed on December 9 of that year. Allegheny now constitutes the north side of Pittsburgh. The many steel mills and other industrial concerns in Pittsburgh once produced so much smoke and soot that the city earned the title "Smoky City." Efforts to clean up the air began in 1941 and stringent regulations on air pollution, combined with a decline in the industries that produced it, has resulted in Pittsburgh now having air that is clean and healthful. The Allegheny Observatory is a University of Pittsburgh research facility. The Carnegie Science Center boasts an interactive planetarium and a World War II submarine. Fallingwater, Frank Lloyd Wright's masterpiece, offers tours to visitors. Hartwood Mansion, a 629-acre estate park, contains a 16th-century Tudor-style mansion with an original collection of English and American antiques, and a farm and stable complex. The Houdini Museum commemorates the great escape artist's life with memorabilia and a daily show. Pittsburgh's first teaching hospital was Allegheny General Hospital, still in service. Chatham College enjoys a $50-million-dollar endowment, one of the largest per student in the nation. Other higher-education institutions in Pittsburgh include Point Park College and the University of Pittsburgh.
Born in 1983, when Second Avenue was known as the "Depression Corridor,"JaQuay Edward Carter, award-winning historian, is deeply rooted in the Greater Hazelwood neighborhood, stretching back 4 generations. In 2018, he was directed back to his hometown with a passion for history and a commitment to community service.
"His-Story" In The Making
JaQuay Edward Carter was born to serve others, with a long history of community service, military service, and human services advocacy. He is deeply rooted in the Greater Hazelwood community, stretching back four generations to the year 1942. JaQuay was born and raised in this same community during the 1980s and 1990s respectively, when the main drag in Hazelwood was known as the "Depression Corridor."
This derogatory colloquialism was given to Second Avenue as an economic decline of industries related to steel production ceased operations. In the early 1990s, JaQuay and his family moved across the Monongahela River to nearby Homestead, where he was educated within the Steel Valley School District. The community of Greater Hazelwood remained an integral part of his life. He regularly visited family and friends, while remaining an active member of the Hazelwood Presbyterian Church congregation. Upon graduation, he joined the United States Marine Corps - serving as a Logistics/Embarkation Specialist at Albany, Georgia. He was honorably discharged in 2002.
JaQuay began his post-secondary education at the Community College of Allegheny County, earning an associate degree in Ethnic and Diversity Studies. Soon after, he enrolled at the University of Pittsburgh, where he received his undergraduate degree in History Education/Africana Studies. He continued to serve his community, working for the Corporation of National and Community Service as a KEYS AmeriCorps Service member at Propel Charter School in Homestead. JaQuay worked in the non-profit sector for the next few years at both the Garfield Jubilee Association’s YouthBuild program and the Thomas Merton Center in Pittsburgh’s East End neighborhood. More opportunities to volunteer his time and talent would follow, including a mentorship at Seeds of Hope Church & Earthen Vessels Outreach in 2012.
In 2015, he started to research the history of his beloved hometown. Mr. Carter began sharing his wealth of knowledge on social media, where he quickly developed a large following. In 2018, JaQuay was directed back to Hazelwood through his passion for history and neighborhood pride. He founded the award-winning Greater Hazelwood Historical Society (GHHS) and Cultural Center in January 2018 with its mission "to preserve pillars of the community's past." This is where passion met preparation and when his life's work began.
From its inception, the GHHS has worked closely with the local community development corporation, Hazelwood Initiative (HI). GHHS provided historical content for the Hazelwood Homepage newspaper, distributed by HI. At the beginning of February, GHHS had begun a campaign to save the Historic Carnegie Library of 1899.
By the end of February, GHHS had raised over $1700 in grassroots funds assembled a Board of Trustees gained over 550 petition signatures established rapport with URA met with Councilman O’Connor and assembled a preservation team. GHHS was awarded a Neighborhood Investment Fund grant from Hazelwood Initiative. Hazelwood Initiative was a sponsor, along with the Pittsburgh-Post Gazette, in a GHHS event to honor the 150th Anniversary of Hazelwood's founding. JaQuay and GHHS were featured prominently in a June 2018 front-page Post-Gazette profile.
On October 5, 2018, JaQuay was awarded the Dr. Dan Holland Promise Award by the Young Preservationists Association (YPA) “for his work in creating the Greater Hazelwood Historical Society and for igniting interest in preserving the old Hazelwood Carnegie Library.” JaQuay traveled with YPA to Woodbridge, Virginia as a facilitator of an historic preservation lecture at the Creighton’s Corner FUTURA Center. In December of 2018, the GHHS was awarded a $25,000 grant from the Heinz Endowments in partnership with Propel Hazelwood Charter School and the Heinz History Center. In February 2019, GHHS was profiled for WESA’s 90 Neighborhoods, 90 Good Stories in celebration of people making a difference in Pittsburgh. In August of 2019, GHHS was featured in the Heinz Endowments’ “h” magazine. GHHS has contributed scholarship and historical research to artists, developers, students, residents, stakeholders, and the community-at-large.
GHHS has also worked with the Regional Industrial Development Corporation (RIDC) and the Hazelwood Green development Rivers of Steel Center of Life the Greater Hazelwood Community Collaborative. GHHS, in collaboration with Duquesne University’s Center for Community-Engaged Teaching and Research, will exchange knowledge and resources related to public service initiatives, teaching, programming, and research.
Exhibits & Events
Examine the bold experiment to create a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people” in American Democracy: A Great Leap of Faith.
Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood
Visit the Special Collections Gallery to see original set pieces and exclusive artifacts from "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood."
Independence Day Celebration
Celebrate the spirit of America with historical demonstrations and period games at Meadowcroft’s 18th century frontier area and 19th century rural village.
Insider Tour of Meadowcroft Rockshelter
Enjoy an exclusive insider tour of Meadowcroft Rockshelter with James M. Adovasio, Ph.D., lead archaeologist on the site.
Summer Sidewalk Series: Pittsburgh’s Favorites
Join us outside this summer at the History Center’s Penn Avenue lot for family-friendly activities that explore stories from our region!
Station Square and Preservation in Downtown
In the mid 1970s, PHLF began its most ambitious and successful program, the redevelopment of Station Square, a riverfront development along the Monongahela directly opposite Downtown Pittsburgh. PHLF conceived the idea in 1975 when there was talk of tearing down some of the under-utilized Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad buildings, which were constructed between 1897 and 1917. Although few Pittsburgh leaders and politicians believed that PHLF would be successful, the Allegheny Foundation, a Scaife Family charitable trust generously provided PHLF with an initial $5 million equity grant and supported the development for two decades.
From 1976 to 1984, PHLF would serve as the prime developer of the site, eventually acquiring 52 acres of riverfront property, where PHLF was able to put its principles into practice:
- Historic buildings were reused for offices, shops, restaurants, and entertainment
- Parking was conveniently placed near buildings
- Open squares and landscapes were humanly scaled
- Artifacts such as a paddlewheel, Bessemer converter, blowing engine, and bridge finial were treated as sculpture
- And, for the first time in Pittsburgh, underdeveloped riverfront land was utilized as an amenity for people.
In 1976, PHLF started the acquisition of a 52-acre rail road yard along the Monongahela, redeveloping it into Station Square, an office, retail, and entertainment complex on Pittsburgh’s South Side
Five historic railroad buildings were adapted for new uses, and a hotel, a dock for the Gateway Clipper fleet, and parking areas were added. PHLF developed Station Square without using city, county, or state funds, and repaid a federal loan ahead of schedule. The total investment by PHLF and its sub-developers was over $100 million. Upon completion of Station Square, PHLF had taken a site that generated $47,000 in real estate and nothing in parking taxes to one that produced $4 million a year in real estate and parking taxes, created 3,000 jobs, with 143 businesses.
When PHLF sold Station Square in 1994 because its historic preservation goals had been achieved, the sale proceeds of about $25 million plus continuing economic participation were added to funds that help continue the organization’s work in neighborhood revitalization, historic preservation programs, and educational activities. PHLF is only one of few such organizations in the preservation field that has been able to generate revenue while putting its mission to practice.
Now owned by Forest City Enterprises, Inc., a Cleveland-based real estate developer, Station Square continues to be a popular Pittsburgh destination, which offers commercial office space, entertainment, parking convenient to Downtown Pittsburgh, riverboat entertainment, and other amenities.
Exhibits & Events
Examine the bold experiment to create a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people” in American Democracy: A Great Leap of Faith.
Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood
Visit the Special Collections Gallery to see original set pieces and exclusive artifacts from "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood."
Independence Day Celebration
Celebrate the spirit of America with historical demonstrations and period games at Meadowcroft’s 18th century frontier area and 19th century rural village.
Insider Tour of Meadowcroft Rockshelter
Enjoy an exclusive insider tour of Meadowcroft Rockshelter with James M. Adovasio, Ph.D., lead archaeologist on the site.
Summer Sidewalk Series: Pittsburgh’s Favorites
Join us outside this summer at the History Center’s Penn Avenue lot for family-friendly activities that explore stories from our region!