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Curtiss Mohawk I

Curtiss Mohawk I

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Curtiss Mohawk I

The Curtiss Mohawk I was the designation given to a small number of Hawk H75A-1s that escaped to Britain after the German victory in France. These aircraft were

powered by a 1,050hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-SC3G engine, and were armed with four 7.5mm machine guns, two in the nose and two in the wings. Their throttle operated in the opposite direction to the British standard, with forward reducing power. The Mohawk I and Mohawk II were allocated serial numbers in the blocks AX880-98 (19 numbers), BJ 876-8 (3), RK 876-9 (4) and BL 220-3 (4), for a total of 30.


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Mohawk, self-name Kanien’kehá:ka (“People of the Flint”), Iroquoian-speaking North American Indian tribe and the easternmost tribe of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy. Within the confederacy they were considered to be the “keepers of the eastern door.” At the time of European colonization, they occupied three villages west of what is now Schenectady, New York.

Like the other Iroquois tribes, the Mohawk were semisedentary. Women engaged in corn (maize) agriculture men hunted during the fall and winter and fished during the summer. Related families lived together in longhouses, a symbol of Iroquois society. Each Mohawk community also had a local council that guided the village chief or chiefs.

According to some traditional accounts, the Mohawk visionary chief Dekanawida, who preached principles of peace, was instrumental in founding the Iroquois Confederacy. The Mohawk had nine representatives in the confederacy, three each from their Turtle, Wolf, and Bear clans. As with other Iroquois-speaking tribes, the Mohawk warred frequently against neighbouring Algonquian-speakers the Dutch introduction of firearms during the fur trade increased the number of Mohawk victories. After contact with Europeans, however, the tribe diminished rapidly because of introduced diseases such as smallpox. Most Mohawk allied with the British in the French and Indian War, but some Catholic converts at mission settlements in Canada espoused the French cause and guided expeditions against their former alliance brothers.

During the American Revolution the Mohawk were pro-British as the war concluded, they followed their leader Joseph Brant (Thayendanega) to Canada, where they have descendants at the Bay of Quinte and the Six Nations Indian Reserve at Brantford, Ontario.

Although they are involved in many professions, contemporary Mohawk people may be best known for their work on high steel construction projects, including the Empire State Building and the George Washington Bridge, both in New York City. For some individuals this dangerous work may represent a continuation of the Mohawk ideals of bravery and personal risk taking for the greater good.

Population estimates suggested some 47,000 Mohawk descendants in the early 21st century.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History.

Origins of the Mohawk Skywalkers

Undated photograph of Robert McComber, from Caughnawaga Indian Reserve, working on high steel constructions site in downtown Montreal as a welder. 

Boris Spremo/Toronto Star via Getty Images

The Mohawk Skywalker tradition began in 1886 when some daring Mohawk men from Kahnawake took jobs helping build the Victoria Bridge across the St. Lawrence River, which borders their reserve near Montreal. Just as early European settlers had observed Mohawks walking fearlessly across rivers on narrow logs, early ironworkers showed an unusual aptitude for climbing and working on steel beams. Having once hunted, trapped and farmed throughout the northeast woodlands, the Mohawks of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy, eventually took to the high steel in burgeoning metropolitan areas. These indigenous riveting gangs spoke their native languages on the job while helping to build the Chrysler Building, Empire State Building, Rockefeller Plaza and many other structures that shaped the New York City skyline in the 1920s and 1930s.


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CURTISS Aircraft Manuals PDF

Some CURTISS Aircraft Pilot's Fight & Parts Manuals PDF are above the page.

Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company is the now defunct American aircraft manufacturer, founded in 1916 by aviation pioneer Glen Curtiss.

In the 1920s and 1930s, the company was the largest aircraft manufacturer in the United States. After Glenn Curtiss left Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company became part of Curtiss-Wright Corporation.

On July 5, 1929, the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, together with its eleven subsidiaries, became part of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. One of the latest projects being developed by the company was the Curtiss-Bleecker SX-5-1 helicopter.

Since 1961, the company began to actively develop the field of rocket science in the segments of rocket and space technology and missile weapons.

Research Resources for Schenectady County

Where to Go

Historical and genealogical resources may be found at the Schenectady County Historical Society, the Schenectady County Public Library, county, city and town clerks and historians and many other organizations. See Research Help for more information.

Don't forget the catalog of the Southern Adirondack Library System/Mohawk Valley Library System, which includes the holdings of public libraries in Fulton, Hamilton, Montgomery, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schoharie, Warren and Washington Counties the Upper Hudson Library System catalog (Albany and Rensselaer Counties), and Excelsior, the New York State Library's catalog.

How to Get There

The Schenectady County Public Library is located at the corner of Liberty and Clinton Streets, across a corner from the Efner History Research Library at City Hall and down the street from Union College. The Historical Society is located a few minutes west of the library (drive to the end of Union St., take a right on Washington Ave., and it's on your left). The New York State Library is about 45 minutes east in Albany (see parking and location information). You might want to check our frequently beautiful, but always interesting weather before you come. For more information about our area, see our Schenectady County and Capital District area links.

The Mohawk Tribe

The Mohawk tribe of Indians were one of many tribes that were part of the Iroquois Confederation and inhabited the area around the Great Lakes and parts of what is now Canada and the state of New York. They were considered the keepers of the Eastern Door, or borders, protecting the Iroquois nation from invasions from that direction. In their course of survival, the Mohawk tribe allied with the Dutch in the 17th century and later became allies of the English crown. The Mohawk tribe fought mostly against the United States in the Revolutionary War.

Post-Revolutionary War on November 11, 1794, leaders of the Mohawk tribe signed the Treaty of Canandaigua with the United States. They moved north into present-day Canada and became mercenaries of the British army. Today, descendents of the Mohawk tribe can be found in southeastern Canada and parts of New York. Though many have integrated into American and Canadian societies, many still live on reservations. Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe at the Saint Regis Reservation is the largest Mohawk organization and is governed by their own elected officials, which continue to be recognized by the United States federal government to this day. These elected officials are still known as chiefs and are independently elected by their tribe to represent the tribe in all dealings with the federal government.

The Mohawk tribe, along with other Indian tribes and nations, has been a source of intrigue and inspiration, both of which have inspired early American Literature. The Mohawk tribe held many beliefs and customs sacred and the Mohawk tribe warriors had a distinct appearance. They typically wore their hair shaved on both sides of their head, with the full length of their hair left only in a strip down the center of the head, hence the modern day hairstyle we know as the Mohawk.

Developed from the radial-engine P-36A Curtiss Mohawk, the XP-40 of 1938 was fitted with an Allison liquid-cooled in-line engine. The first production P-40 B and C's, were supplied to the RAF as Tomahawks and were used by No 3 Squadron, RAAF, in the Middle East. The next version of this Curtiss fighter, the P-40D, became known as the Kittyhawk Mk I, and was followed by the P-40E (Mk IA), P-40F (Mk II), P-40K, M (Mk III) and the P-40N (Mk IV). In the US Army Air Force, the latter P-40 series were known as Warhawks.

Early in 1942, the Japanese were threatening New Guinea, and great expectations centred on the operational debut of the RAAF's new and only fighter which hard-pressed troops were calling the "Never-hawk". Then in March 1942, when No 75 Squadron flew its Kittyhawks into operations over Port Moresby, the tide of battle began to turn. For most of the war years, the Kittyhawks of Nos 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 84 and 86 Squadrons bore the brunt of air warfare in the counter-air and fighter-bomber roles. Many famous RAAF fighter pilots were associated with Kittyhawks, including Squadron Leader "Bluey" Truscott who was killed in A29-150 on 28 March 1943. The 841 RAAF Kittyhawks included 163 P-40E, 42 P-40K, 90 P-40 M and 553 P-40N models. The Kittyhawk was retired from RAAF service in 1947.

General characteristics

Crew: 1
Length: 31 ft 9 in(9.68 m)
Wingspan: 37 ft 4 in (11.38 m)
Height: 12 ft 4 in (3.76 m)
Wing area: 235.94 ft² (21.92 m²)
Empty weight: 6,300 lb (2,858 kg)
Loaded weight: 9,100 lb (4128 kg)
Powerplant: 1× 1,600 hp Allison V-1710-73 or 81 liquid-cooled V12 engine


Maximum speed: 361 mph (314 knots, 582 km/h)
Cruise speed: 270 mph (235 knots, 435 km/h)
Range: 650 mi (560 nm, 1,100 km)
Service ceiling: 29,000 ft (8,800 m)
Rate of climb: 2,100 ft/min (11 m/s)
Wing loading: 35.1 lb/ft² (171.5 kg/m²)
Power/mass: 0.14 hp/lb (230 W/kg)


Guns: 6× .50 in (12.7 mm) Browning M2 machine guns - 281 rounds/gun
Bombs: 1,000 lb (454 kg) on three hardpoints

For more information about individual aircraft click here.

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Curtiss Mohawk I - History

The Curtiss P-36 Hawk, also known as the Curtiss Hawk Model 75, is an American-designed and built fighter aircraft of the 1930s and 40s.

The Curtiss Model 75 was a private venture by the company, designed by former Northrop Aircraft Company engineer Don R. Berlin. The first prototype, constructed in 1934, featured all-metal construction with fabric-covered control surfaces, a Wright XR-1670-5 radial engine developing 900 hp (670 kW), and typical United States Army Air Corps armament of one .30 in (7.62 mm) and one .50 in (12.7 mm) machine gun firing through the propeller arc. Also typical of the time was the total absence of cockpit armor or self-sealing fuel tanks. The distinctive landing gear, which rotated 90° to fold the main wheels flat into the thin trailing portion of the wing, resting atop the lower ends of the maingear struts when retracted, was a Boeing-patented design for which Curtiss had to pay royalties.

The prototype first flew on 6 May 1935, reaching 281 mph (452 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3,000 m) during early test flights. On 27 May 1935, the prototype was flown to Wright Field, Ohio, to compete in the USAAC fly-off for a new single-seat fighter, but the contest was delayed because the Seversky entry crashed on its way there. Curtiss took advantage of the delay to replace the unreliable engine with a Wright XR-1820-39 Cyclone producing 950 hp (710 kW) and to rework the fuselage, adding the distinctive scalloped rear windows to improve visibility. The new prototype was designated Model 75B with the R-1670 version retroactively designated Model 75D. The fly-off finally took place in April 1936. Unfortunately, the new engine failed to deliver its rated power and the aircraft only reached 285 mph (459 km/h).

Although the competing Seversky P-35 also underperformed and was more expensive, it was still declared the winner and awarded a contract for 77 aircraft. However, on 16 June 1936, Curtiss received an order from USAAC for three prototypes designated Y1P-36. The USAAC was concerned about political turmoil in Europe, and about Seversky's ability to deliver P-35s in a timely matter, and therefore wanted a backup fighter. The Y1P-36 (Model 75E) was powered by a 900 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-13 Twin Wasp engine, and the scalloped rear canopy was further enlarged. The new aircraft performed so well that it won the 1937 USAAC competition with an order for 210 P-36A fighters.

The aircraft's extremely low wing loading of just 23.9 lb/ft² gave it outstanding turning performance, and its high power-to-weight ratio of 0.186 hp/lb gave superb climbing performance for the time. The lack of an engine supercharger was a serious handicap at high altitudes. Compared to the later Allison-engined P-40, the P-36 shared the P-40's traits of excellent high-speed handling, roll rate that improved at high speed, and relatively light controls at high speed. However, it was underpowered, affecting its acceleration and top speed, and it did not accelerate in a dive as well as the P-40.

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Argentina bought a number of the simplified, fixed landing gear Hawk 75Os, (intended for rough-field operations and ease of maintenance) and purchased a manufacturing license for the type 30 were built and delivered by Curtiss, and 20 produced locally. These aircraft used the same engine, Wright Cyclone R-1820-G5 as the Martin 139WAA's and Northrop 8A-2s used by the Argentine Army Aviation at the time. Usually armed with one 11.35 mm (0.45 in) Madsen machine gun and three 7.65 mm (0.30 in) Madsen light machine guns, there was provision for up to 10 30 lb (14 kg) bombs on underwing pylons. The last Argentinian Hawks remained in service until November 1954.

Curtiss Aircraft
Curtiss P-36 Mohawk

Axis and co-belligerent air forces also made significant use of captured P-36s. Following the fall of France and Norway in 1940, several dozen P-36s were seized by Germany and transferred to Finland these aircraft saw extensive action with the Ilmavoimat (Air Force) against the Soviet Air Forces. The P-36 was also used by Vichy French air forces in several minor conflicts in one of these, the Franco-Thai War of 1940–41, P-36s were used by both sides.

Curtiss P-36 Mohawk : See below

Manufacturer Curtiss-Wright Corporation

First flight 6 May 1935 Introduction 1938

Primary users United States Army Air Corps

Finnish Air Force French Air Force Royal Air Force

Number built 215 (P-36) plus 900 export Hawk 75 variants

Length: 28 ft 6 in (8.7 m) Wingspan: 37 ft 4 in (11.4 m)

Empty weight: 4,567 lb[32] (2,076 kg)

Loaded weight: 5,650 lb (2,560 kg)

Max. takeoff weight: 6,010 lb[32] (2,732 kg)

Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1830-17 Twin Wasp air-cooled radial piston engine, 1,050 hp (783 kW)

Maximum speed: 313 mph (272 knots, 500 km/h) at 8,500 ft, 2,960 m

Cruise speed: 270 mph (235 knots, 432 km/h)

Range: 625 mi (543 nmi, 1,006 km) at 270 mph (419 km/h), 860 mi (748 nmi, 1,385 km)

Service ceiling: 32,700 ft (9,967 m)

1 × 0.30 in (7.62 mm) M1919 Browning machine gun

1 × 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine gun[note

Bombs: some were also later fitted with a single hardpoint under each wing


The Mohawk began as a joint Army-Marine program through the then-Navy Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer), for an observation/attack plane that would outperform the Cessna L-19 Bird Dog. In June 1956, the Army issued Type Specification TS145, which called for the development and procurement of a two-seat, twin turboprop aircraft designed to operate from small, unimproved fields under all weather conditions. It would be faster, with greater firepower, and heavier armour than the Bird Dog, which had proved vulnerable during the Korean War. The Mohawk's mission would include observation, artillery spotting, air control, emergency resupply, naval target spotting, liaison, and radiological monitoring. The Navy specified that the aircraft must be capable of operating from small "jeep" escort class carriers (CVEs). The DoD selected Grumman Aircraft Corporation's G-134 design as the winner of the competition in 1957. Marine requirements contributed an unusual feature to the design. As originally proposed, the OF-1 could be fitted with water skis that would allow the aircraft to land at sea and taxi to island beaches at 20 knots. Since the Marines were authorized to operate fixed-wing aircraft in the close air support (CAS) role, the mockup also featured underwing pylons for rockets, bombs, and other stores.

The Air Force did not like the armament capability of the Mohawk and tried to get it removed. The Marines did not want the sophisticated sensors the Army wanted, so when their Navy sponsors opted to buy a fleet oil tanker, they dropped from the program. The Army continued with armed Mohawks and developed cargo pods that could be dropped from underwing hard points to resupply troops in emergencies.

The radar imaging capability of the Mohawk was to prove a significant advance in both peace and war. The Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) could look through foliage and map terrain, presenting the observer with a film image of the earth below only minutes after the area was scanned. In military operations, the image was split in two parts, one showing fixed terrain features, the other spotting moving targets.

The prototype (YAO-1AF) first flew on April 14, 1959. The OV-1 entered production in October 1959.

In mid-1961, the first Mohawks to serve with U.S. forces overseas were delivered to the 7th Army at Sandhofen Airfield near Mannheim, Germany. Before its formal acceptance, the camera-carrying AO-1AF was flown by Ralph Donnell on a tour of 29 European airfields to display it to the U.S. Army field commanders and potential European customers. In addition to their Vietnam and European service, SLAR-equipped Mohawks began operational missions in 1963 patrolling the Korean Demilitarized Zone. Germany and France showed early interest in the Mohawk, and Grumman actually signed a license production agreement with the French manufacturer Breguet Aviation in exchange for American rights to the Atlantic maritime patrol aircraft.

The very nature of the joint Army/Marine program had forced design compromises, such as ejection seats, [1] that made the aircraft expensive and, sometimes, an openly resisted item in Army budgets. Orders for the OV-1 stopped in Fiscal 1964, and the controversy in the Pentagon over the armed Mohawk peaked with a 1965 directive that prohibited the Army from operating armed fixed-wing aircraft (See the Johnson-McConnell agreement of 1966). Operational success in Vietnam led to additional Mohawk orders in 1966, and by 1968, five surveillance companies were operating in Southeast Asia.

The last of the Mohawk versions to enter production was the OV-1D with more powerful T53-701 engines, improved avionics, and interchangeable mission pallets that made it possible to switch the aircraft from infrared to SLAR configuration in about an hour. The first four OV-1Ds were prototypes converted from earlier production airframes, and the first flew in 1969. These were followed by 37 new-build aircraft, the last of which was delivered in December 1970.

Over the years, the mission and the aircraft underwent many changes and roughly 380 were built over all variants. Mohawk variants included the JOV-1 [armed reconnaissance], OV-1A, [visual and photographic], OV-1B [visual, photographic, and side-looking radar (SLAR) pod], the OV-1C [visual, photographic, and infrared], and the OV-1D (SLAR pod and bigger wings), OV-1E [enlarged fuselage for more sensor operators or cargo], EV-1E [special electronic intelligence installation] and RV-1E [advanced ELINT reconnaissance]. A four-engined Model 134E with tiltwings and tail ducted fan for control for VTOL was proposed to the Army but not built. Model 134R was a tandem cockpit version offered to meet the Light Armed Reconnaissance Aircraft (LARA) requirement, but the NA300 was chosen instead becoming the OV-10.

United States Army Edit

The U.S. Army flew the OV-1 operationally in the Vietnam War, with sixty-five lost to accidents, ground fire, and one shot down by a North Vietnamese fighter. [2]

In early 1968, while flying an OV-1 over South Vietnam, U.S. Army Captain Ken Lee shot down a MiG-17 “Fresco” fighter jet with his XM14 .50 in. (12.7 mm) caliber gun pods as well as two M159 unguided rocket pods, becoming the only Army Aviator to ever down a MiG. Due to the Key West Agreement, the Army tried to keep the shootdown a secret for fear that it would allow the USAF to transfer Mohawks to its inventory. Lee's kill was finally formally recognized by the Army in 2007. [3]

The Army also used the aircraft during Operation Desert Storm.

Starting in 1972, the Army National Guard (ARNG) began to receive the Mohawk, with the ARNG eventually operating thirteen OV-1Bs, twenty-four OV-1Cs, and sixteen OV-1Ds serving with three aviation units in Georgia and Oregon. The Oregon Army National Guard Unit operating the Mohawk was located at McNary Field in Oregon, initially as the 1042nd Military Intelligence Company (Aerial Surveillance), then reflagged as the 641st Military Intelligence Battalion (CEWI)(Aerial Exploitation).

U.S. Army OV-1s were retired from Europe in 1992, from Korea in September 1996, and finally in the United States in 1996, superseded by newer systems, newer aircraft, and the evolution of reconnaissance satellites. The OV-1 was primarily replaced by the EO-5C, a militarized version of the de Havilland Canada Dash 7 turboprop airliner equipped with a SLAR system, until the U.S. Air Force's Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS (Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System) aircraft became fully operational.

As of 2011, Alliant Techsystems partnered with the Broadbay Group and Mohawk Technologies of Florida in a venture to return an armed, modernized version of the OV-1D to operational use as a counter-insurgency aircraft. A demonstrator was equipped with a FLIR Star Safire turret and a ventral, trainable M230 chain gun. [4] [5]

Argentine Army Edit

The Argentine Army Aviation received twenty-three OV-1 in the 1990s. Ten were operational and the rest were used for spare parts. [6] They became inactive and retired from use in 2015.

On November 1, 2019 at 13:15, a Grumman OV-1D Mohawk operated by Mohawk Airshows crashed at Witham Field, Stuart, Florida, during the Stuart Air Show. The aircraft was destroyed and the pilot was killed. Its serial number was 68-15958. [7]

Watch the video: Curtiss Hawk III Ас Подарочный самолёт World of warplanes (July 2022).


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