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Tajikistan Geography - History

Tajikistan Geography - History

Area: 143,100 sq. km.
Capital: Dushanbe.
Terrain: Pamir and Alay mountains dominate landscape; western Ferghana valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest.
Climate: Mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir mountains.

Tajikistan is located in Central Asia, west of China. The terrain of Tajikistan is Mainly mountainous, with lower elevations in northwest, southwest, and Fergana Valley in far northern zone. Highest elevations in southeast, in Pamir-Alay system; numerous glaciers in mountains. Dense river network creates valleys through mountain chains. Lakes primarily in Pamir region to the east.Climate: Tajikistan is mainly continental, with drastic changes according to elevation. Arid in subtropical southwest lowlands, which have highest temperatures; lowest temperatures at highest altitudes. Highest precipitation near Fedchenko Glacier, lowest in eastern Pamirs.

Geography of Tajikistan

Tajikistan is nestled between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan to the north and west, China to the east, and Afghanistan to the south. Mountains cover 93 percent of Tajikistan's surface area. The two principal ranges, the Pamir Mountains and the Alay Mountains, give rise to many glacier-fed streams and rivers, which have been used to irrigate farmlands since ancient times. Central Asia's other major mountain range, the Tian Shan, skirts northern Tajikistan. Mountainous terrain separates Tajikistan's two population centers, which are in the lowlands of the southern (Panj River) and northern (Fergana Valley) sections of the country. [1] Especially in areas of intensive agricultural and industrial activity, the Soviet Union's natural resource utilization policies left independent Tajikistan with a legacy of environmental problems. [2]

Tajikistan Country Profile

Another of the mysterious Central Asian countries, Tajikistan combines Soviet history with traditional culture…all in an unforgettable setting.

Want to learn more about Tajikistan?
  • Capital and Largest City: Dushanbe
  • Population (2017): 8,742,000 (98 th )
  • Total Area: 143,100 km 2 (94 th )
  • Official Language: Tajik
  • Inter-ethnic Language: Russian
  • Currency:Tajikistani somoni (TJS)

History of Tajikistan

Early and Medieval History

Throughout antiquity, Tajikistan was ruled by a variety of different empires and powers – including the Achaemenid Empire, the Kushan Empire, Tibet, China, the Samanid Empire, the Mongols, and more. For millennia, the land shifted with the prevailing culture of the time – however it was always famed as crossroads between east and west. This time also saw Tajikistan adopt the Islamic faith – something that remains entrenched to this day. By the end of the Middle Ages and the start of the early modern era, the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Kokand held sway in the region.

Russian Rule

In the 19 th century, the powerful Russian Empire turned their gaze to Central Asia – and swiftly conquered the region. The Tajiks were left to their own devices for the most part, however Islamic uprisings in the early 20 th century prompted Russian forces to move in and consolidate their power over the country.

The Soviet Union

While guerrilla fighters resisted Bolshevik forces, the fighters did not last against the new order out of Russia. Soon, the more hardline Soviet Union had asserted dominance over Tajikistan – with the downplaying of religion a consequence of this. The Tajik people suffered under multiple purges carried out by Moscow, while many citizens were conscripted to fight in the Soviet army during WWII. Tajikistan was always one of the least developed and prosperous of the Soviet Republics, however programs during the 50’s did attempt to rectify this to a degree.

Independence and Modern Era

After the collapse of the USSR, Tajikistan declared its independence in 1991. Things immediately went bad however, as the country was gripped by civil war which lasted for over five years (anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000 were killed). Eventually, Emomali Rahmon (the president) managed to broker a ceasefire with the opposition forces and political groups. He remains in power today, though his regime has been widely accused of censorship, repression, and sketchy elections.

There remain international concerns as well, particularly along the Afghan border. Many countries, including Russia, the US, France, and India have military connections or bases in Tajikistan. In addition, the rise of Islamic extremism has impacted the country – including one high profile defection to the Islamic State by a police commander. Despite these issues, Tajikistan has persevered and continues down the same path as the last couple decades.

Tajik Culture

Most of the population is ethnically Tajik, speaks Tajik, and follows the Islamic faith (largely Sunni Muslim). While there are some questions about religious cooperation, generally minority groups get along okay with the Muslim majority. In some more remote areas, traditional folk culture and practices are maintained – distinct from the more easily accessible parts of the country.


The flag of Tajikistan consists of three horizontal stripes (red for unity, white for snow and ice in the mountains as well as cotton, and green for the valleys). A gold crown with seven stars is in the middle, and represents the Tajik people.


Food in Tajikistan is similar to other nearby Central Asian countries, as well as Russian and Iranian cuisine. Tea is very popular while the national food is plov (also known as pilaf).


Soccer is the country’s most popular sport, while mountaineering and alpine activities are also widely practiced thanks to the country’s geography. Rugby union has also developed a following in Tajikistan in recent years. The national sport however is gushtigiri – which is a type of wrestling. Another traditional game is buzkashi, a horse sport similar to polo.

Geography of Tajikistan

Tajikistan is landlocked and dominated by mountains. It is the smallest country in the region, though there is much of interest to be found within its borders. There are a few valleys of lower elevation, though the vast majority of the country is alpine in nature.

Cities and Towns

The capital, Dushanbe, is by far the largest city in Tajikistan. Around 800,000 call it home, and it is named for the Monday market that used to be the centerpiece of the old village. Khujand is the second largest city, and sits in the far north.

Did you know?

  • The legend of the yeti is popular in Tajikistan – especially among Russian soldiers
  • Fedchenko glacier is the world’s largest not in a polar region
  • Unibrows are considered very attractive for women
  • Tajikistan is home to the world’s highest dam
  • The national drink is green tea
  • Some still celebrate weddings for an entire week
  • Do not drop your bread

Last Word

While there is a long way to go, Tajikistan has generally stabilized since the chaotic post-Soviet years in the 90’s.

Continue your adventure with Continental’s Countries! Your Tajikistan journey continues in our Travel Guide and Currency Spotlight.

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Tajikistan covers an area of 143,100 kilometers squared (55,213 square miles) in the mountainous southeast of Central Asia. Landlocked, it borders on Uzbekistan to the west and north, Kyrgyzstan to the north, China to the east, and Afghanistan to the south.

Much of Tajikistan sits in the Pamir Mountains in fact, over half of the country is at elevations higher than 3,000 meters (9,800 feet). Though dominated by mountains, Tajikistan does include some lower land, including the famous Fergana Valley in the north.

The lowest point is the Syr Darya River valley, at 300 meters (984 feet). The highest point is Ismoil Somoni Peak, at 7,495 meters (24,590 feet). Seven other peaks also top out at over 6,000 meters (20,000 feet).

Atlas of Tajikistan

Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон дар Осиёи Марказӣ ҷойгир шуда, аз ҷануб бо Афғонистон, аз щарқ бо Чин, аз шимол бо Қирғизистон ва аз шимол ва ғарб бо Ӯзбекистон ҳамсарҳад мебошад. Пойтахти Тоҷикистон Душанбе аст.

Таджикистан государство в Центральной Азии, бывшая Таджикская Советская Социалистическая Республика в составе СССР. На востоке Таджикистан граничит с Китаем, на севере и западе — с Киргизией и Узбекистаном, на юге с Афганистаном. Не имеет выхода к морю. Основное население — таджики.

The Republic of Tajikistan is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. It borders ► Afghanistan to the south, ► Uzbekistan to the west, ► Kyrgyzstan to the north, and ► China (► Xinjiang) to the east. It is home mainly to the Tajiks, who share culture and history with the Iranians, and speak the Tajiki dialect of Persian. Once the location of the famous Samanid Empire, Tajikistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in the 20th century, known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic.

General maps

History maps

This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day Tajikistan, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day Tajikistan.


Etymology Edit

During its long history, Tashkent has had various changes in names and political and religious affiliations. Abu Rayhan Biruni wrote that the city of Shash comes from the Turkic name Tash - outer, kand - town, that is, "outer town". [6]

Early history Edit

Tashkent was founded 2,200 years ago. Tashkent was settled by ancient people as an oasis on the Chirchik River, near the foothills of the West Tian Shan Mountains. In ancient times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer "capital" of the Kangju confederacy. [7] Some scholars believe that a "Stone Tower" mentioned by Ptolemy and by other early accounts of travel on the Silk Road referred to this settlement ("Tashkent" means "stone city"). This tower is said to have marked the midway point between Europe and China. Other scholars, however, disagree with this identification, though it remains one of four most probable sites for the Stone Tower. [8]

History as Chach Edit

In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as Chach. The Shahnameh of Ferdowsi also refers to the city as Chach.

The principality of Chach had a square citadel built around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Syr Darya River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had more than 30 towns and a network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the Sogdians and Turkic nomads. The Buddhist monk Xuanzang (602/603? – 664 AD), who travelled from China to India through Central Asia, mentioned the name of the city as Zhěshí ( 赭時 ). The Chinese chronicles History of Northern Dynasties, Book of Sui, and Old Book of Tang mention a possession called Shí 石 ("stone") or Zhěshí 赭時 with a capital of the same name since the fifth century AD. [11]

In 558–603, Chach was part of the Turkic Kaganate. At the beginning of the 7th century, the Turkic Kaganate, as a result of internecine wars and wars with its neighbors, disintegrated into the Western and Eastern Kaganates. The Western Turkic ruler Tong Yabghu Qaghan (618-630) set up his headquarters in the Ming-bulak area to the north of Chach. Here he received embassies from the emperors of the Tang Empire and Byzantium. [12] In 626, the Indian preacher Prabhakaramitra arrived with ten companions to the kagan. In 628, a Buddhist Chinese monk Xuanzang arrived in Ming Bulak.

The Turkic rulers of Chach minted their coins with the inscription on the obverse side of the "lord of the Khakan money" (mid-8th century) with an inscription in the ruler Turk (VII century), in Nudjket in the middle of the VIII century, coins were issued with the obverse inscription “Nanchu (Banchu) Ertegin sovereign". [13]

Islamic history Edit

Tashkent was conquered by the Arabs at the beginning of the 8th century. [14]

According to the descriptions of the authors of the X century. Shash was structurally divided into a citadel, an inner city (madina) and two suburbs - an inner (rabad-dahil) and an outer (rabad-harij). The citadel, surrounded by a special wall with two gates, contained the ruler's palace and the prison. [15]

Under the Samanid Empire (819–999), whose founder Saman Khuda was a Persian Zoroastrian convert to Islam, the city came to be known as Binkath. However, the Arabs retained the old name of Chach for the surrounding region, pronouncing it ash-Shash ( الشاش ) instead. Kand, qand, kent, kad, kath, kud—all meaning a city—are derived from the Persian/Sogdian کنده kanda, meaning a town or a city. They are found in city names such as Samarkand, Yarkand, Panjakent, Khujand etc.). Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ali ash-Shashi, known as al-Kaffal ash-Shashi (904-975), was born in Tashkent - an Islamic theologian, scholar, jurist of the Shafi'i madhhab, hadith scholar and linguist. [ citation needed ]

After the 11th century, the name evolved from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand. The modern spelling of "Tashkent" reflects Russian orthography and 20th-century Soviet influence.

At the end of the 10th century, Tashkent became part of the possessions of the Turkic state of the Karakhanids. In 998/99 the Tashkent oasis went to the Karakhanid Ahmad ibn Ali, who ruled the north-eastern regions of Mavarannahr. In 1177/78, a separate khanate was formed in the Tashkent oasis. Its center was Banakat, where dirhams Mu'izz ad-dunya wa-d-din Qilich-khan were minted, in 1195-1197 - Jalal ad-dunya wa-d-din Tafgach-khakan, in 1197-1206 - 'Imad ad-dunya va-d-din Ulug Egdish Chagry-khan. [16]

Mongol conquest Edit

The city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219 and lost much of its population as a result of the Mongols' destruction of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1220.

Timurids period Edit

Under the Timurid and subsequent Shaybanid dynasties, the city's population and culture gradually revived as a prominent strategic center of scholarship, commerce and trade along the Silk Road. During the reign of Amir Timur (1336-1405), Tashkent was restored and in the 14th-15th centuries Tashkent was part of Timur's empire. For Timur, Tashkent was considered a strategic city. In 1391 Timur set out in the spring from Tashkent to Desht-i-Kipchak to fight the Khan of the Golden Horde Tokhtamysh Khan. Timur returned from this victorious campaign through Tashkent. [17]

The most famous saint Sufi of Tashkent was Sheikh Khovendi at-Takhur (13th - first half of the 14th century). According to legend, Amir Timur, who was treating his wounded leg in Tashkent with the healing water of the Zem-Zem spring, ordered to build a mausoleum for the saint. By order of Timur, the Zangiata mausoleum was built.

Uzbek Shaybanid's dynasty period Edit

In the 16th century, Tashkent was ruled by the Shaybanid dynasty. [18] [19]

Shaybanid Suyunchkhoja Khan was an enlightened Uzbek ruler and, following the traditions of his ancestors Mirzo Ulugbek and Abul Khair Khan, gathered famous scientists, writers and poets at his court, among them: Vasifi, Abdullah Nasrullahi, Masud bin Osmani Kuhistani. Since 1518 Vasifi was the educator of the son of Suyunchhoja Khan Keldi Muhammad, with whom, after the death of his father in 1525, he moved to Tashkent. And after the death of his former pupil, he became the educator of his son - Abu-l-Muzaffar Hasan-Sultan. [20]

Later the city was subordinated to Shaybanid Abdullah Khan II (the ruler actually from 1557, officially in 1583–1598), who issued his coins here [21] From 1598 to 1604 Tashkent was ruled by the Shaybanid Keldi Muhammad, who issued silver and copper coins on his behalf. [22]

17th - the first half of 18th centuries Edit

In 1598, Kazakh Taukeel Khan was at war with the Khanate of Bukhara. The Bukhara troops sent against him were defeated by Kazakhs in the battle between Tashkent and Samarkand. During the reign of Yesim-Khan, a peace treaty was concluded between Bukhara and Kazakhs, according to which Kazakhs abandoned Samarkand, but left behind Tashkent, Turkestan and a number of Syr Darya cities. Yesim-Khan ruled the Kazakh khanate from 1598 to 1628, his main merit was that he managed to unite the Kazakh khanate.Under him, the city of Tashkent became the capital of the Kazakh khanate. Maslikhat remained the highest representative-legislative power of the khanate, which included all representatives, leaders of Kazakh communities and influential sultans. Maslikhat gathered once a year, mostly in the autumn at the place of "Khanabad" in the tract of Kul-Tobe (near Tashkent) and solved state affairs. Tole-bi Alibekuly (1663-1756), judge of the Senior Juz, who was the ruler of Tashkent for 6 years from 1743 to 1749, is buried in the mausoleum on the territory of Sheikhontaur cemetery.

In 1784, Yunus Khoja, the ruler of the dakha (district) Shayhantahur, united the entire city under his rule and created an independent Tashkent state (1784-1807), which by the beginning of the 19th century seized vast lands. [23]

Kokand khanate Edit

In 1809, Tashkent was annexed to the Khanate of Kokand. [24] At the time, Tashkent had a population of around 100,000 and was considered the richest city in Central Asia.

Under the Kokand domination, Tashkent was surrounded by a moat and an adobe battlement (about 20 kilometers long) with 12 gates. [25]

It prospered greatly through trade with Russia but chafed under Kokand's high taxes. The Tashkent clergy also favored the clergy of Bukhara over that of Kokand. However, before the Emir of Bukhara could capitalize on this discontent, the Russian army arrived.

Tsarist period Edit

In May 1865, Mikhail Grigorevich Chernyayev (Cherniaev), acting against the direct orders of the tsar and outnumbered at least 15–1, staged a daring night attack against a city with a wall 25 kilometres (16 mi) long with 11 gates and 30,000 defenders. While a small contingent staged a diversionary attack, the main force penetrated the walls, led by a Russian Orthodox priest. Although the defense was stiff, the Russians captured the city after two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to several thousand of the defenders (including Alimqul, the ruler of the Kokand Khanate). Chernyayev, dubbed the "Lion of Tashkent" by city elders, staged a "hearts-and-minds" campaign to win the population over. He abolished taxes for a year, rode unarmed through the streets and bazaars meeting common people, and appointed himself "Military Governor of Tashkent", recommending to Tsar Alexander II that the city become an independent khanate under Russian protection.

The Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a "loose cannon", and soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman. Far from being granted independence, Tashkent became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first Governor-General. A cantonment and Russian settlement were built across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, and Russian settlers and merchants poured in. Tashkent was a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia and the United Kingdom over Central Asia. The Turkestan Military District was established as part of the military reforms of 1874. The Trans-Caspian Railway arrived in 1889, and the railway workers who built it settled in Tashkent as well, bringing with them the seeds of Bolshevik Revolution.

Effect of the Russian revolution Edit

With the fall of the Russian Empire, the Russian Provisional Government removed all civil restrictions based on religion and nationality, contributing to local enthusiasm for the February Revolution. The Tashkent Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies was soon set up, but primarily represented Russian residents, who made up about a fifth of the Tashkent population. Muslim leaders quickly set up the Tashkent Muslim Council (Tashkand Shura-yi-Islamiya) based in the old city. On 10 March 1917, there was a parade with Russian workers marching with red flags, Russian soldiers singing La Marseillaise and thousands of local Central Asians. Following various speeches, Governor-General Aleksey Kuropatkin closed the events with words "Long Live a great free Russia". [26]

The First Turkestan Muslim Conference was held in Tashkent 16–20 April 1917. Like the Muslim Council, it was dominated by the Jadid, Muslim reformers. A more conservative faction emerged in Tashkent centered around the Ulema. This faction proved more successful during the local elections of July 1917. They formed an alliance with Russian conservatives, while the Soviet became more radical. The Soviet attempt to seize power in September 1917 proved unsuccessful. [27]

In April 1918, Tashkent became the capital of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR). The new regime was threatened by White forces, basmachi revolts from within, and purges ordered from Moscow.

Soviet period Edit

The city began to industrialize in the 1920s and 1930s.

Violating the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. The government worked to relocate factories from western Russia and Ukraine to Tashkent to preserve the Soviet industrial capacity. This led to great increase in industry during World War II.

It also evacuated most of the German communist emigres to Tashkent. [28] The Russian population increased dramatically evacuees from the war zones increased the total population of Tashkent to well over a million. Russians and Ukrainians eventually comprised more than half of the total residents of Tashkent. [29] Many of the former refugees stayed in Tashkent to live after the war, rather than return to former homes.

During the postwar period, the Soviet Union established numerous scientific and engineering facilities in Tashkent.

On 10 January 1966, then Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan President Ayub Khan signed a pact in Tashkent with Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin as the mediator to resolve the terms of peace after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. On the next day, Shastri died suddenly, reportedly due to a heart attack. It is widely speculated that Shastri was killed by poisoning the water he drank. [ citation needed ]

Much of Tashkent's old city was destroyed by a powerful earthquake on 26 April 1966. More than 300,000 residents were left homeless, and some 78,000 poorly engineered homes were destroyed, [30] mainly in the densely populated areas of the old city where traditional adobe housing predominated. [31] The Soviet republics, and some other countries such as Finland, sent "battalions of fraternal peoples" and urban planners to help rebuild devastated Tashkent.

Tashkent was rebuilt as a model Soviet city with wide streets planted with shade trees, parks, immense plazas for parades, fountains, monuments, and acres of apartment blocks. The Tashkent Metro was also built during this time. About 100,000 new homes were built by 1970, [30] but the builders occupied many, rather than the homeless residents of Tashkent. Further development in the following years increased the size of the city with major new developments in the Chilonzor area, north-east and south-east of the city. [30]

At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Tashkent was the fourth-largest city in the USSR and a center of learning in the fields of science and engineering.

Due to the 1966 earthquake and the Soviet redevelopment, little architectural heritage has survived of Tashkent's ancient history. Few structures mark its significance as a trading point on the historic Silk Road.

Capital of Uzbekistan Edit

Tashkent is the capital of and the most cosmopolitan city in Uzbekistan. It was noted for its tree-lined streets, numerous fountains, and pleasant parks, at least until the tree-cutting campaigns initiated in 2009 by the local government. [32]

Since 1991, the city has changed economically, culturally, and architecturally. New development has superseded or replaced icons of the Soviet era. The largest statue ever erected for Lenin was replaced with a globe, featuring a geographic map of Uzbekistan. Buildings from the Soviet era have been replaced with new modern buildings. The "Downtown Tashkent" district includes the 22-story NBU Bank building, international hotels, the International Business Center, and the Plaza Building.

The Tashkent Business district is a special district, established for the development of small, medium and large businesses in Uzbekistan. In 2018, was started to build a Tashkent city (new Downtown) which would include a new business district with skyscrapers of local and foreign companies, world hotels such as Hilton Tashkent Hotel, apartments, biggest malls, shops and other entertainments. The construction of the International Business Center is planned to be completed by the end of 2021. [33] Fitch assigns “BB-” rating to Tashkent city, “Stable” forecast. [34]

In 2007, Tashkent was named a "cultural capital of the Islamic world" by Moscow News, as the city has numerous historic mosques and significant Islamic sites, including the Islamic University. [35] Tashkent holds the Samarkand Kufic Quran, one of the earliest written copies of the Quran, which has been located in the city since 1924. [36]

Tashkent is the most visited city in the country, [37] and has greatly benefited from increasing tourism as a result of reforms under president Shavkat Mirziyoyev and opening up by abolishing visas for visitors from the European Union and other developing countries or making visas easier for foreigners. [38]


Tajikistan ( / t ɑː ˈ dʒ iː k ɪ s t ɑː n / ( listen ) , / t ə -, t æ -/ Tajik: Тоҷикистон , Persian: تاجیکستان ‎, Tajikâstan, [tɔdʒikisˈtɔn] Russian: Таджикистан , romanized: Tadzhikistan), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон , romanized: Jumhurii Tojikiston), is a landlocked country in Central Asia with an area of 143,100 km 2 (55,300 sq mi) and an estimated population of 9,537,645 people. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north and China to the east. The traditional homelands of the Tajik people include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.

The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus Valley Civilisation, Andronovo Culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Vedic religion, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Islam. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire and the Mongol Empire. After being ruled by the Timurid dynasty and the Khanate of Bukhara, the Timurid Renaissance flourished. The region was later conquered by the Russian Empire and subsequently by the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, the country's modern borders were drawn when it was part of Uzbekistan as an autonomous republic before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1920. (Full article. )

Key Facts & Information


  • The meaning of Tajikistan is the “Land of the Tajiks”. The suffix “-stan” is the Persian term for “place of” or “country”, and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic tribe.
  • The area that now constitutes Tajikistan was previously a home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age.
  • It was later home to kingdoms controlled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus Valley Civilisation, Andronovo Culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Vedic religion, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and Islam.


  • The territory that is today the Tajik Republic has been inhabited for thousands of years.
  • It was part of the Persian Empire for a long period of time. Later, it became part of the Bactrian Empire, and then the Arabs came, bringing the religion of Islam.
  • In 875 CE, the Samanid Empire came into power. They ruled until 1000 CE, and much of the Tajik culture comes from the Samanid Empire.
  • In the 19th century, Tajikistan was absorbed into the Russian Empire. Following World War I and the rise of the Soviet Union, it also became part of the Soviet Union.
  • The year 1921 marked the commencement of the Soviet-era by putting northern Tajikistan under the Soviet’s official control.
  • Later, in 1929, the area gained the status of Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic. This has been remarkable since the developmental system of the Soviet Republic has been extended in the Tajik Society, especially in agriculture, education, politics, etc.
  • The whole developmental framework was pursued amidst continuous resistance to Russian domination.
  • When the Soviet Union broke up, Tajikistan became an independent country in 1991.
  • Transition to independent nationhood has not been easy. The State is still in the process of learning the ropes on competent governance at the present. As a matter of fact, the international community is still providing assistance in furtherance of national development.


  • Tajikistan’s landscape is dominated by the Pamir mountains and the Alay mountains.
  • Karakul Lake is the largest body of water, located in the Tajik National Park in the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan.
  • The Amu Darya and Panj rivers mark the border with Afghanistan, and the glaciers in Tajikistan’s mountains are the major source of runoff for the Aral Sea. There are about 900 rivers in Tajikistan that are longer than 10 kilometers.
  • Tajikistan has an area of 143,100 km², which is less than half the size of Italy, or slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Wisconsin.
  • Tajikistan’s geographical location in the internal part of the continent at a great distance from any oceans contributes to two basic features of its climate – sharp continentality and dryness.


  • People who lived in Tajikistan are called Tajikistani(s).
  • The country has a population of about 9 million people (in 2018).
  • The capital and largest city is Dushanbe.
  • Tajikistan remains the poorest country in Central Asia, with around 35% of the population falling below the poverty line.
  • Tajik is the official language. Uzbek and Russian are the other widely spoken languages.


  • Tajikistan is a poor country with an economy that is dependent on agriculture and services.
  • Most locals are farmers. The main agricultural products are cotton, potatoes, wheat, tomatoes, and grapes. Tajikistani people also raise sheep, goats, and cattle.
  • The industry of Tajikistan produces aluminum, cloth, electricity, food products, machinery, and chemicals.
  • The currency of Tajikistan is called Somoni (TJS).


  • The Tajik identity and culture dates back several thousand years and is quite similar to that of Afghanistan and Iran in terms of language, beliefs, and habits.
  • The vast majority of the people are Muslim, which had shaped the culture, particularly the art, food, music, and festivals.
  • The Tajik people are family-oriented, sincere, and known for friendliness, as well as being hospitable.

Tajikistan Worksheets

This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Tajikistan across 19 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Tajikistan worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Tajikistan which is a landlocked country in Central Asia that is surrounded by Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan, officially called the Republic of Tajikistan, is known for rugged mountains and is popular for hiking and climbing.

Complete List Of Included Worksheets

  • Tajikistan Facts
  • Tajikistan Front Page
  • Quick Facts
  • Tajikistan’s Timeline
  • Additional Information
  • Economic Plan
  • Crossword Time
  • Known For
  • My Travel Plan
  • What I Learned
  • Tajiks Postage Stamp

Link/cite this page

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Use With Any Curriculum

These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.

Outline of Tajikistan

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tajikistan:

Tajikistan – mountainous, landlocked, sovereign country located in Central Asia. [1] Tajikistan borders Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Tajik ethnic group, who share culture and history with the Persian peoples and speak the Tajik language, a modern variety of Persian. Once part of the Samanid Empire, Tajikistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in the 20th century, known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR).

After independence, Tajikistan suffered from a devastating civil war which lasted from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Its natural resources such as cotton and aluminium have contributed greatly to this steady improvement, although observers have characterized the country as having few natural resources besides hydroelectric power and its strategic location. [2]

Tajikistan ( Tocikiston, Tojikistan )

Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and a five-year civil war since it gained independence in 1991 from the USSR.

A peace agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997, and implementation reportedly completed by late 1999. Part of the agreement required the legalization of opposition political parties prior to the 1999 elections, which occurred, but such parties have made little progress in successful participation in government.

Random criminal and political violence in the country remains a complication impairing Tajikistan's ability to engage internationally.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

Local Time UTC +5h: Tue-June-22 09:22

Capital City: Dushanbe

Other Cities: Khujand, Istaravshan, Kulob, Kurgan-Tube, Khorog, Qurghonteppa, Vahdat,

Type: Republic.
Independence: 9 September 1991 (from USSR).
Constitution: 6 November 1994.

Location: landlocked country in the South-east of Central Asia, west of China.
Area: 143,100 km² (55,251 sq. mi)

Terrain: Pamir and Alay mountains dominate the landscape (93% of the total area) western Ferghana valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest.
Highest elevation: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m

Climate: Mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters semiarid to polar in Pamir mountains.

Nationality: Tajikistani
Population: 8.35 million (2015)
Ethnic groups: Tajik 67%, Uzbek 23%, Russian 3.5%, other 6.5%.
Religion: Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%, other 10%.
Languages: Tajik (sole official language as of 1994) Russian widely used in government and business three-quarter of the country however, is rural and they speak mostly Tajik.
Literacy: 88%

Natural resources: Hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, gold, silver, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten.

Agriculture products: Cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables cattle, sheep, goats.

Industries: Aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, textiles, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators.

Exports - commodities: Aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles.

Imports - commodities: Petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs.

Imports - partners: China 42.3%, Russia 17.9%, Kazakhstan 13.1%, Iran 4.7% (2015)

Currency: Somoni (TJS introduced in October, 2000)

Sources: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan and others.

Official Sites of Tajikistan

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan
The official web site of the ministry provides information about the country.

Diplomatic Missions
Tajikistan Embassy in the U.S.
Tajikistan Embassy in the United States.
Embassy of the Republic of Tajikistan in Russia
Russian Federation (in Russian)
Botschaft der Republik Tadschikistan
Tajikistan Embassy in Germany.

Tajikistan's embassies and consulates aborad
Links and Addresses of the ssions.
Foreign Embassies in Tajikistan
Address list of Embassies accredited to Tajikistan.

Map of Tajikistan
Political Map of Tajikistan.
Administrative Map of Tajikistan
Map of Tajikistan's Administrative Divisions.
Google Earth Tajikistan
Searchable map and satellite view of Tajikistan.
Google Earth Dushanbe
Searchable map and satellite view of Tajikistan's capital city.

Caucasus and Central Asia Map
Map of Central Asia and the Caucasus region.
Map of Asia
Reference Map of Asia.

Tajikistan News

Asia Plus
Tajikistan News and information.
Tajikistan News.
News and Analysis from Central Asia and the Caucasus.
Simo News
Information Agency of Tajikistan.

News in Russian
XOBAP (Khovar)
The national news agency Khovar is a central state news body of Tajikistan.
Internews Network Tajikistan.
Tajikistan News.

News in Tajik
Radio Ozodi
Tajik News Service.

Arts & Culture

Business & Economy

Export Directory Tajikistan
Site with information about business opportunities in Tajikistan.

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Destination Tajikistan - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Tajikistan: Dushanbe, the Pamir Mountains, the Fan Mountains, Lake Sarez, Tajik National Park, "Beshai palangon" Nature Reserve
Find accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, mountaineering, rock climbing, hiking, horse or camel riding, tours and much more by following the links below.

Tourism in Tajikistan
Site of the State National Tourism Company of the Republic of Tajikistan - "SAYOH".

Jamshed's Homepage
With Tajikistan and Dushanbe information and links to Stars of Tajik-Persian Poetry.
About Tajiks, their history, culture, and heritage.
Republic of Tajikistan
Tajikistan state, economy, culture, society and business
Tajikistan Travel
Information about tourism in Tajikistan, maps,accommodation, attractions and more.
Travel Tajikistan
Adventure on the Roof of the World.


Tajikistan International University
TIU Dushanbe, founded in 2003.
Tajik-Russian (Slavic) University
A Tajikistan and the Russian Federation supranational institution of higher learning in Dushanbe.
Technological University of Tajikistan
The former Tajik Higher College of Technology, Dushanbe.

Environment & Nature

Current issues:
inadequate sanitation facilities
increasing levels of soil salinity
excessive pesticides
industrial pollution.

Watch the video: ΓΕΩΓΡΑΦΙΑ ΕΥΡΩΠΗΣ 1 - ΚΡΑΤΗ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΩΤΕΥΟΥΣΕΣ.HD (December 2021).