Tanit


Tanith

The world of Tanith as seen from orbit before the orbital bombardment by a Chaos fleet that destroyed its surface.

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Tithe Grade

Tanith is a Dead World, the former homeworld of the famed Tanith First and Only Astra Militarum regiment, whose population was exterminated by the orbital bombardment of a Chaos Warfleet.

Tanith was formerly a heavily-forested Imperial Hive World / Agri-World located in the Sabbat Worlds Sector, a cluster of planets in the Segmentum Pacificus that was under constant assault by the Forces of Chaos.


A City Vanishes

Tanis was known by many names. Ancient Egyptians called it Djanet, and the Old Testament refers to the site as Zoan. Today it's called Sân el-Hagar.

The site, in the Nile Delta northeast of Cairo, was capital of the 21st and 22nd dynasties, during the reign of the Tanite kings in Egypt's Third Intermediate period.

The city's advantageous location enabled it to become a wealthy commercial center long before the rise of Alexandria. But political fortunes shifted, and so did the river's waters—and in recent centuries the Tanis site had became a silted plain with some hill-like mounds thought to be of little interest.

It was known that the ancient city was hidden somewhere in the area, but not where.

"People kept trying to identify different places with it," said Salima Ikram, a professor of Egyptology at American University in Cairo and a National Geographic Society grantee.

Egypt's "intermediate periods" were times of weak central government when power was divided and sometimes passed out of Egyptian hands. During this time the rulers of Tanis were of Libyan decent, not scions of traditional Egyptian families. That distinction may have contributed to the city's disappearance in later years.

"It's not like the Valley of the Kings, where everyone knew they'd been burying [pharaohs] for ten generations or so," said David Silverman, an Egyptologist at the University of Pennsylvania.


When and Where Did the Hamsa Originate?

The Hamsa Hand has been a part of our world for untold millennia and its true origins are lost in the mists of time. This is a trait the Hamsa has in common with all of the most ancient of human symbols.

The primordial origins of the Hand of Hamsa are alluded to by the fact that the eye is central to most designs.

The symbol of the eye is rooted in the primal fear among humans of the covetous, ill-intentioned sentiments of others on what we prize and love, be it our possessions or the people in our lives.

What we do know for certain is that the oldest known use of the Hamsa/Khamsa can be traced back to the people of Phoenicia, a Semitic (Jewish) civilization of the Mediterranean/North African region.

Phoenicia was established in around 1500 B.C. however, the symbol itself most likely was in use in the region before this period and was adapted by the Phoenicians to their own purposes.

Records show that the Phoenicians used the Hamsa Hand as a symbol of their revered goddess, Tanit. She was the patron of their capital city, Carthage, protecting it from those that intended her harm.


Carthage (World of the Gods)

Carthage is a powerful nation in Northwest Africa, which dominates the western portion of the Mediterranean sea. Its capital is the eponymous city of Carthage.

Carthage's history goes back to long before the rise of Rome as a Republic and Empire. It was defeated and conquered by the latter during the third Punic Wars and remained a part of it until the early 5th century. In 429, Hannibal Barca, an alleged descendant of the famous general of the same name, organized an uprising and took the city from the Roman governor. Rome, by then a weakened state long past its prime, was incapable of retaking the city and left things as they were until about 50 years later, when it fell to the barbarians. Carthage managed to retain its independence during the various wars with the Eastern Roman Empire, later known as Byzantium, being much more successful in the so called New Punic Wars. It made a defense alliance with Egypt, who had similarly regained its independence in the aftermath of the collapse of the Roman Empire, which lasts to this day.

Over the centuries, Carthage developed into a powerful maritime state, with a strong navy which dominated the trade routes in the Mediterranean sea. It controls a vast empire in North Africa and maintains mostly peaceful relationship with its neighbors.

Ever since its independence from Rome, Carthage has been led by a combination of its previous two governments. The king, descended from the famous Barca family, rules as monarchs with semi-autocratic powers, while they preside over the Council of Shophets - high judges, who act as a sort of a parliament to advise the king and restrain his autocratic authority in case it threatens the state. The Shophets are elected from all the cities in the state (34 in total), although they most often hail from prominent families. The cities in question are ruled by a first citizen, usually styled as Sufets or governors.

Carthage is wealthy country, with a strong economy and army. It ranks highly on the human development and happiness indexes.


A question regarding development in ancient Carthaginian and Phoenician religion

I recently read in Wikipedia that the figure Tanit was "identified" with another deity Astarte, whom the Carthaginians inherited from Phoenician religion, therefore I wonder was she an adaptation of Astarte/Ashtart (or perhaps the same deity worshipped in another name and possessed different attributes after centuries, given that the belief of Astarte most likely emerged in their culture first) who was herself a form of the Mesopotamian deity Inanna/Ishtar?

Also, Inanna was portrayed as having both solar and lunar aspects, which led me to the conclusion that Carthaginians split the deity's character into two, and apparently their religious system was influenced by eastern Semitic culture or something more ancient such as Sumerian texts (which I guess, was not an irregular action among these people, because evidence showed that they "borrowed" religious figures/deities from other neighboring civilizations such as Rome, Egypt, and Etruscan). while on the other hand, could it be that Astarte had solar aspects within Canaanite beliefs as well?


Note: I've been posting these sorts of question here mainly because Wikipedia and other sites simply lack the answers I'm searching for, they're mostly. too vague regarding texts.

Tammuz

Inanna has no "solar" aspects, she is Queen of Heaven (the stars). Her Sumerian brother Utu has the solar aspect.

Tanit was the Carthaginian name for the Phoenician Astarte, which in turn was a variation of the Mesopotamian Ishtar. Tanit's temple was called "Shrine of the Heavenly Virgin" in Carthage. Tanit was also known as the goddess of Libya, whose feast was celebrated every year in Rome in March. This festival is also known as "bacchanalia", which celebrated the death and resurrection of the god Bacchus (Dionysus). The symbol of Tanit was a triangle with a full moon above it, which also symbolized other goddesses, Aphrodite, Athena, Venus, and Juno.

ConQuest

Tammuz

Sorry, a typo. I´ll correct it.

Here is some info by me on Inanna:

Theory or fact?

ConQuest

Tammuz

Sorry for delay, I was offline for a while.

This refers to Inanna as the goddess of the morning star (Roman: Venus).

ConQuest

Ah, I stand corrected. So I guess the lunar aspect could be considered an original attribute the Phoenicians developed for this figure?

Tammuz

The lunar aspect also comes from Inanna/Ishtar. The moon was originally one of the main symbols of female deities anyway, because the phases of the moon were associated with the female monthly cycle.

The formation of male moon gods is a later development. In Mesopotamia a male moon god (Sumerian: Nanna, Akkadian: Sin) was formed for some time, to whom Inanna/Ishtar was assigned as daughter, but later Ishtar increasingly took over the moon god function of her "father", i.e. the function returned to its original bearer, a female deity.

ConQuest

The lunar aspect also comes from Inanna/Ishtar. The moon was originally one of the main symbols of female deities anyway, because the phases of the moon were associated with the female monthly cycle.

The formation of male moon gods is a later development. In Mesopotamia a male moon god (Sumerian: Nanna, Akkadian: Sin) was formed for some time, to whom Inanna/Ishtar was assigned as daughter, but later Ishtar increasingly took over the moon god function of her "father", i.e. the function returned to its original bearer, a female deity.

DiocletianIsBetterThanYou

Some info from Dexter Hoyos 2010, The Carthaginians, pp. 94-96: 'Like every ancient society, the Carthaginians had a very large number of gods and goddesses. Most of their major deities they had
brought from Phoenicia. Zakarbaal had been high priest of Astarte at Tyre, Melqart was that city’s protecting god, and Baal Hammon was the most prominent aspect of the chief god, Baal, of Phoenicia.
In turn Baal Iddir, Baal Marqod, Baal Oz, Baal Qarnem, Baal Sapon and Baal Shamim were other aspects – or in the eyes of many Carthaginians were other gods, as the word b‘l essentially means ‘lord’. In fact Baal Shamim (B‘l šmm), ‘lord of the skies’, had been the leading Baal in early Phoenicia, but at Carthage he held a place less prominent than Baal Hammon.

Other leading deities were Eshmun, Reshef or Rasap (again in several aspects, like Reshef Hes, Reshef Sprm, even Reshef-Melqart), and Shadrap or Sadrape. All of these appear on Punic stelae, many
too in Carthaginians’ religiously-based personal names. There were other lesser and fairly obscure ones, largely Phoenician again, such as Semes the sun-goddess, Hudis god of the new moon, Kese god of the full moon, Kusor god of intellect (who could take on a female aspect as Kusarit), Hawot goddess of the dead, Pumay to whom the Nora stone in Sardinia was set up, Sakun and the exceedingly obscure Arish, sometimes Baal ’Rš and D‘m (Dom).

Some other divinities at Carthage had important roles, unlike among the Phoenicians. The chief of these, and in later centuries perhaps the city’s paramount deity, was Tnt, usually transliterated Tanit (though Tinit may be a more accurate pronunciation). Tanit’s origins are disputed: possibly she began in Phoenicia as an aspect, or even servitor, of Astarte or perhaps instead was a separate divinity,
named on a stele as ‘Tanit of Lebanon’ (wltnt blbnn) or – least likely but occasionally suggested – a different Phoenician goddess, Anat, who under Libyan influence might have acquired a prefix ta. Tanit appears at Carthage quite late, on stelae from the 5th or even the early 4th Century, with some noteworthy aspects. She is almost always coupled with Baal, always is mentioned first and Baal next, and bears the name Tnt pn B‘l, Tanit pene Baal (or Phane-Baal) – ‘Tanit face of Baal’. She has a distinctive visual symbol or sign, essentially a triangle with a circle at its apex and a line drawn horizontally between the two, so that the ‘sign of Tanit’ looks like a geometric outline of a woman in a long robe and with arms outstretched. The sign appears in mosaics – a famous one adorns the threshold of a private home in Kerkouane – and on small items widely used, like figurines and pottery vessels. No other Carthaginian deity had this kind of visual recognition. A further sign of Tanit’s eminence is that in 146, as the siege of the city neared its climax, the Roman commander Scipio Aemilianus called on ‘Juno’, who must be Tanit, in the rite of evocatio: the ‘summoning out’ of an enemy city’s protective deity with promises of greater honours at Rome.

Whether Tanit and Baal came to be seen as a married couple is not known, but ‘Zeus and Hera’ in Hannibal’s oath (to Philip V) are thought to represent them and were a married couple (as well as being brother and sister, not a feature ever suggested of the Carthaginian pair). The great majority of stelae dedicated to Tanit and Baal were in the ‘tophet’, the cremation-cemetery for infants. Even the site of their temple or temples is unknown, though conceivably Byrsa had room for them as well as Eshmun. Temples of many of the other gods are mentioned in inscriptions or literary sources the city clearly had at least as many sacred places as Rome or Athens, even if the events of 146 and later have left it almost impossible to find any.'


Contents

Founding

During the Sabbat Worlds Crusade, the planet Tanith was called on to raise regiments for the Astra Militarum for the first time in its history. Originally, was tasked to contribute three regiments for the Imperial Guard: the Tanith 1st, 2nd and 3rd - totalling 6,000 men and a small number of vehicles and artillery pieces, to be commanded by Colonel-Commissar Ibram Gaunt. [1d] [2b]

On the very night of the regiments' Founding ceremony, however, disaster struck: a Chaos splinter fleet that had slipped through the Imperial Navy blockade arrived in the Tanith system, which was practically defenseless. Gaunt quickly decided that Tanith could not be saved, and, instead of allowing the guardsmen to engage in a futile defense of their homeworld, ordered as much of the men and equipment evacuated off-planet as possible before the Chaos ships arrived. In the attack that followed, Tanith and the majority of its people were immolated, with only around two thousand survivors. [1c] [1d] The remnants of the three regiments, some 3,500 Guardsmen [2b] , were formed into a single regiment, the Tanith First and Only [1d] , with Gaunt promoting two members of a delegation sent to confront him, Corbec and Rawne, into its colonel and major respectively. [2b]

Early Days

When Ibram Gaunt was sent to Tanith to oversee the founding of these regiments, he was not impressed by the appearance of the men, initially describing them as "a scrawny, scruffy mob of soft-voiced woodsmen". Gaunt's opinion of his new regiment changed quickly after seeing them in combat for the first time on Blackshard. Because of their exceptional stealth and scouting skills, they never got lost even on the most confusing of battlefields, and using camo-cloaks they could move quickly and stealthily through terrain. On Blackshard the regiment's master sniper, Hlaine Larkin, coined the name "Gaunt's Ghosts", referencing both their superlative stealth abilities and the fact that they were dispossessed 'ghosts' of men. [2b]

During the Crusade, the Ghosts' expertise in covert operations was instrumental in the liberation of a number of worlds. However, rivalries with other, more illustrious regiments (in particular, the Jantine First and the Volpone Bluebloods) often put the Ghosts at risk. The regiment took heavy losses in its early actions, including the loss of three hundred during a friendly fire "incident" at Voltis Watergate on Voltemand. [2c] Heavy casualties were also incurred during the effort to recapture the Forge World of Fortis Binary [1x] , so much so that by the time of the Ghosts' deployment on Monthax they numbered only 1500. [2x]

Reinforcements from Consolation

With Tanith destroyed, the Tanith First-and-Only had no homeworld from which to draw new recruits, but the Ghosts eventually garnered a strong reputation after a number of actions, in particular the Siege of Vervunhive. After the heavy fighting of the siege the Ghosts were reduced to their lowest numbers yet, but received a huge influx of new recruits from Vervunhive who, thanks to Warmaster Macaroth's Act of Consolation, were allowed to join any regiment of the Imperial Guard they desired since their hive had been destroyed. [3c] The cultural divide between the Tanith and Verghastite elements of the regiment became an ongoing problem, with the Tanith resenting the newcomers and the Verghastites resenting that resentment and feeling like second-class Ghosts shut out of the regiment's elite sections. [5] The introduction of women into the regiment as part of the Vervunhive influx also caused some tension, but this was more quickly resolved as the women proved themselves in combat and the complaints of the anti-women Tanith such as Major Rawne became tired and repetitive. [4] The greater cultural divide was eventually bridged due to shared combat experiences and the promotion of several Verghastites to platoon command, as well as the first Verghastite making it into the regiment's elite scouting cadre. By the end of the conflict on Aexe Cardinal the regiment was fighting as a cohesive whole. [6]

Following the Siege of Vervunhive the Ghosts went on to win renown through their actions in several warzones, including the shrineworld Hagia where they defended the remains of Saint Sabbat against Chaos forces, [4] Phantine where their infiltration skills were officially recognised by high command for the first time and they were instrumental in capturing the city of Ouranberg, [5] and Herodor where they fought alongside reincarnated Saint Sabbat herself as her personal honour guard. [7]

After Herodor the regiment underwent another great change when Gaunt and several of his best unit commanders including Rawne and Mkoll were tasked with leading a small infiltration team on Gereon to assassinate traitor-general Noches Sturm, formerly of the Volpone Bluebloods, before his memories could be accessed by his Chaos captors. [8] The Tanith First, while still intact in the body of its troops, was left without most of its command structure and the Ghosts were merged with the Belladon 81st regiment under colonel Lucien Wilder, a regiment which also specialised in scouting and had lost many of its men in previous actions but still had most of its commanders. The combined 81st/1st Recon were deployed in combat on Ancreon Sextus, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and his team returned alive from Gereon after being assumed dead. Gaunt was forced to act as an ordinary commissar again, shut out of his own regiment, which Wilder had organised into alphabetical companies instead of the previous numerical platoons. Wilder, however, died leading a heroic rear guard action when the Astra Militarum was forced to retreat, buying time for the rest of the regiment to escape. After this Gaunt returned to command and the regiment reclaimed the name Tanith First-and-Only, though now with a third cultural group, the Belladon, as part of its mix. [9]

The Ghosts continued to fight superbly in the name of the Emperor after Ancreon Sextus, returning in full force to liberate Gereon from Chaos control. [10] However, they suffered heavy losses once more when they defended the abandoned fortress Hinzerhaus on Jago against massed armies of Blood Pact, and Gaunt himself was captured by the enemy and believed dead for a short time. Though saved, Gaunt lost his sight to his wounds. [11] After the conflict on Jago Gaunt requested that his regiment be rotated away from the front lines as they had been fighting for too long, and they were stationed as a garrison force on Balhaut for a year.

While stationed on Balhaut, Gaunt and a handful of the Ghosts found themselves caught up in an attack by a Blood Pact strike-team who infiltrated the planet, far behind Imperial lines, in order to kill Mabbon Etogaur. Gaunt and the Ghosts successfully neutralised all enemy agents in the city and the regiment later took custody of the Etogaur, who had defected to the Imperium after betraying the Blood Pact to join 'Anarch' Anakwanar Sek and help him create the Sons of Sek. Reinforced by an influx of new troops from Verghast and Belladon, the Ghosts were dispatched to the remote enemy research station known as Salvation's Reach, where acting on intelligence Mabbon had supplied they staged a raid and stole a number of Chaos artifacts while planting evidence to make it seem like the Blood Pact, not the Imperium, had attacked Anarch Sek's facility. The false-flag operation at Salvation's Reach, in concert with other missions staged across the Sabbat Worlds, succeeded in inciting internecine warfare between Archon Gaur and Anarch Sek. [12] [13]

While returning from Salvation's Reach, the Ghosts' transport ship suffered a serious malfunction and translated from the Warp into real-space ten years later than when they had left. Surviving a boarding attack by Chaos scavengers thanks to the inexplicable intervention of the Chaos warship Tormageddon Monstrum Rex, the Ghosts arrived at the war-torn planet Urdesh where Gaunt discovered that he and his regiment had been believed dead for a decade. Posthumously decorated for his many successes and now returned alive, Gaunt was promoted to Lord General Militant and set up by his fellows to replace the increasingly distant Macaroth as warmaster. Unwilling to be a pawn in the coup, Gaunt warned Macaroth and helped him return to take charge of the situation as the enemy launched a massive counter-attack across the planet. The Ghosts fought valiantly in the thick of the fighting and Gaunt was rewarded by Macaroth with a position as his right-hand man, but the Imperial forces only survived because the Sons of Sek retreated for seemingly no reason. Reinvigorated thanks to Gaunt's actions, Macaroth charged his generals with discovering why. [14]

Campaigns

Since its founding, the Tanith First and Only has served in the following campaigns and warzones:

Notable Achievements

The Tanith 1st have the distinction of achieving the death or capture of no less than three Chaos Magisters: Nokad the Blighted, Sholen Skara and Heritor Asphodel. Others notable actions include:


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Carthage at its Zenith

Photos copyright Christine Renaud, 1987

Fortifications of Selinus (Selinunte) in anticipation of a Carthaginian attack.

Fortifications along the north end of Selinus in anticipation of attack.

View of akropolis from extramural sanctuaries to the east.

View of akropolis.

Temple A on akropolis. Turned into a Punic sanctuary. In the pronaos of the temple are the symbols of Tanit and Hermes.

Temple B on akropolis.

Temple “G” at Selinunte. The temple was never finished. When the Carthaginians attacked in 406, the temple had been under construction for almost 100 years. Columns for this temple were being transported from the quarry when they had to be abandoned suddenly. It would seem that the citizens of Selinus were caught unawares. This slide shows one of the colossal doric capitals.

View of temples of Akragas from the Temple of Concord.

  Map of the Hannibalic or Second Punic War. From Khader and Soren, "Carthage: A Mosaic of Ancient Tunisia," p. 32

Religion

Phoenician religious practices have received much attention, due especially to the child sacrifices that occurred at their cities to ensure the health and well being of the community. The major gods were Baal Hammon (the name Hannibal means “favorite of Baal”), Tanit, Baal’s consort, Eshmoun, and Melqart, later assimilated to Hercules.

At Carthage, the cult of Tanit became the most important god. Her symbols include doves, a palm tree, grapes, a crescent moon. She is the goddess of many names (like Isis) a queen of the Manes (shades of the dead).

Image of Tanit. Neo-Punic Funerary Stele. From Khader and Soren (1987), 180

The Tophet

The Tophet to the south of Carthage and west of the harbors was the area where children (up to 4 years old) were sacrificed and buried. Sometimes animals would be substituted in place of children, but as Carthage’s fortunes began to wane, the substitution became less common. As Diodorus Siculus records:

They were filled with superstitious dread, for they believed they had neglected the honors of the gods that had been established by their fathers. In their zeal to make amends for their omission, they selected 200 of the noblest children and sacrificed them publicly and others who were under suspicion sacrificed themselves voluntarily, in a number not less than 300. (Diodorus 20.14.1-7 and following).

Grave marker from the Tophet area. The funeral stele on the left dates to the fourth century BCE. The Punic characters indicate that it is a dedication to the Tophet's divinities. Photo from Khader and Soren (1987), 151, no. 14.

Grave marker from the Tophet area. The funeral stele dates to the fourth century BCE. The stele exhibits traditional symbols of the sun and moon (crescent). Photo is from Khader and Soren (1987), 151 No. 15


The Ancient Tuaregs, Lost Lords of the Sahara

The Sahara Desert is the largest hot desert in the world, and the third largest desert in the world (after Antarctica and the Arctic, which are classified as cold deserts). At 9.4 million square kilometres, this vast desert covers much of North Africa. As much of the desert receives less than 3 cm of rain a year, and its rivers (apart from the Nile) are irregular and seasonal, life is extremely harsh for its inhabitants. Yet, there are those who call the Sahara Desert home, one of them being the Tuaregs, a population who can trace their roots back thousands of years.

The Tuaregs live in one of the harshest environments in the world ( Wikimedia Commons )

According to one source, the word ‘Tuareg’ has its origins in the Arabic language, and means ‘abandoned by the gods’. Other sources argue, however, that the word is derived from Targa, a city in the southern Libyan region of Fezzan, and that a Tuareg is an inhabitant of that city. The Tuaregs themselves do not particularly like this term, and prefer using the term ‘Imashaghen’ or Imohag, meaning ‘free men’.

The 5 th century Greek historian Herodotus recorded that during his time, the region of southern Libya was inhabited by a tribe known as the Garamantes. It has been speculated that these were the ancient people from whom the Tuaregs could trace their ancestry. According to Tuareg folklore, their tribe’s origins can be traced back to the legendary Queen Tin Hinan and her servant Takamet, believed to have lived during the 3 rd or 4 th century A.D. When the Arabs began their conquest of the Maghreb (Northwest Africa) during the 7 th century, the Tuaregs started their continuous migration south-west. By the 11 th century, the Tuaregs arrived in Niger, and were recorded to have even founded the city of Timbuktu. The arrival of the Tuaregs placed a great pressure on the indigenous tribes, who were eventually overrun and pushed southwards.

Tuareg men in traditional dress in the Saharan Desert of Mali. Bradley Watson/ Flickr

By the 14 th century, the Tuaregs were converted to the Islamic faith, which has remained their religion ever since. From their new territory, the Tuaregs were able to engage in the Trans-Saharan trade, where gold, salt and black slaves passed their cities on their way to the North African coast. These resources, which would eventually end up in Europe and the Levant, brought them great wealth. By the 19 th century, a new power came to North Africa – France. Initially, the French had no interest in colonising the Saharan territories. Competition with Great Britain and other European powers during the ‘Scramble for Africa’ in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries, however, caused them to extend their colonial rule across Tuareg territory.

French rule was not particularly welcome, and the Tuaregs despised many of their colonial master’s policies. These included the exploitation of Tuareg labour and resources, the conscription of Tuaregs as soldiers in the French Army, heavy taxes, and attempts to ban certain Tuareg traditions and practices, such as the owning of ancestral slaves and raids carried out on neighbouring tribes. As a result of this dissent, the Tuaregs began to revolt against the French colonialists in an attempt to regain their independence, though they were unsuccessful.

A Tuareg wearing the Tajelmust. French view of a Tuareg man from Timbuktu, c.1890s. ( Wikimedia Commons )

In 1960, the French began granting independence to their West African colonies. As the emerging countries around the Sahara began building their own territories, the Tuaregs were left out. Discontented with the fact that they were not allowed autonomous rule, the Tuaregs rebelled in 1963, this time against the newly formed country of Mali. Although the rebellion was crushed by the end of 1964, it was revived again in the 1990s, as the grievances of the Tuareg had not been addressed by the Malian government in the previous decades. This rebellion was also underway in neighbouring Niger, where initial efforts to integrate Tuaregs into the new country had gone to waste with a change of regime in 1974. Whilst a peace was negotiated in 1995, it was an uneasy one, and not agreed upon by all Tuareg groups. As of today, the Tuareg fight for independence still goes on, and a permanent solution remains nowhere in sight.

Featured image: Queen Tin Hinan of the Tuaregs by Hocine Ziani ( Wikimedia Commons )

Devon DB, 2013. The Crisis in Mali: A Historical Perspective on the Tuareg People. [Online]
Available here.


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