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Bulgaria in 1914

Bulgaria in 1914

Bulgaria was a province of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until support from Russia enabled it to become an autonomous principality in 1878. Revolution in Turkey in 1908 undermined the power of Abdul Hamid II and enabled Bulgaria to become an independent kingdom under Prince Ferdinand.

Bulgaria's parliament was elected by manhood suffrage and had the power to veto royal legislation. The most powerful political group in parliament was the Nationalist Party. In 1913 Vasil Radoslavov became Bulgaria's prime minister.

Prince Ferdinand favoured an expansionist foreign policy and during the Balkan Wars joined with Serbia, Greece and Montenegro to drive Turkey out of Macedonia. In 1913 Prince Ferdinand launched an attack on its former allies. Bulgaria was defeated in six weeks and as a result lost Bulgarian-speaking parts of Macedonia and the coastal region of Dobrudja.

In 1910 the Bulgarian Army comprised some 85,000 troops in peacetime. After the Balkan Wars (1912-13) the size of the army was increased to ten divisions. Each division of 24,000 men were supported by cavalry squadrons, machine-gun troops and field artillery.


Bulgaria profile - Timeline

500 BC - Thracian tribes settle in what is now southeastern Bulgaria. They are subsequently subjugated by the Macedonian king Alexander the Great and later by the Roman Empire.

681 - Bulgarian state established.

890s - The earliest form of the Cyrillic alphabet - later versions of which are now used in dozens of Slavonic languages - is created by Bulgarian scholars.

1018-1185 - Bulgaria is part of Byzantine empire.

1396 - Ottoman Empire completes conquest of Bulgaria. Next five centuries are known as era of the "Turkish yoke".

1876 - Nationwide uprising against Ottoman rule is violently suppressed.

1878 - Treaty of San Stefano - signed by Russia and Turkey at the end of their war of 1877-78 - recognises an autonomous Bulgaria.

1878 - Treaty of Berlin creates much smaller Bulgarian principality. Eastern Rumelia remains under Ottoman rule.

1886 - Eastern Rumelia is merged with Bulgaria.

1887 - Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha elected prince.

1908 - Bulgaria declares itself an independent kingdom. Ferdinand assumes title of tsar.

1914-18 - World War I. Bulgaria allies itself with Germany. Some 100,000 Bulgarian troops are killed, the most severe per capita losses of any country involved in the war.

1939-45 World War II - Soviet army invades German-occupied Bulgaria in 1944. Soviet-backed Fatherland Front takes power.

1946 - Monarchy abolished in referendum and republic declared. Communist Party wins election. Georgi Dimitrov elected prime minister.


History of the U.S. and Bulgaria

Bulgaria proclaimed its full independence from the Ottoman Empire on September 22 (October 5), 1908. That same day Horace G. Knowles, U.S. Minister to Romania and Serbia and Diplomatic Agent in Bulgaria, sent a telegram to the Secretary of State informing him that Bulgaria had proclaimed her independence.

On May 3, 1909 the Secretary of State sent a telegram to Hatcheson, diplomatic representative ad interim for Bulgaria, conveying U.S. President’s instructions to express his commendations to His Majesty Tsar Ferdinand, on the occasion of Bulgaria’s accession to the commonwealth of the sovereign and independent states.

A Consular Agency was established in Sofia on January 12, 1912. It reported to the Consulate General in Bucharest. The first American Consular Agent in Bulgaria was actually a Bulgarian national, Asen Kermekchiev (later Ace Kermek), a businessman, physician, and journalist. Kermekchiev served the United States Government even while working as a field doctor for Bulgaria in the First Balkan War, and was praised for protecting American lives and property while at the front. He also founded the first American Chamber of Commerce in Sofia.

The Consular Agency became a Consulate General on February 22, 1915 with the appointment of Dominic Murphy.

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1903

John B. Jackson, who was Minister to Greece, Romania, and Serbia, was the first Diplomatic Agent to Bulgaria, and the first U.S. representative to present his credentials there, which he did on September 19, 1903. This date marks the establishment of diplomatic relations between Bulgaria and the United States. He was re-appointed in 1911 as Minister to Romania, Serbia, and Bulgaria. Later Diplomatic Agents to Bulgaria (1907-10) were also Ministers to Romania and Serbia. Only one of them, Horace G. Knowles (1907-09) presented his credentials in Bulgaria. Only after World War I was a U.S. representative commissioned solely to Bulgaria.

Establishment of Bulgarian Legation in the United States, 1914

On December 22, 1914, Stefan Panaretov presented his credentials as Bulgaria’s first Minister to the United States. He served until 1925.

Establishment of American Legation in Sofia, 1919

The American Legation in Sofia was established on March 18, 1919, when Charles S. Wilson presented his credentials as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim at Sofia. Wilson later was appointed Minister to Bulgaria on October 8, 1921, and presented his credentials on December 5.

Diplomatic Relations Severed, 1941

Bulgaria declared war on the United States on December 13, 1941. U.S. Minister George H. Earle III left Sofia and arrived in Istanbul on December 27, 1941. The United States did not declare war on Bulgaria until June 5, 1942. President Franklin D. Roosevelt believed that Bulgaria would not have declared war without pressure from Nazi Germany.

Diplomatic Relations Resumed and American Legation Reopened, 1947

The Soviet Union declared war on Bulgaria on September 5, 1944, and occupied the country despite Bulgaria’s acceptance of an armistice on September 8, 1944. The Sovietization of the country proceeded apace, with the country being proclaimed a People’s Republic on September 15, 1946. However, the United States still recognized the pre-war Bulgarian government. The U.S. Legation in Sofia was reopened on September 27, 1947, and Donald R. Heath presented his credentials on November 8 as U.S. Minister to Bulgaria.

Bulgarian Legation in the United States Reopened, 1947

The Bulgarian Legation in Washington reopened November 21, 1947, with Stoyan Athanassov as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. Minister Nissim Mevorah presented his credentials on December 29, 1947.

Diplomatic Relations Severed by Bulgaria, 1950

In 1950, the Bulgarian Government accused U.S. Minister Heath of espionage and declared him persona non grata on January 19. Bulgaria severed diplomatic relations with the United States on February 20, 1950. The United States announced the suspension of diplomatic relations with Bulgaria on February 21, and Heath left the country on February 24, 1950.

Diplomatic Relations Reestablished and American Legation Reopened, 1959-1960

The United States and Bulgaria agreed to resume diplomatic relations on March 24, 1959. Edward Page, Jr. was appointed Minister to Bulgaria on November 23, 1959, and presented his credentials on March 14, 1960.

Bulgarian Legation in the United States Reopened, 1960

Peter Voutov was appointed as Bulgaria’s Minister to the United States on December 2, 1959, and presented his credentials on January 15, 1960.

Elevation of American Legation to Embassy Status, 1966

The Legation in Bulgaria was elevated to Embassy status on November 28, 1966. Minister John M. McSweeney, who had been originally appointed on May 16, 1966, was appointed Ambassador on April 7, 1967. He presented his new credentials on April 19, 1967.

Bulgarian Legation Raised to Embassy Status, 1966

Bulgarian Minister Luben Guerassimov, who had served since September 1, 1965, was promoted to Ambassador and presented his new credentials on December 14, 1966.


The Stambolov Government of 1887 to 1894

Stefan Stambolov was a strong leader, perhaps even dictatorial, who had a strong influence on the development of the Bulgarian state. He was educated in Russia and was a liberal. Liberal in this context means something entirely different from what liberal means in the context of twentieth and twentyfirst century American politics. In the American context liberal means basically the same as European social democratic. In Europe now and everywhere in the nineteenth century liberal meant in favor of democratic government and reliance on the markets to organize the economy.

Stambolov's focus was not political and economic ideology but the hard realities of international politics. Because the Bulgarians in Macedonia were left under the control of the Ottomans an independence movement developed that evolved into terrorism. Bombings and assassinations were carried out by the Macedonian rebels. Stambolov, while he might have had some sympathy for the Macedonians, was not willing to let Bulgarian independence be compromised by that independence movement. He quite willingly sacrificed the Macedonia independence movement for concessions from the Ottoman Empire.

But before anything else he had to confront the choice of a Bulgarian monarch.

Ferdinand of SaxeCoburgGotha

Ferdinand of SaxeCoburgGotha was made Bulgarian monarch in 1887. Because Stambolov rose to power before Ferdinand became monarch, he had a long period where he was dominant. This is in contrast with Alexander who began monarch and consolidated his power before the legislature had the opportunity assert its authority.

Bulgaria was and continued to be for a long time primarily an agricultural economy. Under Stambolov the land tenure system was adjusted. Industrial development was encouraged.

What Stambolov refused to do was to intercede with the Ottoman Empire on the part of the Macedonians. He instead traded suppression of the Macedonians for concessions on the part of the Ottoman Empire on the part of Bulgaria.

Stambolov founded the People's Liberal Party in 1886 and led it to electoral victory in the elections of 1890. Stambolov concentrated on making Bulgaria a favorable climate for foreign investment. He promoted the construction of railroads to link Bulgaria to international markets. The completion of the Vienna-Istanbul railroad was particularly important for Bulgaria.

Ferdinand over the years was working to enhance his monarchial authority. Until 1896 Ferdinand was not recognized as the legitimate Bulgarian monarch. When Russia finally recognized the legitimacy of Ferdinand he began to assert his authority. One of these assertions of authority was Ferdinand's dismissal of Stambolov as prime minister in 1894.

The Macedonian independence organizations never forgave Stambolov his a lack of support for their cause and in 1895 they assassinated Stambolov.


Economy

Bulgaria was highly backwards from an economic standpoint. Heavy industry was almost nonexistent due to a lack of major natural resources, and whatever manufacturing did exist consisted almost exclusively of textiles and handicrafts. Even these required extensive tariff protection to survive. Some natural resources did exist, but bad internal communications made it impossible to exploit them and nearly all important manufactured implements were imported. Farm machinery and chemical fertilizers were nearly unheard of. Agricultural products were almost the only thing Bulgaria could export and after the economic crisis it became very hard to do this.

Bulgaria was fortunate in lacking a native landowning class since historically the landowners had all been Turks displaced after independence in 1878. As such, Bulgarian agriculture was almost entirely one of small farmers and peasants. Plots were small and almost exclusively under 50 acres, but they were worked intensively and even the tiniest 5-acre farms often produced crops for market sale. Bulgarian peasants also had a better work ethic than their counterparts in Romania or Hungary (In Austria-Hungary) due to historical reasons.

As elsewhere in Eastern Europe, Bulgarian peasants traditionally grew grains for their landowners which after the war could not be effectively marketed due to competition from the United States and Western Europe. However, they were able to switch with little difficulty to garden crops and tobacco in contrast to other countries where the peasantry suffered harder due to continued reliance on corn and wheat.

While more successful than the rest of Eastern Europe, Bulgarian agriculture still suffered from the handicaps of backwards technology and especially rural overpopulation and scattered plots (due to the traditional practice of a peasant dividing his land equally among all surviving sons). And all agricultural exports were harmed by the onset of the Great Depression. On the other hand, an underdeveloped economy meant that Bulgaria had little trouble with debt and inflation. Just under half of industry was owned by foreign companies in contrast to the nearly 80% of Romanian industry.

The Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) acts as the central bank and issues and control the national currency (Bulgarian lev). The Bulgarian Agricultural Bank (Bulgarska Zemedelska Banka, BZB) and Bulgarian Central Cooperative Bank (Bulgarska Centralna Kooperativna Banka, BCKB) are the main public credit banks. Also important are the agricultural credit cooperatives that operated in the countryside, being fed on the funds of the BZB, and a town and city equivalent, called popular banks, formed to provide loans to crafts.

Railways are a state monopoly administered by the Bulgarian State Railways (BDZ).


File:Kingdom of Bulgaria (1914).svg

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Europe 1914 CE

European nations now rule much of the world, but their rivalries are now leading them into the First World War.

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Civilizations

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What is happening in Europe in 1914CE

Empires

The industrialization of Europe over the past decades has given its nations’ armed forces unmatched capability, and they have indulged in a frenzy of competition for overseas territory. Most of the world has become carved up amongst their empires. Britain and France have taken the lion’s share, but Holland, Belgium, Germany and Italy also have substantial overseas possessions. The Russian empire has pushed out its borders in central Asia.

Tensions

Expansion abroad has fuelled nationalist tensions at home. This has led to mutual fear building up between the great powers of Europe, especially between Austria and Russia, both wanting to grab as much power and influence in the Balkans at the expense of a weakened Ottoman empire, and of each other. This year, 1914, sees these tensions spill over into full scale war.


Bulgaria in 1914 - History

The Bulgarian Declaration of Independence, 1908.

The treaties of San Stefano and Berlin (1878), to which the principality of Bulgaria owed its legal existence, though providing for practically complete autonomy for the principality, recognized in favor of Turkey certain ill-defined rights, of suzerainty over Bulgaria. Ordinarily these rights were of little value to Turkey and limited very slightly the independent action of Bulgaria. There was, however, in Bulgaria a strong desire for complete independence. Prince Ferdinand on several occasions sounded the courts of Russia and Austria in regard to the matter, but was advised to wait. The Turkish Revolution of July, 1908, furnished an opportunity.

2. THE DECLARATION OF TORNOVA.

On October 5, 1908, Prince Ferdinand formally proclaimed the independence of Bulgaria at Tornova. All the circumstances of the occasion indicate that the declaration was issued in consequence of an understanding previously arranged between the Bulgarian and Austro-Hungarian Governments. The decision not to defer the declaration until a later time was probably due to a fear lest the powers, coming into dispute over the, action of the Dual Monarchy, would forbid Bulgaria to take any action as to independence. The decision was to confront Europe with a fait accompli.

3. NEGOTIATIONS, OCTOBER , 1908, TO APRIL, 1909.

The course taken by Bulgaria was an act of defiance toward Turkey, owing to its suzerain rights, and an infraction of the Treaty of Berlin (1878), to which all of the powers were parties. It therefore led to a period of acute tension, marked at times by considerable military preparation, between Bulgaria and Turkey and to a complicated negotiation. In the first phase of this negotiation Russia supported Turkey in a decided manner Germany pursued a rather equivocal course France and England used their influence at Constantinople to prevent war. In the second and final phase, Russia, changing its attitude, contributed in large measure to facilitate a financial transaction which paved the way for a settlement. The attitude of the powers throughout was that they would consent to modify the Treaty of Berlin as to this matter whenever Bulgaria and Turkey should compose their differences, but that the independence of Bulgaria could not be recognized until that had been done.

4. SETTLEMENT AND RECOGNITION.

The main obstacles to a pacific adjustment between Bulgaria and Turkey were sentimental and financial. Turkey at an early date indicated willingness to recognize the independence of Bulgaria upon the payment of a sum of money of an amount to be determined. Turkey demanded that the sum to be paid include the arrears of tribute and a share of the Ottoman debt. The amount demanded was also placed at a high figure. Bulgaria replied that it would notbuy its independence, but would conquer it. At a moment when the situation had become very threatening with Turkey demanding a rectification of the frontier and both States again making extensive military preparations, Russia, came forward with a plan which quickly paved the way to a solution. The plan allowed Turkey, as compensation for claims of all sorts, a sum amounting to 125,000,000 francs, which was substantially the final amount claimed by the Turks, while Bulgaria was willing to pay only 82,000,000 francs. Payment was to be made by way of reduction in the installments on the sums due to Russia from Turkey by the Treaty of Berlin (1878). Russia, in turn, agreed to accept from Bulgaria the sum of only 82,000,000 francs. Turkey, therefore, signed a convention at Constantinople, April 9, 1909, recognizing the independence of Bulgaria. Recognition promptly followed.

Source: Anderson, Frank Maloy and Amos Shartle Hershey, Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa 1870-1914. Prepared for the National Board for Historical Service. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1918.


Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State

Established: Foreign Service of the United States established in the Department of State by the Rogers Act (43 Stat. 140), May 24, 1924.

Predecessors:

  • Diplomatic and consular representatives (1778-92)
  • Diplomatic representatives (1792-1855)
  • Consular Service (1792-1855)
  • Diplomatic and consular services (1855-1924)

Finding Aids: Mark G. Eckhoff and Alexander P. Mavro, comps., List of Foreign Service Post Records in the National Archives, SL 9 (1967) and supplementary list in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.

Related Records:
Record copies of publications of the Foreign Service in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
General Records of the Department of State, RG 59.

84.2 Records of Diplomatic Posts
1788-1962

History: First permanent U.S. diplomatic representative accredited by the Second Continental Congress, September 14, 1778. Diplomats frequently served as consuls until independent consular service established in 1792. Diplomatic and consular system formalized by an act of March 1, 1855 (10 Stat. 619). The services were reorganized on several occasions, and combined into the Foreign Service in 1924. See 84.1.

Textual Records: Records maintained by U.S. embassies, legations, and missions, including original signed instructions and copies of dispatches notes to and from host governments instructions, communications, dispatches, and reports to and from subordinate consulates miscellaneous correspondence records of births, marriages, and deaths of U.S. citizens listings of important events notes of administrative changes inventories of consular property registers and card indexes passport and visa records and records relating to diplomatic personnel.

Specific Restrictions: As specified by the Archivist of the United States, name files relating to the issuances of visas, records less than 75 years old concerning passports and related citizenship matters, and records less than 50 years old relating to the personnel of the Department of State and Foreign Service, including Foreign Service inspection reports, efficiency reports, and related records pertaining to the character, ability, conduct, quality of work, industry, experience, dependability, and general usefulness of individuals, may be used only after consultation by the National Archives with the Department of State.

Records exist for diplomatic posts in the following countries: Abyssinia (see Ethiopia) Afghanistan, 1942-55 Albania, 1922-46 Algeria, 1942-44 Angola, 1943-52 Argentina, 1813-1952 Australia, 1940-52 Austria, 1837-1955 Austria-Hungary (see Austria) Belgium, 1832-1954 Bolivia, 1853-1952 Brazil, 1809- 1961 Bulgaria, 1859-1948 Burma, 1945-55 Cambodia, 1950-52 Canada, 1927-52 Ceylon, 1870-1955 Chile, 1824-1952 China, 1843-1948 Chosen (see Korea) Colombia, 1820-1952 Costa Rica, 1854-1959 Cuba, 1902-52 Czechoslovakia, 1919-53 Denmark, 1811- 1956 Dominican Republic, 1883-1952 Ecuador, 1827-1955 Egypt, 1873-1955 El Salvador, 1862-1958 England (see Great Britain) Estonia, 1930-37 Ethiopia, 1898-1955 Finland, 1920-58 France, 1788-1960 Germany, 1835-1957 Ghana, 1950-52 Great Britain, 1826-1961 Greece, 1834-1955 Guatemala, 1826-1955 Haiti, 1860- 1952 Hawaii, 1839-1900 Holland (see Netherlands, The) Honduras, 1854-1955 Hungary, 1920-55 Iceland, 1940-52 India, 1941-55 Indonesia, 1936-55 Iran, 1883-1952 Iraq, 1931-49 Ireland, 1927-52 Israel, 1948-52 Italy, 1839-1957 Japan, 1855- 1952 Jordan, 1948-55 Korea, 1882-1955 Laos, 1954 Latvia, 1919-41 Lebanon, 1935-54 Liberia, 1856-1953 Libya, 1948-55 Luxembourg, 1903-55 Mexico, 1825-1952 Montenegro (see also Greece), 1905-12 Morocco, 1905-57 Nepal, 1946-55 Netherlands, The, 1806-1952 New Zealand, 1940-52 Nicaragua, 1894-1962 Norway (see also Sweden), 1906-55 Ottoman Empire (see Turkey) Pakistan, 1923-55 Panama, 1903-52 Papal States, 1858-61 Paraguay, 1861-1955 Persia (see Iran) Peru, 1826-1952 Philippines, The, 1946-52 Poland, 1939-55 Portugal, 1824- 1956 Prussia (see Germany) Romania, 1800-1955 Russia (see Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) Salvador (see El Salvador) Santo Domingo (see Dominican Republic) Sardinia (see Italy) Saudi Arabia, 1945-55 Serbia (see Yugoslavia) Siam (see Thailand) South Africa (see Union of South Africa) South Korea, 1948-56 Soviet Union (see Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) Spain, 1801-1955 Sublime Porte (see Turkey) Sweden (includes Norway prior to 1906), 1810-1952 Switzerland, 1853-1952 Syria, 1943-55 Texas, 1836-44 Thailand, 1880-1955 Tunisia, 1950-55 Turkey, 1830-1954 Two Sicilies (see Italy) Union of South Africa, 1930-55 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1807-1955 United Kingdom (see Great Britain) Uruguay, 1861-1953 Venezuela, 1835-1955 Vietnam, 1936-52 and Yugoslavia, 1882- 1955.

Microfilm Publications: M14, M20, T400, T693, T724, T898.

Finding Aids: Records of embassies in Great Britain, 1826-1935, and Russia and the USSR, 1807-1919 and 1934-38, are described in Alexander P. Marvo, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of Selected Foreign Service Posts, PI 60 (1953).

84.3 Records of Consular Posts
1790-1963

History: First U.S. consul appointed by the Second Continental Congress November 4, 1780. Independent consular service established by an act of April 14, 1792 (1 Stat. 254). Consolidated with diplomatic service to form the Foreign Service in 1924. See 84.1.

Textual Records: Records maintained by consulates general, consulates, and commercial and consular agencies, including original signed instructions and copies of dispatches and reports correspondence records relating to U.S. vessels, including arrivals and departures, cargo descriptions, lists of seamen, marine protests, and other maritime documents certifications of merchandise shipped from or received in the consular district listings of important events notes on administrative changes inventories of consular property court records of posts where ministers and consuls exercised judicial authority over U.S. citizens records of notarial, shipping, and other fees records of births, marriages, deaths, property disposal, estate settlements, and protection of U.S. citizens passport and visa records and records relating to diplomatic personnel.

Specific Restrictions: As specified by the Archivist of the United States, name files relating to the issuance of visas, records less than 75 years old concerning passports and related citizenship matters, and records less than 50 years old relating to the personnel of the Department of State and Foreign Service, including Foreign Service inspection reports, efficiency reports, and related records pertaining to the character, ability, conduct, quality of work, industry, experience, dependability, and general usefulness of individuals, may be used only after consultation by the National Archives with the Department of State.

Records exist for consular posts in the following countries or territories: Aden, 1940-48 Algeria, 1803-1955 Angola (Loanda), 1864-1952 Anguilla (British West Indies), 1858-1948 Argentina, 1858-1944 Australia, 1837-1955 Austria, 1866-1955 Azores (Portuguese), 1807-1955 Bahama Islands, 1821-1949 Balearic Islands, 1937-38 Barbados, 1853-1941 Belgian Congo, 1934-61 Belgium, 1803-1952 Bermuda, 1853-1952 Bolivia, 1918-48 Brazil, 1818-1955 British Guiana, 1852-1952 British Honduras, 1854- 1949 British North Borneo (see Malaysia) British West Indies, 1936-52 Bulgaria, 1914-48 Burma, 1891-1955 Canada, 1815-1955 Canary Islands, 1829-1953 Cape Verde Islands, 1857-1943 Ceylon, 1870-1935 Chile, 1833-1955 China, 1845-1950 Colombia, 1823- 1952 Congo (see French Equatorial Africa) Costa Rica, 1886- 1949 Cuba, 1856-1949 Cyprus, 1832-1930 Czechoslovakia, 1864- 1946 Danzig, Free City of, 1836-1916 Denmark, 1855-1941 Dominica, 1880-1934 Dominican Republic, 1872-1941 Ecuador, 1830-1954 Egypt, 1832-1952 El Salvador, 1862-1938 Eritrea, 1946-52 Estonia, 1919-40 Ethiopia, 1890-1952 Falkland Islands, 1840-1908 Fiji Islands, 1855-1948 Finland, 1840-1943 France, 1790-1962 French Equatorial Africa, 1942-45 French Guiana, 1866-1944 French West Africa (see also Senegal), 1940-55 French West Indies, 1940-52 Gambia, 1858-93 Germany, 1821-1955 Ghana, 1883-1955 Gibraltar, 1924-52 Gold Coast (see Ghana) Great Britain, 1798-1955 Greece, 1837-1963 Greenland, 1940-53 Grenada, 1892-1948 Guadeloupe, 1861-1929 Guatemala, 1824-1946 Guyana (see British Guiana) Haiti, 1848-1949 Hawaii, 1830-1900 Honduras, 1824-1952 Hong Kong, 1936-55 Hungary, 1862-1935 Iceland, 1888-1952 India (Bombay, Calcutta, Madras), 1855-1955 Indonesia (Netherlands East Indies), 1893-1955 Iran (Persia), 1888-1955 Iraq, 1869-1953 Ireland, 1855-1949 Israel (Palestine), 1856-1955 Italy, 1798-1955 Jamaica, 1831-1952 Japan, 1859-1955 Kenya, 1901-54 Korea, 1884-1936 Latvia, 1880- 1940 Lebanon, 1853-1954 Liberia, 1856-1935 Libya, 1799-1955 Lithuania, 1921-40 Luxembourg, 1893-1945 Madagascar, 1860-1954 Madeira Islands, 1830-1949 Malay Federation (see Malaysia) Malaysia, 1904-55 Malta, 1807-1955 Martinique (Fort de France), 1902-52 Mauritius (Ile de France), 1855-1911 Mexico, 1817-1955 Montserrat, 1882-1907 Morocco, 1795-1957 Mozambique, 1843-1955 Nepal (New Delhi, India), 1946-55 Netherlands, The, 1833-1954 Netherlands West Indies, 1797-1955 New Caledonia, 1887-1955 New Zealand, 1860-1952 Nicaragua, 1855-1939 Nigeria, 1928-55 Northern Ireland (see Great Britain) Norway, 1809-1953 Oman, 1880-1914 Pakistan, 1887-1953 Panama, 1854-1945 and (in Atlanta) 1941-48 Paraguay, 1887-1961 Peru, 1825-1945 Philippine Islands, 1945-53 Poland, 1874-1949 Portugal, 1849- 1955 Puerto Rico, 1856-99 Reunion Island, 1890-92 Romania, 1862-1935 Russia (Petrograd), 1914-18 St. Christopher-Nevis- Anguilla, 1875-1909 St. Helena Island, 1836-1908 St. Lucia Island, 1918-43 St. Pierre and Miquelon Islands, 1850-1943 St. Vincent Island, 1882-1918 Samoa, 1854-1927 Saudi Arabia, 1944- 55 Scotland (see Great Britain) Senegal, 1869-1952 Seychelles Islands, 1868-87 Singapore, 1849-1953 Somaliland, 1929-38 Society Islands (see Tahiti) Southern Rhodesia, 1950-55 South Korea, 1948-56 Spain, 1797-1955 Spanish Morocco, 1942-44 Sudan, 1952-55 Surinam (Netherlands Guiana), 1858-1952 Sweden, 1816-1952 Switzerland, 1830-1959 Syria, 1863-1930 Tahiti, 1836-1948 Taiwan (Formosa), 1887-1956 Tanganyika, 1947-56 Tanzania (Zanzibar), 1834-1956 Texas, 1834-44 Thailand, 1846- 1953 Tobago (West Indies), 1889-98 Trinidad, 1855-1952 Tunisia, 1795-1955 Turkey, 1872-1955 Union of South Africa, 1835-1952 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1857-1948 Uruguay, 1825-1939 Venezuela, 1824-1963 Vietnam (French Indochina), 1889-1955 Virgin Islands, 1833-1917 Wales (see Great Britain) Yemen, 1880-1952 Yugoslavia, 1883-1955 and Zaire (see also Belgian Congo), 1906-35.

Microfilm Publications: T308, T402, T403, T781.

Finding Aids: Records of the consulates general in Amsterdam, 1833-1935, Hong Kong, 1843-1935, and Winnipeg, 1869-1935, are described in Alexander P. Marvo, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of Selected Foreign Service Posts, PI 60 (1953).

84.4 Records of Diplomatic and/or Consular Posts
1928-64 (bulk 1953-59)

Note: The records described below represent a recent accession into the National Archives. They have not yet been sufficiently processed to determine their precise status as either diplomatic or consular records.

Textual Records: Central subject files, 1928-64, arranged by post. General and other records of posts in Antigua, 1948 Aruba, 1955-56 Australia, 1950-55 Austria, 1950-55 Belgian Congo, 1949-55 Belgium, 1928-46, 1958 Bolivia, 1945-49, 1953-55 Brazil, 1946-49, 1953-55 British Guiana, 1950-52 Burma, 1953- 55 Burundi, 1962-64 Cambodia, 1953-55 Canada, 1951 Ceylon, 1953-55 Chile, 1950-55 China, 1945-50 China (Taipei), 1953-58 Colombia, 1953-55 Costa Rica, 1953-55 Cuba, 1936-60 Czechoslovakia, 1953-59 Denmark, 1950-52 Dominican Republic, 1953-55 Ecuador, 1950-58 Egypt, 1954-55 El Salvador, 1947-58 Ethiopia, 1953-55 Finland, 1953-55 France, 1948-58 French Indochina, 1952-53 Germany, 1945, 1948-58 Great Britain, 1937- 38, 1943-47, 1955-58 Greece, 1953-63 Greenland, 1950-53 Guatemala, 1955-56 Haiti, 1947-55 Honduras, 1953-55 Hong Kong, 1955 Hungary, 1946-48, 1956-58 Iceland, 1953-55 India, 1936- 55 Indonesia, 1956-57 Iran, 1953-55 Iraq, 1953-54 Italy, 1953-57 Japan, 1941, 1945-52, 1953-55 Jordan, 1953-55 Korea, 1954 Lebanon, 1944-58 Malaya, 1953-55 Martinique, 1953-55 Mexico, 1953-55 Morocco, 1948-55 Mozambique, 1953-54 New Zealand, 1953-55 Northern Ireland, 1953-54 Norway, 1953-55 Pakistan, 1947-58 Philippines, 1945-58 Poland, 1946-50, 1953- 55 Portugal, 1945-55 Saudi Arabia, 1960 Scotland, 1953-55 South Vietnam, 1946-63 Spain (Tenerife), 1949 Switzerland, 1940-53 Syria, 1954-57 Thailand, 1947-58 Trieste, 1954-55 Tunisia, 1953-58 Turkey, 1947-58 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1955, 1958-59 Uruguay, 1953-58 and Yugoslavia, 1955.

Specific Restrictions: As specified by the Archivist of the United States, name files relating to the issuance of visas, records less than 75 years old concerning passports and related citizenship matters, and records less than 50 years old relating to the personnel of the Department of State and Foreign Service, including Foreign Service inspection reports, efficiency reports, and related records pertaining to the character, ability, conduct, quality of work, industry, experience, dependability, and general usefulness of individuals, may be used only after consultation by the National Archives with the Department of State.

84.5 Records of the United States Mission to the United Nations
and its Predecessors
1945-66

History: United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), opened in San Francisco, CA, April 25, 1945 signed the United Nations Charter June 26, 1945. Interim UNCIO agreement, June 26, 1945, created the United Nations Preparatory Commission (Preco) to make arrangements for the first United Nations General Assembly. As recommended by the Preco, the first session of the General Assembly met in London, January 10-February 14, 1946, and October 23-December 16, 1946. The United States was represented by State Department diplomatic personnel at UNCIO, on Preco, and at the first General Assembly. The U.S. delegation to the United Nations was formally designated the United States Mission to the United Nations, by EO 9844, April 28, 1947, under authority of the United Nations Participation Act of 1945 (59 Stat. 619), December 20, 1945.

Textual Records: Records relating to the UNCIO Secretariat, 1945, including memorandums, procedures, reports, and a journal. Records relating to UNCIO committees, 1945-46, including minutes and summaries of meetings, and votes of technical committees. Records of the U.S. Delegation, 1945, including minutes of meetings, numbered documents on a variety of subjects, and other records. Records relating to the United Nations Preparatory Commission, 1945-46, including reports, numbered documents, a journal, telegrams, and press releases. Records of the United States Delegation to the First Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 1945-46, including general records, incoming and outgoing telegrams, press releases, news bulletins, and a reference book. Records of the United States Mission to the United Nations, 1945-49, including mission documents, subject file, United Nations letter file, incoming and outgoing telegrams, position papers and background books, and a declassified "Top Secret" file. Card index to central document and subject files of the U.S. Mission, 1946-53. Press releases, 1946-66. Records of John Foster Dulles, 1947-49.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the United States Mission to the United Nations in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

84.6 Textual Records (General)
1945-90

Files of Ellsworth Bunker, ambassador to South Vietnam, 1967-73. Records relating to the State Department Foreign Service Post in Pretoria, 1950-68. Records relating to Spandau Prison, 1947-67. Classified files, 1945-90, of the Allied Kommandatura Secretariat of the Allied Control Authority. Records of the U.S. Mission to Berlin including case files of the O.M.G.U.S. Property Control Branch, 1945-47 minutes and related reports of the Property Control Committee, 1945-52 correspondence with Soviet Officials ("Soviet Correspondence, Working File"), 1947-60 Miscellaneous records of the Assistant Chief of Mission, 1955-57 subject files, 1947-59 and classified dispatches sent to the Department of State, Washington, 1958-59. Records of the U.S. High Commissioner for Austria, in the American Legation, Vienna, consisting of correspondence, intelligence reports, and other records concerning the investigation of Soviet economic activity in Austria and related matters, 1946-55. Records of the U.S. Mission to Berlin consisting of mixed records files of the Economic Committee, 1945-90. Records of the Treaty Claims Section of the U.S. Embassy, Rome, consisting of correspondence, memorandums, and other records of the U.S. Delegation to the Italian-United States Conciliation Commission, 1947-62. Records of the U.S. member of the Mixed Parole and Clemency Board, 1953-58, and card indexes to actions taken on applications of German War criminals for parole or commutation of sentence, 1953-58. Records of the U.S. Mission to Berlin including monthly reports of the military governor, 1945-46 historical report for the Office of the Military Government, Berlin District, 1945-47 Report to the Council of Foreign Ministers from the Allied Control Authority in Germany, 1947 news clippings concerning military government in Germany and Japan, 1946-48 and miscellaneous record book, 1948-57. Records of the Office of General Counsel of the Office of U.S. High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG) consisting of records relating to the case of Judge William Clark, 1949-56. Memorandums, correspondence, and International Atomic Energy Treaty Working Papers of the Special Assistant for Atomic Energy, Max Isenbergh, 1955-60.

84.7 Cartographic Records (General)
1914-52

Maps: Mineral atlas of Turkey and a map of Smyrna, used by the American Embassy in Turkey, 1914-28 (73 items). Bombed areas of Chungking and motor roads in China, prepared by the military attache of the American Embassy in China, 1939-44 (4 items). Petroleum exploration in the Middle East, from the files of the Petroleum Attache, Beirut, Lebanon Embassy, ca. 1940-52 (56 items).

84.8 Still Pictures (General)
1942-47

Photographs: Remains of victims of atrocities committed by the Japanese during their World War II occupation of Indonesia, collected by Walter A. Foote, U.S. Consul General, Batavia, Java, 1942-46 (IA, 67 images). Japanese political indoctrination programs in Indonesia, 1943-45 (IJ, 35 images). Homes and businesses damaged by saboteurs during Indonesian war for national independence, 1946-47 (IS, 24 images).

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


European Monarchies at the Start of World War I in 1914


Wilhelm of Wied, Sovereign Prince of Albania (reigned 1914)
Wikipedia: Prince Wilhelm of Wied, Prince of Albania


Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary (reigned 1848–1916)
Unofficial Royalty: Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria

· Kingdom of Belgium (current monarchy)


Albert I, King of the Belgians (reigned 1909–1934)
Unofficial Royalty: Albert I, King of Belgians


Ferdinand I, Tsar of Bulgaria (reigned 1887–1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Ferdinand I, Tsar of Bulgaria

· Kingdom of Denmark (current monarchy)


Christian X, King of Denmark (reigned 1912–1947)
Unofficial Royalty: Christian X, King of Denmark


Wilhelm II, German Emperor, King of Prussia (reigned 1888–1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Wilhelm II, German Emperor

The German Empire consisted of 27 constituent states, most of them ruled by royal families. The constituent states retained their own governments, but had limited sovereignty. For example, both postage stamps and currency were issued for the German Empire as a whole. While the constituent states issued their own medals and decorations, and some had their own armies, the military forces of the smaller ones were put under Prussian control. In wartime, armies of all the constituent states would be controlled by the Prussian Army and the combined forces were known as the Imperial German Army. Listed below are the constituent states of the German Empire ruled by royal families in 1914.

Photo Credit – http://www.atsnotes.com

German Kingdoms


Prussia – Wilhelm II, German Emperor, King of Prussia (reigned 1888–1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Wilhelm II, German Emperor, King of Prussia


Bavaria – Ludwig III, King of Bavaria (reigned 1913–1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Ludwig III, King of Bavaria


Saxony – Friedrich Augustus III, King of Saxony (reigned 1904–1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Friedrich Augustus III, King of Saxony


Württemberg – Wilhelm II, King of Württemberg (reigned 1891–1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Wilhelm II, King of Württemberg

German Grand Duchies


Baden – Friedrich II, Grand Duke of Baden (reigned 1907-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Friedrich II, Grand Duke of Baden


Hesse and by Rhine – Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (reigned 1892-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine


Mecklenburg-Schwerin – Friedrich Franz IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (reigned 1897-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Friedrich Franz IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin


Mecklenburg-Strelitz – Adolf Friedrich VI, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (reigned 1914-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Adolf Friedrich VI, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz


Oldenburg – Friedrich Augustus II, Grand Duke of Oldenburg (reigned 1900-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Friedrich Augustus II, Grand Duke of Oldenburg


Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach – Wilhelm Ernst, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (reigned 1901-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Wilhelm Ernst, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

German Duchies


Anhalt – Friedrich II, Duke of Anhalt (reigned 1904-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Friedrich II, Duke of Anhalt


Brunswick – Ernst Augustus III, Duke of Brunswick (reigned 1913-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Ernst Augustus III, Duke of Brunswick


Saxe-Altenburg – Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg (reigned 1908-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg


Saxe-Coburg and Gotha – Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (reigned 1900-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Saxe-Meiningen – Bernhard III, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (reigned 1914-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Bernhard III, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen

German Principalities


Lippe – Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe (reigned 1905 – 1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe


Reuss-Greiz – Heinrich XXIV, Prince Reuss of Greiz (reigned 1902-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Heinrich XXIV, Prince Reuss of Greiz


Reuss-Gera – Heinrich XXVII, Prince Reuss Younger Line (reigned 1913-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Heinrich XXVII, Prince Reuss Younger Line


Schaumburg-Lippe – Adolf II, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe (reigned 1911-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Adolf II, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe


Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen – Günther Victor, Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (reigned 1909-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Günther Victor, Prince of Schwarzburg


Waldeck-Pyrmont – Friedrich, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont (reigned 1893-1918)
Unofficial Royalty: Friedrich, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont


Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (reigned 1913–1917)
Unofficial Royalty: Constantine I, King of the Hellenes


Vittorio Emanuele III, King of Italy (reigned 1900–1946)
Unofficial Royalty: Vittorio Emanuele III, King of Italy


Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein (reigned 1858–1929)
Unofficial Royalty: Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein

· Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (current monarchy)


Marie Adélaïde, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (reigned 1912–1919)
Unofficial Royalty: Marie Adélaïde, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg

· Principality of Monaco (current monarchy)


Albert I, Prince of Monaco (reigned 1889–1922)
Unofficial Royalty: Albert I, Prince of Monaco


Nikola I, King of Montenegro (reigned 1860–1918)
Wikipedia: Nikola I, King of Montenegro


Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands (reigned 1890–1948)
Unofficial Royalty: Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands

· Kingdom of Norway (current monarchy)


Haakon VII, King of Norway (reigned 1905–1957)
Unofficial Royalty: Haakon VII, King of Norway


Mehmed V, Ottoman Sultan (reigned 1909–1918)
Wikipedia: Mehmed V, Ottoman Sultan


Carol I, King of Romania (reigned 1866–1914)
Unofficial Royalty: Carol I, King of Romania


Ferdinand I, King of Romania (reigned 1914–1927)
Unofficial Royalty: Ferdinand I, King of Romania


Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia (reigned 1894–1917)
Unofficial Royalty: Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia


Peter I, King of Serbia (reigned 1903–1921)
Unofficial Royalty: Peter I, King of Serbia

· Kingdom of Spain (current monarchy)


Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (reigned 1886–1931)
Unofficial Royalty: Alfonso XIII, King of Spain

· Kingdom of Sweden (current monarchy)


Gustaf V, King of Sweden (reigned 1907–1950)
Unofficial Royalty: Gustaf V, King of Sweden


George V, King of the United Kingdom (reigned 1910–1936)
Unofficial Royalty: George V, King of the United Kingdom


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