History Podcasts

History of Gazelle - History

History of Gazelle - History


Any of numerous small, graceful, and swift antelopes, with lustrous eyes, found especially in South Africa, northern Africa, Iran, and India.


( SwStr: t. 117; 1. 135'; b. 23'; dr. 4'; s. 4 k.; a. 6
12-pdr. r.)

The first Gazelle, a side-wheel steamer built at Madison Inc., in 1803 as Emma Brown, was purchased at Cincinnati, Ohio, 21 November 1863 for duty with the Mississippi River Squadron, and commissioned by February 1864 at Cairo, Ill., Acting Master Charles Thatcher in command.

Gazelle reached the mouth of the Red River in time to join Admiral Porter'.s joint Army-Navy expedition of 12 March-22 May 1864. The operation was part of the campaign against Texas designed to gain a strong foothold there and to thwart the French intervention in Mexico. Serving between the mouth of the Red River and Grand Ecore, LA., Gazelle engaged enemy shore units, convoyed Army transports, and patrolled the river while Navy gunboats assisted in the capture of Fort De Russy. For the next year the ship patrolled between the mouth of the Red River and Grand Ecore, LA. and convoyed transports. On 24 May 1865 she embarked Confederate Generals Buckner and Price at the mouth of the Red River and brought them to Baton Rouge to negotiate a surrender with General Canby. Subsequently, following repairs at New Orleans, Gazelle steamed upriver to Mound City, Ill. arriving 25 June. She decommissioned there 7 July 1865, she was sold 17 August 1865 to Henry Scott. She was redocumented as Plain City 23 October and operated until abandoned in 1869

Grant's Gazelle

There are three subspecies of Grant’s gazelle. This species of gazelle resemble Thomson's gazelles but are noticeably larger and easily distinguished by the broad white patch on the rump that extends upward onto the back. The white patch on the Thomson's gazelle stops at the tail. Some varieties of Grant's have a black stripe on each side of the body like the Thomson's, but all have a black stripe that runs down the thigh. In others, the stripe is very light or absent. Their lyre-shaped horns are stout at the base, clearly ringed and measuring 50 to 80 centimeters long (20 to 31 inches). Females have black skin surrounding the teats with white hair on the udder. This probably helps the young recognize the source of milk. When a fawn is older and moving about with its mother, the dark stripe on the white background may serve as a beacon for it to follow.

45 to 65 kilograms (100 to 145 pounds)

140 to 166 centimeters in length (4.5 to 5.5 feet)

Open grass plains, montane grasslands, subdesert, lowland thornbush, and savanna woodland

Humans, all major predators


Gazelle is a Dutch brand, which still exists as one of the largest bicycle-manufactures.They started there 2stroke-adventure in 1950 with their own 38.5cc wingweel, which fell apart soon after.

In 1952 they decided to use the reliable ILO engine, the F48, followed by the G50 in 1956. Both these bikes were still built as a bicycle with an engine added to it. In 1954 they built there first real moped, the FP50 followed by the successful G50, both had the typical egg-shaped tank and a swanneck-frame. In the late 50s Gazelle had a sort flirt with the HMW-engine manufactory.

Until then the general-director J.Breunink din’t support the moped-division (“There are two threats, communists and mopeds” J.Breukink), but in the early 60s, with a new Gazelle director, Gazelle did some good efforts to dominate the Dutch moped market. They produced a line of touring and sportbikes, with the famous Italian FB Minarelli engines. To promote these new bikes they drove from the Gazelle factory in Dieren (Nederland) to the Minarelli factory in Bologna (Italy), and back (2x 1320 km). Although the performance of the engine exceeded those of the Sachs and ILO engines used by the direct concurrents, Sparta and Batavus, the fact that spare parts were much harder to find worked strongly against them.

The last bike Gazelle produced before the fusion with Batavus was not surprisingly ILO-engined. It was the sportive-looking, but very heavy ‘Impala’. After the fusion Gazelle and Batavus produced almost identical bike but with there own names on it: Gaz.Isabella/ Bat. Conforte, Gaz.Grant/ Bat.Whippet and Gaz. GA50/ Bat. Mot’o Mat. At the same prices the patent-cranck and sport-image of Batavus beat the nicer detailed and better painted Gazelle.

In 1966 Batavus and Gazelle split up again as a result of personal conflicts between the two families. Left with no moped-program and no money, Gazelle was forced to import the French ladies’ moped Gazenave, and the Austrian KTM, put an ILO or Sachs in it, and present it with their own nametag.

In ‘ 67 Gazelle tries a new approach, they take over the entire Berini company, which is without a doubt the most famous moped manufactor in the Dutch history. Until 1970 both names were used on different bikes, but all under Gazelle authority.

Most models have an Anker-Laura M48 engine, a Tomos-Gazelle collaboration. The lady-models are the first financial successful mopeds for Gazelle. Not only in Nederland, but also in Belgium, Germanie and Suriname(Dutch colonie ’til 69).

The latest model was the GS50 in late 1970, which had a tag “Berini by Gazelle/Tomos”.

In the early seventies the Dutch moped-market collapsed, and there was only room for the German Zundapp and Kreidler.

So, in 1975 the moped-division of Gazelle died quietly, and they’ve focused completely on the bicycles ever since.

Our Story

Gazelle is the leading reCommerce company that buys and sells pre-owned consumer electronics. We provide our customers with simple selling options by purchasing their used smartphones, tablets and more. We then inspect, certify and sell them to consumers looking for a cost-effective way to stay connected. Gazelle is simple, convenient and it works for everyone.

The Gazelle story began with the realization that if you can trade in a used car, you should be able to trade in a used phone. A new business, and a new way to reuse consumer electronics, was born.

Gazelle opened its doors in 2007 and began pioneering the idea of reCommerce. We launched Gazelle.com in 2008 offering a simple online trade-in service with instant quotes and free shipping, and things really began to take off. In 2014, we launched a store to sell certified pre-owned devices, giving consumers a great alternative to buying new smart devices.

Today, Gazelle is a flourishing e-commerce business and the nation's leading consumer electronics trade-in site for buying and selling certified preowned devices. We work hand-in-hand with our customers to ensure positive outcomes in every part of the consumer electronics lifecycle.

1. Behavior

Gazelles are social animals that live in groups composed of as many as 700 members. Sometimes, females and males live in separate groups. For instance, the female Thomson's gazelles live in groups of 10-30 with their young. As soon as the young become of age, the males join a group called a bachelor's herd. Gazelles have a gestation period of 6 months, after which they give birth to one or two fawns. They give birth twice per year and their breeding season occurs during the rainy season of the year which ensures the calves have plenty of water to drink. Due to the high amount of gazelles dying from predators, giving birth twice per year is essential to the animals. It also brings balance to the ecosystem because a higher number of herbivores compared to carnivores is needed. Gazelles have a life span of 10-15 years.

If looming danger is present, gazelles have an interesting way of warning each other. When they sense the presence of another animal, they will either flick their tail or stomp their feet. The rest of the herd will understand the signal and take cover. For large animals such as cheetahs and lions, gazelles are considered prey. Gazelles can run at very high speeds which can reach 100km/hr. They have adopted a leaping style known as "stotting" which involves springing into the air with all four feet. At this high speed, a gazelle can even outrun a cheetah. Due to its ability to run at such a high speed, predators will often approach a gazelle stealthily and catch it by surprise. Young gazelles hide in tall grass which helps to protect them from danger.

The Gazelle and the Terrace Casuals

The terrace casuals is arguably the most strongly associated with the adidas Gazelle. From aways days to locals, rain or shine, the Gazelle was on foot for it all becoming a status symbol amongst brands such as Lacoste, Fred Perry and Lyle and Scott, forming an unwritten code for admittance into the stands. Even to this day, almost 60 years later, the adidas Gazelle still remains synonymous with football culture and you’d find it almost impossible to go to a game and not spot a pair of brightly coloured suede trainers pounding the pavement.

The Gazelle and Hip-hop Culture

Although the casuals was massive for adidas and the Gazelle throughout the UK, it wasn’t until the advent of hip-hop legends Run-D.M.C. that really kicked off the merge of street and sportswear. This lead to a multi-million dollar deal with adidas, which was the brands first-ever collaboration with non-athletes in the form of a limited-edition Superstar, hence reaching an entirely new audience.


At the opposite end of the 90s music spectrum was the Britpop phenomenon. Britpop and adidas will always be associated and one of the greatest links. The popularity of the gazelle boomed like no other, with the sheer volume of available colourways. The Gallagher brothers would constantly be seen wearing the classic 3 stripes trainer.

In fact, Noel was that much of a fan, adidas released the Noel Gallagher-endorsed special edition Gazelles, his face staring out from the tongue in a fresh gold finish. They are a beautiful trainer and a must-have for collectors around the world.

The classic Gazelle packs more nostalgia than your average ‘training’ shoe and to be honest, more than what mosts collections offer.

Still going strong to this day, the Gazelle will always be timeless classic.

Goitered gazelles have an important role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem as it is an important food source for a number of different carnivores.

With a decrease in the number of goitered gazelle and so do the animals that depend on it. For example, the decline in leopard numbers is due to reduced gazelle numbers and loss of habitat as well.

According to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, two gazelle species have become extinct while 10 others are listed as vulnerable or endangered in North Africa, and as prey species decline, more leopards are turning to livestock to prey on them. Hence, these leopards are killed by livestock keepers.

As a result, one of the main directions for leopard preservation is to restore wild prey species such as gazelles.


Right: Bob Marley. Left: Selah Marley.

As the face of the reggae and Rasta movement, Bob Marley is undoubtedly known for his music and “One Love” philosophy. His profile is instantly recognizable the world over, but as much as the rastacap is an inseparable part of his outfit, so was an adidas tracksuit, and on his feet, a pair of Gazelles. Marley was probably drawn by the sight of the bright golden yellow of the Gazelle’s twin sister, the Mexicana, which was released in anticipation of the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. An avid soccer fan himself, Marley wore Gazelles both on and off the field — a style that was picked up by his reggae contemporaries and has been passed down to his grandchildren, most notably Selah Marley who sported the model in a recent “Style Tribes” campaign for adidas Originals.

Appearance and behaviour

As in all of Bovidae, all male antelopes have horns, which range from the short spikes of duikers to the corkscrew horns (more than 160 cm [63 inches] long) of the greater kudu. Two-thirds of female antelopes bear horns they are invariably thinner and usually shorter than those of the male. In gregarious species in which both sexes regularly associate in mixed herds, the horns are similarly shaped, and in female oryxes and elands they are often longer.

Antelopes have adapted to many different ecological niches and so vary in their size, shape, locomotion, diet, social organization, and antipredator strategy. Despite the diversity of adaptations, one important generalization can be made: there is a marked difference between antelopes of closed habitats and those of open habitats. The former (e.g., duikers, reedbucks, and bushbucks) are mostly small to medium-sized animals adapted for movement through undergrowth, with overdeveloped hindquarters, a rounded back, and short legs. This conformation is adapted to quick starts and a bounding, dodging run, which is how cover-dependent antelopes whose first line of defense is concealment try to escape predators that chance to find them. Their coloration is camouflaging. They are solitary, living alone or in mated pairs on home ranges defended as territories, and they are browsers of foliage rather than grazers of grass. By contrast, antelopes of open habitats are mostly medium to large grass eaters. They are built for speed, having level backs with long, equally developed limbs (or with higher shoulders, as in the hartebeest tribe). Their coloration is revealing. They have a gregarious social organization and a mating system based on male territoriality (except in the kudu tribe).

History of Gazelle - History

For centuries, Yezidi believers, have followed the simple command of the Kitab al-Jilwa, also known as The Book of Revelation, to &ldquohonor my symbol and my image.&rdquo

Who exactly are these people and what is the image that they honor? The answer depends on who is asked.

Amongst their closest neighbors, Yezidis are sometimes known as Devil-Worshippers. Others claim that they are heretical Muslims, or heretical Christians. Still others believe that the Yezidis are an offshoot of the Zoroastrian religion of Persia. The truth is quite complicated, as truth so often is.

The vast majority of Yezidis live in the mountainous region of Kurdistan on the borders of Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. As an ethnic group, Yezidis are Kurdish: they live in Kurdistan and speak Kurdish. Yet their religious beliefs are distinct from those of their fellow Kurds.

Generally, historians, anthropologists and sociologists classify the Yezidi as a religious group. Certainly the Yezidis themselves view their religious identity as the single most important defining factor of Yezidism. To be Yezidi, one must be born into the faith &ndash no conversion by an outsider is ever possible. In addition, Yezidis who marry out are usually viewed as no longer belonging to the group.

Yezidis claim that their religion is over 6,000 years old, predating Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. This would seem to indicate that those who believe the Yezidi are heretical Muslims or heretical Christians are wrong. At the same time, the Yezidis and Christians of the region have a close bond: In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when the Ottoman Empire persecuted the Armenian Christian minority, Yezidis undertook to aid the Armenians as well as other Christians. In more recent years, Iraqi Christians also looked to Yezidis for help when they felt threatened by the Iraqi government.

These close associations with different types of Christians in a predominantly Muslim area would seem to indicate some connection between the Yezidi and Christianity. Certainly the two belief systems share some customs. Like almost all Christians, Yezidis practice the rite of baptism immersion in water for purposes of ritual cleansing and as a sign of belonging to the group. In April, no Yezidi may marry Orthodox Christians tend not to marry in the spring as no marriage can be performed in the fifty days of Lent that precede the Easter celebration. Yezidi women dye eggs in bright primary colors to celebrate the spring New Year festival just as many Eastern Christians do for the spring feast of Pascha (Easter). The color red is emphasized during the
Yezidi New Year festival with women decorating both their houses and family graves with red flowers. In a strange parallel, some Eastern Orthodox communities use only the color red when dying their Easter eggs.

At the same time, some aspects of Yezidism appear to derive from both Judaism and Islam. Like Jews and Muslims, Yezidis do not eat pork or wear pigskin. A number of other Yezidi taboos center on food and clothes: Yezidis cannot eat lettuce, cabbage, okra, pumpkins, or gazelle meat among other foods. They cannot mix elements that are viewed as opposed to each other, just as Jews do not mix meat and dairy. Food laws are common in many religions but it is interesting to note the parallels with the Jewish and Muslim customs.

The Yezidi Fast of Sacrifice clearly grows out of the Jewish God&rsquos demand that Abraham sacrifice his son. At the last minute, God relents, allowing Abraham to replace his son with a lamb. Every February, Yezidis commemorate Abraham&rsquos experience by sacrificing a lamb. Other aspects of the Yezidi origin story have roots in Jewish tradition: Yezidis believe they are descended from Adam but not Eve. According to them, Adam placed his seed in a jar, creating a son and daughter by himself without Eve&rsquos help. These two children are the ancestors of all Yezidis while Jews, Muslims and Christians are descended from the children that Adam and Eve created together.

So the Yezidis are neither Jewish nor Muslim nor Christian yet their religious practices reflect the influence of all of these belief systems. At the same time, Yezidi beliefs contain elements of much earlier religious beliefs.

Every October, all Yezidis who can, go to the holy city of Lalish in Northern Iraq, where they celebrate the Feast of Seven Days. Each day has its particular celebrations and practices. On the fifth day of the feast, a bull is released from the gates of the religious sanctuary into the city&rsquos streets. Believers chase the bull, herding it uphill to the shrine of Sheik Shem where it is caught, slaughtered and cooked. The meat from the bull is then shared out amongst the pilgrims. This extremely ancient practice has parallels in Roman Mithraism. Mithra is often depicted slaughtering a bull and sharing its meat with the sun. Archaeologists have uncovered several preserved bulls&rsquo heads complete with horns at Catalhoyuk, a Neolithic site in Eastern Turkey dating from about 7500 BCE to 5700 BCE.

Yezidi reverence for snakes and birds may also represent the remnants of much earlier religious beliefs. Middle Eastern gods often appeared in the guise of these animals or as a combination of these animals and humans: the god Horus, one of the oldest in the Egyptian pantheon, was pictured as a man with the head of a falcon. Some scholars contend that the Yezidi caste system as well as a belief in reincarnation may reflect the influence of Hinduism.

The most prominent accusation against the Yezidis, the assertion that they are Devil-worshippers, is the one that garners the most interest. The core Yezidi myth concerning the creation of the world, lies at the root of this accusation.

According to Yezidi myth, God created seven angelic beings, the chief of whom was named Tawus Malik, the Peacock Angel. Tawus Malik, like Lucifer in Jewish and Christian belief, rebelled against God. However, in Yezidism, when God cast Tawus into the fire because of this rebellion, Tawus spent 40,000 years weeping. His tears put out the flames of hell and demonstrated his repentance. Reconciling with God, Tawus was placed in charge of the daily affairs of the world. As God&rsquos underboss, Tawus contains both good and evil, light and darkness. It is this relationship with Tawus, whom Christians, Jews and Muslims identify with Lucifer that has led to the accusations that Yezidis worship the devil.

The Yezidis are not heretical Jews or Christians. They aren&rsquot a sect of Muslims, nor are they Zoroastrians. Finally, they are not devil worshippers in any real sense. Rather they belong to a syncretistic religion that incorporates extremely ancient beliefs and more recent influences. No religion exists in isolation or in a static, unchanging form. Like other religious belief systems, Yezidism has changed and grown as it encounters other, different beliefs.

Watch the video: Gazelle Twin - Anti Body official video (December 2021).