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Roque Bentayga, Gran Canaria: Vestiges of the Mysterious Guanche People

Roque Bentayga, Gran Canaria: Vestiges of the Mysterious Guanche People


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Roque Bentayga is a rock formation located on Gran Canaria, an island of the Canary Islands. Many archaeological remains connected to the mysterious Guanche people are found on Roque Bentayga and in its surrounding mountains, revealing the ancient indigenous Canarians way of life. With it’s fascinating history and stunning vista, this site is one of the attractions on Gran Canaria; though it is not as well-known as another of the island’s rock formation, Roque Nublo.

The alluring Roque Bentayga. Credit: Ioannis Syrigos

The Canary Islands and Atlantis

Although the Canary Islands are located in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Morocco, they are today politically a part of Spain. Some have speculated that the islands are the remains of the legendary sunken continent of Atlantis, while others believe that they are the tips of huge undersea volcanoes. According to the archaeological evidence, the earliest settlement dates to around 2000 BC, though the islands might have already been settled at an earlier point of time.

Roque Bentayga, Gran Canaria, seen from a distance. Credit: Ioannis Syrigos

During the Classical period, the existence of the Canary Islands was known by the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans. Although expeditions were sent to explore the islands, it seems no efforts were made to colonize them.

After the fall of the Roman Empire , the Canary Islands appear to have been forgotten, as they were not mentioned in any known records for centuries. The Arabs are recorded to have landed on the island to trade in 999 AD, though it was only during the early 14th century that the islands re-entered European memory. At that time, a Genoese captain by the name of Lanzarotto (or Lancelotto) Malocello stumbled upon one of the Canary Islands, and named it Lanzarote, in honor of himself.

  • World’s Oldest Slave Cemetery May Have Been Found
  • Ancient Cave in Spain reveals advanced astronomical knowledge of inhabitants
  • Researchers Get Closer to Finding the Origins of the Enigmatic Guanches…and No, They are Not Atlanteans

The Guanches at Roque Bentayga

About a century passed before an effort to colonize the islands were made by the Europeans. In 1402, the Norman adventurer Jean de Béthencourt set off from La Rochelle to conquer the islands. It was perhaps during this time that Europe had its first contact with the indigenous inhabitants of the Canary Islands, who became known collectively as the Guanches , though this name was initially applied only to those inhabiting the island of Tenerife. In any case, at the time of the European conquests, the Guanche way of life is believed to have not changed for millennia.

Reconstruction of a Guanche settlement of Tenerife. (R. Liebau/ CC BY SA 3.0 )

The Guanches were forcibly assimilated into the society and culture of their Spanish conquerors, and lost their traditional way of life . Nevertheless, remnants of this way of life have been discovered by archaeologists and help to shed light on the way the Guanches lived prior to the coming of the Europeans.

Rock art, for instance, have been found on Roque Bentayga and in the surrounding mountains. At the base of the Roque Bentayga, for instance, there are two sections of rock art consisting of Libyco-Berber alphabets and geometric symbols. The alphabets suggest that the indigenous people of the Canary Islands are connected to the Berbers of North Africa. This is supported by similarities in burial practices, and place names.

Evidence of urban planning has also been found in the settlements of the Guanches, which suggests that the islanders were more sophisticated than commonly thought. On the southern face of Roque Bentayga, a settlement was founded by the Guanches.

A section near the top of Roque Bentayga that had been carved out by the Guanches. Credit: Ioannis Syrigos

The people of the settlement lived in artificial caves that were carved into the rock. In order to maximize the use of space, the caves were distributed over four levels. Steps were dug out of the rock to connect these levels and paved roads and platforms for the walls along the steps were made using the excavated rock. Further evidence of social planning is seen in the common granaries in the settlement, which were used for the storage of agricultural surplus.

  • Floating Islands Seen at Sea: Myth and Reality
  • The Mystery of the Guanches and the Pyramids of Tenerife
  • Did Celts Create the IBERO-GUANCHE Writing of the Canary Islands?

Caves seen around the base of Roque Bentayga. Credit: Ioannis Syrigos

Almogaren de Bentayga: Roque Bentayga as a Sacred Site

Another aspect of pre-colonial Guanche society that has been studied by archaeologists is the knowledge of astronomy attained by the islanders. This field of knowledge is closely related to their religious beliefs.

The indigenous inhabitants of the Canary Islands preferred mountains as the location of their sacred spaces. This was also the case for Roque Bentayga. On the eastern side of the rock promontory is the Almogaren de Bentayga, which was possibly used as a shrine. The term ‘almogaren’ refers to a shrine that has shallow basins and channels dug into the ground.

Almogaren de Bentayga, Bentayga Rock . (Tito Pullo/ CC BY 4.0 )

The Almogaren de Bentayga consists of a rectangular platform with two different levels, as well as a number of artificial caves, carved platforms, glyphs, and basins. Additionally, in the lower level of the platform, there is a central depression where the channels dug out in the base meet. Studies at the site suggest that the alignment of the sun with this central depression allowed the Guanches living on Gran Canaria to keep track on the equinox , which in turn allowed them to establish the annual agricultural cycle.


View of Tejeda, the Barranco de Tejeda and Roque Bentayga, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain - stock photo

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View on mountains from Roque Bentayga, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain - stock photo

Your Easy-access (EZA) account allows those in your organization to download content for the following uses:

  • Tests
  • Samples
  • Composites
  • Layouts
  • Rough cuts
  • Preliminary edits

It overrides the standard online composite license for still images and video on the Getty Images website. The EZA account is not a license. In order to finalize your project with the material you downloaded from your EZA account, you need to secure a license. Without a license, no further use can be made, such as:

  • focus group presentations
  • external presentations
  • final materials distributed inside your organization
  • any materials distributed outside your organization
  • any materials distributed to the public (such as advertising, marketing)

Because collections are continually updated, Getty Images cannot guarantee that any particular item will be available until time of licensing. Please carefully review any restrictions accompanying the Licensed Material on the Getty Images website, and contact your Getty Images representative if you have a question about them. Your EZA account will remain in place for a year. Your Getty Images representative will discuss a renewal with you.

By clicking the Download button, you accept the responsibility for using unreleased content (including obtaining any clearances required for your use) and agree to abide by any restrictions.


RISCO CAÍDO AND THE SACRED MOUNTAINS OF GRAN CANARIA INSCRIBED ONTO UNESCO’S WORLD HERITAGE LIST

New to 2019, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has added Risco Caído and the Sacred Mountains of Gran Canaria to its List of World Heritage Sites in recognition of its outstanding cultural value. The news comes in the wake of the 43 rd meeting of the committee where a further 28 sites were added to UNESCO&rsquos existing World Heritage List.

Risco Caído is a land-form and archaeological site on the island of Gran Canaria which contains prehistoric cave dwellings, temples, and granaries attributed to the pre-Hispanic culture of the Canary Islands. The site consists of 21 hand-dug caves, the most famous of which, Cave Six, is said to be a huge solar and lunar calendar meaning the site may have once been an ancient observatory. The presence of these troglodyte settlements is proof of the presence of pre-Hispanic cultures that evolved in complete isolation for over 1,500 years following the arrival of North African Berbers. Aside from the remarkable archaeological findings the area, whose geographical boundaries are set by the Caldera de Tejeda volcanic basin, features a range of spectacular natural formations such as cliffs, ravines and volcanic formations, set in a landscape characterised by its rich biodiversity.

UNESCO recognises the exceptional universal value of Risco Caído and the Sacred Mountains of Gran Canaria and the vestiges of this pre-Hispanic culture that have survived in time and space, shaping the landscape, and conserving traditional practices such as transhumance, terrace-farming installations, and water management installations. This is an exceptional case, in which traditional land use practices that are highly adaptive and original, stemming from a culture that has disappeared, are still in use today.

Acting Spanish Minister for Culture and Sport, José Guirao, congratulated the people of the Canary Islands &ldquoon having successfully conserved this enormous wealth of archaeological sites within such an overwhelmingly stunning landscape for centuries&rdquo. Guirao also took the opportunity to say that the Government of Spain is going to "keep working to conserve, communicate and maintain this heritage wealth for future generations" and invited the whole world to "visit Risco Caído and all the sites recognised in Spain over the last few decades".


Roque Bentayga, Gran Canaria: Vestiges of the Mysterious Guanche People - History

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    Panoramic view of the northwest part of the Nublo Rural Park as seen from the footing of Roque Nublo. The roque Bentayga below on the right and Tenerife with dominant mount Teide on the horizon can be seen. Gran Canaria, Spain.

    El Roque Bentayga es una de las formaciones geológicas más singulares de la isla de Gran Canaria. Se halla dentro de la caldera volcánica de Tejeda, en el municipio del mismo nombre, en pleno corazón de la isla. El Roque Bentayga está considerado como un monumento arqueológico porque contiene un "almogarén"​. Wikipedia

    Mirador de la Degollada de Becerra Tejeda. Gran Canaria

    Caldera de Tejeda, desde del el mirador de la Degollada de Las Palomas. Camino real entre la Cruz de Tejeda y Artenara.

    Dedicada especialmente a Greta Thunberg por su sabiduría para valorar lo más importante: que nuestra vida está unida a la del planeta y por su valentía para exigir acciones inmediatas que afronten con verdadera eficacia la situación de crisis climática y medioambiental que traspasa las fronteras, denunciando sin ambages la procastinación e inercia omisiva de los países con más responsabilidad en el calentamiento global y la deforestación.

    Y dedicado también a todos los que trabajan por mejorar y salvar la vida de las personas que se arriesgan buscando alternativas a la miseria y al sufrimiento. A los que aman la Naturaleza y hacen algo por ella: reciclar, usar el transporte público, ahorrar agua y energía, reforestar, apoyar a las asociaciones o entidades que se esfuerzan diariamente por salvar el planeta y los animales en extinción, como también informarse, y difundir el mensaje para cambiar esta situación.

    ¿Quiénes pueden atreverse hoy, ante el estado medioambiental del planeta, a llamar alarmistas o agoreros a los ecologistas?

    Hay alternativas para salvar el clima, para reciclar y reducir los residuos, para conservar y recuperar lo que nos queda, con medidas eficaces y sin posponer más.


    File:Roque Nublo, Bentayga & Eclipsed Moon (43636273112).jpg

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    Great places for splashing about in Gran Canaria

    A number of municipal swimming pools in Gran Canaria’s interior offer some refreshing summer bathing in unique spots.

    You’re lying flat on your back while the sun is slowly burning up every last drop of the water on your skin following your latest dip in the water. You just turn your head a little to take in the wonderful view over the stunning Roque Bentayga from the Tejeda municipal swimming pool. Indeed, Gran Canaria hides some fine secluded surprises in its interior. The doors to these facilities are open to you for a very reasonable price, and include great bathing and superb views.


    San Roque Canyon

    San Roque Canyon is a canyon or valley, in the County of Santa Barbara, California. The influx of San Roque Creek to Arroyo oil flows through it. The canyon heads at a point on the height of 3.400 m / 1.036 meters, 34°2934"N 119°4258"W, 0.8 miles West of La Cumbre peak and trends South-South-West four miles to 34°2620"N 119°4441"W, at the confluence of San Roque Creek, Arroyo burro at a height of 187 feet / 57 meters.

    September 2016. Macfadyen, William 5 May 2009 Wildfire Burning Above San Roque Canyon Noozhawk. Retrieved 19 September 2016. Macfadyen, William 6 May
    plants the Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, the Binga Dam in Itogon, and the San Roque Dam in San Manuel. The Agno River is the main drainage system of the area and
    Bernal Mexico Copper Canyon Chihuahua, Mexico Los Arcos Rocks, Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico Hierve el Agua, San Lorenzo Albarradas, Mexico
    what is now Santa Monica Canyon the Pacific Palisades, and parts of Topanga Canyon Francisco Marquez and his wife, Roque Valenzuela, built an adobe
    was the son and nephew of Pueblo Los Angeles escorto soldier - founders, Roque and Antonio Cota. Guillermo Cota was a comisionado of Pueblo de Los Angeles
    Santa Barbara Our Lady of Sorrows, 21 East Sola Street, Santa Barbara San Roque 325 Argonne Circle, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara Mission, served by the
    abutments to support the bridge were constructed under supervision of Jose Roque - Paniagua engineer Julio Larrinaga oversaw assembly of the bridge. It brings
    Lake Bled, Slovenia Delika Canyon waterfall, Nervion River, Spain Ronda, Spain Nervion River Falls, Basque Country, Spain San Juan de Gaztelugatxe, Bermeo
    Park is located in San Bartolome de Tirajana municipality on the island of Gran Canaria, Spain. Its area is 5794.4 ha. It adjoins Roque Nublo country park

    Intramuros, Manila The Presidio de San Felipe Cavite founded in 1609 in San Roque Cavite Visayas: The Presidio Fort de San Pedro Iloilo founded in 1616
    that burned 8, 733 acres 35.34 km2 and destroyed 160 homes above the San Roque region of Santa Barbara. The Thomas Fire burned from its origins in Santa
    Awashima shrine Japan Carving The Shoemaker Brastad, Sweden Petroglyph in Roque Bentayga, Gran Canaria Canary Islands Petroglyph at Dalgarven Mill, Ayrshire
    Tabang Talangka Festival, San Roque de Montpelier Masantol August 15, 16, 17 Batala Festival Batalya Batalya ng San Roque de Montpelier Masantol
    tribe. Composed of geological formations of the Jurassic period, the San Lorenzo Canyon located southeast of Saltillo, in the Sierra de Zapaliname, is a
    Metro Manila, Philippines include: Barangka is named after the Spanish canyon barranca. It is located along the western border of Marikina, is bordered
    of the region west of the De La Vina State intersection, including the San Roque neighborhood, Hope Ranch Annex, and later the Goleta Valley. As a result
    important celebrations in the municipality include the San Roque San Jacinto, San Pascualito, San Francisco, Santo Domingo and the Virgin of Guadalupe
    are Kisolon, Kulasi, Licoan, Lupiagan, Occasion, Poblacion, Puntian, San Roque San Vicente and Vista Villa. Unlike any other municipalities, the seat of
    Prado, Bellavista y una parte de Altos del Prado Templo de San Roque Iglesia de San Roque Calle 30 36 41 36 - 25 36 45 Palacio Lievano National Library

    comprised the other towns of Palapag, Catubig, Las Navas, Pambujan, and San Roque When the diocese celebrated its 25th Anniversary two mission centers
    neighborhood in San Diego, California San Pedro, Los Angeles, neighborhood within the City of Los Angeles, California San Roque California, residential neighborhood
    Bocabarranco DECRETO 258 1993, of 24 September, in which the Hondo de Abajo Canyon located in the municipality of Galdar, on the island of Gran Canaria was
    examples are the San Cayetano or La Valenciana Church, the Basilica of Guanajuato, the Temple of the Company of Jesus and the San Roque Church. Outside
    incumbent U.S. Representative Ricardo De La Fuente Democratic businessman Roque Rocky De La Fuente Republican candidate for U.S. President in 2016
    fictional rivalry that arose among the town s residents over the game of roque The Point Piños Light in Pacific Grove is the oldest continually operating
    American Indian Wars Battle of White Bird Canyon The Nez Perce defeat the U.S. Cavalry at White Bird Canyon in the Idaho Territory. This begins the Nez
    Spain, Southwestern Europe - 5 La Tarta del Teide Teide Cake Mount Teide Roque Cinchado Pico Viejo Teide Observatory Tenerife 12 Treasures of Spain Teide
    Borgo Press, San Bernardino, CA, ISBN 0 - 89370 - 935 - 2 Rosemary Masterson, The Machado - Silvas Family, The Journal of San Diego History, SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL
    505 ft respectively. Gently rolling grassland plateau cut deep and wide canyons of the Cagayan, Pulangi, and Tagoloan Rivers and their tributaries which

    Reina, late - modern architecture Iglesia de San Nicolas de Tolentino, eclectic style Iglesia San Roque de Montpellier Iglesia Inmaculada Concepcion

    • September 2016. Macfadyen, William 5 May 2009 Wildfire Burning Above San Roque Canyon Noozhawk. Retrieved 19 September 2016. Macfadyen, William 6 May
    • plants the Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, the Binga Dam in Itogon, and the San Roque Dam in San Manuel. The Agno River is the main drainage system of the area and
    • Bernal Mexico Copper Canyon Chihuahua, Mexico Los Arcos Rocks, Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico Hierve el Agua, San Lorenzo Albarradas, Mexico
    • what is now Santa Monica Canyon the Pacific Palisades, and parts of Topanga Canyon Francisco Marquez and his wife, Roque Valenzuela, built an adobe
    • was the son and nephew of Pueblo Los Angeles escorto soldier - founders, Roque and Antonio Cota. Guillermo Cota was a comisionado of Pueblo de Los Angeles
    • Santa Barbara Our Lady of Sorrows, 21 East Sola Street, Santa Barbara San Roque 325 Argonne Circle, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara Mission, served by the
    • abutments to support the bridge were constructed under supervision of Jose Roque - Paniagua engineer Julio Larrinaga oversaw assembly of the bridge. It brings
    • Lake Bled, Slovenia Delika Canyon waterfall, Nervion River, Spain Ronda, Spain Nervion River Falls, Basque Country, Spain San Juan de Gaztelugatxe, Bermeo
    • Park is located in San Bartolome de Tirajana municipality on the island of Gran Canaria, Spain. Its area is 5794.4 ha. It adjoins Roque Nublo country park
    • Intramuros, Manila The Presidio de San Felipe Cavite founded in 1609 in San Roque Cavite Visayas: The Presidio Fort de San Pedro Iloilo founded in 1616
    • that burned 8, 733 acres 35.34 km2 and destroyed 160 homes above the San Roque region of Santa Barbara. The Thomas Fire burned from its origins in Santa
    • Awashima shrine Japan Carving The Shoemaker Brastad, Sweden Petroglyph in Roque Bentayga, Gran Canaria Canary Islands Petroglyph at Dalgarven Mill, Ayrshire
    • Tabang Talangka Festival, San Roque de Montpelier Masantol August 15, 16, 17 Batala Festival Batalya Batalya ng San Roque de Montpelier Masantol
    • tribe. Composed of geological formations of the Jurassic period, the San Lorenzo Canyon located southeast of Saltillo, in the Sierra de Zapaliname, is a
    • Metro Manila, Philippines include: Barangka is named after the Spanish canyon barranca. It is located along the western border of Marikina, is bordered
    • of the region west of the De La Vina State intersection, including the San Roque neighborhood, Hope Ranch Annex, and later the Goleta Valley. As a result
    • important celebrations in the municipality include the San Roque San Jacinto, San Pascualito, San Francisco, Santo Domingo and the Virgin of Guadalupe
    • are Kisolon, Kulasi, Licoan, Lupiagan, Occasion, Poblacion, Puntian, San Roque San Vicente and Vista Villa. Unlike any other municipalities, the seat of
    • Prado, Bellavista y una parte de Altos del Prado Templo de San Roque Iglesia de San Roque Calle 30 36 41 36 - 25 36 45 Palacio Lievano National Library
    • comprised the other towns of Palapag, Catubig, Las Navas, Pambujan, and San Roque When the diocese celebrated its 25th Anniversary two mission centers
    • neighborhood in San Diego, California San Pedro, Los Angeles, neighborhood within the City of Los Angeles, California San Roque California, residential neighborhood
    • Bocabarranco DECRETO 258 1993, of 24 September, in which the Hondo de Abajo Canyon located in the municipality of Galdar, on the island of Gran Canaria was
    • examples are the San Cayetano or La Valenciana Church, the Basilica of Guanajuato, the Temple of the Company of Jesus and the San Roque Church. Outside
    • incumbent U.S. Representative Ricardo De La Fuente Democratic businessman Roque Rocky De La Fuente Republican candidate for U.S. President in 2016
    • fictional rivalry that arose among the town s residents over the game of roque The Point Piños Light in Pacific Grove is the oldest continually operating
    • American Indian Wars Battle of White Bird Canyon The Nez Perce defeat the U.S. Cavalry at White Bird Canyon in the Idaho Territory. This begins the Nez
    • Spain, Southwestern Europe - 5 La Tarta del Teide Teide Cake Mount Teide Roque Cinchado Pico Viejo Teide Observatory Tenerife 12 Treasures of Spain Teide
    • Borgo Press, San Bernardino, CA, ISBN 0 - 89370 - 935 - 2 Rosemary Masterson, The Machado - Silvas Family, The Journal of San Diego History, SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL
    • 505 ft respectively. Gently rolling grassland plateau cut deep and wide canyons of the Cagayan, Pulangi, and Tagoloan Rivers and their tributaries which
    • Reina, late - modern architecture Iglesia de San Nicolas de Tolentino, eclectic style Iglesia San Roque de Montpellier Iglesia Inmaculada Concepcion

    San Roque Oaks Apartments for Rent Santa Barbara, CA.

    If you take the San Roque Canyon trail northward from Stevens Park, a half mile beyond the twin arched Foothill Road bridge you will come to a grove of ancient​. Inspiration Point via Jesusita Trail from San Roque. Currently, the San Roque Canyon trail that heads northward from Stevens Park, there is a grove of ancient oaks and sycamores where Chumash Indians.

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    A continuous canyon park reaching up San Roque Canyon to the historic trails of the Santa Ynez e is a playground, creekside and hiking trails. A BIG ENTERPRISE A 2500 Foot Tunnel in the San Roque J. San Roque Arch in Santa Barbara County, California It is located above a side tributary of San Roque Canyon, on private property, about 4 miles northwest of. Bedrock Mortar in San Roque Canyon Mystery of history, Bedrock. SAN ROQUE WELL 02 2003 ACTIVE, WL, A. VERA CRUZ WELL, WL, A MISSION CANYON WELL 01 1990 ABANDONED, WL, I. MISSION CANYON.

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    We like the fact that it is nestled in the San Roque canyon so it feels like youve left the city. Willowglen is another family friendly park with a kids. Jesusita Santa Barbara. A Renowned Landscape Designers San Roque Cottage One bedroom, one ​bath 3019 Paseo Tranquillo $1.395 million in San Roque is the rare Noteworthy new listings include a 1949 Mission Canyon cottage with. San Roque Homes for Sale Santa Barbara CA Real Estate. Stevens Park sits along San Roque Creek, a seasonal creek that runs through San Roque Canyon. Meandering up the trail from the oak and sycamore lined.

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    San Roque Parish is a daughter of St. Barbaras Parish which is centered about chosen for the plant because of the proximity of San Roque Canyon nearby,. A Renowned Landscape Designers San Roque Cottage Siteline. San Roque Canyon is a canyon or valley in Santa Barbara County, California. San Roque Creek tributary to Arroyo Burro flows through it. The Canyon heads at​. Lauro Canyon Collection 31 x 19 Carved Coast Custom. Title: San Roque Canyon Bridge, State Highway 192, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA Contributor Names: Historic American Engineering Record,​. Santa Barbara San Roque Canyon Bridge Station selected. The stream you cross before heading deeper into San Roque Canyon. Previous Learn more about Stevens Park Next. Copyright © 2006 2018.


    Contents

    Petroglyphs have been found in all parts of the globe except Antarctica, with highest concentrations in parts of Africa, Scandinavia, Siberia, southwestern North America, and Australia [ citation needed ] many examples of petroglyphs found globally are dated to approximately the Neolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary (roughly 10,000 to 12,000 years ago), though some, such as those found at Kamyana Mohyla, were created earlier than this some petroglyph sites in Australia are estimated to date back 27,000 years, and other examples of petroglyphs are estimated to be as old as 40,000 years. [ citation needed ]

    Around 7,000 to 9,000 years ago, following the introduction of a number of precursors of writing systems, the existence and creation of petroglyphs began to suffer and tail off, with different forms of art, such as pictographs and ideograms, taking their place. However, petroglyphs continued to be created and remained somewhat common, with various cultures continuing to use them for differing lengths of time, including cultures who continued to create them until contact with Western culture was made in the 19th and 20th centuries. [ citation needed ]

    Many hypotheses exist as to the purpose of petroglyphs, depending on their location, age, and subject matter. Some petroglyph images most likely held a deep cultural and religious significance for the societies that created them. Many petroglyphs are thought to represent a type of symbolic or ritualistic language or communication style that remains not fully understood. Others, such as geocontourglyphs, more clearly depict or represent a landform or the surrounding terrain, such as rivers and other geographic features.

    Some petroglyph maps, depicting trails, as well as containing symbols communicating the time and distances travelled along those trails, exist other petroglyph maps act as astronomical markers. As well as holding geographic and astronomical importance, other petroglyphs may also have been a by-product of various rituals: sites in India, for example, have seen some petroglyphs identified as musical instruments or "rock gongs". [7]

    Some petroglyphs likely formed types of symbolic communication, such as types of proto-writing. Later glyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age in Scandinavia seem to refer to some form of territorial boundary between tribes, in addition to holding possible religious meanings. Petroglyph styles have been recognised as having local or regional "dialects" from similar or neighboring peoples. Siberian inscriptions loosely resemble an early form of runes, although no direct relationship has been established.

    Petroglyphs from different continents show similarities. While people would be inspired by their direct surroundings, it is harder to explain the common styles. This could be mere coincidence, an indication that certain groups of people migrated widely from some initial common area, or indication of a common origin. In 1853, George Tate presented a paper to the Berwick Naturalists' Club, at which a John Collingwood Bruce agreed that the carvings had ". a common origin, and indicate a symbolic meaning, representing some popular thought." [8] In his cataloguing of Scottish rock art, Ronald Morris summarized 104 different theories on their interpretation. [9]

    More controversial explanations of similarities are grounded in Jungian psychology and the views of Mircea Eliade. According to these theories it is possible that the similarity of petroglyphs (and other atavistic or archetypal symbols) from different cultures and continents is a result of the genetically inherited structure of the human brain.

    Other theories suggest that petroglyphs were carved by spiritual leaders, such as shamans, in an altered state of consciousness, [10] perhaps induced by the use of natural hallucinogens. Many of the geometric patterns (known as form constants) which recur in petroglyphs and cave paintings have been shown by David Lewis-Williams to be hardwired into the human brain. They frequently occur in visual disturbances and hallucinations brought on by drugs, migraine, and other stimuli.

    Recent analysis of surveyed and GPS-logged petroglyphs around the world has identified commonalities indicating pre-historic (7,000–3,000 BCE) intense auroras, or natural light display in the sky, observable across the continents. [11] [12]

    The Rock Art Research Institute (RARI) of the University of the Witwatersrand studies present-day links between religion and rock art among the San people of the Kalahari Desert. [13] Though the San people's artworks are predominantly paintings, the beliefs behind them can perhaps be used as a basis for understanding other types of rock art, including petroglyphs. To quote from the RARI website:

    Using knowledge of San beliefs, researchers have shown that the art played a fundamental part in the religious lives of its painters. The art captured things from the San's world behind the rock-face: the other world inhabited by spirit creatures, to which dancers could travel in animal form, and where people of ecstasy could draw power and bring it back for healing, rain-making and capturing the game. [14]


    Contents

    Petroglyphs have been found in all parts of the globe except Antarctica, with highest concentrations in parts of Africa, Scandinavia, Siberia, southwestern North America, and Australia [ citation needed ] many examples of petroglyphs found globally are dated to approximately the Neolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary (roughly 10,000 to 12,000 years ago), though some, such as those found at Kamyana Mohyla, were created earlier than this some petroglyph sites in Australia are estimated to date back 27,000 years, and other examples of petroglyphs are estimated to be as old as 40,000 years. [ citation needed ]

    Around 7,000 to 9,000 years ago, following the introduction of a number of precursors of writing systems, the existence and creation of petroglyphs began to suffer and tail off, with different forms of art, such as pictographs and ideograms, taking their place. However, petroglyphs continued to be created and remained somewhat common, with various cultures continuing to use them for differing lengths of time, including cultures who continued to create them until contact with Western culture was made in the 19th and 20th centuries. [ citation needed ]

    Many hypotheses exist as to the purpose of petroglyphs, depending on their location, age, and subject matter. Some petroglyph images most likely held a deep cultural and religious significance for the societies that created them. Many petroglyphs are thought to represent a type of symbolic or ritualistic language or communication style that remains not fully understood. Others, such as geocontourglyphs, more clearly depict or represent a landform or the surrounding terrain, such as rivers and other geographic features.

    Some petroglyph maps, depicting trails, as well as containing symbols communicating the time and distances travelled along those trails, exist other petroglyph maps act as astronomical markers. As well as holding geographic and astronomical importance, other petroglyphs may also have been a by-product of various rituals: sites in India, for example, have seen some petroglyphs identified as musical instruments or "rock gongs". [7]

    Some petroglyphs likely formed types of symbolic communication, such as types of proto-writing. Later glyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age in Scandinavia seem to refer to some form of territorial boundary between tribes, in addition to holding possible religious meanings. Petroglyph styles have been recognised as having local or regional "dialects" from similar or neighboring peoples. Siberian inscriptions loosely resemble an early form of runes, although no direct relationship has been established.

    Petroglyphs from different continents show similarities. While people would be inspired by their direct surroundings, it is harder to explain the common styles. This could be mere coincidence, an indication that certain groups of people migrated widely from some initial common area, or indication of a common origin. In 1853, George Tate presented a paper to the Berwick Naturalists' Club, at which a John Collingwood Bruce agreed that the carvings had ". a common origin, and indicate a symbolic meaning, representing some popular thought." [8] In his cataloguing of Scottish rock art, Ronald Morris summarized 104 different theories on their interpretation. [9]

    More controversial explanations of similarities are grounded in Jungian psychology and the views of Mircea Eliade. According to these theories it is possible that the similarity of petroglyphs (and other atavistic or archetypal symbols) from different cultures and continents is a result of the genetically inherited structure of the human brain.

    Other theories suggest that petroglyphs were carved by spiritual leaders, such as shamans, in an altered state of consciousness, [10] perhaps induced by the use of natural hallucinogens. Many of the geometric patterns (known as form constants) which recur in petroglyphs and cave paintings have been shown by David Lewis-Williams to be hardwired into the human brain. They frequently occur in visual disturbances and hallucinations brought on by drugs, migraine, and other stimuli.

    Recent analysis of surveyed and GPS-logged petroglyphs around the world has identified commonalities indicating pre-historic (7,000–3,000 BCE) intense auroras, or natural light display in the sky, observable across the continents. [11] [12]

    The Rock Art Research Institute (RARI) of the University of the Witwatersrand studies present-day links between religion and rock art among the San people of the Kalahari Desert. [13] Though the San people's artworks are predominantly paintings, the beliefs behind them can perhaps be used as a basis for understanding other types of rock art, including petroglyphs. To quote from the RARI website:

    Using knowledge of San beliefs, researchers have shown that the art played a fundamental part in the religious lives of its painters. The art captured things from the San's world behind the rock-face: the other world inhabited by spirit creatures, to which dancers could travel in animal form, and where people of ecstasy could draw power and bring it back for healing, rain-making and capturing the game. [14]


    Sábado, 1 de febrero de 2020

    Señales junto a las firmas testamentarias (I)

    A las cruces canarias y tuareg me referí ya en "Grabados del Bentayga (Gran Canaria): el signo a modo de cruz potenzada" (ver "Archivo del blog", publicación de 8 de agosto de 2015).

    Ese grabado del Bentaiga a modo de "cruz potenzada" pudiera ser un antropomorfo (como observó ya J. Cuenca Sanabria en "Nueva estación de grabados alfabetiformes del tipo líbico-bereber en el Roque Bentaiga, Gran Canaria") y es que recuerda a otro de Balos (Gran Canaria) con una cruz central y apariencia humana más acusada.

    Junto al grabado "cruciforme antropomorfo" del Bentayga aparece una columna de signos de carácter alfabético encabezados por una +.

    Grabados del Bentaiga (Gran Canaria)

    A aquellas cruces cabe añadir las representadas por algunos guanches, canarios y gomeros junto a las firmas de sus testamentos, las cuales se muestran en Testamentos de guanches [1505-1550] y Testamentos de canarios, gomeros y herreños [1506-1550], ambas obras de Leopoldo Tabares de Nava y Marín y Lorenzo Santana Rodríguez, publicadas por el Instituto de Estudios Canarios.

    Entre las señales que aparecen junto a las firmas, en los anexos fotográficos de las citadas obras, se aprecian cruces de distintas tipologías:

    - Las cruces simples con los cuatro brazos iguales (+) pueden corresponder a ese signo tipo tifinagh o líbico-bereber, presente en algunos de las estaciones de grabados canarios, como el citado "alfabetiforme" del Bentaiga.

    Más evidente resultaría en el caso de la que representa el guanche Pedro Madalena y que puede verse en la siguiente imagen obtenida de Testamentos de guanches [1505-1550], de Leopoldo Tabares de Nava y Marín y Lorenzo Santana Rodríguez, publicadas por el Instituto de Estudios Canarios.

    Señal del guanche Pedro Madalena

    Se trata de los mismos dos caracteres que encabezan los alfabetiformes del Bentaiga en orden inverso (si bien los actuales tifinagh tuareg pueden escribirse de izquierda a derecha, de derecha a izquierda, de arriba a abajo y de abajo a arriba, por lo que pudo suceder lo mismo con aquellos antiguos caracteres líbico-bereber).

    "Cruz de Agadez"

    J. Hureiki (en Essai sur les origines des Touaregs) siguiendo a diversos autores advierte que los caracteres tifinagh antiguos no cumplían en un principio una función de escritura. Se incluyen entre aquellos "o" y "+", que serían respectivamente la Luna y la estrella o Venus (tatrit en tufat, "la estrella de la mañana", que es como llaman los tuareg a Venus), además de las letras "r" y "t".

    - Un supuesto singular es la señal del gomero Fernando Benítez que consiste en una cruz simple a la que se prolongan los brazos horizontales de forma sinuosa con lo que confiere cierta impresión de antropomorfo o al menos recuerda al gesto de los brazos de algunos antropomorfos de Balos y de Morro del Cuervo (Agüimes) en Gran Canaria.

    - Otras están contenidas por una circunferencia (tipo "cruz solar") coinciden con el dibujo de pintaderas de Gran Canaria y de alguno de los grabados rupestres de Balos (Gran Canaria), como han puesto de manifiesto J. Onrubia Pintado y G. Betancor Quintana en "La colonización de los signos. Sistemas gráficos y alfabetización de los indígenas de Gran Canaria".

    Esta tipología de grabado también está presente en El Julan (El Hierro).

    - Por último, las que podríamos llamar "pometadas" (tres son de canarios y una es de guanche) y que pudieran ser representativas de los cuatro puntos cardinales como sucede con la citada "cruz de Agadez" tuareg.


    Watch the video: Gran Canaria: Roque Bentayga, Presa del Parralillo 24 giugno 2020 (May 2022).