History Podcasts

Rumi Timeline

Rumi Timeline

  • 1207 - 1273

    Life of the Persian poet Rumi, considered one of the greatest literary artists in the world.

  • c. 1215

    Rumi's father flees Balkh, Afghanistan to escape invading Mongols; moves family to Konya, Anatolia.

  • c. 1228

    Rumi is a highly-respected teacher and theologian living in Konya. When his father dies, he assumes his role as head of the religious community.

  • 1244

    Rumi meets the Sufi mystic Shams-i-Tabrizi and the two become inseparable friends.

  • 1248

    Shams-i-Tabrizi disappears; Rumi recognizes their spiritual connection is ongoing and begins to compose verse.

  • 1248 - 1273

    Rumi composes mystical poetry for the rest of his life, including his famous work, the Masnavi, still unfinished at the time of his death.


History of Sufism

The exact origin of Sufism is disputed. Some sources state that Sufism is the inner dimensions of the teachings of Muhammad whereas others say that Sufism emerged during the Islamic Golden Age from about the 8th to 10th centuries. According to Ibn Khaldun Sufism was already practiced by the Sahaba, but with the spread of material tendencies, the term Sufi was just applied to those who emphasize the spiritual practice of Islam. [3]

Origins Edit

Ahmet Karamustafa describes renunciation ( زُهد zuhd) as a widespread form of piety in Muslim communities in the first century of Abbasid rule. [4] Ibrahim ibn Adham al-Balkhi (d. 777-8) took on an ascetic lifestyle with a "radical aversion" to mainstream social life. [4] The followers of the preacher Hasan al-Basri founded a ribat on Abadan Island on the Tigris near Basra. [4] Karamustafa also cites Rābiʿa al-ʿAdawiyya, Shaqiq al-Balkhi, Al-Darani, Dhul-Nun al-Misri, Yahya ibn Mu'adh al-Razi, and Bayazid Bastami as some of the pioneering figures in the introspective trends that would lead to what would later be called Sufism. [5]

Sufis of Baghdad Edit

A distinct practice of piety associated with introspection, drawing from different practices and ideas, took form in Baghdad in the second half of the 9th century. [4] Members of the first generation of Sufis in Baghdad included Harith al-Muhasibi, Abu Hamza al-Baghdadi [ar] , Abu Sa'id al-Kharraz, Abu al-Husain al-Nuri, Junayd al-Baghdadi, Ruwaym, and Khayr an-Nassaj [ar] . [6] A following generation included Abu Bakr al-Shibli, Al-Jurayri [ar] , Rudbari, and Ja'far al-Khuldi [ar] . [6]

Codification of doctrine Edit

Towards the end of the first millennium CE, a number of manuals began to be written summarizing the doctrines of Sufism and describing some typical Sufi practices. Two of the most notable are Kashf al-Mahjûb (Revelation of the Veiled) of Hujwiri, and Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya (The Message) of Al-Qushayri. [7] According to the late medieval mystic Jami, Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (died c. 716) was the first person to be called a "Sufi". [8]

Two of Al Ghazali's greatest treatises, the "Revival of Religious Sciences" and the "Alchemy of Happiness," argued that Sufism originated from the Qur'an and was thus compatible with mainstream Islamic thought, and did not in any way contradict Islamic Law—being instead necessary to its complete fulfillment. This became the mainstream position among Islamic scholars for centuries, challenged only recently on the basis of selective use of a limited body of texts [ example needed ] . Ongoing efforts by both traditionally trained Muslim scholars and Western academics are making Al-Ghazali's works available in English translation for the first time, [9] allowing English-speaking readers to judge for themselves the compatibility of Islamic Law and Sufi doctrine.

All Sufi orders claim a direct chain of leadership to Muhammad, through Ali, with the exception of the Naqshbandis who claim a direct connection to Muhammad through Abu Bakr. In the eleventh century, Sufi orders (Tariqa) were instrumental in the institutional spread of Sufism. [10]

Muslim Spain Edit

Beginning in the 9th century and continuing throughout the 10th century, al-Andalus was home to fairly strict, orthodox beliefs and practices. [11] Quranic studies and jurisprudence (fiqh) were the accepted and promoted types of scholarship that shaped the region's beliefs and practices. Early fuqaha in Spain were somewhat skeptical of philosophical thought as well as of Sufism. In later centuries, especially the twelfth and thirteenth, Sufism became more accepted and somewhat assimilated into Andalusi Islam. [12] Scholars have generally seen this later flourishing in two different ways. For some, it reflects the influence of the mystical tradition in Cordoba attributed to Ibn Masarra. [13] Others give exclusive credit to the influence of eastern mystics, most often including al-Ghazali's thoughts and teachings. [14]

One figure in particular has often been credited as being the earliest introduction of Sufism to Spain: Ibn Masarra. [15] He lived from 883 to 931 and was born outside of Cordoba. Many consider him to have established the first Sufi school in the province however, his teachings were outside of the so-called "mainstream" Sufism that was more common in the East during his lifetime. [16] With Ibn Masarra there was a “brief flowering” [17] of Sufism in Spain, and later Spanish Sufis reflected his influence on them. After Ibn Masarra's death, in 940 his followers fell under heavy persecution under the jurists who destroyed Ibn Masarra's works and also forced his followers to recant. [18] The effects of his thought and that of his disciples would appear again in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries amidst later Sufis such as Ibn Arabi. [19]

By the twelfth century, shifts towards the acceptance—or at least tolerance—of philosophy and Sufism into what had previously been strictly orthodox beliefs were occurring. Many people began to read and translate the works of philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato. At the forefront of the philosophical movement in Spain were Ibn Bajjah, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Rushd, and a Jewish scholar named Ibn Maimun. [20] Ibn Tufail introduced the element of Sufism into this philosophical way of thinking. Andalusi Sufism was at its peak at this time. [21] Also at this time, eastern Sufism was developing more as a communal movement, whereas that of the West (including in al-Andalus), it remained largely an individual pursuit. [22]

A group of Sufi masters who defended the works of theosophists such as Ghazali and al-Qushayri began emerging in the late eleventh and early- to mid-twelfth centuries. Abu l-‘Abbas ibn al-‘Arif (1088-1141) was one of the most prominent Sufis in Spain and one of the earliest ones during Sufism's peak in the peninsula. [11] He belonged to what Spanish scholar of Islam, Miguel Asin Palacios, termed the "School of Almeria," so named for its geographical location. [23] Ibn al-Arif was one of the first to interpret Ghazali in the West, and he also founded a method of spiritual training called tariqah. [20] Ibn al-‘Arif's disciple Ibn Qasi set up a group of religious followers in Portugal and built a monastery in Silves. He authored the Khal al-Na’lain, which Ibn ‘Arabi would later write a commentary on. [24] Ibn Barrajan (d. 1141), who a student and friend of Ibn al-‘Arif, lived and taught in Seville but was originally from North Africa, has been called the Ghazali of the West. [25] Ibn Barrajan and Ibn al-‘Arif were both tried for heresy because their views conflicted with those of the Almoravids in power however, Ibn Barrajan appears to have been more active in using Sufism as a means of challenging Quranic scholars and jurists. [26]

Ibn Arabi, another key figure of this period of Sufism in the region, was born in Murcia in 1165 at the beginning of the Almohad reign. He is one of the most important Sufis of Spain, although he--like many other Andalusi Sufis--would eventually leave the peninsula and travel throughout North Africa and the East. [27] His works in Andalusia focused mainly on the perfect human individual, monastic metaphysics, and mystical path to spiritual and intellectual perfection. Central themes of Ibn 'Arabi's were the unity of all beings, or “wahdat al-wujud,” and also how God reflects God’s self in the world. [28] According to Ibn ‘Arabi, the main practices of Andalusi Sufis included ascesis, poverty, and devotion to the Qur’an. [29]

Not long after the death of Ibn ‘Arabi, al-Andalus experienced a “spiritual aridity” [30] in the mid-fourteenth century. The one exception to that trend was Ibn Abbad al-Rundi (1332-1390), a member of the Shadhiliyya order who was born in Ronda and whose scholarship brought together mystical and juridical paths. [31] His work helped Sufism become more accepted within the Islamic sciences. [32]

Although Sufism would no longer directly be a part of Andalusi life after the Catholic Monarchs expelled Muslims from Spain, in the Spanish Christian mystics of the sixteenth century, such as San Juan de la Cruz and Teresa of Avila, many have seen Sufism's lasting influence in Spain. [33]

Between the 13th and 16th centuries CE, Sufism produced a flourishing intellectual culture throughout the Islamic world, a "Golden Age" whose physical artifacts are still present. In many places, a lodge (known variously as a zaouia, khanqah, or tekke) would be endowed through a pious foundation in perpetuity (waqf) to provide a gathering place for Sufi adepts, as well as lodging for itinerant seekers of knowledge. The same system of endowments could also be used to pay for a complex of buildings, such as that surrounding the Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, including a lodge for Sufi seekers, a hospice with kitchens where these seekers could serve the poor and/or complete a period of initiation, a library, and other structures. No important domain in the civilization of Islam remained unaffected by Sufism in this period. [34]

Sufism was an important factor in the historical spread of Islam, and in the creation of regional Islamic cultures, especially in Africa [35] and Asia. Recent academic work on these topics has focused on the role of Sufism in creating and propagating the culture of the Ottoman world, including a study of the various branches of the Naqshbandi [36] and Khalwati orders, [37] and in resisting European imperialism in North Africa and South Asia. [38]

Spread to India Edit

Muslims of South Asia prominently follow the Chishtiyya, Naqshbandiyyah, Qadiriyyah and Suhrawardiyyah orders. Of them the Chishti order is the most visible. Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti, a disciple of Khwaja Usman Harooni, the propounder of this order, introduced it in India. He came to India from Afghanistan with the army of Shihab-ud-Din Ghuri in 1192 AD and started living permanently in Ajmer from 1195. Centuries later, with the support of Mughal rulers, his shrine became a place of pilgrimage. Akbar used to visit the shrine every year. [2] Some Sufis were not against absorbing ideas from Hinduism for their devotional songs with Sufism playing the primary role as a point of contact between Hinduism and Islam. 189 This conversion left many of those who converted via Sufism more Hindu in practice than Muslim. 194

Turkic conquests in South Asia were accompanied by four Sufi mystics of the Chishtiyya order from Afghanistan: Moinuddin (d. 1233 in Ajmer), Qutbuddin (d. 1236 in Delhi), Nizamuddin (d.1335 in Delhi) and Fariduddin (d.1265 in Pakpattan now in Pakistan) [3] . During the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq, who spread the Delhi sultanate towards the south, the Chistiyya spread its roots all across India. [4] The Sufi shine at Ajmer in Rajasthan and Nizamuddin Auliya in Delhi, Ashraf Jahangir Semnani in Kichaucha Shariff belong to this order.

The Suharawardi order was started by Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi, a Persian Sufi born in Sohrevard near Zanjan in Iran, and brought to India by Baha-ud-din Zakariya of Multan. The Suhrawardiyyah order of Sufism gained popularity in Bengal. [5] In addition, the Suhrawardiyyah order, under the leadership of Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi (d. 1234), also bequeathed a number of teachings and institutions that were influential in shaping other order that emerged during later periods.

The Khalwati order was founded by Umar al-Khalwati, an Azerbaijani Sufi known for undertaking long solitary retreats in the wilderness of Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran. While the Indian Subcontinent branches of the order did not survive into modern times, the order later spread into the Ottoman Empire and became influential there after it came under persecution by the rise of the Safavid Shahs during the sixteenth century. [37]

The Qadiriyyah order founded by Abdul Qadir Gilani whose tomb is at Baghdad. It is popular among the Muslims of South India. Baha-ud-Din Naqshband (1318-1389) of Turkestan founded Naqshbandi order of Sufism. Khwaja Razi-ud-Din Muhammad Baqi Billah whose tomb is in Delhi, introduced the Naqshbandi order in India. The essence of this order was insistence on rigid adherence to Sharia and nurturing love for the Prophet. It was patronized by the Mughal rulers, as its founder was their ancestral Pir (Spiritual guide). "The conquest of India by Babur in 1526 gave considerable impetus to the Naqshbandiyya order" [6] . Its disciples remained loyal to the throne because of the common Turkic origin. With the royal patronage of most of the Mughal rulers, the Naqshbandi order caused the revival of Islam in its pure form. Sufi orders were sometimes close to the ruling powers such as the Ottoman Empire, helping their spread and influence. [39]

==Sufism in Bangladesh==Sufism in Bangladesh is more or less similar to that in the whole Indian subcontinent. India, it is claimed, is one of the five great centers of Sufism, the other four being Persia (including central Asia), Baghdad, Syria, and North Africa. Sufi saints flourished in Hindustan (India) preaching the mystic teachings of Sufism that easily reached the common people, especially the spiritual truth seekers in India. [40] Sufism in Bangladesh is also called pirism, after the pirs or teachers in the Sufi tradition [41] (also called Fakir). [42] The Sufism tremendously influenced local population and thus these Sufi masters were the single most important factor in South Asian conversions to Islam, particularly in what is now Bangladesh. Most Bangladeshi Muslims are influenced to some degree by Sufism. The conversion to Islam of the population of what was to become Bangladesh began in the thirteenth century and continued for hundreds of years. Muslim pirs who wandered about in villages and towns were responsible for many conversions. [43]

A majority of Bangladeshi Muslims perceive Sufis as a source of spiritual wisdom and guidance and their Khanqahs and Dargahs as nerve centers of Muslim society [44] These majority of Muslims in Bangladesh are Sunni, who mainly follow the Hanafi school of thought (madh'hab). [45]

Sufism is popular in such African countries as Morocco and Senegal, where it is seen as a mystical expression of Islam. [47] Sufism is traditional in Morocco but has seen a growing revival with the renewal of Sufism around contemporary spiritual teachers such as Sidi Hamza al Qadiri al Boutshishi. Sufism suffered setbacks in North Africa during the colonial period the life of the Algerian Sufi master Emir Abd al-Qadir is instructive in this regard. [48] Notable as well are the lives of Amadou Bamba and Hajj Umar Tall in sub-Saharan Africa, and Sheikh Mansur Ushurma and Imam Shamil in the Caucasus region. In the 20th century some more modernist Muslims have called Sufism a superstitious religion that holds back Islamic achievement in the fields of science and technology. [49] A number of western converts to Islam have also embraced Sufism, [ citation needed ] sometimes resulting in considerable syncretism or generic spiritualism detached from Islam, as in the case of "Universal Sufism" or the writings of René Guénon or G. I. Gurdjieff.

One of the first to return to Europe as an official representative of a Sufi order, and with the specific purpose to spread Sufism in Western Europe, was the Ivan Aguéli. Other noteworthy Sufi teachers who were active in the West include Bawa Muhaiyaddeen, Inayat Khan, Nazim Al-Haqqani, Javad Nurbakhsh, Bulent Rauf, Irina Tweedie, Idries Shah and Muzaffer Ozak. Currently active Sufi academics and publishers include Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee, Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Abdullah Nooruddeen Durkee, Abdal Hakim Murad, Syed Waheed Ashraf and the Franco-Moroccan Faouzi Skali.


Synopsis

Pro Hero Arc

Mirko promises to kick as many villains as she meets.

Mirko is invited to the Japanese Billboard Charts event, where she is declared the No. 5 Hero. ⎘] In her statement to the crowd, she announces that she will pummel anyone scheming to do bad things. ⎙] Mirko also notes on Hawks' bold demeanor for interrupting the announcements and mocking Endeavor.

Upon witnessing the broadcast of Endeavor's fight with Hood, Mirko puts her words to action and rushes to the scene. She arrives in time to block Dabi's attack on Endeavor and Hawks. With Mirko on the scene, Dabi chooses to retreat. Mirko attempts to knock Dabi down to "kingdom come" but misses as the Villain disappears via an unknown Warping Quirk used by the Johnny Nomu. ⎚] After Dabi's retreat, she quickly leaves the area in search of the League.

Paranormal Liberation War Arc

Many Heroes across Japan are rallied by the Hero Commission Service, who reveal that they have info on where the recently formed Paranormal Liberation Front is currently residing thanks to Hawks. Mirko is assigned to the Jaku General Hospital raid team along with several other Pro Heroes. Once the Hero teams are set into position, they all prepare for the upcoming storm that lies ahead of them. ⎛] Upon reaching their destined locations, the Heroes all launch their move to take down the Paranormal Liberation Front once and for all.

Mirko effortlessly defeats several Nomu at the Jaku Hospital.

Endeavor leads his team to evacuate any civilians inside Jaku Hospital. While Endeavor and a few others evacuate the remaining patients inside the hospital, Mirko decides to go on ahead in hopes of trying to locate the location of Kyudai Garaki's laboratory, the main location of where the Nomu are currently manufactured. However, as Mirko zooms past several corridors of the hospital, she warns Endeavor that a couple of Nomus hybrids are starting to emerge underground.

Despite this, Mirko swiftly destroys the rampaging Nomus with quick efficiency. Mirko manages to successfully crash into Kyudai's lab, destroying many of his Quirk-replicated jars and releasing the incomplete High-Ends. Upon realizing her destination, Mirko furiously questions the doctor if he's the real deal instead of a Double. ⎜]

"I'm just getting warmed up for this!"

Mirko notices the destruction she caused, noting to the Jaku Hospital Raid Team that she doesn't know if the doctor she's confronting is a fake. Endeavor tells Mirko to restrain him regardless of if he's a fake or not. With that said, Mirko lunges at Kyudai and readies herself to knock him unconscious with a brutal rabbit kick. However, she only manages to scrape a bit of Kyudai's clothing due to the intervention of the Mocha Nomu. Mirko swats the tiny Nomu aside and realizes that this creature has Twice's Quirk.

Mirko grimaces upon watching the nefarious Kyudai release his incomplete High-Ends to buy him some time to complete Tomura's upgrades. The High-Ends grab Mirko by the face and send her crashing towards an upper section of the laboratory, covered by multiple pipes. Determined to win at all costs, Mirko mentions she's just getting warmed up as she prepares for another brawl. ⎝] She also manages to pick out where Kyudai is hiding with her rabbit ears.

Mirko takes out Robot despite losing an arm.

The High-Ends are surprised she survived their attack and she explains that she used her legs to cancel the impact when she hit the containers. She jumps out and lands behind them, immediately heading towards Kyudai's location, but the High-Ends intercept her. She then uses a Super Move called Luna Ring to blow away the Nomus but one of them rips off her left arm using some kind of unknown "Portal" Quirk. She smashes a Nomu with Luna Fall before charging at the Nomu that took her arm, who is surprised by how she charged in so dauntlessly. She tells the Nomu as she lands on his shoulders that people like him only fight at a distance, never close. The Nomu tells her to die but she tells him only when she's ready, and uses Luna Tijeras to rip off the Nomu's head, killing it in the process.

Mirko quickly wraps her arm with her hair as a stabilizer to reduce the pain. The Rabbit Hero tells the Nomus that since their heads are their weak spots, she'll aim for them. She also mentions that she lives her life every day like there's no tomorrow for her so when it's time for her to die, she'll have no regrets, and the Nomu will not be the end of her. ⎞] She continues fighting the High-Ends but starts to lose the upper hand.

Mirko attacks Tomura's capsule.

Faced with this situation, she decides to prioritize the mission and stop Dr. Garaki as soon as possible, running towards his position, without caring about the injuries caused by the High-Ends. She manages to catch up to Kyudai and Tomura in his capsule, but before she can smash it open, a High-End stabs her through her right leg with its Quirk, ready to drag her back. Suddenly, several heroes assault the laboratory, among which are Endeavor, who strikes the High-End allowing Mirko to continue her assault. ⎟]

One of the High-Ends attacks Endeavor, distracting him long enough for the Nomu he was fighting to attack Mirko again. It grabs her by piercing her with his tentacles, and proceeds to drag her away, but with one last effort, Mirko uses her Super Move Luna Arc, damaging the capsule containing Tomura, much to Dr. Garaki's horror. The Nomu violently throws Mirko at Endeavor to get him off his back, as Kyudai watch in horror his machines start to fall apart. The wounded Mirko urges the heroes who are there to destroy the capsule containing Tomura and to take down Kyudai, as they can't let Tomura awaken no matter what. ⎠]

Mirko ends up seriously wounded

Endeavor hands Mirko a hand-cloth to bite down on while he cauterizes her wounds with his fire. She tells him that Tomura is inside the capsule and Endeavor realizes that barely five minutes have passed since she reported since Mirko reported her status before fighting the High-Ends. Endeavor reminds her of a debt he owes her after Kyushu, so she can't die on him. Mirko simply replies that he owes her nothing. Soon, more heroes arrive at the laboratory and together they manage to defeat all the High-Ends and completely destroy the capsule that contains Tomura before Garaki can wake him up. Crying over his defeat, Dr. Garaki declares that the All For One's Dream has finally ended. ⎡]

Despite having previously verified that his heart was not beating, Tomura Shigaraki awakens. ⎢] Seeing the situation, he immediately uses his Decay, which spreads rapidly. The laboratory begins to crumble, and the heroes try to run away as fast as they can from the destruction. Endeavor carries the wounded Mirko and an unnamed heroine while trying to escape the crumbling building. ⎣] Thanks to Endeavor, Mirko is one of the few heroes to survive the disaster. After this, while the remaining survivors face Tomura, she is escorted to safety by Ryukyu's sidekick that Endeavor also saved from the destruction of Jaku Hospital. ⎤]

Mirko is taken to a hospital ⎥] , where she recovers from her injuries, receiving a prosthetic forearm during the recovery period. In the aftermath of the war, while many Pro Heroes have resigned, Mirko is one of them with the resolve to continue fighting. ⎦]


The Real History of Ertugrul

Who knew that one TV show could enlighten us in so many ways! As the Muslim world is sucked into the hysteria of Ertugrul and similar Ottoman dramas, its crucial that we uncover what is historical fact, and what is purely for entertainment purposes, if we want to truly benefit from the history of the Ottoman period. I too, love watching Ertugrul and similar shows like ‘The Magnificent Century’ and ‘Yunus Emre’ which teach so many great life lessons, not to mention incorporate Quranic stories and Hadith. But at the same time instead of creating fictional heroes, lets celebrate the truth in the history and appreciate our heroes for what they ACTUALLY did.

I have collated information from various Turkish sources and posts on social media (with references) from emerging information about the many valiant characters that we have grown to love from this TV series. This is not a complete account of their lives, but I have included the information that is historically proven. InshaAllah as more translations come to light we can piece together more about their lives. Enjoy!

CHARACTER PROFILES

Ertugrul Bey

Ertugrul is the father of Osman. With the small part of Kayi tribe, Ertugurl with only 400 tents, went on the challenging path toward the West and made foundation for one of the greatest empires. After Sultan Aleaddin was poisoned by Sadettin Kopek, he revolted against Kopek’s government, and proclaimed his own State, the City of Sogut its capitol.

His love and respect for his wife was widely known. He had four sons with Halime Sultan, and he died at 90 years old. The last ten years of his life were spent quietly in his tribe, when due to the old age, he transferred all his responsibilities to his youngest son Osman. A historical proof of his life are the coins minted by Osman which identify Ertuğrul as the name of his father, but beyond this not much is known about him apart from folktales.

There is information and historical facts about him that are kept in Turkish archives, within Ibn Arabi’s chronologies, in Western archives about Templars, in Byzantine’s chronologies and in legends – but this information only amounts to around 7 pages of sources according to the actor Engin Altan Duzyatan, who gave life to this great character. Despite this Engin considers it a great privilege to play Ertugrul as he was the first person in Turkish history to move away from the nomadic lifestyle and look to establish a state that went onto last 600 years.

We do know he was buried in Sogut in 1280. Around his tomb are graves of Halime Sultan, Hayme Mother, his sons, Gunduz, Savci Bey, Saru Batu and Osman, his brother Dundar, Turgut Alp, Samsa Alp, Abdurahman, and many others of his Alps, who reached Sogut with Ertugrul Bey. The ones that were not buried there, died along the way.

Osman is known as the father of the Ottoman Empire as from his Beylik (principality) the expansion of the Ottoman territory began. In the history books you will often see Ottoman rule referred to as the Osmanli dynasty. Osman came very late to his parents. He was born late in Ertugrul and Halime’s life. When Osman was born, (1258), Ertugrul was around 67 years old, and as Halime was older too, when normally women cannot have children anymore, he was considered as a Miracle sent by God. Historians consider a black hole in Ottoman history during Osman’s life as what is written about him was uncovered 100 years after he died.

Gundogdu & Sungurtekin

They did not support Ertugrul’s path and as we know, and over time faded in history. They lived a quiet and unremarkable life, not much is known or written about them. There are only verbal accounts, which were told by people through generations. According to that, they suffered big losses during a great Mongol invasion, and what was left of them, they lived subserviently under the Mongol’s rule.

He was a brave and renown warrior, a goodhearted and loving man, devoted to his brother, his tribe, and his family. But history documents him as a weak personality and he made a lot of mistakes and throughout his long life. He died aged 92 or 93, by Osman’s hand. He rebelled against one of Osman’s decision and that was the last straw for Osman.

He was one of the greatest and most renown warriors in Turkish history, a blood-brother to Ertugrul and his best follower and supporter, a very smart and capable man.He lived an unusually long life, even for our time. He outlived Erugrul Bey by 35 years, and he was killed in a battle, with his legendary battle-axe in his hand aged 125 years old! After Ertugrul passed away, Turgut become the main support to Osman, and when Osman established his Sultanate he rewarded Turgut with the highest position, as a Governor of the new State.

Bamsi Beyrek

He was a legendary hero his life has been described in the book of medieval Ottoman’s chronologies of that time, titled ‘’The book of Dede Korkut” . He was a fierce warrior, goodhearted and very funny man. His love life was legendary, since his heart was divided between two loves. He spent 16 years in a dungeon in Byzantine, and the Princess, who lived in that Fortress fell in love with him and helped him escape. It is not known when he died or how long he lived only that he lived fairly long for that time, and that he was ambushed by trickery and killed, leaving behind a wife and children. We may only guess how long this character will be kept in this series.

As many of us know Ibn Arabi is a famous chronologist, mystic, philosopher, poet, sage, he is one of the world’s great spiritual teachers. Ibn ‘Arabi was born in Murcia, Andalusia, in Spain in 1165 and his writings had an immense impact throughout the Islamic world and Christian world. The universal ideas underlying his thought are of immediate relevance today. He was great inspiration and support to Ertugrul Bey. He died 1240 aged 75.

After his death, Ertugrul Bey continued to draw support from Ibn Arabi, through his numerous writings, books, diaries, teachings and his other spiritual works, and through his followers.

Halime Sultan

She was a Seljuk Princess, very dedicated to her husband and his greatest supporter. She gave up her title and her Palace’s life due to her love and dedication to Ertugrul Bey. Through her marriage to Ertugrul Bey, Seljuk Turks and Oguz Turks, two greatest Turkish branches were irrevocably united by blood ties.

Hayme Mother

She lived a long life and she came with them all the way to Sogut. She was a smart, caring and brave woman, who acted as the Bey of her tribe, after Suleyman Shah had died. She was widely much respected and she was called ‘’the Mother of the people’’. It is not clear whether she gave birth to Gundogdu, she certainly brought him up. According to one line of sources, Gundogdu was her own son. But, since Suleyman Shah had lost his first wife, before marring Hayme, there are some who believe that Gundogdu was born by that young woman.

Suleyman Shah

He was a greatly respected figure of that time, he had 4 sons with Hayme Mother. He died by drowning in River Euphrates, and the spot near Aleppo, where he was buried in a sacred place for Turks which is now in modern day Syria, and that territory still belongs to Turkey, it is guarded by Turkey’s military guards and you need a passport to get in there, to see the mausoleum of Suleyman Shah. Although due to the emergence of ISIS and the recent ruin of shrines and tombs from extremists, the remains were temporarily removed last year due to the situation around Aleppo, and brought to Turkey to preserve.

Saddetin Kopek

According to Ottoman sources Saddetin Kopek is considered an ambitious and evil man, his only good quality was his devotion to his State. He eventually managed to kill Sultan Aleaddin, his second wife, the Ayyubid Princess and their two sons by poisoning in 1238. He then proclaimed Sultan Aleaddin’s third and oldest son (from his first marriage), as a new Sultan through whom Kopek gained a total power. However, only one year later, he was hanged from the Palace wall.

Artuk Bey

Known as Ertugrul Bey’s right hand man in the TV series, but there is so much more to his story! Artuk Bey (also known as “Son of Eksük” or Ibn Eksuk) was a Turkish General of the Great Seljuk Empire in th e 11th century. He was the Seljuk governor of Jerusalem between 1085–1091. Artuk Bey lived in Qüddus up to his death in 1091.

Artuk Bey was one of the commanders of the Great Seljuk Empire army during the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. After the battle, he took part in the conquest of Anatolia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire. He captured the Yeşilırmak valley in 1074. He also served the sultan by quashing a rebellion in 1077.

His next mission was a campaign to capture Amid (modern Diyarbakır) from the Marwanids. In this campaign he quarrelled with the Commander in Chief Fahrüddevlet who tended to make peace with Marwanids. In a surprise attack he defeated reinforcements to Marwanids. However, when the Sultan Malik Shah I heard about the event he suspected Artuk Bey of dissension.

Artuk Bey left the battle field and attended to Tutush I who was Malik Shah’s discordant younger brother in Syria in 1084. In 1086 he was instrumental in defeating Süleyman, the sultan of Seljuks of Turkey in a battle between Süleyman and Tutush.

The Beylik of Artukids was named after him, founded 11 years after his death by his sons. His valiant sons are El Gazi ibn Artuk who battled Baldwin II of Edessa at the Battle of Hab, Syria (1119) but lost and Soqman ibn Artuk, the ally of the hot tempered Tugtekin Bey, The Governor of Damascus against the Crusaders in 1104 at the Battle of Harran near Raqqa.

On this battle the Seljuk Army finally captured Crusader Knights Baldwin Il of Edessa who called himself, King of Tripoli and Jerusalem and Joscelin of Courtenay who called himself Prince of Galilee. Although, they managed to escape later. Soqman ibn Artuk become famous and a true honour to the late Artuk Bey.

Emir Al-Aziz of Aleppo

Al Aziz Muhammad ibn Gazi (1213 – 1236) was the Ayyubi Emir of Aleppo and the son of az-Zahir Gazi (r) and grandson of the great Salahuddin Al Ayubi (r), the liberator of Jerusalem from the Crusaders and Templars. His mother was Dayfa Khatun(r), the daughter of Salahuddin’s brother al-Adil(r). Al-Aziz was aged just three when his father az-Zahir Gazi died in 1216 at the age of forty-five. He immediately inherited his father’s position as ruler of Aleppo. A regency council was formed, which appointed Shihab ad-Din Tughril(r) as his guardian. Tughril was a Mamluk of az-Zahir Gazi and the effective ruler of Aleppo for the next fifteen years.

Al-Aziz did not take actual control of power until the age of seventeen, at which point he retained Tughril as his treasurer. In general, he avoided becoming drawn into the complex disputes between different members of the Ayyubi dynasty, and concentrated instead on strengthening the defenses and infrastructure of Aleppo. Among the construction works begun by az-Zahir Gazi and completed by al-Aziz Muhammad were the re-fortification of the citadel, and, within it, the building of the palace, the mosque, the arsenal and the water cisterns.

Al-Aziz is known to have married Fatima Khatun, daughter of al-Kamil, who apparently shared his passion for building and commissioned the construction of two madrasas in Aleppo.
Al-Aziz died on 26 November 1236 at the age of just twenty-three. His eldest son, an-Nasir Yusuf, was only seven years old, so al-Aziz’s mother Dayfa Khatun assumed the regency. Surprisingly, Al-Aziz’s daughter, Ghaziya Khatun, married the Seljuk Sultan of Rum, Kaykhusraw II (Giyaseddin Ibn Kayqubad).

sources:
“İslâm Ansiklopedisi Online (in Turkish)” PDF “TDV Encyclopedia of Islam” Archived 2014-11-10 Retrieved 25 March 2015^
Yüce- Sevim p.164^
Yüce-Sevim, p.68
Yücel, Yaşar Sevim, Ali (1990). Türkiye Tarihi Cilt I. Ankara: AKDTYK Yayınları.

Humphreys,R. S. From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus 1193-1260, SUNY Press 1977


Historical Timeline of Turkey

Important dates in a fast, comprehensive, chronological, or date order providing an actual sequence of important past events which were of considerable significance to the famous people involved in this time period.

A Neolithic city is established at Catalhoyuk in central Anatolia, the world's first known settlement date back to 6500 BC. The Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923.

23000 BC: A cave at Karain, north of Antalya, is inhabited by humans, the oldest known evidence of habitation in Anatolia.
6500 BC: A Neolithic city is established at Catalhoyuk in Central Anatolia, the world's first known settlement.
5000 BC: Stone and Copper Age. People have already been living in Anatolia for 20,000 years.
2600 BC - 1900 BC: The Proto-Hittite Empire flourishes in Central Anatolia and the Southeast.
1900 BC - 1300 BC: The Hittite Empire flourishes, battles Egypt. Patriarch Abraham, who has been dwelling in Harran, near Sanliurfa.
1300 BC - 1260 BC: The Trojan Wars described by Homer in the Iliad.
900 BC - 800 BC: Rise of Phrygian, Lydian and Carian cultures.
725 BC: King Midas rules the Phrygians from his capital of Gordion.
561 BC - 546 BC: Croesus rules the Lydians until his defeat by the Persian Empire.
353 BC: The death of Mausolus, ruler of the Hectamonid clan, who built his famous tomb at Halicarnassus.


See How Grown Up Beyoncé's Twins Are In These New Photos

Beyoncé and Jay-Z's twins, Rumi and Sir, were born in June 2017. We know more than two years have passed, but it's impossible to consider the fact that the babies that blew up Instagram with likes are no longer babies. In a year-in-review video on her Instagram, Beyoncé shared a few photos of toddlers Rumi and Sir. Toddlers.

The twins turned 2 on June 13 last year, and according to this video, they had an enviable birthday party. The video shows a shot of their cake, which had the twins' names on the base in red letters.

The photo that really turns heads is this holiday shot of the beautiful family, all dressed in formal black and white. Sir and Jay-Z are in tuxedos, while Bey, Blue Ivy, and Rumi are in all-white dresses.

One of the best things about this image is how much Rumi and Blue Ivy look alike. Blue turns 8 in six days (January 7) and is really growing up. But one look at her younger sister's face, and you'd think you were staring at a Blue toddler pic from 2014.

The twins seem to enjoy each other's company and are equally photogenic, especially when the spotlight is on them. This birthday shot is definitely worthy of framing, and it probably already has a prominent spot in the Carter home. The better quality shot is at about 52 seconds in the video, along with a clip of Sir toddling around.


Ideas

-20.0% Core-Creation Cost
+1 Max Promoted Cultures

+3.00 Tolerance of Heathens

-15.0% Naval Maintenance Modifier

+3.0% Missionary Strength vs Heretics

  • Requirement(s):
      Is not: Turkey , Holy Roman Empire , The Papal State , Russia , Prussia or England
  • Is not the Emperor of China Primary Culture is Turkish Is not a colonial nation One of the following must be true:
      Is not a former colonial nation Is a former colonial nation
        Not AI
    • Country changes to Rûm Change government to an Ottoman Government Country is removed from the HRE Change government rank to Kingdom Gain a permanent claim on Region(s): Anatolia
    • Gain 'Increased Centralization' for 20 years
        +1.00 National Unrest -0.05 Monthly Autonomy Change

    • Non-canon plot overview [ edit ]

      The Mini Patrol Car Police's Big Chase (Anime: 918) [ edit ]

      Genta gets kidnapped at an eel vending fair and the Detective Boys, without Haibara, run after the kidnappers' car and embark Yumi and Naeko's car to chase them. After losing track of them, Conan remembered who the kidnappers were and remembered they used signals at the fair so they try to figure out what they tried to communicate. Then, Mitsuhiko remembered the burning tent case and the reference to the counting system. A flashback of Haibara and Rumi's leg was shown.


      Rumi Tsurumi/Relationships

      Rumi's peers include Yokko (Voiced by : Megu Sakuragawa), Mori (Voiced by :Haruka Shiraishi), Hitomi (Voiced by :Erii Yamazaki), and Yuka (Voiced by : Ibuki Kido). These four girls were part of Rumi's group during the Chiba Village Summer Camp.

      Rumi herself mentioned she would bully other girls with her classmates, but only because everyone else did it. They would get bored after a while and pick a new girl to bully. However at some point they started picking on Rumi and haven't moved on.

      They don't consider Rumi to be socially equal to them, as they talk behind her back and gossip about her. They are Rumi's bullies. Rumi is not mean back, she is actually very kind to them and only wants to fit in. She even "saves" them during the summer camp arc. Although their relationship after the camp is still questionable, Hachiman notes at least the bullying had stopped.

      Representatives

      Rumi has a formal relation with the seven other representatives for the Christmas Collaboration Event. Rumi is still seen as a loner always sitting off to the side or working on her own. Rumi is shown to at least work cooperatively with the other representatives, she even takes charge when they don't know what to do.

      Hachiman Hikigaya

      Hachiman helping Rumi on making the star decorations.

      Rumi and Hachiman have a good relationship. When they met, Rumi identified Hachiman as a loner like herself. She is more open to Hachiman in their conversations than anyone else, since both of them are fellow loners and ostracized by their peers. Rumi also addresses Hachiman by his first name. However, after the test of courage incident, she didn't speak to him and ignored him. It is likely she realized that Hachiman had planned the test of courage. 

      Rumi asking Hachiman to call her Rumi

      During the Christmas collaboration event between Sobu High and Kaihin Sogu High, Rumi recognizes Hachiman right away. She even asks him what her group should be doing when they are ignored by Tamanawa.

      Rumi was very happy when Hachiman helped her make Christmas decorations. Although she doesn't like the nickname he uses, RumiRumi.

      Hachiman sees that his method did save her from bullying, but he feels that it might’ve not been enough as she is still alone and seems lonely.

      Rumi is one of the few to call Hachiman by his first name and demanded him to call her by her first name as well (Episode 10,Volume 9). Rumi was shown to be happy when Hachiman called her by her first name.

      In light novel, after making Rumi the star of the Christmas play, Hachiman watches Rumi receiving well-deserved praise. Hachiman also praised Rumi's "celebrity quality" in his own mind but left the area without seeing or saying anything to her again. Thus Hachiman succeeded in finishing what he felt was left incomplete. Hachiman feels that Rumi is genuine, for she lent a hand to her peers even though she knew them to be fake, poor friends.

      Others

      Saika, Komachi, Yumiko, Hina, Tobe and Yui are sympathetic towards Rumi, and tried to help her socialize. It is possible that she was aware of the reason behind Hayato, Yumiko and Tobe's delinquent act at Chiba village summer camp. Yumiko feels that Rumi has the same attitude as Yukino.

      Yukino Yukinoshita

      Rumi identifies Yukino as someone like her and Hachiman when they first meet. However she is less open with her feelings to Yukino that she is to Hachiman.

      Most characters seem to think Rumi could be similar to Yukino's past version. Yukino was able predict Rumi's future social condition and there are hint's of Yukino having a similar bullied and excluded experience. Yukino also mentions to Hachiman, her desire to improve Rumi's situation

      Hayato Hayama

      Hayato wishes to make difference in Rumi's social life however he can. It is possible that  Rumi's situation reminds Hayato of a trauma or something close to his past. Yukino even pointed out that Hayato can't get this matter out of his mind. Hayato also tried resolving Rumi's situation, but failed.

      After failing with his methods, he goes against his instincts and accepts Hachiman's plan to scare Rumi's group. In Volume 9 it was mentioned that Hayato, along with his clique praised Rumi for her performance in the Christmas play.

      Yui Yuigahama

      Rumi didn't accept Yui as one of them (Loners: Hachiman, Yukino, Rumi) and states that she belonged to Hayato's group. After seeing Hachiman and Yukino include Yui in their group, she starts to talk with her more openly.


      Rumi Timeline - History

      Born in Balkh (in modern Afghanistan) but lived in Qonya, Anatolia (Turkey). Initially followed existing Sufi paths, but became a visionary ecstatic in 1244 after being inspired on a new path of aesthetic and emotional mysticism, which developed into the Mawlawi (Mevlevi) order after his death. Created an aristocratic organizational structure, with hereditary succession and wealthy corporate status. Taught that the Master of the Way was to serve as a medium between God and humanity. Played an important role in Turkish culture and the reconciliation of some Christians to Islam. Sought identification of the human self with divine Being. Famous for humanism, devotion to music, and dhikr exercises incorporating dance where dervishes imitate the order of the universe by spinning in circles around the shaykh like planets revolving around the sun this gave rise to the European expression “whirling dervishes.” Wrote more than seventy thousand verses of Persian poetry in ordinary language, expressing the experience of God's presence in creation and inspiring joy in the listener common themes are the trials of separation from the Beloved and the joys of union with Him. Most famous poem is Mathnawi, a compilation of spiritual outbursts, anecdotal ruminations, and parables expressed in poetic form. Followers believe it to reveal the inner meaning of the Quran.