History Podcasts

Siege of Tolosa, 106 BC

Siege of Tolosa, 106 BC


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Siege of Tolosa, 106 BC

The siege of Tolosa (106 BC) is the only recorded fighting in that year during the Cimbric War, and saw the Romans recapture an allied city that had revolted against them.

The Romans had suffered a series of setbacks in Gaul in the years before 106 BC. The consul Marcus Junius Silunus had been defeated by the Cimbri somewhere in the area in 109 or 108 BC, but the Cimbri then disappear from the records, and we have no idea where they went. In 107 BC the consul L. Cassius Longinus was defeated by the Tigurini somewhere in the south-west of France. He was killed in the battle and the survivors had to agree to humiliating terms to secure their safety.

Before these successes the city of Tolosa (modern Toulouse) had entered into an alliance with Rome, and according to Cassius Dio there was even a Roman garrison in the city. The citizens rebelled against the Romans, and chained up the garrison.

The consul Q. Servilius Caepio was given the task of recapturing Tolosa. He was one of the consuls for 106 BC, and this siege is normally placed in that year, but Orosius called him a proconsul in his account of the siege, which would place it in the following year, 105 BC.

Cassius Dio gives us a brief account of the siege. The Romans were let into Tolosa at night by their friends in the city, took possession and looted the city. The most famous aspect of the siege was the capture of the 'treasure of Tolosa', a large amount of gold and silver that was found within the city.

There were several theories about the source of the treasure in antiquity. Strabo reports two. The first is that it was some of the treasure taken from Delphi when it was attacked by the Celts under Brennus in 279 BC. The second, which he clearly preferred, was taken from Poseidonius, who reported that the treasure consisted of 15,000 talents of gold and silver bullion, much of it found in sacred lakes. The treasure of Delphi wouldn't have been in the form of bullion, as that was looted by the Phocians during the Third Sacred War (355-346 BC). Finally the Celtic attack on Delphi was actually defeated, so it was unlikely that any treasure would have been taken away. The gold and silver at Tolosa was probably earned legitimately by the Celts at Tolosa, and then dedicated to the gods.

Dio says that some of the treasure came from Delphi, but that the city was wealthy in its own right.

Orosius reports that 100,000 pounds of gold and 110,000 pounds of silver were taken from the Temple of Apollo at Tolosa.

However valuable the treasure was, or where it came from, it didn't reach Rome. Caelius sent it under guard to Massilia, but it never arrived. Orosius says that the men guarding it were secretly slain and that Caepio was said to have stolen the money. Dio has it stolen by the soldiers themselves. In either case it became a long running scandal, leading to an investigation in Rome. Caelius went on to play an even less creditable role in the Roman defeat at Arausio (6 October 105 BC), so his role at Tolosa was rather overshadowed by this later scandal. Pompeius Trogus even suggested that the defeat at Arausio was punishment for the theft of the treasure.


Timeline: Weapons technology

Throughout history, societies have put their best minds to work creating new weapons. Explore the history of war and weapons with our timeline of weapons technology. Please note, many of the technologies are difficult to attribute, and historical dates are often approximate.


Pompey

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Classical Latin: [%CB%88gnae%CC%AF.%CA%8As pɔmˈpɛj.jʊs ˈmaŋ.nʊs] 29 September 106 BC – 29 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility. Pompey's immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a military commander in Sulla's Second Civil War resulted in Sulla bestowing the nickname Magnus, "the Great", upon him. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs.

In mid-60 BC, Pompey joined Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gaius Julius Caesar in the unofficial military-political alliance known as the First Triumvirate, which Pompey's marriage to Caesar's daughter Julia helped secure. After the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar then contended for the leadership of the Roman state, leading to a civil war. When Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Rome's subsequent transformation from Republic to Principate and Empire.

Early life and political debut Pompey's family first gained the position of Consul in 141 BC. Pompey's father, Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was a wealthy landed Italian provincial from Picenum, one of the novi homines (new men). Pompeius Strabo ascended the traditional cursus honorum, becoming quaestor in 104 BC, praetor in 92 BC and consul in 89 BC, and acquired a reputation for greed, political double-dealing and military ruthlessness. He supported Sulla's traditionalist optimates against the popularist general Marius in the first Marian-Sullan war.

He died during the Marian siege against Rome in 87 BC, either as a casualty of pandemic plague, or struck by lightning, or possibly both. In Plutarch's account, his body was dragged from its bier by the mob. His twenty-year-old son Pompey inherited his estates, his political leanings and the loyalty of his legions.

Pompey had served two years under his father's command, and had participated in the final acts of the Marsic Social War against the Italians. He returned to Rome and was prosecuted for misappropriation of plunder: his betrothal to the judge's daughter, Antistia, secured a rapid acquittal.

For the next few years, the Marians had possession of Italy.[6] When Sulla returned from campaigning against Mithridates in 83 BC, Pompey raised three Picenean legions to support him against the Marian regime of Gnaeus Papirius Carbo.

Sulla and his allies displaced the Marians in Italy and Rome: Sulla, now Dictator of Rome, was impressed by the young Pompey's self-confident performance. He addressed him as imperator and offered him his stepdaughter, Aemilia Scaura, in marriage. Aemilia – already married and pregnant – divorced her husband and Pompey divorced Antistia. Though Aemilia died in childbirth soon after, the marriage confirmed Pompey's loyalty and greatly boosted his career.

Sicily and Africa With the war in Italy over, Sulla sent Pompey against the Marians in Sicily and Africa. In 82 BC, Pompey secured Sicily, guaranteeing Rome's grain supply. He executed Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and his supporters out of hand, which may have led to his dubbing as the adulescens carnifex (adolescent butcher). In 81 BC, he moved on to the Roman province of Africa, where he defeated Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and the Numidian king Hiarbas, after a hard-fought battle.

After this string of victories, Pompey was proclaimed Imperator by his troops on the field in Africa once back in Rome, he was given an enthusiastic popular reception and hailed by Sulla as Magnus (the Great) – probably in recognition of Pompey's undoubted victories and popularity. However, it seems that Sulla was reluctant to honor him. The young general was still officially a mere privatus (private citizen) who had held no offices in the cursus honorum. The title may have been meant to cut Pompey down to size he himself used it only later in his career.

When Pompey demanded a triumph for his African victories, Sulla refused it would have been an unprecedented, even illegal, honour for a young privatus – by law, Pompey would have had to disband his legions. Pompey refused, and presented himself expectantly at the gates of Rome, upon which Sulla gave in and granted his request. However, Sulla had his own triumph first, then allowed Metellus Pius his triumph, relegating Pompey to an extra-legal third place in a quick succession of triumphs.

On the day the triumph was to take place, Pompey attempted to upstage both his seniors in a triumphal chariot towed by an elephant, representing his exotic African conquests. The elephant would not fit through the city gate. Some hasty replanning was needed, much to the embarrassment of Pompey and amusement of those present. His refusal to give in to his troops' near-mutinous demands for cash is believed by historians to have impressed his mentor and Rome's conservatives, ultimately leading to his rise in Rome's military and political hierarchy.

Quintus Sertorius and Spartacus Pompey's career seems to have been driven by desire for military glory and disregard for traditional political constraints. In a very common political move at the time, Pompey married Sulla's step-daughter Mucia Tertia. However, in the consular elections of 78 BC, he supported Lepidus against Sulla's wishes, causing Sulla to remove Pompey from his will. In 78 BC, Sulla died when Lepidus revolted, Pompey suppressed him on behalf of the Senate. He subsequently asked for proconsular imperium in Hispania to deal with the populares' general Quintus Sertorius, who had held out for the past three years against Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, one of Sulla's most able generals.

The Roman aristocracy turned him down, as they were beginning to fear the young, popular and successful general. Pompey resorted to his tried and tested persuasion he refused to disband his legions until his request was granted. The senate acceded, reluctantly granted him the title of proconsul and powers equal to those of Metellus, and sent him to Hispania.

On his way to Spain, Pompey spent one year subduing rebellious tribes in southern Gaul and organizing the province.

Pompey remained in Hispania from 76 – 71 BC he was, for a long time, unable to bring the war to an end due to Sertorius' guerrilla tactics. Though he was never able to decisively beat Sertorius (and he nearly met disaster at the battle of Sucro), he won several campaigns against Sertorius' junior officers and gradually took the advantage over his enemy in a war of attrition. Sertorius was significantly weakened, and by 74 BC, Metellus and Pompey were winning city after city. In 72 BC, the Sertorians controlled little more than Lusitania and many soldiers were deserting.

Finally, Pompey managed to crush the populares when Sertorius was murdered by his own officer, Marcus Perperna Vento, who was decisively defeated in 72 BC by the young general, at their first battle. By early 71 BC, the whole of Hispania was subdued. Pompey showed a talent for efficient organisation and fair administration in the conquered province this extended his patronage throughout Hispania and into southern Gaul. Some time in 71 BC, he set off for Italy, along with his army.

Meanwhile, Crassus was facing Spartacus to end Rome's Third Servile War. Crassus defeated Spartacus, but in his march towards Rome, Pompey encountered the remnants of Spartacus' army he captured five thousand of them and claimed the credit for finishing the revolt, which infuriated Crassus.

Back in Rome, Pompey was wildly popular. On December 31, 71 BC, he was given a triumph for his victories in Hispania – like his first, it was granted extralegally. To his admirers, he was the most brilliant general of the age, evidently favoured by the gods and a possible champion of the people's rights. He had successfully faced down Sulla and his Senate he or his influence might restore the traditional plebeian rights and privileges lost under Sulla's dictatorship.

Due to this, Pompey was allowed to bypass another ancient Roman tradition at only 35 years of age and while not even a senator, he was elected Consul by an overwhelming majority vote, and served in 70 BC with Crassus as partner. Pompey's meteoric rise to the consulship was unprecedented his tactics offended the traditionalist nobility whose values he claimed to share and defend. He had left them no option but to allow his consulship.

Campaign against the pirates Two years after his consulship, Pompey was offered command of a naval task force to deal with piracy in the Mediterranean Sea. The conservative faction of the Senate remained suspicious and wary of him this seemed yet another illegal or at least extraordinary appointment. Pompey's supporters for this command – including Caesar – were in the minority, but support was whipped up through his nomination by the Tribune of the Plebs Aulus Gabinius who proposed a Lex Gabinia Pompey should have control over the sea and the coasts for 50 miles inland. This would set him above every military leader in the East – it was passed despite vehement opposition.

According to Rome's historians, pirates had freely plundered the coastal cities of Greece, Asia and Italy itself. The extent and nature of their threat is questionable anything that threatened Rome's grain supply was cause for panic, and the Romans tended to exaggerate any such threats. Roman public opinion and Pompey's supporters may have exaggerated the solution. Various settlements, peoples and city-states around the Mediterranean had coexisted several centuries and most had operated small fleets for war, or trade in commodities, including slaves. Their alliances might be loose and temporary or more-or-less permanent some regarded themselves as nations.

With Rome's increasing hegemony, the independent maritime economies of the Mediterranean would have been further marginalised an increasing number would have resorted to piracy. As long as they met Rome's increasing requirement for slaves, left her allies and territories untouched and offered her enemies no support, they were tolerated. Some were subsidised. But fear of piracy was potent – and these same pirates, it was later alleged, had assisted Sertorius.

By the end of that winter, the preparations were complete. Pompey allocated one of thirteen areas to each of his legates, and sent out their fleets. In forty days, the western Mediterranean was cleared.[26] Dio reported communication was restored between Hispania, Africa, and Italy and that Pompey then attended to the largest of these alliances, centered on the coast of "Rough Cilicia". After "defeating" its fleet, he induced its surrender with promises of pardon, and settled many of its people at Soli, which was henceforward called Pompeiopolis.

De Souza (2002) finds that Pompey had officially returned the Cilicians to their own cities, which were ideal bases for piracy and not – as Dio would have it – for the dignified reformation of pirates as farmers. Pompey's entire campaign is therefore in question its description as "war" is hyperbole – some form of treaty or payoff is likely, with Pompey as chief negotiator. This was standard practice, but undignified and seldom acknowledged Rome's generals were supposed to wage and win wars. A decade on, in the 50s BC, the Cilicians and pirates in general remained a nuisance to Rome's sea trade.

In Rome, however, Pompey was hero once again, he had guaranteed the grain supply. According to Plutarch, by the end of the summer of 66 BC, his forces had swept the Mediterranean clear of opposition. Pompey was hailed as the first man in Rome, Primus inter pares (the first among equals). Cicero could not resist a panegyric:

"Pompey made his preparations for the war at the end of the winter, entered upon it at the commencement of spring, and finished it in the middle of the summer."

The expedience of his campaign probably guaranteed Pompey his next and even more impressive command, this time in Rome's long-running war against Mithridates. By the 40s BC, Cicero could comment less favourably on the pirate campaign, and especially the funded "resettlement" at Soli/Pompeiopolis "we give immunity to pirates and make our allies pay tribute."

Pompey in the East Pompey spent the rest of that year and the beginning of the next visiting the cities of Cilicia and Pamphylia, and providing for the government of newly conquered territories. In his absence from Rome (66 BC), he was nominated to succeed Lucius Licinius Lucullus as commander in the Third Mithridatic War against Mithridates VI of Pontus in the East. Pompey's command was proposed by the tribune Gaius Manilius, supported by Caesar and justified by Cicero in pro Lege Manilia. His brother-in-law Quintus Metellus Celer served underneath him at this time and followed him in his exploits in the East. Like the Gabinian law, it was opposed by the aristocracy, but was carried nonetheless.

Lucullus, a plebeian noble, was incensed at the prospect of his replacement by a "new man" such as Pompey. The outgoing commander and his replacements traded insults. Lucullus called Pompey a "vulture" who fed from the work of others. Lucullus was referring not merely to Pompey's new command against Mithridates, but also his claim to have finished the war against Spartacus.

At Pompey's approach, Mithridates strategically withdrew his forces. However, Pompey managed to besiege his camp, but could not prevent his enemy from breaking the encirclement and retreating further east. But, afterward, near Armenia, Pompey managed to surprise the Pontic army by a daring nocturnal attack and all but destroyed it, leaving the king with no choice but to flee in disarray. Tigranes the Great refused him refuge, so he made his way to his own dominions in the Cimmerian Bosporus. Pompey secured a treaty with Tigranes, and in 65 BC set out in pursuit of Mithridates, but met resistance from the Caucasian Iberians and Albanians. The Romans won a succession of decisive victories over these people on the Abas and the Cyrus rivers and at Seusamora, destroying their forces. Pompey then advanced to Phasis in Colchis and liaised with his legate Servilius, admiral of his Euxine fleet, before decisively defeating Mithridates.

Pompey then retraced his steps, wintered at Pontus, and made it into a Roman province. In 64 BC, he marched into Syria, deposed its king, Antiochus XIII Asiaticus, and reconstituted this, too, as a Roman province. In 63 BC, he moved south, and established Roman supremacy in Phoenicia and Coele-Syria.

In Judea, Pompey intervened in the civil war between Hyrcanus II, who supported the Pharisee faction and Aristobulus II, who supported the Sadducees. The armies of Pompey and Hyrcanus II laid siege to Jerusalem. After three months, the city fell.

"Of the Jews there fell twelve thousand, but of the Romans very few. and no small enormities were committed about the temple itself, which, in former ages, had been inaccessible, and seen by none for Pompey went into it, and not a few of those that were with him also, and saw all that which it was unlawful for any other men to see but only for the high priests. There were in that temple the golden table, the holy candlestick, and the pouring vessels, and a great quantity of spices and besides these there were among the treasures two thousand talents of sacred money: yet did Pompey touch nothing of all this, on account of his regard to religion and in this point also he acted in a manner that was worthy of his virtue. The next day he gave order to those that had the charge of the temple to cleanse it, and to bring what offerings the law required to God and restored the high priesthood to Hyrcanus, both because he had been useful to him in other respects, and because he hindered the Jews in the country from giving Aristobulus any assistance in his war against him." (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, book 14, chapter 4 tr. by William Whiston, available at Project Gutenberg.)

During the war in Judea, Pompey heard of Mithridates' suicide his army had deserted him for his son Pharnaces. In all, Pompey had annexed four new provinces to the Republic: Bithynia et Pontus, Syria, Cilicia, and Crete. Rome's Asian protectorates now extended as far east as the Black Sea and the Caucasus. Pompey's military victories, political settlements and annexations in Asia created Rome's new frontier on the east.

Return to Rome, and third triumph News of Pompey's victories in the east – and probably of his divine honours there – reached Rome before he did. He had cult at Delos and was "saviour" in Samos and Mytelene. Plutarch quotes a wall-graffito in Athens, referring it to Pompey: "The more you know you're a man, the more you become a god". In Greece, these honours were standard fare for benefactors. In Rome, they would have seemed dangerously monarchic.

In Pompey's absence, his old supporter Cicero had risen to the consulship. His old enemy and colleague Crassus supported Caesar. In the Senate and behind its scenes, Pompey was probably equally admired, feared and excluded on the streets he was as popular as ever. His eastern victories earned him his third triumph. On his 45th birthday, in 61 BC, he rode the triumphal chariot, a magnificent god-king, but one of Republican form, ritualistically reminded of his impermanence and mortality. Even so, he was accompanied by a gigantic portrait head of himself, studded with pearls.

His third triumph exceeded all others an unprecedented two days were scheduled for its procession and games (ludi). Spoils, prisoners, army and banners depicting battle scenes wended the triumphal route between the Campus Martius and the Capitoline temple of Jupiter. To conclude, he gave an immense triumphal banquet and money to the people of Rome, and promised them a new theatre. Plutarch claimed this triumph represented Pompey's – and therefore Rome's – domination over the entire world, an achievement to outshine even Alexander's.

In the meantime, Pompey promised his retiring veterans public lands to farm, then dismissed his armies. It was a reassuringly traditional gesture, but the Senate remained suspicious. They debated and delayed his eastern political settlements[45] and the promised gifts of public land. From now on, Pompey seems to have toed a cautious line between his enthusiastic popular supporters and the conservatives who seemed so reluctant to acknowledge his solid achievements. It would lead him into unexpected political alliances.

Caesar and the First Triumvirate Although Pompey and Crassus distrusted each other, Crassus' tax farming clients were being rebuffed at the same time Pompey's veterans were being ignored, and by 61 BC, their grievances had pushed them both into an alliance with Caesar, six years younger than Pompey, returning from service in Hispania and ready to seek the consulship for 59 BC. Their political alliance, known subsequently as the First Triumvirate, operated to the benefit of each. Pompey and Crassus would make Caesar Consul, and Caesar would use his consular power to promote their claims.

Caesar's consulship of 59 BC brought Pompey land for his veterans, confirmation of his Asian political settlements and a new wife. She was Caesar's daughter, Julia Pompey was said to be besotted by her. In the same year, Clodius renounced his patrician status, was adopted into a plebeian gens and was elected a Tribune of the plebs. At the end of his consulship, Caesar secured proconsular command in Gaul. Pompey was given the governorship of Hispania Ulterior, but remained in Rome to oversee the grain supply as curator annonae.

Despite his preoccupation with his new wife, Pompey handled the grain issue well. His political acumen was less sure. When Clodius turned on him in turn, Pompey defended himself by supporting Cicero's recall from exile (57 BC). Once back in Rome, Cicero stepped back into his role as Pompey's defender and Clodius' antagonist, but Pompey himself retreated to his lovely young wife and his theatre plans such behaviour was not expected of the once dazzling young general.

Pompey might equally have been obsessed, exhausted and frustrated. His own party had not forgiven him for allowing Cicero's expulsion. Some tried to persuade him that Crassus was plotting his assassination. Meanwhile, Caesar seemed set on outstripping both his colleagues in generalship and popularity.

By 56 BC, the bonds between the three men were fraying. Caesar called first Crassus, then Pompey, to a secret meeting, the Lucca Conference, in the northern Italian town of Lucca to rethink their joint strategy. They agreed that Pompey and Crassus would again stand for the consulship in 55 BC. Once elected, they would extend Caesar's command in Gaul by five years. At the end of their joint consular year, Crassus would have the influential and lucrative governorship of Syria, and use this as a base to conquer Parthia. Pompey would keep Hispania in absentia.

In 55 BC, Pompey and Crassus were elected as consuls, against a background of bribery, civil unrest and electioneering violence. Pompey's new theatre was inaugurated in the same year. It was Rome's first permanent theatre, a gigantic, architecturally daring, self-contained complex on the Campus Martius, complete with shops, multi-service buildings, gardens and a temple to Venus Victrix. The latter connected its donor to Aeneas, a son of Venus and ancestor of Rome itself. In its portico, the statuary, paintings and personal wealth of foreign kings could be admired at leisure. Pompey's triumph lived on. His theatre made an ideal meeting place for his supporters.

From confrontation to war

In 54 BC, Julia, Caesar's only child and Pompey's wife, died in childbirth along with her baby. Pompey and Caesar shared their grief and condolences, but Julia's death broke their family bonds. The following year, Crassus, his son Publius and most of his army were annihilated by the Parthians at Carrhae. Caesar, not Pompey, was now Rome's great new general and the fragile balance of power between them was under threat. Public anxiety spilled over: rumours circulated that Pompey would be offered dictatorship for the sake of law and order.

Caesar sought a second matrimonial alliance with Pompey, offering his grandniece Octavia (the sister of the future emperor Augustus). This time, though, Pompey refused. In 52 BC, he married Cornelia Metella, the very young widow of Crassus's son Publius, and the daughter of Caecilius Metellus Scipio, one of Caesar’s greatest enemies. Pompey was drifting back toward the optimates. It can be presumed that they thought him the lesser of two evils.

In the same year, Clodius was murdered. When his supporters burned down the Senate House in retaliation, the Senate appealed to Pompey. He reacted with ruthless efficiency. Cicero, defending the accused murderer Titus Annius Milo, was so shaken by a Forum seething with armed soldiers, he was unable to complete his defense.

Once order was restored, the Senate and Cato avoided granting Pompey dictatorship – it recalled Sulla and his bloody proscriptions. Instead they made him sole Consul this gave him sweeping, but limited, powers. A Dictator could not be lawfully punished for measures taken during his office. As sole Consul, Pompey would be answerable for his actions once out of office.

While Caesar was fighting against Vercingetorix in Gaul, Pompey proceeded with a legislative agenda for Rome. Its details suggested covert alliance with Caesar's enemies: among his various legal and military reforms was a law allowing retrospective prosecution for electoral bribery. Caesar's allies correctly interpreted this as a threat to Caesar once his imperium ended. Pompey also prohibited Caesar from standing for the consulship in absentia, though this had been permitted under past laws.

This seemed to put paid to Caesar's plans after his term in Gaul expired. Finally, in 51 BC, Pompey was more forthright Caesar would not be permitted to stand for Consul unless he relinquished his armies. This would, of course, leave Caesar defenseless before his enemies. As Cicero sadly noted, Pompey had been diminished by age, uncertainty, his fear of Caesar and the strain of being the chosen tool of a quarreling oligarchy of optimates. The coming conflict seemed inevitable.

Civil war and assassination In the beginning, Pompey claimed he could defeat Caesar and raise armies merely by stamping his foot on the soil of Italy, but by the spring of 49 BC, with Caesar crossing the Rubicon and his invading legions sweeping down the peninsula, Pompey ordered the abandonment of Rome. His legions retreated south towards Brundisium, where Pompey intended to find renewed strength by waging war against Caesar in the east. By using his strategic resources in the East, as well as his naval strength to defeat Caesar's forces. In the process, neither Pompey nor the Senate thought of taking the vast treasury with them, probably thinking Caesar would not dare take it for himself. It was left conveniently in the Temple of Saturn when Caesar and his forces entered Rome.

Barely eluding Caesar in Brundisium, Pompey crossed over into Epirus, where, during Caesar's Spanish campaign, Pompey had gathered a large force in Macedonia, comprising nine legions reinforced by contingents from the Roman allies in the east.[52] His fleet, recruited from the maritime cities in the east, controlled the Adriatic. Nevertheless, Caesar managed to cross over into Epirus in November 49 BC, and proceeded to capture Apollonia.

Pompey managed to arrive in time to save Dyrrhachium, and he then attempted to wait Caesar out during the siege of Dyrrhachium, scoring a victory. Yet, by failing to pursue at the critical moment of Caesar's defeat, Pompey threw away the chance to destroy Caesar's much smaller army. As Caesar himself said, "Today the enemy would have won, if they had a commander who was a winner" (Plutarch, 65E).

According to Suetonius, it was at this point that Caesar said that "that man (Pompey) does not know how to win a war." With Caesar on their backs, the conservatives led by Pompey fled to Greece. Caesar and Pompey had their final showdown at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. The fighting was bitter for both sides, and although Pompey was expected to win, due to advantage in numbers, the brilliant tactics and the superior fighting abilities of Caesar's veterans led to a victory for Caesar. Pompey met his wife Cornelia and his son Sextus Pompeius on the island of Mytilene. He then wondered where to go next. The decision of running to one of the eastern kingdoms was overruled in favour of Egypt.

After his arrival in Egypt, Pompey's fate was decided by the counselors of the young king Ptolemy XIII. While Pompey waited offshore, they argued the cost of offering him refuge with Caesar already en route to Egypt the king's eunuch Pothinus won out. In the final dramatic passages of his biography, Plutarch had Cornelia watch anxiously from the trireme as Pompey left in a small boat with a few sullen, silent comrades, and headed for what appeared to be a welcoming party on the Egyptian shore at Pelusium. As Pompey rose to disembark, he was stabbed to death by his betrayers, Achillas, Septimius and Salvius.

Plutarch has him meet his fate with great dignity, on his 60th birthday. His body remained on the shoreline, to be cremated by his loyal freeman Philip on the rotten planks of a fishing boat. His head and seal were presented to Caesar, who, according to Plutarch, mourned this insult to the greatness of his former ally and son-in-law, and punished his assassins and their Egyptian co-conspirators, putting both Achillas and Pothinus to death. Pompey's ashes were eventually returned to Cornelia, who carried them to his country house near Alba.

Cassius Dio describes Caesar's reactions with skepticism, and considers Pompey's own political misjudgments, rather than treachery, as instrumental in his downfall. In Appian's account of the civil war, Caesar has Pompey's severed head interred in Alexandria, in ground reserved for a new temple to the goddess Nemesis, whose divine functions included the punishment of hubris. For Pliny, the humiliation of Pompey's end is anticipated by the vaunting pride of his oversized portrait-head, studded entirely with pearls, and carried in procession during his greatest Triumph. Suetonius, however, states of Caesar "He even restored to their position the statues of Lucius Sulla and of Pompey which had been broken up by the common people."

Generalship Pompey's military glory was second to none for a few decades. Yet, his skills were occasionally criticized by some of his contemporaries. Sertorius or Lucullus, for instance, were especially critical. Pompey's tactics were usually efficient, albeit not particularly innovative or imaginative. They could prove insufficient against greater tacticians. However, Pharsalus was his only decisive defeat. At times, he was reluctant to risk an open battle. While not hugely charismatic, Pompey could display tremendous bravery and fighting skills on the battlefield, something which provided inspiration to his men. While being a superb commander, Pompey also earned a reputation for stealing other generals' victories.

On the other hand, Pompey is usually considered an outstanding strategist and organizer, who could win campaigns without displaying genius on the battlefield, but simply by constantly outmaneuvering his opponents and gradually pushing them into a desperate situation. Pompey was a great forward planner, and had tremendous organizational skill, which allowed him to devise grand strategies and operate effectively with large armies. During his campaigns in the east, he acted like a sledgehammer, relentlessly pursuing his enemies, and choosing the ground for his battles.

Above all, he was often able to adapt to his enemies. On many occasions, he acted very swiftly and decisively, as he did during his campaigns in Sicily and Africa, or against the Cilician pirates. During the Sertorian war, on the other hand, Pompey was beaten several times by Sertorius. Therefore, he decided to resort to a war of attrition, in which he would avoid open battles against his chief opponent but instead try to gradually regain the strategic advantage by capturing his fortresses and cities and defeating his junior officers. In some instances, Sertorius showed up and forced Pompey to abandon a siege, only to see him strike somewhere else.[64] This strategy was not spectacular but it led to constant territorial gains and did much to demoralize the Sertorian forces. By 72 BC, the year of his assassination, Sertorius was already in a desperate situation and his troops were deserting. Against Perpenna, a tactician far inferior to his former commander in chief, Pompey decided to revert to a more aggressive strategy and he scored a decisive victory that effectively ended the war.

Against Caesar too, his strategy was sound. During the campaign of Greece, he managed to regain the initiative, join his forces to that of Metellus Scipio (something that Caesar wanted to avoid) and trap his enemy. His strategic position was hence much better than that of Caesar and could have starved his army to death. However, he was finally compelled to fight an open battle by his allies and his conventional tactics proved no match to that of Caesar and his better-trained troops.

Later portrayals and reputation For the historians of his own and later Roman periods, Pompey fit the trope of the great man who achieved extraordinary triumphs through his own efforts, yet fell from power and was, in the end, murdered through treachery.

He was a hero of the Republic, who seemed once to hold the Roman world in his palm, only to be brought low by Caesar. Pompey was idealized as a tragic hero almost immediately after Pharsalus and his murder. Plutarch portrayed him as a Roman Alexander the Great, pure of heart and mind, destroyed by the cynical ambitions of those around him. This portrayal of him survived into the Renaissance and Baroque periods, for example in Corneille's play The Death of Pompey (1642). In spite of his war against Caesar, Pompey was still widely celebrated during the imperial period, as the conqueror of the orient. At Augustus' funeral procession, pictures of him were carried as he was still widely considered as the great conqueror of the Orient. As a triumphator, he also had numerous statues in Rome, one of which was on the forum of Augustus. Though the imperial power did not honor him as much as his archenemy, who was considered a god, his reputation among many aristocrats and historians was equal or even superior to that of Caesar.

Pompey has appeared as a character in several modern novels, plays, motion pictures, and other media.

Theater, film and television

  • A theatrical portrayal was John Masefield's play The Tragedy of Pompey the Great (1910).
  • In the opening scene of the 1961 film King of Kings, he is played by actor Conrado San Martín.
  • In the television series Xena: Warrior Princess, he is portrayed by actor Jeremy Callaghan.
  • Chris Noth portrays Pompey in the 2002 miniseries Julius Caesar.
  • He appears as a major character in the first season of the HBO series Rome, in which he is portrayed by Kenneth Cranham.
  • In 2006 he was played by John Shrapnel in the BBC docu-drama Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire.
  • In the television series Spartacus: War of the Damned, he is portrayed by actor Joel Tobeck.
  • In Colleen McCullough's Masters of Rome series of historical novels, Pompey's youthful exploits are depicted in Fortune's Favorites, the formation of the First Triumvirate and his marriage to Julia is a large part of Caesar's Women and his loss of Julia, the dissolution of the First Triumvirate, his later political career, the civil war between him and Caesar and his eventual defeat and his betrayal and murder in Egypt are all told in Caesar.
  • In comics, he appears as Julius Caesar's foe throughout the The Adventures of Alix series.
  • Pompey is a recurring character in the Roma Sub Rosa series of novels by Steven Saylor, portraying his role in the Civil War with Caesar. His final appearance is in Saylor's novel The Judgment of Caesar, graphically depicting his murder by Ptolemy in Egypt.
  • Pompey also appears frequently in the SPQR series by John Maddox Roberts, narrated by Senator Decius Metellus, a fictional nephew of Caecilius Metellus Pius. Decius despises Pompey as a glory-seeker and credit-grabber, while acknowledging that he is a political dunce who was eventually swept up into the optimates feud with Caesar.
  • Pompey is a major recurring character in Robert Harris's trilogy of the life of Cicero, (Imperium, Lustrum and Dictator), in which Pompey is portrayed as bombastic and dim-witted, though fearsome.

Marriages and offspring

  1. First wife, Antistia
  2. Second wife, Aemilia Scaura (Sulla's stepdaughter)
  3. Third wife, Mucia Tertia (whom he divorced for adultery, according to Cicero's letters)
  4. Offspring of marriage between Mucia and Pompey Magnus (1. Gnaeus Pompeius, executed in 45 BC, after the Battle of Munda, 2. Pompeia Magna, married to Faustus Cornelius Sulla ancestor of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Claudia Antonia's first husband), 3. Sextus Pompey, who would rebel in Sicily against Augustus)
  5. Fourth wife Julia (daughter of Caesar)
  6. Fifth wife, Cornelia Metella (daughter of Metellus Scipio)

Chronology of Pompey's life and career

  • 106 BC September 29– Born in Picenum
  • 83 BC– Aligns with Sulla, after his return from the Mithridatic War against King Mithridates IV of Pontus
  • 83 BC- Pompey raises a legion and cavalry in hopes of joining Sulla
  • 82 BC- Marriage to Aemilia Scaura at the beheast of Sulla, Aemilia is already pregnant and eventually dies during childbirth
  • 82� BC– Defeats Gaius Marius's allies in Sicily (Autumn of 82 BC) and Africa after his victory in Sicily
  • 81 BC– Returns to Rome and celebrates First triumph
  • 80 BC- Pompey marries Mucia of the Mucii Scaevolae Family
  • 79 BC- Pompey supports the election of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Lepidus openly revolts against the senate a few months later, Pompey suppresses the rebellion with an army raised from Picenum and puts down the rebellion killing the senior legate Marcus Junius Brutus, father of Brutus who assassinated Julius Caesar
  • 76� BC– Campaign in Hispania against Sertorius
  • 71 BC– Returns to Italy and participates in the suppression of a slave rebellion led by Spartacus Second triumph
  • 70 BC– First consulship (with M. Licinius Crassus)
  • 67 BC– Defeats the pirates and goes to Asia province
  • 66� BC– Defeats King Mithridates of Pontus end of the Third Mithridatic War
  • 64� BC– Pompey's March through Syria, the Levant, and Judea
  • 61 BC September 29– Third triumph
  • 59 BC April– The first triumvirate is constituted Pompey allies to Julius Caesar and Licinius Crassus marriage to Julia (daughter of Julius Caesar)
  • 58� BC– Governs Hispania Ulterior by proxy, construction of Pompey's Theater
  • 55 BC– Second consulship (with M. Licinius Crassus), Dedication of the Theatre of Pompey
  • 54 BC– Julia dies the first triumvirate ends
  • 52 BC– Serves as sole consul for intercalary month,[70] third ordinary consulship with Metellus Scipio for the rest of the year marriage to Cornelia Metella
  • 51 BC– Forbids Caesar (in Gaul) to stand for consulship in absentia
  • 50 BC– Falls dangerously ill with fever in Campania, but is saved 'by public prayers'
  • 49 BC– Caesar crosses the Rubicon River and invades Italy Pompey retreats to Greece with the conservatives
  • 48 BC– Caesar defeats Pompey's army near Pharsalus, Greece. Pompey retreats to Egypt and is killed at Pelusium.

Regio V Picenum is the fifth Roman region in the Augustan era. Denomination

As there was no official name at the time of the Augustinian regions, the region is currently named Regio V Picenum , using the name of those who inhabited the region prior to the Roman conquest, the Picenos . Regio V also included the territory of pretuzos (ager Pretutianus) Territory

It corresponded to the territory of the current Marche , south of the Esino River, of the current Province of Teramo and part of the current province of Pescara in the Abruzzos , comprising approximately the lands between the Esino River to the north, the Adriatic to the east, the Apennines to the west and the Saline river to the south.

A description of the territory of Regio V is present in Naturalis Historia de Plinio el Viejo (Plinio il Vecchio, Naturalis Historia , Book III, paragraph 110-111) [ 1 ] where the cities that were in the region are named:

The region became part of Roman territory in the third century BC. C.

It was the birthplace of the Roman senator and consul Cneo Pompeyo Estrabón , father of Pompeyo Magno .


Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC)

Cicero (philosopher, lawyer, statesman and rhetorician) was born 106 BC in Arpinum (now Arpino) in Lazio, a region that was also the home of military reformer Gaius Marius. Cicero was born into the state of the so-called municipal aristocracy (ordo equestris), a socially and economically very good standing in Roman society. But Cicero in roman society was so called “homo novus” because he was not belong to upper oligarchy. According to Plutarch, Marcus Tullius Cicero was a very talented student. With his qualities, Cicero was given the opportunity to study the Roman law from his teacher Quintus Mucius Scaevola Augur. During his education Cicero met a Apollonius Molon from Rhodes who was a famous rhetorician. In addition Cicero learned from Philosopher Philon, who belong Platonic Academy. After completing his education, Cicero was sent to the Forum Romanum for training, where Crassus and Antonius introduced him to the higher art of rhetoric. Marcus Tullius Cicero like his teachers, was occupied with the thought of designing the Roman policy. From the year 81 BC Cicero increasingly gains practical experience in the field of law, so that he can appear in the forum a few years later as a fully trained lawyer. Young Cicero increasingly lost his will for rhetoric. Therefore, he decides to take a break in Greece, which is still considered in this era as a cultural ideal, although the Hellenic community is increasingly falling into decay. In addition to the Athenian philosophers Antiochus of Ascalon, Cicero visits the banished Publius Rutilius Rufus in Smyrna, in Asia Minor. Soon after Cicero goes to Rhodes to meet with his former teacher Apollonius Molon who train him to better understand demands of public speaking.

This phase is shaped by profound, philosophical trains of thought, which are also reflected in his speeches. Cicero also considers the support of the people as important to be able to hold state offices. In times of coup attempts, conspiracies and political cliques, this remains an almost unique finding. Prior to his election to the consul, Cicero first fulfilled the duties of the aedile (69 BC), increasing his popularity in Sicily through the possibility of access to cheap grain. Cicero become praetor in 66 BC. Marcus Tullius Cicero was elected as consul in a difficult period of the Roman Republic. Already in the first round when came the election for consul, all votes of Centuriate Assembly fell to Cicero. While others at that time were trying to seize his power, Cicero was a master of reason and selflessness. Although the defense of the existing order would have required real power, Cicero, even without it, managed to steer the Republic in difficult times. Whe

Interpretation of Cicero speech in Senate against Catiline. Fresco in Madam Palace (Rome) by artist
Cesare Maccari (1840–1919).
Source: Wikimedia

n Caesar, with the aid of the agricultural law of Rullus, a feint, ventured to seize power, the consul defeated it by disclosing to the broader people the intention of this proposed law. Another success of Cicero was the discovery Catiline conspiracy which after Catilina and his followers were sentenced to death. The execution was covered on the one hand by the existing laws and on the other hand by a senate resolution. Catilina and his followers were killed against roman troops led by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer and Gaius Antonius Hybrida at the battle of Pistoria 62 BC. All those who saw Cicero as a counter-force to Caesar, described him as a defender of the freedom and the principle of democracy. In the 12 “orationes consulares” puts Cicero’s own person at the center and defends his official acts in free speech form. Opponents saw in it an unbearable glory.


First World War Roll of Honour

PRIVATE ADDERLEY, born at Ferozepore, India, November 12, 1889. Home in Thornton Heath, Surrey, England. Joined the Northern Crown Bank in 1912. Enlisted from MacLeod, Alberta branch in the 8 th Battalion, February 11, 1915. Present at Vimy Ridge, Hill 70 and Lens. Killed in action at Lens, August 15, 1917.

Walter George Albert Addison

CORPORAL ADDISON, born at Hastings, England, August 15, 1897. Home in Toronto, Ontario. Joined Toronto, Danforth Avenue branch, October 13, 1913. Enlisted from Toronto, Gerrard and Main branch, in the 3 rd Division Ammunition Column, November 10, 1915. Present at Ypres, the Somme, and Vimy Ridge. Died of double pneumonia at Camiers, France, February 17, 1917.

Francis Joseph Anderson

Lance Corporal Anderson, born at Plymouth, Devon, England on November 22, 1891. Enlisted from the Union Bank of Canada’s Rosetown, Saskatchewan branch on July 15, 1915 with the 3 rd University Company. Joined the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry in the field on December 6, 1915. Died of wounds obtained during the Battle of Vimy Ridge on January 25, 1917.

Leslie Francis Anthony

LANCE-CORPORAL ANTHONY, born at Bear River, Nova Scotia, March 25, 1896. Joined Bear River branch, March 8, 1915. Enlisted from Bear River in the 112 th Battalion, February 1, 1916. Subsequently transferred to 25 th Battalion. Present at Vimy Ridge, Hill 70, Passchendaele, Amiens. Killed in action near Arras, September 13, 1918.

John D'Auvergne Harris Arundell

SERGEANT ARUNDELL, born at Fairmont, Minnesota, U.S.A., May 14, 1889. Home in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Joined Halifax branch, Secretary's Department, June 1, 1907. Enlisted from Montreal branch in the 14 th Battalion, August 14, 1914. Was present at St. Julien. Killed in action at Langemarck, April 24, 1915.

Neville Ayrton Astbury

Lieutenant Astbury, born in England, April 6, 1889. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Edmonton, Alberta branch, originally with the 49 th Battalion, later assigned to the 66 th Battalion. Killed in Action at Courcelette on September 16, 1916. Recipient of The British Medal, The Victory Medal and The Canadian Memorial Cross (the latter awarded to his widow)

John William Auldjo

SERGEANT AULDJO, born at Edinburgh, Scotland, January 14, 1891. Home in Felton, Northumberland, England. Served two years in the Bank of Scotland. Joined Montreal, Quebec branch, May 10, 1910. Enlisted from Ciego de Avila, Cuba branch, in the 60 th Battalion, July 1915. Also served with the 87 th Battalion. Present at Vimy Ridge, the Somme, Lens, Passchendaele, and Ypres. Received Card of Honour from his battalion for performing his duty with gallantry and distinction at Ypres, Salient and Lens. Killed in action near Passchendaele, November 14, 1917.

George Alan Austen

SECOND-LIEUTENANT AUSTEN, born at London, England, July 24, 1896. Home in Gravesend, Kent, England. Joined Halifax, Nova Scotia branch, Supervisor's Department, February 3, 1913. Enlisted from Halifax, South End branch, in the 2 nd Divisional Cycle Corps, November 26, 1914. Killed in action, October 26, 1917.

A. Charles E. Ayres

Private Ayres, enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 100 th Winnipeg Grenadiers. Killed in Action on April 27, 1917.

Archibald James Robert Badger

Lieutenant Badger, born at Percy, Ontario, February 23, 1892. Enlisted from the Union Bank of Canada’s Minnedosa, Manitoba branch with the 226 th Battalion on February 29, 1916. Later with the 5 th Battalion. Killed in Action on September 1, 1918.

Kennedy Gideon Francis Baldwin

CORPORAL BALDWIN, born at Bathurst, New Brunswick, March 14, 1896. Home in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Joined Dalhousie, New Brunswick branch, February 7, 1912. Enlisted from Dalhousie branch, in the 6 th Canadian Mounted Rifles, March 19, 1915. Also served with the 4 th Canadian Mounted Rifles. Killed in action at Ypres, June 2, 1916.

Herbert Dalling Barlee

PRIVATE BARLEE, born at Lakefield, Ontario, November 25, 1897. Home in Grand Forks, British Columbia. Joined Grand Forks branch, October 16, 1914. Enlisted from Grand Forks branch, in the 196 th Battalion, July 10, 1916. Drafted into the 46 th Battalion. Killed in action at Vimy Ridge, April 12, 1917.

Sheppard James Barwis

PRIVATE BARWIS, born at Calgary, Alberta, May 29, 1892. Home in Innisfail, Alberta. Joined Vancouver, Cordova Street branch, November 10, 1909. Enlisted from Victoria, Fort Street branch, in 143 rd Battalion in 1916. Present at Vimy, Passchendaele, Lens and Arras. Killed in action at Avion, France, January 8, 1918.

George John Mercier Bate

GUNNER BATE, born at Sydenham, Ontario, June 13, 1896. Home in Newcastle, New Brunswick. Joined Newcastle branch, August 13, 1913. Enlisted from Newcastle branch, in the 8 th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery, August 24, 1914. Present at Neuve Chapelle, Second Battle of Ypres, Festubert, Givenchy, Sanctuary Wood, Kemmel Hill, the Somme, Vimy Ridge, Fresnoy, Hill 70, Passchendaele, Amiens. Mortally wounded at Amiens, and died at No. 12 General Hospital, Rouen, August 16, 1918.

Edgar Leonard Bawtree

Private Bawtree, born at London, England. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Vernon, British Columbia with the 46 th Battalion on August 23, 1916. Killed in Action on July 3, 1917, aged 22.

Robert Sedgewick Bayne

PRIVATE BAYNE, born at Musquodoboit, Nova Scotia, March 21, 1885. Home in Mabou, Nova Scotia. Joined the Northern Crown Bank in 1908. Enlisted from Saltcoats, Saskatchewan branch, in the 195 th Battalion, March 31, 1916. Present at Lens in August 1917, and other engagements up to July 1918. Killed in action at Arras, July 29, 1918.

Thomas Belford

Private Belford, born at Edzell, Forfarshire, Scotland, January 12, 1888. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Tompkins, Saskatchewan with the 1 st Depot Battalion on June 14, 1918. Died of Spanish Influenza on October 25, 1918.

Errol Stewart Bell

LANCE-CORPORAL BELL, born at Stellarton, Nova Scotia, December 24, 1895. Home in Joggins Mines, Nova Scotia. Joined Montreal, Quebec branch, June 26, 1912. Enlisted from Montreal, Beaver Hall branch, in the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, June 16, 1915. Saw continuous service with the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry from September 1915. Was shell-shocked at Courcelette. Killed in action at Passchendaele, October 30, 1917.

James Edwin Devey Belt

Lieutenant Belt, born at Arthur, Ontario, July 6, 1885. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Toronto, Ontario with the 20 th Battalion on November 13, 1914. Killed in Action on June 28, 1916.

Arthur Fred Belyea

SECOND-LIEUTENANT BELYEA, born at Penetanguishene, Ontario, October 21, 1894. Home in Calgary, Alberta. Joined the Traders Bank of Canada, Calgary, September 4, 1909. Enlisted from Calgary branch, in the Royal Flying Corps, November 27, 1917. Engaged in Scout Duty on the East Coast of England. Accidentally killed at East Boldre, Camp Beaulieu, Hants, England, September 17, 1918.

Carl Auguste Bender

CADET BENDER, born at St. Thomas, Montmagny, Quebec, May 28, 1894. Joined the Quebec Bank, Winnipeg, Manitoba branch, November 22, 1915. Enlisted from Conquest, Saskatchewan branch, in the Royal Flying Corps, December 14, 1917. Accidentally killed at Deseronto, Ontario, June 10, 1918.

Alfred Fitzhardinge Murray Berkeley

SECOND-LIEUTENANT BERKELEY, born at Holy Innocents' Vicarage, Bridgetown, Barbados, March 26, 1896. Joined Georgetown, British Guiana [Guyana] branch, March 9, 1915. Enlisted from Georgetown branch, in the 74 th Machine Gun Corps, December 15, 1915. Killed in action at Messines, Wytschaete Ridge, June 7, 1917.

Ian Norman Reid Berry

Private Berry, born at Ellisboro, Saskatchewan, April 18, 1892. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Wawota, Saskatchewan on April 20, 1916 with the 5 th Battalion. Killed in Action on April 9, 1917.

George Morton Bird

PRIVATE BIRD, born at Port Angeles, Washington, U.S.A., April 22, 1891. Home in Port Alberni, British Columbia. Joined Alberni branch, February 10, 1908. Enlisted from Vancouver, British Columbia branch, in the 62 nd Battalion, October 21, 1915. Present at the Third Battle of Ypres, June 1916, the Somme, Courcelette, Vimy Ridge. Mortally wounded at Vimy Ridge, May 5, 1917, and died at No. 6 Casualty Clearing Station, May 6, 1917.

Harry Godwin Decimus Bird

PRIVATE BIRD, born at Plymouth, England, October 22, 1893. Home in Penzance, Cornwall, England. Joined Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan branch, January 24, 1913. Enlisted from Moose Jaw branch, in the 5 th Battalion, August 15, 1914. Present at the Second Battle of Ypres, the Somme, Arras, Vimy Ridge. Mortally wounded at Vimy Ridge, April 9, 1917, and died in the 32 nd General Hospital, Boulogne, April 23, 1917.

Roy Patterson Bissonnette

Private Bissonnette, born at Napanee, Ontario on February 15, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Stirling, Ontario with the 80 th Battalion on September 18, 1915. Later with the 50 th Battalion. Killed in Action, November 19, 1916.

James Somerville Black

PRIVATE BLACK, born at Fauldhouse, Scotland, November 23, 1890. Home in Lanark, Scotland. Joined Winnipeg, Manitoba branch, November 21, 1911. Enlisted from Regina, Saskatchewan branch, in the 46 th Battalion, September 16, 1915. Afterwards transferred to the Royal Flying Corps. Killed by the fall of his machine in France, May 1917.

William Black

PRIVATE BLACK, born at Barrhead, Renfrew, Scotland, May 13, 1896. Home in Vancouver, British Columbia. Joined Vancouver, Bridge Street branch, November 22, 1913. Enlisted from Vancouver, Bridge Street branch, in the 231 st Battalion, May 26, 1916. Killed at Avion, France, August 15, 1917.

Charles Henry Blackwell

Private Blackwell, born at Winnipeg, Manitoba on October 8, 1898. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Holland, Manitoba with the 106 th Regiment. Later with the 27 th Battalion. Killed in Action on October 1, 1918.

Patrick John Lascelles Blake

Private Blake, born October 14, 1897 in Normandy, France. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Qu&rsquoAppelle, Saskatchewan with the 46 th Battalion on September 21, 1915. Killed in Action on September 17, 1916.

Stanley Duncan Bole

SERGEANT BOLE, born at Meaford, Ontario, March 8, 1890. Home in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Joined Traders Bank of Canada, Sault Ste. Marie, April 1906. Enlisted from Winnipeg, Manitoba branch, in the Strathcona Horse, April 23, 1918. Died of pneumonia at Military Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, while in training at Calgary, July 5, 1918.

Frederick George Bolton

BOMBARDIER BOLTON, born at Strathroy, Ontario, September 19, 1891. Home in Strathroy. Joined Traders Bank of Canada at Bridgeburg, Ontario, October 4, 1909. Enlisted from Montreal, Quebec branch, in the 27 th Canadian Field Artillery, May 1, 1915. Present at St. Eloi, Aisne, La Bassee, Ypres, Mons, Bapaume, the Somme, Vimy, Passchendaele. Killed in action at Passchendaele, October 31, 1917.

David Campbell Bradshaw

QUARTER-MASTER-SERGEANT BRADSHAW, born at Stratford, Ontario, August 25, 1889. Joined Traders Bank of Canada, Stratford, September 1906. Enlisted from Sudbury, Ontario branch, in the 5 th Canadian Mounted Rifles, June 1915. Present at Vimy and Passchendaele. Wounded at Passchendaele, October 30, 1917, and died at No. 3 Canadian Casualty Clearing Station, November 3, 1917.

George Wesley Bradt

Sergeant Bradt, born at Seneca Township, Haldimand County, Ontario, June 8, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Fenwick, Ontario branch with the 114 th Battalion on January 28, 1916. Died in Canada, August 2, 1917.

Richard Colles Brehon

Private Brehorn, born at Newcross, Wexford, Ireland on January 18, 1894. Enlisted from the Northern Crown Bank branch in Maymont, Saskatchewan with the 9 th Canadian Mounted Rifles on July 23, 1915 later with the 5 th Canadian Mounted Rifles. Killed June 3, 1916.

George Miller Briden

PRIVATE BRIDEN, formerly of the Northern Crown Bank, Seeley's Bay, Ontario. Enlisted from Langham, Saskatchewan branch, July 30, 1916, in the 152 nd Battalion. Served also in the 5 th Battalion. Killed in action, April 10, 1917.

Stanley Victor Brittan

LIEUTENANT BRITTAN, born May 20, 1892. Joined the Quebec Bank, July 2, 1910. Enlisted from Montreal branch, August 17, 1914, in the 13 th Battalion. Killed in action, June 13, 1916.

Gerald William Brooke

Gunner Brooke, born at Oxford, England on August 8, 1891. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Humboldt, Saskatchewan with the 18 th Battery, 5 th Field Artillery Brigade on March 25, 1915. Killed in Action on April 28, 1917.

Donald Douglas Brooks

PRIVATE BROOKS, born at Weymouth, Nova Scotia, on April 19, 1898. Joined Weymouth branch on December 6, 1913. Enlisted from Weymouth branch, in the 64 th Battalion, August 15, 1915. Transferred to 1 st Canadian Motor Machine Gun Brigade. Present at Lens, Passchendaele, Vimy Ridge and Arras. Gassed at Lens, 1917. Killed in action near Arras, March 25, 1918.

Donald Archibald Brown

LANCE-CORPORAL BROWN, born at Mount Forest, Ontario, on May 22, 1896. Home in Bulwark, Alberta. Joined Stettler, Alberta branch, October 14, 1912. Enlisted from Stettler branch, in the 89 th Battalion, December 14, 1915. Transferred to 10 th Battalion. Served with the 10 th Battalion in France from August 1916, to April 1917. Killed in action at Arleux, April 28, 1917.

Harold Brown

PRIVATE BROWN, born at Nassau, Bahamas, October 31, 1895. Joined Nassau branch on February 7, 1913. Enlisted from Toronto, Ontario branch, in the 3 rd Battalion, August 22, 1914. Killed in action at Festubert, May 25, 1915.

William A. Bruce

Lieutenant Bruce born at Cromore, Isle of Lewis, Scotland around 1890. Originally enlisted from the Union Bank’s Head Office in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 210 th Battalion on September 9, 1916. Seconded to the 104 th Squadron, Royal Air Force on October 12, 1917, and promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on February 17, 1918. Died on May 25, 1918.

Wilfred Austin Torrance Bryce

GUNNER BRYCE, born at Paisley, Ontario, November 13, 1896. Home in Owen Sound, Ontario. Joined Owen Sound branch, April 7, 1913. Enlisted from Hamilton, Ontario branch, in the 55 th Canadian Field Artillery, February 29, 1916. Present at Vimy Ridge, Arleux, Fresnoy, La Coulotte, Avion, Hill 70 and Passchendaele. Mortally wounded at Passchendaele, and died in No. 2 Casualty Clearing Station, October 23, 1917.

Edmund John Burke

Lance Sergeant Burke, born at New Darlingford, Manitoba, March 28, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Morden, Manitoba with the 61 st Battalion on September 21, 1915. Later with the 44 th Battalion. Won the Military Medal in 1917. Killed in Action on June 3, 1917.

James Kenneth Butler

PRIVATE BUTLER (Scout and Dispatch Bearer), born at Berwick, Nova Scotia, September 13, 1896. Joined Berwick branch on July 15, 1912. Enlisted from Berwick branch, in the 25 th Battalion, November 23, 1914. Present at Third Battle of Ypres, Courcelette and St. Eloi. Shell-shocked, gassed and died of tuberculosis at Berwick, October 27, 1918.

James William Butler

SECOND-LIEUTENANT BUTLER, born at Blackheath, near London, England, on February 11, 1894. Home in Blackheath, England. Was for nearly three years in the London County, Westminster & Parr's Bank, Limited. Joined Vancouver, British Columbia East End branch, on February 28, 1913. Enlisted from Kelowna, British Columbia branch, in the 2 nd Canadian Mounted Rifles, December 8, 1914. Granted a commission in the 3 rd Battalion, East Kent Regiment, attached 7 th Battalion, September 26, 1916. Killed in action near Arras, May 3, 1917.

James Ambrose Cairns

CORPORAL CAIRNS, born at Newton, Prince Edward Island, March 16, 1895. Home in Newton. Joined Summerside, Prince Edward Island branch, October 14, 1912. Enlisted from Liverpool, Nova Scotia branch, in the 185 th Battalion, February 8, 1916. Present on the Arras front. Killed in action at Arras, June 13, 1918.

Russell Roberts Caldwell

2 nd Lieutenant Caldwell, born April 29, 1899. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Loverna, Saskatchewan with the Royal Air Force. Killed in an air accident on September 15, 1918 in England.

Archibald Campbell

Private Campbell, born at Strathclair, Manitoba on September 16, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Shoal Lake, Manitoba with the 190 th Battalion on November 9, 1916. Died on November 10, 1917

Thomas Cargill

PRIVATE CARGILL, born at Glenisle, Forfarshire, January 30, 1881. Home in Edinburgh, Scotland. For eight years with the Royal Bank of Scotland. Joined London, England branch, September 9, 1914. Enlisted from London branch, in the 6 th Black Watch, Royal Air Force, March 20, 1916. Present at Festubert and Beaumont Hamel. Killed in action at Beaumont Hamel, November 14, 1916.

Francis Guy Carleton

Private Carleton, born at Bradford, York, England on October 24, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Tessier, Saskatchewan branch in the 46 th Battalion on July 17, 1915. Killed in Action on December 11, 1917.

Charles Clifton Carr

Private Carr, born at Toronto, Ontario on October 25, 1893. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Toronto, Ontario on September 22, 1914, with the 3 rd Battalion. Prisoner of War, died of wounds sustained at St. Julien on May 2, 1915.

John Clontarf Kelvyn Carson

Captain Carson, born in Montreal, Quebec on March 21, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Montreal, Quebec branch with the 14 th Battalion on March 31, 1916. He was awarded the Military Cross in 1916. Killed in Action on August 11, 1918.

Thomas Johnston Carson

PRIVATE CARSON, born at Omagh, Ireland, December 4, 1891. Home in Omagh, Ireland. Joined Ardath, Saskatchewan branch, July 7, 1913. Enlisted from Swift Current, Saskatchewan branch, in the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, February 4, 1916. Killed in action, June 29, 1916.

Leslie Skelton Carter

Private Carter, born at Carlisle, England on May 30, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Winnipeg, Manitoba branch in the 61 st Battalion. Killed in Action on November 16, 1916.

Alain Percy Mark Chawner

Lieutenant Chawner, born at Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India, September 7, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s London, England branch with the East Surrey Regiment in August 1914. Later served with the Essex Regiment, 3 rd Battalion. Killed in Action on October 21, 1916.

George Roderick Chisholm, Jr.

PRIVATE CHISHOLM, born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, March 15, 1897. Home in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Joined Saskatoon branch, July 2, 1914. Enlisted from Saskatoon branch, in the 78 th Battalion, April 15, 1916. Present on the Somme and Vimy Ridge. Killed in action at Vimy Ridge, April 9, 1917.

John Walter Chisholm

PRIVATE CHISHOLM, born at Dumbarton, Ontario, October 28, 1896. Home in Montreal, Quebec. Joined Montreal, Beaver Hall branch, June 30, 1913. Enlisted in Montreal, in the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, June 16, 1915. Present at Sanctuary Wood and other engagements. Killed in action at Sanctuary Wood, June 2, 1916.

William Davidson Cairns Christie

Captain Christie, born at Montreal, Quebec on December 25, 1884. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Orillia, Ontario branch with the 13 th Battalion on August 15, 1916. Originally held the rank of Lieutenant, later promoted to Captain. Awarded the DSO for actions in Hangard Wood on August 8 th 1918. Wounded at Arras between August 27 th and September 4 th 1918. Succumbed to wounds on September 17, 1918.

Elias James Clark

PRIVATE CLARK, born at Swinden, Wiltshire, England, December 31, 1895. Joined Edmonton, Alberta branch, June 10, 1912. Enlisted from Edmonton branch, in the 49 th Battalion, January 12, 1915. Present at Maple Copse and Courcelette. Killed in action at Courcelette, September 16, 1916.

Arthur Hammond Cole

TROOPER COLE, born at Brundall, Norfolk, England, February, 19, 1889. Home in Brundall, Norfolk, England. Joined Montreal, Quebec branch, June 8, 1909. Enlisted from New Westminster, British Columbia branch, in the 11 th Canadian Mounted Rifles, June 1, 1915. Killed in action at Passchendaele, November 10, 1917.

Charles Stanger Cole

Corporal Cole, born at Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England, November 14, 1890. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Edmonton, Alberta branch with the 3 rd Canadian Mounted Rifles under the rank of Trooper, on December 29, 1914. Later, Corporal with the 1 st Canadian Mounted Rifles. Killed in Action on August 1, 1918.

Thomas Pearson Copp

LIEUTENANT COPP, born at Riverside, New Brunswick, October 19, 1890. Home in West Vancouver, British Columbia. Joined Vancouver, East End branch, November 22, 1907. Enlisted from Vancouver branch, in the 72 nd Battalion, September 14, 1915. Also served with 102 nd Battalion. Killed in action at Regina Trench, on the Somme, October 21, 1916.

William Lorne Corbett

Private Corbett, born July 29, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Barrie, Ontario branch with 157 th Battalion on November 17, 1915. Taken on strength of the 38 th Battalion in March 1918. Killed in Action on September 2, 1918.

Robert James Cowles

Gunner Cowles, born at London, England on December 21, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Montreal, Quebec branch with the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery on March 6, 1916. Died of wounds on October 1, 1917.

George Loring Craig

SERGEANT CRAIG, born at St. Stephen, New Brunswick, May 17, 1898. Home in Moncton, New Brunswick. Joined Moncton branch, September 24, 1915. Enlisted from Moncton branch, in the 236 th Battalion, September 9, 1916. Present at Cambrai. Killed in action at Cambrai, September 27, 1917.

William King Craighead

Private Craighead, born at Glasgow, Scotland, December 31, 1890. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Saskatoon, Saskatchewan branch with the 38 th Battalion on April 5, 1915. Taken on strength of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry on July 16, 1915. Killed in Action on April 15, 1916.

Claude Harold Cross

Lance Corporal Cross, born December 23, 1890. Enlisted from the Northern Crown Bank’s branch in Ashcroft, British Columbia on December 8, 1914 with the 2 nd Canadian Mounted Rifles. Wounded during the 4 th phase of the Battle of the Somme in the vicinity of Mouquet Farm succumbed to wounds on September 16, 1916.

John Frederick Davidson

Sergeant Davidson, born at Peterborough, Ontario on April 27, 1888. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 27 th Battalion on March 1, 1917. Died of Wounds on September 29, 1918.

Thomas Emlyn Davies

Private Davies, born at Morriston, South Wales on October 8, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Zealandia, Saskatchewan branch with the 232 nd Battalion on May 18, 1916. Later served with the 28 th Battalion. Died of wounds on November 3, 1917.

John Alfred Davis

Private Davis, born at London, England on November 12, 1892. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Calgary, Alberta branch with the 10 th Battalion on September 23, 1914. Died of wounds on April 24, 1915.

Jacques Valleton De Boissiere

SECOND-LIEUTENANT DE BOISSIERE, born at Port of Spain, Trinidad, April 18, 1896. Joined Port of Spain branch, July 6, 1912. Enlisted from Port of Spain branch, in the 8 th Battalion, 4 th Contingent, British West Indies Regiment, April 28, 1917. Present at Ypres. Died of pneumonia at Taranto, Italy.

John Harold Deans

LIEUTENANT DEANS, born at Cleveland, Ohio, July 19, 1896. Home in Orillia, Ontario. Joined Orillia branch, August 23, 1915. Enlisted from Orillia branch, in the 162 nd Battalion, May 1, 1916. Transferred to Royal Flying Corps. Killed in action near West Roocbeke, near Ypres, about November 7, 1917.

John Joseph Delaney

PRIVATE DELANEY, born at Liverpool, England, August 9, 1891. Joined Toronto, Ontario branch, March 27, 1913. Enlisted from Toronto branch, in the 15 th Battalion, August 15, 1914. Reported missing for over a year and then declared dead.

Paul Jean Destrube

PRIVATE DESTRUBE, born at London, England, December 26, 1891. Joined Edmonton, Alberta branch, November 19, 1913. Left Edmonton in August 1914, for England. Enlisted in London in the 22 nd Battalion, Royal Fusiliers, September 1914. Present at Cambrai, Vermeilles, Festubert, Givenchy, Souchez, Vimy Ridge, Delville Wood, Hebuterne, Beaumont, Courcelette, Miraumont. Recommended for commission. Killed in action at Petit Miraumont, February 17, 1917.

John James Doble

LIEUTENANT DOBLE, born at Sunderland, Ontario, May 9, 1882. Home in Sunderland. Joined the Northern Crown Bank, 1906. Enlisted from Swift Current, Saskatchewan branch, in the 116 th Battalion, December 1915. Killed in action at Vimy Ridge, April 11, 1917.

John Redmond Donald

Lieutenant Donald, born at Wigton, Cumberland, England on October 18, 1888. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Montreal, Quebec with the 24 th Battalion on October 18, 1914. Died on July 3, 1917

Andrew Thomas Dow

PRIVATE DOW, born at Airnkilly, Stanley, Perthshire, Scotland, May 29, 1891. Home in Bankfoot, Perthshire, Scotland. Served with the Bank of Scotland four years. Joined Winnipeg, Manitoba branch, December 1, 1911. Enlisted from Winnipeg branch, in the 10 th Battalion, November 14, 1914 (Fort Garry Horse, 32 nd Battalion). Killed in action at Festubert, May 21, 1915.

Nelson Patrick Doyle

PRIVATE DOYLE, born at Wardsville, Ontario, April 21, 1898. Home in Walkerville, Ontario. Joined Rodney, Ontario branch, November 24, 1915. Enlisted from Rodney branch, in the 91 st Battalion, as Stretcher-Bearer, February 25, 1916. Present at the Somme, Vimy Ridge, Arras, Fresnoy, Cambrai. Recommended for honours several times. Killed in action between Inchy and Cagnicourt, September 3, 1918.

John Rutherford Duff

PRIVATE DUFF, born at Carberry, Manitoba, June 27, 1892. Home in Davidson, Saskatchewan. Joined Northern Crown Bank in 1909. Enlisted from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan branch, in the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry on March 15, 1916. Killed in action at Neuville, St. Vaast, France, about November 29, 1916.

William Selkirk Duff

Private Duff, born at Selkirk, Ontario, December 30, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Cayuga, Ontario branch with the 114 th Battalion on March 23, 1916. Later attached to the 4 th Battalion. Died of wounds received two days earlier at the Battle of Passchendaele, on November 8, 1917.

Joseph Clynch Campbell Duncan

PRIVATE DUNCAN, born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, October 4, 1895. Home in Kentville, Nova Scotia. Joined Wolfville, Nova Scotia branch, June 20, 1911. Enlisted from Saint John, New Brunswick branch, in the 115 th Battalion, February 16, 1916. Present at Vimy Ridge. Died in hospital at Wimcraux, February 4, 1918, from wounds received in September 1917.

Alexander Dunsire

Private Dunsire, born at Kinghorn, Fife, Scotland. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s London, England branch with the Royal Scots. Died of wounds on August 20, 1918, aged 26

William Arthur Peel Durie

CAPTAIN DURIE, born at Toronto, Ontario, April 7, 1881. Joined the Traders Bank of Canada, Toronto, July 1899. Enlisted from Toronto branch, in the 58 th Battalion, May 27, 1915. Present at Ypres, Vimy Ridge, Avion, Passchendaele, Hill 70. Wounded at Ypres, May 1916. Killed near Lens, December 29, 1917.

Leonard Alvia Eamer

Private Eamer, born at Montreal, Quebec, June 16, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Tessier, Saskatchewan with the 1 st Depot Battalion on July 9, 1918. Died of pneumonia on October 4, 1918.

Charles Cleveland Eastland

PRIVATE EASTLAND, born at Apsley, Ontario, March 22, 1893. Home in Calgary, Alberta. Joined Gadsby, Alberta branch, March 16, 1914. Enlisted from Gadsby branch, in the 187 th Battalion, July 31, 1916. Served also with 50 th Battalion. Present at Passchendaele, Denain, Amiens, Bourlon Wood, Valenciennes, Cambrai. Honours-Military Medal. Killed in action at Cambrai, September 27, 1918.

Rupert William Eaton

Lieutenant Eaton, born at London, England, December 6, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Victoria, British Columbia branch with the 103 rd Battalion on January 3, 1916. Later with the 54 th Battalion and awarded the Military Cross. Killed in Action on September 27, 1918.

John Francis Edens

LIEUTENANT EDENS, born at St. John's, Newfoundland, on October 1, 1896. Joined St. John's branch, September 2, 1912. Enlisted from St. John's branch, January 2, 1915, in the Royal Newfoundland Regiment. Present at Ypres, the Somme, Beaumont Hamel, Guedecourt, Cambrai, and other engagements. Killed in action at Cambrai, November 20, 1917.

Fred Fletcher Elliott

LIEUTENANT ELLIOTT, born at Matsumoto, Japan, January 26, 1891. Home in Sardis, British Columbia. Joined Victoria, British Columbia branch, May 18, 1907. Enlisted from Vancouver, British Columbia, East End branch, August 22, 1914, in the 7 th Battalion. Present at most of the early Canadian engagements. Killed in action at the Third Battle of Ypres, June 3, 1916.

Charles Wesley Elsdon

BOMBARDIER ELSDON, born at Dorchester, New Brunswick, December 28, 1896. Joined Dorchester branch, August 4, 1913. Enlisted from Dorchester branch, August 20, 1914, in the 7 th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery. Present at all Canadian Corps engagements from the Second Battle of Ypres, April 1915, to Haynecourt, before Cambrai, in September 1918. Killed in action at Haynecourt, September 28, 1918.

David Thornton Embree

COMPANY SERGEANT-MAJOR EMBREE, born at Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia, August 25, 1891. Joined Port Hawkesbury branch, February 1, 1910. Enlisted from Halifax, Nova Scotia branch, March 27, 1915, in the 40 th Battalion. Transferred and served with the 58 th Battalion. Present at Ypres, Vimy Ridge, the Somme, and other engagements. Killed in action near Lens, December 29, 1917.

Richard Albert Estey

SIGNALLER ESTEY, born at Grand Falls, New Brunswick, June 26, 1898. Joined Grand Falls branch, April 14, 1914. Enlisted from Grand Falls branch, July 15, 1915, and served with the 55 th and 25 th Battalions. Present at Courcelette and Vimy Ridge. Killed in action at Vimy Ridge, April 9, 1917.

John Llewellyn Evans

Lieutenant Evans, born at Newport, Monmouthshire, Wales, April 5, 1893. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Yorkton, Saskatchewan with the 188 th Battalion on July 24, 1915. Later with the 54 th Battalion. Killed in Action on March 1, 1917

William David Evans

Lieutenant Evans, enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Outlook, Saskatchewan with the 46 th Battalion. Killed in Action on June 11, 1918, age 22.

Lawrence Robert Eyden

Private Eyden, born in Crewe, England in 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in London, England with the 10 th Royal Fusiliers. Killed on September 15, 1916

Allison Hood Farnell

PRIVATE FARNELL, born at Upper Musquodoboit, Nova Scotia, April 18, 1897. Home in Elmsvale, Nova Scotia. Joined Bear River, Nova Scotia branch, November 4, 1913. Enlisted from Bear River branch, February 26, 1915, in the 6 th Canadian Mounted Rifles. Died at Elmsvale, January 13, 1917, the result of exposure.

James Andrew Ferguson

Private Ferguson, born at Crystal City, Manitoba on March 4, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Crystal City, Manitoba branch with the 184 th Battalion on March 18, 1916. Later with the 27 th Battalion. Died on November 6, 1917.

Archibald McKenzie Fergusson

PRIVATE FERGUSSON, born at Essex, Ontario, March 25, 1891. Home in Calgary, Alberta. Joined the Lumsden, Saskatchewan branch, June 23, 1911. Enlisted from Calgary, Alberta branch, October 24, 1917, in the 31 st Battalion. Killed in action at Neuville Vitassee, France, August 24, 1918.

Herbert Forbes

PRIVATE FORBES, born at Greenisland, County Antrim, Ireland, February 7, 1886. Home in Greenisland, Ireland. Joined the Traders Bank of Canada, Regina, Saskatchewan, June 1912. Enlisted from Forget, Saskatchewan branch, September 17, 1915, in the 1 st Canadian Mounted Rifles. Killed in action at Lauez, France, December 3, 1916.

David Roy Foster

CORPORAL FOSTER, born at Bracebridge, Ontario, July 30, 1894. Home in Bracebridge. Joined the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Enterprise, Ontario branch. Served with the 37 th Battalion and 4 th Canadian Machine Gun Company. Present on the Somme and at Passchendaele. Killed in action at Lyne Cott, November 6, 1917.

Albert Edward Franklin

Private Franklin, born at Walthamstow, Essex, England on July 9, 1891. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Empress, Alberta with the 31 st Battalion on October 11, 1915. Died on November 9, 1916.

Rolland Sutton Franks

2 nd Lieutenant Franks, born at Suffolk, England, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in London, England with the East Surrey Regiment. Killed in Action on October 12, 1917.

Arthur Milton Fraser

LIEUTENANT FRASER, born at New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, April 28, 1896. Home in Sydney, Nova Scotia. Joined Sydney branch, September 12, 1912. Enlisted in the 40 th Battalion, August 2, 1915. Transferred later to the 185 th Battalion. Killed in action at Monchy Arras, August 26, 1918.

Donald Drummond Fraser

COMPANY SERGEANT-MAJOR FRASER, born at Sherbrooke, Nova Scotia, November 14, 1895. Home in West Saint John, New Brunswick. Joined Saint John branch, June 12, 1911. Enlisted from Saint John, North End branch, November 26, 1914, in the 1 st Battalion. Present at the Third Battle of Ypres, the various engagements of the salient, the Somme and Vimy Ridge. Mortally wounded during the Vimy Ridge engagement and died in No. 6 Casualty Clearing Station on April 12, 1917.

Edward James Fright

PRIVATE FRIGHT, born at Springfield, Ontario, December 21, 1896. Joined the Springfield branch of the Traders Bank of Canada, February 1, 1912. Enlisted from Brownsville, Ontario branch, January 15, 1916, and served with the 36 th Battalion. Killed in action at Passchendaele, October 26, 1917.

Earl Casford Garbutt

Lance Corporal Garbutt, born at Aurora, York Township, Ontario on June 17, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Warkworth, Ontario with the 80 th Battalion and the rank of Private on November 6, 1915. Transferred to the 44 th Battalion on August 7, 1916. Promoted to rank of Lance Corporal on April 15, 1917. Killed in Action on June 3, 1917.

Duncan Scott Gay

Private Gay, born at Edinburgh, Scotland on August 24, 1890. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan with the 2 nd University Company on June 15, 1915. Joined the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry in the field on September 1, 1915. Killed at the Battle of Sanctuary Wood on June 2, 1916

William Gillies

PRIVATE GILLIES, born at Alexandria, Scotland, on January 26, 1890. Home in Craigendoran, Helensburgh, Scotland. Served with the Union Bank of Scotland for more than four years. Joined Montreal, Quebec branch, November 11, 1909. Enlisted from Vancouver, British Columbia, East End branch, May 10, 1915, with the 29 th Battalion. Killed in action at Dickebusch, April 30, 1916.

John Glass

LANCE-CORPORAL GLASS, born at Montreal, Quebec, September 24, 1890. Home in Verdun, Quebec. Joined Head Office staff, Montreal, May 1, 1914. Enlisted from Head Office on October 30, 1915, in the 87 th Battalion, Canadian Grenadier Guards. Killed in action at La Coulotte, June 9, 1917.

Arthur Gerald Godwin

Private Godwin, born at Ottawa, Ontario on March 14, 1892. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Belleville, Ontario with the 8 th Battalion on November 1, 1917. Died of wounds on August 12, 1918.

William Gardner Goldsworth

GUNNER GOLDSWORTH, born at Montreal, Quebec, January 27, 1897. Home in Lachine, Quebec. Joined Montreal, Cote St. Paul branch, July 25, 1910. Enlisted from Montreal, Laurier Avenue branch, September 23, 1916, in the 6 th Canadian Siege Battery. Killed in action at Passchendaele, November 6, 1917.

Thomas Goodsir

PRIVATE GOODSIR, born at Galashiels, Scotland, April 19, 1894. Home in Galashiels, Scotland. Served for more than four years in the Royal Bank of Scotland. Joined Vancouver, British Columbia, East End branch, on November 22, 1912. Enlisted from Vancouver, East End branch, August 10, 1914, in the 72 nd Seaforth Highlanders. Killed in action near Ypres, April 18, 1915.

Norman Davidson Gordon

Corporal Gordon, born at Boissevain, Manitoba on July 19, 1885. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Eastend, Saskatchewan with the 34 th Fort Garry Horse on March 2, 1916. Died of wounds on July 8, 1917.

Kenneth Marshall Grant

SERGEANT GRANT, born at Guelph, Ontario, March 10, 1892. Joined Guelph branch, September 2, 1911. Enlisted from St. Marys, Ontario branch, October 19, 1915, in the 29 th Howitzer Battery. Present on the Somme. Killed in action at Martinpuich, October 30, 1916.

David Clark Grieve

LIEUTENANT GRIEVE, born at Aberfeldy, Scotland, November 17, 1890. Home in Aberfeldy, Scotland. Joined Montreal, Quebec branch, January 24, 1911. Enlisted from that office, August 13, 1914, in the 5 th Royal Highlanders. Present at Ypres, Festubert, the Somme and Vimy Ridge. Killed in action at Vimy Ridge, April 9, 1917.

Edward Jonathan Grigg

Lance Corporal Grigg, born at Somerset, England on October 14, 1885. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Medicine Hat, Alberta branch with the 3 rd Canadian Mounted Rifles on January 12, 1915. Died of wounds on November 3, 1916.

Leslie Alvin Gutteridge

PRIVATE GUTTERIDGE, born at Mitchell, Ontario, February 20, 1896. Home in Point Grey, British Columbia. Joined Vancouver, British Columbia branch, July 16, 1913. Enlisted from Vancouver, Mount Pleasant branch, July 31, 1915, in the 62 nd Battalion. Later transferred to the 14 th Battalion. Present at the Third Battle of Ypres, Courcelette, Sanctuary Wood and Mouquet Farm. Killed in action at Mouquet Farm, September 7, 1916.

Edgar Reginald Hames

Private Hames, born at MacLeod, Alberta on November 30, 1890. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Hamiota, Manitoba with the 8 th Battalion on March 6, 1916. Died of wounds received three days earlier on August 18, 1917.

John Horne Hamilton

PRIVATE HAMILTON, born at London, Ontario, April 3, 1892. Joined London branch, July 12, 1909. Enlisted from Toronto, Ontario branch, August 17, 1914, in the 15 th Battalion. Killed in action at St. Julien, April 24, 1915.

William Robertson Hamilton

PRIVATE HAMILTON, born at Aberdalgie, Scotland, January 30, 1892. Home in Perth, Scotland. Served for two years with the Commercial Bank of Scotland. Joined New Westminster, British Columbia branch, November 21, 1911. Enlisted from that office on August 10, 1914, in the 7 th Battalion. Killed in action at Ypres, April 1915.

Wilfred Charles Hammill

Private Hammill, born at Winnipeg, Manitoba on July 3, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Quebec City, Quebec with the 19 th Battalion on July 22, 1915. Died on July 21, 1916.

Victor Middleton Hanna

PRIVATE HANNA, born at Middle Musquodoboit, Nova Scotia, January 7, 1898. Joined Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia branch, February 24, 1916. Enlisted from Shubenacadie branch, March 15, 1916, in the 85 th Battalion. Present at Lens, Arras, Passchendaele. Wounded and gassed at Passchendaele, October 31, 1917. Died in Cogswell St. Hospital, Halifax, January 17, 1919.

Harold McDougall Hannah

LANCE-CORPORAL HANNAH, born at Richibucto, New Brunswick, September 10, 1890. Joined Rexton, New Brunswick branch, August 1, 1907. Enlisted from Edmonton, Alberta branch, April 8, 1916, in the 194 th Battalion. Killed in action at Passchendaele, November 7, 1917.

Goldwin William Harron

PRIVATE HARRON, born at Kitchener, Ontario, September 18, 1897. Home in Venn, Saskatchewan. Joined the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Venn branch, October 22, 1915, in the 53 rd Battalion, serving later with the 28 th Battalion. Present at Ypres and the Somme. Killed in action on the Somme, July 5, 1916.

Gordon Thomas Haszard

GUNNER HASZARD, born at Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, September 13, 1896. Joined Charlottetown branch, March 6, 1912. Enlisted from Charlottetown branch, August 17, 1915, in the 6 th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery. Killed in action at Passchendaele, November 7, 1917.

Arthur Wellesley Hatfield

SERGEANT HATFIELD, born at Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, November 7, 1896. Joined Yarmouth branch, July 29, 1912. Enlisted from Yarmouth branch, November 12, 1914, in the 25 th Battalion. Killed in action at Ypres, November 3, 1915.

Gerald Coussmaker Heath

CORPORAL HEATH joined the Northern Crown Bank in 1912. Served formerly with the Canadian Bank of Commerce. Enlisted from Vancouver, British Columbia branch, August 22, 1914, in the 16 th Battalion. Killed in action, April 22, 1915. Recommended by Sir John French for gallantry and distinguished services on the field. Mentioned in dispatches.

Charles Hereron

LIEUTENANT HERERON, born at Kelowna, British Columbia, August 13, 1896. Joined Kelowna branch, July 29, 1912. Enlisted from Kelowna branch, November 9, 1915, in the 2 nd Canadian Mounted Rifles. Present at Arras, Lens, Loos, Avion, Hill 70, Passchendaele and Cambrai. Mentioned twice at Hill 70 in Battalion orders. Won the Military Medal at Passchendaele. Recommended for a commission. Killed in action on the road between Valenciennes and Mons, November 6, 1918.

Omar Leonard Higgins

Lieutenant Higgins, born on June 29, 1893. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Melita, Manitoba with the 12 th Reserve Battalion on June 8, 1915. Died on January 23, 1919 from the effects of gas poisoning.

Charles Hamilton Hobkirk

LIEUTENANT HOBKIRK, born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, January 2, 1896. Home in Fredericton, New Brunswick. Joined Fredericton branch, September 4, 1912. Enlisted from Fredericton branch, June 30, 1915, in the 64 th Battalion also served with the 25 th and 71 st Battalions. Killed in action at Courcelette, September 17, 1916.

John Patterson Hodkinson

PRIVATE HODKINSON, born at Newton Stewart, Scotland, May 25, 1889. Home in Newton Stewart. Served for more than four years with the Commercial Bank of Scotland. Joined Vancouver, British Columbia, Mount Pleasant branch, June 12, 1913. Enlisted from Vancouver, East End branch, in the 72 nd Seaforth Highlanders. Present at Ypres, Arras, the Somme, and Vimy Ridge. Killed in action at Vimy Ridge, April 9, 1917.

Wilfred Maurice Holden

Private Holden, born at Melita, Manitoba on November 25, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 222 nd Battalion on April 11, 1916. Later attached to the 1 st Canadian Mounted Rifles. Died on August 20, 1917.

Cecil Sanford Holliday

PRIVATE HOLLIDAY, born at Crystal, North Dakota, U.S.A., August 12, 1894. Home in Elm Creek, Manitoba. Joined Conquest, Saskatchewan branch, September 15, 1914. Enlisted from Bethune, Saskatchewan branch, June 9, 1916, in the 203 rd Battalion. Killed in action at the Second Battle of Arras, August 31, 1918.

Frank Stewart Holliday

Private Holliday, born at Crystal, North Dakota, USA on March 15, 1892. Enlisted from the Union Bank Head Office in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 2 nd Depot Cyclist Platoon on May 29, 1916. Later with the 2 nd Battalion, Canadian Machine Gun Corps. Died of wounds on September 9, 1918.

James Swirles Hood

LIEUTENANT HOOD, born at Kirkcaldy, Scotland, August 9, 1894. Home in Kirkcaldy, Scotland. Served for more than two years with the Commercial Bank of Scotland. Joined Head Office staff, November 4, 1912. Enlisted from Head Office, October 28, 1914, in the 23 rd Battalion. Killed in action, May 3, 1917, at Fresnoy.

Christopher Bagnall Horton

Gunner Horton, born at Walthamstow, Essex, England on August 14, 1898. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Hartney, Manitoba with the 76 th Battery on September 19, 1916. Died of pneumonia on February 1, 1917.

John Houston

Private Houston, born at Glasgow, Scotland on August 14, 1893. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Blairmore, Alberta with 10 th Battalion on May 10, 1916. Killed in Action on August 15, 1917.

Reginald Selby Hudson

Private Hudson, born at Bradwardine, Manitoba on July 30, 1892. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Vancouver, British Columbia with the 196 th Battalion on April 11, 1916. Later with the 46 th Battalion. Died on March 26, 1917.

Roy Cameron Hunter

PRIVATE HUNTER, born at Wiarton, Ontario, September 11, 1889. Home in Wiarton. Formerly in the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Vancouver, British Columbia branch, October 14, 1914, in the 23 rd Battalion. Later transferred to the 3 rd Battalion. Killed in action at Givenchy, June 17, 1915.

Wilfred Laurier Hunter

PRIVATE HUNTER, born at Lansing, Ontario, February 2, 1897. Home in Toronto, Ontario. Joined Toronto branch, July 14, 1914. Enlisted from Toronto branch, June 12, 1915, in the 58 th Battalion. Also served in the 2 nd Machine Gun Company, 1 st Canadian Division. Present at Ypres, St. Julien, Courcelette, and the Somme. Killed in action at Courcelette, September 26, 1916.

Douglas Strutt Hurrell

Private Hurrell, born at Malden, Essex, England on June 3, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Winnipeg, Manitoba branch on January 9, 1915 with the 43 rd Battalion. Killed in Action on April 24, 1916.

Andrew Arthur Hynes

PRIVATE HYNES, born at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, February 15, 1897. Joined Sault Ste. Marie, Queen & Bruce Street branch, March 1, 1913. Enlisted from Sault Ste. Marie branch, July 22, 1915, in the 76 th Battalion. Transferred later to the 37 th Battalion and 17 th Reserve. Served in France with the 3 rd Battalion, 1 st Division. Killed in action near Vimy Ridge, October 26, 1916.

Ernest Fred Jeffreys

Private Jeffreys, born at Erin Township, Ontario on October 9, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Fenwick, Ontario with the 176 th Battalion, 2 nd Dragoons on April 1, 1916. Later with the 102 nd Battalion. Died on October 1, 1918.

Asgeir Finnson Johnson

PRIVATE JOHNSON, home in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Joined the Northern Crown Bank in 1915. Enlisted from Winnipeg, Portage & Sherbrook branch, February 19, 1916, in the 184 th Battalion. Also served in the 78 th Battalion. Killed in action, October 30, 1917.

Frank Lawrence Johnson

SECOND-LIEUTENANT JOHNSON, born at Bridgetown, Barbados, March 15, 1898. Home in Bridgetown. Joined Roseau, Dominica branch, April 5, 1915. Enlisted from Roseau branch, January 15, 1916, in the St. Lucia Volunteers, British West Indies Regiment. Afterwards attached to the Royal Flying Corps. Accidentally killed at Aboukir, Egypt, September 6, 1917.

Mark St. Clair Johnston

PRIVATE JOHNSTON, born at Winona, Ontario, May 29, 1894. Home in Winona. Joined the Traders Bank of Canada at Stoney Creek, Ontario branch, July 2, 1912. Enlisted from Ingersoll, Ontario branch, February 1, 1916, in the 129 th Battalion. Later served in France with the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry as a Dispatch Runner.

Henry William Jones

PRIVATE JONES, born at Rayleigh, Essex, England, June 7, 1892. Home in Vancouver, British Columbia. Joined Vancouver branch, May 23, 1910. Enlisted from Grand Forks, British Columbia branch, July 1, 1915, in the 54 th Battalion. Present on the Somme and at Ypres. Killed in action at Ypres, June 1916.

Richard Bathoe Jones

Private Jones, born at Winnipeg, Manitoba on August 22, 1897. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 61 st Battalion on August 28, 1915. Later with the 44 th Battalion. Died on October 25, 1916.

Richard Hyde Jones

Lance Corporal Jones, born at Workington, Cumberland, England on May 24, 1891. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Pense, Saskatchewan with the 79 th Cameron Highlanders on September 22, 1915. Later with the 43 rd Battalion Died on October 8, 1916.

John Hempenstall Kearney

PRIVATE KEARNEY, born in March 1892. Joined the Quebec Bank, Montreal, St. Catherine Street East branch, September 28, 1913. Enlisted from Montreal, St. Matthew Street branch, in the 14 th Battalion, August 15, 1914. Killed in action, June 3, 1916.

Ernest Tilton Sumpter Kelly

Lieutenant Kelly, born at Athol Twp, Prince Edward County, Ontario on June 20, 1896. Originally enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Picton, Ontario with the 155 th Battalion on January 11, 1916. He joined the Royal Air Force on July 6, 1917. Killed in Action on June 15, 1918.

Henry Joseph Kelly

Private Kelly, born at Dummer Township, Ontario on June 20, 1888. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Orillia, Ontario with the 5 th Canadian Mounted Rifles on February 4, 1915. Killed in Action on June 7, 1916.

John Kempton

LANCE-CORPORAL KEMPTON joined the Quebec Bank, August 1912. Enlisted from Strasbourg, Saskatchewan branch, September 15, 1915, in the 82 nd Battalion, Calgary, Alberta. Served also in the 5 th Battalion. Killed in action, April 1917.

Louis Kerr

GUNNER KERR, born at Holstein, Ontario, August 17, 1890. Home in Toronto, Ontario. Joined Arthur, Ontario branch, February 15, 1912. Enlisted from Brantford, Ontario branch, March 16, 1918, in the 70 th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery. Died of pneumonia in Toronto, October 22, 1918.

John Joshua Wallace King

PRIVATE KING, born at Dorchester, New Brunswick, March 20, 1895. Home in Pictou, Nova Scotia. Joined Pictou branch, May 12, 1913. Enlisted from Pictou branch, September 20, 1915, in the 64 th Battalion. Later transferred to the 24 th Battalion. Present at Courcelette. Wounded on September 18, 1916, and died of wounds at Moore Barracks, Shorncliffe, Kent.

Charles Frederick Kirkman

PRIVATE KIRKMAN, born at Leicester, England, May 22, 1888. Home in Leicester. Joined Quebec Bank, Edmonton, Alberta, April 1913. Enlisted from Edmonton branch on November 26, 1914, in the 31 st Battalion. Present at St. Eloi, Sanctuary Wood, the Somme and Courcelette. Killed in action at Courcelette, September 26, 1916.

Frederick Sylvester Kirvan

SIGNALLER KIRVAN, born at Elora, Ontario, April 29, 1897. Home in Guelph, Ontario. Joined Collingwood, Ontario branch, November 4, 1912. Enlisted from Cargill, Ontario branch, February 29, 1916, in the 160 th Battalion. Later served with the 87 th Battalion, Grenadier Guards. Killed in action at Arras, September 2, 1918.

Alexander Rollo Laing

PRIVATE LAING, born at Cowdenbeath, Fifeshire, Scotland, January 17, 1893. Home in Cowdenbeath. Served for more than two years with the Commercial Bank of Scotland. Joined Vancouver, British Columbia branch, November 4, 1912. Enlisted from Vancouver branch, May 31, 1915, with the 2 nd Brigade, Machine Gun Company. Present at Vimy Ridge. Killed in action, April 9, 1918.

Lloyd Haliburton Langille

PRIVATE LANGILLE, born at Kingston Village, Nova Scotia, February 17, 1897. Home in Middleton, Nova Scotia. Joined Middleton branch, September 3, 1912. Enlisted from Wolfville, Nova Scotia branch, February 29, 1916, in the 219 th Nova Scotia Highlanders. Also served with the 85 th Battalion. Present at Arras and Drocourt-Queant. Killed in action at Arras, September 2, 1918.

John Gordon Laurie

CAPTAIN LAURIE, born at Hamilton, Ontario, January 12, 1892. Joined the Traders Bank of Canada, Hamilton, East End branch, November 9, 1910. Enlisted from Orillia, Ontario branch, January 31, 1916, in the 173 rd Battalion. Present at Vimy Ridge and Fresnoy. Killed in action at Fresnoy, May 9, 1917.

Eric Gilbert Leake

CAPTAIN LEAKE, born at Fallowfield, Manchester, England, January 26, 1893. Home in Altrincham, England. Served for nearly three years with the Lancashire & Yorkshire Bank, Limited, England. Joined Toronto, Ontario branch, April 4, 1913. Enlisted from Toronto branch, August 17, 1914. Won the Military Cross. Killed in action in France, July 31, 1918.

Alfred Johnson Leeming

CAPTAIN LEEMING, born at Lewisham, near London, England, May 22, 1889. Joined the London, England branch, September 1, 1912. Enlisted in England, having been rejected in Canada while with the Vancouver, British Columbia, Robson Street branch, June 16, 1915. Joined the 1 st Battalion, Royal Fusiliers, British Expeditionary Force. Present on the Somme and at the Second Battle of Ypres. Mentioned in dispatches. Killed in action near Ypres, July 31, 1917.

Spencer Hubert Lewis

Captain Lewis, born at Richwood, Brant County, Ontario on August 4, 1885. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Russell, Manitoba on December 20, 1914. Originally held the rank of Lieutenant, then Captain with the 1 st Canadian Mounted Rifles. Killed in Action at the Battle of Ypres on June 5, 1916.

Cecil Willard Lipsit

Private Lipsit, born at Mount Brydes, Ontario on March 2, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Foremost, Alberta with the 43 rd Battalion on March 23, 1916. Died on April 25, 1918.

Robert Winfield Lister

PRIVATE LISTER, born at Keighley, Yorkshire, England, June 14, 1890. Home in Keighley. Served with the Bradford District Banking Company, England, and for two years with the Imperial Bank of Canada. Joined Westmount, Quebec, Greene Avenue branch, April 11, 1914. Enlisted from the Montreal, Quebec, Stanley Street branch, August 17, 1914, in the 14 th Battalion. Killed in action at St. Julien, April 1915.

Ernest Victor Loney

SERGEANT LONEY, born at Dunrobin, Ontario, March 25, 1892. Home in North Bay, Ontario. Joined Toronto, Ontario branch, November 13, 1911. Also served for four years with the Quebec Bank. Enlisted from Edmonton, Alberta branch, April 8, 1916, in the 194 th Regiment. Was present at Lens and Hill 70. Killed in action at Hill 70 on August 15, 1917.

Harold Reece Longhurst

Private Longhurst, enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Montreal, Quebec with the 14 th Battalion. Died at Military Hospital, Quebec on September 24, 1914.

Judson Erskine Lounsbury

Private Lounsbury, born at Wellandport, Ontario on December 25, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Goderich, Ontario with the 1 st Depot Battalion on June 6, 1918. Died on October 20, 1918.

John Robert Lowe

Private Lowe, born at Clements, Kansas, USA on June 2, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Wainwright, Alberta with the 49 th Battalion on January 30, 1915. Died of wounds on October 8, 1916.

Alexander Muir Lyon

CORPORAL LYON, born at Kilmarnock, Scotland, August 26, 1889. Home in Kilmarnock. Joined Vancouver, British Columbia, East End branch, November 25, 1912. Enlisted from Vancouver, East End branch, October 1915, in the 72 nd Seaforth Highlanders. Present at Vimy Ridge and Passchendaele. Killed in action at Passchendaele, October 28, 1917.

Donald McPhail MacCallum

PRIVATE MacCALLUM, born at Campbellton, Scotland, August 19, 1893. Home in Campbellton. Joined Toronto, Ontario branch, September 11, 1912. Enlisted from Regina, Saskatchewan branch, September 22, 1915, in the 179 th Cameron Highlanders. Died in St. Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba, June 26, 1916, from typhoid fever, followed by pneumonia.

Norman Stewart MacDonald

LANCE-CORPORAL MacDONALD, born at Woodstock, Ontario, June 7, 1891. Joined the Northern Crown Bank in 1910. Enlisted from Winnipeg, Manitoba branch in the 27 th Battalion, Machine Gun Section, October 28, 1914. Present at Courcelette and other engagements between September 1915, and September 1916. Killed in action at Courcelette, September 15, 1916.

Norman Roy Mack Jost

Lieutenant Mack Jost, born at London, England on August 25, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Edmonton, Alberta with the 9 th (Reserve) Battalion, attached to the 49 th Battalion. Killed in Action at the 3 rd Battle of Ypres on June 3, 1916.

Arthur Gordon MacKay

LIEUTENANT MacKAY, born at Hamilton, Ontario, March 2, 1896. Home in Notre Dame de Grace, Montreal, Quebec. Joined Montreal, Stanley Street branch, March 15, 1913. Enlisted from Montreal, Stanley Street branch, January 11, 1916, in the 148 th Battalion. Later transferred to the Royal Flying Corps. Killed in action near Arras, May 18, 1917.

Alexander Mackenzie MacNair

Private MacNair, born at Edyerstone, Roxburghshire, Scotland on May 1, 1888. Enlisted from the Union Bank in Vidora, Saskatchewan with the 5 th Battalion on September 23, 1914. Killed in Action on May 24, 1915.

Colin Gordon MacNaughton

LANCE-CORPORAL MacNAUGHTON, born at Wroxeter, Ontario, September 3, 1895. Joined Wroxeter Branch, December 10, 1912. Enlisted from Norwich, Ontario branch, March 8, 1916, in the 168 th Battalion. Later transferred to the 2 nd Battalion. Killed in action at Passchendaele, November 6, 1917.

Cyril Frederic Mann

PRIVATE MANN, born at Birmingham, England, December 11, 1890. Home in Bridgeford, Saskatchewan. Joined Saskatoon, Saskatchewan branch of the Northern Crown Bank, May 19, 1913. Enlisted from Medicine Hat, Alberta branch, in the 175 th Battalion. Also served with the 50 th Battalion. Killed in action near Givenchy, June 3, 1917.

Gerard Joseph Marquis

Private Marquis, born at Edmundsden, New Brunswick on June 14, 1898. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Pincher Creek, Alberta with the 31 st Battalion on December 12, 1916. Died of wounds on November 10, 1917.

George Harold Martin

Private Martin, born at Newdale, Manitoba on April 30, 1897. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Newdale, Manitoba with the 45 th Battalion on August 27, 1915. Later with the 31 st Battalion. Killed in Action on November 7, 1917 during the attack on Passchendaele.

Charles Leo McBride

Private McBride, born at Ottawa, Ontario on April 19, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Rosetown, Saskatchewan with the 4 th University Company on October 8, 1916. Joined the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry in the field April 7, 1916. Killed in Action on October 8, 1916 in the attack on Regina Trench during the Somme Offensive.

Duncan McCarter

2 nd Lt. McCarter, born at Edinburgh, Scotland on July 4, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Victoria, British Columbia with the Royal Flying Corps on September 23, 1914. Killed in a flying accident over Willesborough, Kent, England on May 1, 1918.

Joseph Stanley McCoy

SERGEANT McCOY, born at Hamilton, Ontario, January 27, 1889. Joined Traders Bank of Canada, Hamilton, March 1908. Enlisted from Montreal, Quebec branch, September 30, 1915, in the Machine Gun Company. Killed in action at Lens, August 24, 1917.

David McDill

Private McDill, born at Glasgow, Scotland on November 4, 1888. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Souris, Manitoba with the 5 th Battalion on December 18, 1914. Killed in Action on December 11, 1915.

Angus Daniel McDonald

Private McDonald, born at Shoal Lake, Manitoba on April 3, 1898. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Strathclair, Manitoba with the 174 th Cameron Highlanders on December 15, 1916. Later with the 16 th Battalion. Died of Wounds on August 8, 1918.

Harry Alexander McDonald

CAPTAIN McDONALD, born at Dundee, Scotland, March 5, 1886. Home in Dundee. Served for thirteen years in the Royal Bank of Scotland. Joined London, England branch, May 25, 1914. Enlisted from London branch, August 8, 1914, in the London Scottish Regiment also served with the Army Cyclists Corps. Present at the First Battle of Ypres. Wounded November 14, 1914, and died in No. 1 Military Hospital at Canterbury, Kent, February 5, 1918.

John A. McDonald

Private McDonald, enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Cabri, Saskatchewan. Killed in Action on August 22, 1917.

William Patrick McGibbon

SECOND-LIEUTENANT McGIBBON, born at Glasgow, Scotland, December 7, 1883. Served for six years with the Royal Bank of Scotland. Joined London, England branch, September 14, 1914. Enlisted from London branch, November 6, 1915, in the Artists' Rifles. Also served in the Durham Light Infantry. Present at St. Eloi, Ridge Wood, Tower Hamlets, etc. Killed in action near Tower Hamlets, September 23, 1917.

George Valentine McInerney

LIEUTENANT McINERNEY, born at Rexton, New Brunswick, March 2, 1894. Joined Rexton branch, May 19, 1909. Enlisted from Newcastle, New Brunswick branch, August 24, 1914, in the 8 th Battery. Later served with the 31 st and 53 rd Batteries, Canadian Field Artillery. Present at the Second Battle of Ypres, Arras, and Bourlon Wood. Killed in action near Bourlon Wood, September 27, 1918.

Lorne Howson McIntyre

LIEUTENANT McINTYRE, born at Peterborough, Ontario, August 31, 1897. Home in Toronto, Ontario. Joined Peterborough branch, January 13, 1917. Enlisted from Peterborough branch, July 21, 1917, in the Royal Air Force. Present at Cambrai and Arras. Reported missing August 21, 1918. Later reported killed.

Kenneth Wetzlar McLea

LIEUTENANT McLEA, born at Montreal, Quebec, October 5, 1892. Joined Montreal branch, September 16, 1909. Enlisted from Montreal branch, June 15, 1915, in the 3 rd Canadian Divisional Ammunition Column. Killed in action at Poperinghe, October 28, 1917.

Sheldon Alexander McMillan

Private McMillan, born at Glengarry County, Ontario on September 18, 1897. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Alexandria, Ontario with the 154 th Battalion on December 30, 1915. Later with the 21 st Battalion. Killed in Action on September 2, 1917.

Delmer George McNamee

Private McNamee, born at Crystal City, Manitoba on September 5, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Kindersley, Saskatchewan with the 9 th Canadian Mounted Rifles on September 25, 1915. Transferred to the 5 th Canadian Mounted Rifles in February 1917. Died of wounds on May 6, 1917.

John McWilliam

PRIVATE McWILLIAM, born at Buckie, Banffshire, Scotland, August 12, 1892. Home in Buckie. Served for four years with the Union Bank of Scotland. Joined Craik, Saskatchewan branch, January 20, 1913. Enlisted from Swift Current, Saskatchewan branch, November 14, 1914, in the 5 th Battalion. Present at Givenchy, Festubert and the Second Battle of Ypres. Killed in action at Zillebeke, near Ypres, June 6, 1916.

Thomas Hallard Mead

2 nd Lt. Mead, born at Micheldever, Hampshire, England on December 1889. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Foremost, Alberta as a Gunner with the Canadian Field Artillery. Promoted from the ranks to 2 nd Lieutenant and later attached to the Royal Field Artillery, 72 nd Brigade. Killed in Action on July 24, 1916.

F. Gerald Merritt

CORPORAL MERRITT, born at Saint John, New Brunswick, April 3, 1897. Home in Portland, Oregon. Joined Middleton, Nova Scotia branch, May 6, 1912. Enlisted from Bridgetown, Nova Scotia branch, October 6, 1915, in the 85 th Battalion, Nova Scotia Highlanders. Present at Vimy Ridge and Passchendaele. Killed in action at Fampoux, near Arras, July 30, 1918.

James Nobel Layton Millett

SECOND-LIEUTENANT MILLETT, born at Windsor, Nova Scotia, April 14, 1897. Joined Windsor branch, December 27, 1910. Enlisted from Newcastle, New Brunswick branch, May 25, 1917, in the 73 rd Squadron, Royal Air Force. Killed in action near Crevecourt, March 13, 1918.

Arthur Mitchell

SERGEANT MITCHELL, born in England, June 16, 1890. Joined the Quebec Bank, September 3, 1914. Enlisted from Quebec, Quebec branch, June 1915, in the 52 nd Battalion. Killed in action, September 16, 1916.

Douglas Norman Moir

TROOPER MOIR, born at Aberdeen, Scotland, February 10, 1894. Home in Auldearn, Nairnshire, Scotland. Joined Montreal, Quebec branch, March 4, 1911. Enlisted from Vancouver, British Columbia, Supervisor's Department, November 26, 1914, in the 2 nd Canadian Mounted Rifles. Killed in action at Ypres, May 20, 1916.

Peter Thomas Moir

Private Moir, born at Virden, Manitoba on December 24, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Minto, Manitoba with the No. 1 Overseas C.A.S.C. Training Depot on December 16, 1916. Died on September 29, 1918.

Hugh Boyd Montgomery

SERGEANT MONTGOMERY, born at Glasgow, Scotland, December 21, 1892. Joined the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Winnipeg, Manitoba branch, October 20, 1914, in the 79 th Battalion. Later served with the 27 th Battalion. Present at St. Eloi and the Somme. Died from wounds received on the Somme, July 13, 1916.

Cyril George Ettrick Moore

PRIVATE MOORE, born in England, June 20, 1889. Home in Middleton, Manchester, England. Joined the Traders Bank of Canada, Hamilton, Ontario, December 20, 1909. Enlisted from Rosetown, Saskatchewan branch, November 14, 1914, in the 8 th Battalion. Killed in action near Ypres, June 13, 1916.

James Walker Moore

SIGNALLER MOORE, born at St. Stephen, New Brunswick, November 10, 1897. Joined St. Stephen branch, August 4, 1915. Enlisted from St. Stephen branch, June 30, 1916, in the 10 th Battery, and served later with the 22 nd Battery. Present at Lens, Arras, and Cambrai. Fatally gassed near Cambrai, September 12, 1918.

Frederick William Lord Morgan

Private Morgan, born at Dublin, Ireland on October 16, 1894. Enlisted from the Nothern Crown Bank branch in Seeley’s Bay, Ontario with the 166 th Battalion on January 22, 1916. Later with the 75 th Battalion. Died on June 8, 1917. Awarded British War Medal and Victory Medal.

Henry Archie Morgan

Trooper Morgan, born at Shoal Lake, Manitoba on October 28, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Shoal Lake, Manitoba with the 6 th Battalion on September 24, 1914. Later attached to Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians). Killed in Action on May 25, 1915.

Donald Spence Morison

PRIVATE MORISON, born at Montreal, Quebec, May 12, 1898. Home in Vancouver, British Columbia. Joined the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Vancouver branch, Northern Crown Bank, August 27, 1916, in the 231 st Highlanders. Killed in action at Passchendaele, October 31, 1917.

James MacLaren Morton

LIEUTENANT MORTON, born at Carluke, Lanarkshire, Scotland, June 5, 1891. Home in Carluke. Served for five years with the Bank of Scotland. Joined Calgary, Alberta branch, November 25, 1911. Enlisted from Beiseker, Alberta branch, August 20, 1914, in the 31 st Battalion. Present at Vimy Ridge and Fresnoy. Killed in action at Fresnoy, May 3, 1917.

Duncan McNichol Muir

SERGEANT MUIR, born at Kilmarnock, Scotland, January 7, 1891. Home in Kilmarnock. Served for more than three years with the Bank of Scotland. Joined Victoria, British Columbia branch, August 2, 1910. Enlisted from Vancouver, British Columbia branch, August 8, 1914, in the 7 th Battalion. Present at Neuve Chapelle, St. Eloi, Ypres, Hill 60, and St. Julien. Killed in action at St. Julien, April 24, 1915.

Robert Demain Mungall

Trooper Mungall, born at Carlisle, England on August 8, 1889. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 6 th Battalion on September 24, 1914. Later attached to the Canadian Corps Cavalry Regiment. Killed in Action on November 4, 1916.

Byron Murray

PRIVATE MURRAY, born at Port Richmond, Nova Scotia, December 9, 1897. Home in St. Peter's, Nova Scotia. Joined St. Peter's branch, April 21, 1915. Enlisted from St. Peter's branch, April 3, 1916, in the 185 th Battalion. Died of pleurisy in hospital in England, August 24, 1917.

Norman Murray

CADET MURRAY, born at Glencoe, Ontario, September 7, 1892. Home in Killam, Alberta. Joined the Traders Bank of Canada, Glencoe, May 6, 1910. Enlisted from Elrose, Saskatchewan branch, April 15, 1918, in the Royal Air Force. Died of Spanish influenza in Toronto, Ontario, October 5, 1918.

William Nairn

GUNNER NAIRN, born at Boreland, Blackford, Perth, Scotland, December 2, 1887. Home in Boreland. Served for six years with the Bank of Scotland. Joined Vancouver, British Columbia, Bridge Street branch, April 4, 1911. Enlisted from Vancouver, Cordova Street branch, March 13, 1918, in the Canadian Field Artillery. Later joined the Tank Corps. Died on board the H.M.T. Victoria of pneumonia following Spanish influenza, October 18, 1918.

Archie Bremner Nelson

PRIVATE NELSON, born at Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, March 27, 1896. Joined Prince Albert branch, April 15, 1913. Enlisted from Rosetown, Saskatchewan branch, April 29, 1916, in the 196 th Western Universities Corps. Also served with the 46 th Battalion. Present at Passchendaele and Vimy Ridge. Killed in action at Avion, near Arras, May 3, 1918.

Landell Newcomb

Lieutenant Newcomb, born at Dulwich, England on December 2, 1891. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Melfort, Saskatchewan with the 8 th Battalion on February 5, 1915. Died on November 10, 1917.

William Hardy Nicholls

LIEUTENANT NICHOLLS, born at Montrose, Ontario, March 6, 1894. Home in Bowmanville, Ontario. Joined Bowmanville branch, December 12, 1910. Enlisted from Fergus, Ontario branch, March 3, 1916, in the 153 rd Battalion. Died in the Sanitarium at Gravenhurst, Ontario, while in training with his battalion, February 19, 1919.

William Nicoll

Private Nicoll, born at Castle-Fraser, Sauchen, Aberdeenshire, Scotland on June 11, 1890. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan with the 38 th Battalion on April 5, 1915. Transferred to Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry on July 26, 1915. Killed in Action at the Battle of Vimy Ridge on February 3, 1917.

James Albert Noble

PRIVATE NOBLE, born at Manor, Saskatchewan, February 4, 1895. Home in Manor. Formerly of the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Lockwood, Saskatchewan branch, August 8, 1915, in the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. Killed in action at the Third Battle of Ypres, June 2, 1916.

Alfred Lloyd Norman

DRIVER NORMAN, born at Ingersoll, Ontario, February 6, 1898. Joined Galt, Ontario branch, July 13, 1915. Enlisted from Galt branch, December 4, 1915, in the 29 th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery. Also served in the 36 th Battery. Present at all engagements from the Somme (July 1916) to Lens (August 1917). Killed in action near Lens, August 8, 1917.

Charles Edward Pattison

FLIGHT LIEUTENANT PATTISON, born at Glasgow, Scotland, July 13, 1896. Joined Winona, Ontario branch, March 2, 1914. Enlisted from Winona branch, December 15, 1915, in the Royal Naval Air Service (Imperial). Fought with the French Army for several months. Present in the Frieburg raid and numerous other air raids. Died at Redcar, Yorkshire, England, April 2, 1918, from wounds. Awarded the Croix de Guerre by the French Government.

Victor Reginald Paulin

FLIGHT LIEUTENANT PAULIN, born at Victoria, British Columbia, June 19, 1897. Joined Victoria branch, April 1, 1913. Enlisted from Vancouver, British Columbia branch, July 14, 1917, in the Royal Air Force. Killed in action, May 8, 1918, near Saint-Omer, France.

Lewis Arthur Palmer

2 nd Lieutenant Palmer, born at Highbury, London, England on October 19, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Toronto, Ontario with the Royal Flying Corps on December 4, 1914. Died on November 9, 1917.

Richard Norman Payne

Lieutenant Payne, born on August 11, 1891. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Peterborough, Ontario branch with the 93 rd Battalion. Died on May 28, 1916.

Ralph Pelluet

PRIVATE PELLUET, born at London, England, September 15, 1893. Home in Edmonton, Alberta. Joined Athabasca, Alberta branch, January 22, 1914. Enlisted from North Battleford, Saskatchewan branch, June 3, 1916, in the 200 th Battalion. Killed at Shorncliffe Camp, Folkestone, England, during an air raid on the Canadian Camp, May 25, 1917.

Kenneth Fraser Perry

Private Perry, born at Arnprior, Ontario on February 22, 1897. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Manitou, Manitoba with the 5 th Battalion on November 16, 1915. Killed in Action on August 15, 1917.

Arthur Walker Peters

CORPORAL PETERS, born at Saint John, New Brunswick, March 31, 1894. Home in Kerrisdale, Vancouver, British Columbia. Joined Saint John branch, August 29, 1910. Enlisted from Vancouver branch, October 1, 1915, in the 72 nd Seaforth Highlanders also served in the 102 nd Battalion. Present at the Somme, Vimy Ridge and Passchendaele. Killed in action at Passchendaele, November 1, 1917.

Gerald Hamilton Peters

Lieutenant Peters, at Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island on November 8, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Prince Rupert, British Columbia with the 7 th Battalion on February 9, 1915. Killed in Action on June 3, 1916.

Allan Phillips

PRIVATE PHILLIPS, born at London, England, April 21, 1897. Home in London, Ontario. Joined London, Ontario branch, October 13, 1915. Enlisted from London branch, May 13, 1916, in the 142 nd Battalion. Also served in the 18 th Battalion. Present at Lens and Hill 70. Killed in action on a road near Aix Moulette, August 21, 1917.

Richard James Bramwell Pickering

LEADING SEAMAN PICKERING, born at London, England, November 9, 1896. Joined the Northern Crown Bank, May 1912. Enlisted from Toronto, Ontario, Spadina Avenue branch, February 16, 1915, in the Canadian Royal Horse Artillery. Subsequently transferred to the Royal Naval Division. Present at the Somme and other engagements. Killed in action on the Somme, November 13, 1916.

Raymond Pigg

PRIVATE PIGG, born at Pelham, Herts, England, in 1896. Home in Reston, Manitoba. Formerly in the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Winnipeg, Manitoba branch in the 78 th Battalion. Killed in action on the Somme, November 20, 1916.

Reginald Sydney Plant

Private Plant, born at Norwood, Ontario on December 20, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Roseneath, Ontario with the 235 th Battalion on July 31, 1916. Died on August 30, 1918.

Walter Pollock

Private Pollock, born at Port Glasgow, Scotland on July 7, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Vancouver, British Columbia with the 231 st Battalion on October 2, 1916. Later with the 72 nd Battalion. Died on September 27, 1918.

William Ross Pringle

PRIVATE PRINGLE, born at Stella, Ontario, May 1, 1889. Home in Stella. Joined Gadsby, Alberta branch, June 5, 1916. Enlisted from Gadsby branch, September 30, 1916, in the 11 th Canadian Field Ambulance. Present at Lens, Amiens and Cambrai. Killed in action at Cambrai, September 29, 1918.

James Spalding Proven

Sergeant Proven, born at Linlithgow, Scotland on October 12, 1890. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Claresholm, Alberta with the 31 st Battalion on November 18, 1914. Died on April 15, 1916 from wounds received during actions at St. Eloi on April 6 th .

George Nelson Pugh

Private Pugh, born at Virden, Manitoba on April 1, 1898. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Brandon, Manitoba with the 196 th Battalion on May 22, 1916. Later with the 46 th Battalion. Killed in Action on June 21, 1917.

James Alfred Ralston

LANCE-CORPORAL RALSTON, born at Lefroy, Ontario, September 25, 1897. Home in Lefroy. Joined Schomberg, Ontario branch, July 21, 1913. Enlisted from Toronto, Ontario, Queen & Broadview branch, August 21, 1915, in the 35 th Battalion. Also served in the 3 rd Battalion. Present at the Somme, Vimy, Courcelette and Hill 70. Killed in action at Amiens, August 8, 1918.

James Monilaws Richardson

CORPORAL RICHARDSON, born at Seaforth, Ontario, September 2, 1886. Home in St. Marys, Ontario. Joined Edmonton, Alberta branch, August 12, 1913. Enlisted from Peace River, Alberta branch, July 9, 1915, in the 66 th Battalion. Also served in the 31 st Battalion. Killed in action at Courcelette, September 15, 1916.

James Henry Riches

PRIVATE RICHES, born at London, England, October 18, 1896. Home in Stratford, Ontario. Joined Stratford branch, September 30, 1912. Enlisted from Stratford branch, August 30, 1915, in the 33 rd Battalion. Afterwards transferred to the 7 th Battalion. Present at Ypres, the Somme and Vimy Ridge. Killed in action at Vimy Ridge, April 9, 1917.

George Edward Robinson

Lieutenant Robinson, born at Orangeville, Ontario on December 9, 1885. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s Bank Street branch in Ottawa, Ontario with the Railway Construction & Forestry Depot on October 1, 1917. Died of injuries from a fall on March 20, 1918.

Walter George Ross

Gunner Ross, born at Turnbridge Wells, England on January 30, 1897. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Kindersley, Saskatchewan with the Mounted Rifles. Killed in Action on July 9, 1916.

William Patrick Ross

PRIVATE ROSS, born at Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, June 8, 1895. Home in Vancouver, British Columbia. Joined Scott, Saskatchewan branch, August 28, 1911. Enlisted from Vancouver branch, June 5, 1916, in the 196 th Western Universities Battalion. Also served in the 46 th Battalion. Present at Vimy Ridge, Lens, Hill 70, and Passchendaele. Killed in action at Passchendaele, October 26, 1917.

Norman Horace Pemberton Salusbury

SECOND-LIEUTENANT SALUSBURY, born at Newton Arlosh Vicarage, Cumberland, England, November 23, 1893. Home in Wigton, Cumberland, England. Joined Ottawa, Ontario branch of the Quebec Bank, January 20, 1914. Enlisted from Ottawa branch in the First Canadian Contingent. Afterwards transferred to the Border Regiment (Imperials), and was attached to the 117 th Battalion, Highland Light Infantry. Killed in action at Cape Helles, Gallipoli.

Francis Graham Sanderson

Private Sanderson, born on November 17, 1895 at Peterborough, Ontario. Enlisted from the Union Bank’s branch in Bassano, Alberta with the 82 nd Battalion on October 14, 1915. Transferred to 13 th Canadian Mounted Rifles in March 1916.

Frank Graham Scarth

Private Scarth, born at London, England on April 14, 1885. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan with the 8 th Battalion on February 10, 1915. Killed in Action on September 8, 1916.

Albert Victor Scott

Private Scott, born at Rapid City, Manitoba on September 3, 1897. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Rapid City with the 226 th Battalion on April 4, 1916. Later with the 27 th Battalion. Died on August 21, 1917.

Douglas William Duke Scott

Lance-Corporal Scott, born at Netring, Northamptonshire, England on November 29, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Toronto, Ontario with the 84 th Battalion on October 19, 1915 later transferred to the 27 th Battalion. Killed in Action on August 10, 1918.

Ellis Shook Scott

Sergeant Scott, born at Caledon, Peel County, Ontario on September 23, 1893. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Hamilton, Ontario with 36 th Battalion on April 16, 1915. Later with the 8 th Canadian Machine Gun Corps. Died on November 14, 1917. Awarded the Military Medal.

Stephen William Scott

LIEUTENANT SCOTT, born at Tillsonburg, Ontario, August 11, 1894. Joined Tillsonburg branch, January 17, 1911. Enlisted from Stoney Creek, Ontario branch, November 30, 1915, in the 129 th Battalion. Also served in the 124 th and 3 rd Battalions. Present at Vimy, Fresnoy, Hill 70, Passchendaele, Canal du Nord, Bourlon Wood, and other engagements up to Cambrai. Awarded the Military Medal in October 1918. Killed in action at Cambrai, October 1, 1918.

Sydney George Sellers

SERGEANT SELLERS, born at Plymouth, England, October 7, 1887. Home in Barbados, British West Indies. Formerly in the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Vancouver, British Columbia branch in 1914, in the 7 th Battalion. Present at Langemarck. Died in hospital at Orpington, Kent, England, November 27, 1917.

Earlby Gordon Shannon

Corporal Shannon, born at Islington, Ontario on February 13, 1896. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Toronto, Ontario with the 182 nd Battalion on February 25, 1916. Served with the 208 th , 8 th Reserve and 2 nd Reserve Battalions. Transferred to the 116 th Battalion in February 1918. Died of Wounds on August 8, 1918.

Frederick Henry Sharp

HOME in Nokomis, Saskatchewan. Formerly in the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Vancouver, British Columbia branch, April 30, 1915. Killed in action.

Herbert Victor Sharpe

TROOPER SHARPE, born at Owen Sound, Ontario, November 11, 1895. Joined Owen Sound branch, June 11, 1913. Enlisted from Owen Sound branch, August 23, 1915, in the Fort Garry Horse. Present at the Somme and other engagements. Wounded on August 8, 1918. Died in hospital at Shorncliffe, England, November 15, 1918.

Thomas Pitcairn Shearer

PRIVATE SHEARER, born at Armadale, Scotland, December 19, 1894. Home in Partick, Scotland. Served for three years with the Bank of Scotland. Joined Winnipeg, Manitoba branch, May 22, 1913. Enlisted from Davidson, Saskatchewan branch, June 7, 1915, after having been twice rejected. Present at Vimy Ridge, Ypres and Passchendaele. Killed in action at Passchendaele, October 29, 1917.

Laurence Shuster Sherman

LANCE-CORPORAL SHERMAN, born at Fredericton, New Brunswick, November 9, 1884. Joined Fredericton branch, May 27, 1901. Enlisted from London, England, September 23, 1915, in the Royal Sussex Regiment (Imperials). Died of wounds on the Somme, August 5, 1916.

Donald Devere Shields

LIEUTENANT SHIELDS, born at Bear River, Nova Scotia, June 8, 1895. Home in Liverpool, Nova Scotia. Joined Liverpool branch, June 12, 1912. Enlisted from Bridgewater, Nova Scotia branch, December 1, 1915, in the 112 th Battalion. Present at Lens, Hill 70, and Passchendaele. Killed in action November 10, 1918, the last night of the War, at the capture of Moris.

John Arthur Murton Shore

LIEUTENANT SHORE, born at Port Rowan, Ontario, December 30, 1894. Home in Ilderton, Ontario. Joined Windsor, Ontario branch, September 22, 1913. Enlisted from St. Marys, Ontario branch, March 2, 1916, in the 186 th Battalion. Served later with the 18 th Battalion. Present at Mons and Passchendaele. Killed in action at Passchendaele, November 11, 1917.

Arthur Reginald Simmons

Private Simmons, born at Shelburne, Ontario on May 12, 1893. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Shelburne, Ontario with the 164 th Battalion on February 26, 1916. Later with the 116 th Battalion. Died on August 14, 1918.

Harold James Simpson

Private Simpson, born at Plymouth, Devon, England on December 15, 1894. Enlisted on from the Union Bank branch in Alderson, Alberta with the 10 th Battalion on September 25, 1914. Died of wounds on September 13, 1915.

John Murray Skeaff

LIEUTENANT SKEAFF, born at Cobourg, Ontario, April 14, 1896. Home in Toronto, Ontario. Joined Toronto branch, June 4, 1914. Enlisted from Toronto branch, June 7, 1915, in the 48 th Highlanders. Also served in the 92 nd Battalion. Died of pneumonia in Toronto, January 24, 1916.

John Thomson Smith

PRIVATE SMITH, born at Aberdeen, Scotland, January 2, 1892. Home in Edinburgh, Scotland. Joined Winnipeg, Manitoba branch, September 30, 1912. Enlisted from Brandon, Manitoba branch, August 23, 1914, in the 8 th Battalion. Also served with the 90 th Winnipeg Rifles. Present at the Second Battle of Ypres, Festubert, Givenchy and on the Somme. Died of wounds in a Casualty Clearing Station, September 8, 1916.

Ralph Henniker Smith

PRIVATE SMITH, born at Croydon, England, April 5, 1891. Home in Gravesend, Kent, England. Served with the London City & Midland Bank, Ltd., for eighteen months. Joined the Traders Bank of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, King & Spadina Street branch, September 12, 1909. Enlisted from the Inspectors' Department, Calgary, Alberta, November 21, 1914, in the 4 th Canadian Field Ambulance. Present at St. Eloi and on the Somme. Died of wounds at Camiers, France, October 19, 1916.

Trenholme Vasey Goldwin Smith

SAPPER SMITH, born at Dewdney, British Columbia, February 28, 1896. Home in Dewdney. Joined Vancouver, British Columbia, South Hill branch, July 14, 1914. Enlisted from Vancouver, East End branch, March 22, 1916, in the Canadian Engineers. Killed in action at Passchendaele, October 27, 1917.

Fennell Anderson Smyth

PRIVATE SMYTH, born at Midford, Ontario, July 26, 1899. Home in South River, Ontario. Joined Burk's Falls, Ontario branch, August 12, 1915. Enlisted from Burk's Falls branch, April 30, 1916, in the 162 nd Battalion. Also served with the 3 rd Canadian Machine Gun Battery. Present at Passchendaele, Amiens, and Arras. Killed in action at Walrus, September 24, 1918.

Frederick William Snow

CORPORAL SNOW, born at St. John's, Newfoundland, February 4, 1896. Joined St. John's branch, April 21, 1913. Enlisted from St. John's branch, May 15, 1917, in the 1 st Royal Newfoundland Regiment. Death by drowning, February 24, 1918.

Johnston Lawrence Snowdon

PRIVATE SNOWDON, born in Huron Township, Ontario. May 9, 1897. Home in Kincardine, Ontario. Joined Kincardine branch, August 4, 1913. Enlisted from Kincardine branch, February 28, 1916, in the 160 th Battalion. Afterwards transferred to the 18 th Battalion. Present at Amiens and Arras. Killed in action at Arras, August 28, 1918.

Ralph Erskine Spence

SERGEANT-MAJOR SPENCE, born at St. Croix, Nova Scotia, August 31, 1890. Home in St. Croix. Joined Windsor, Nova Scotia branch of the Union Bank of Halifax, June 30, 1908. Enlisted from North Sydney, Nova Scotia branch, August 20, 1914, in the 6 th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery. Present at Fleurbaix, Neuve Chapelle, First and Second Battles of Ypres, Hill 60, and Courcelette. Killed in action at Warloy, October 28, 1916.

James Hendry Steele

PRIVATE STEELE, born at Fergus, Ontario, February 28, 1891. Joined the Traders Bank of Canada, Fergus, July 1906. Enlisted from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan branch, March 15, 1916, in the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. Present at the Somme. Killed in action at Arras, January 31, 1917.

Charles Disney Pender Stein

SAPPER STEIN, born at Shipston-on-Stour, England, October 4, 1890. Home in Shipston-on-Stour. Joined North Vancouver, British Columbia branch, April 1, 1911. Enlisted from North Vancouver branch, August 12, 1914, in the Canadian Engineers. Present at Ypres and other engagements. Killed in action near Ypres, May 24, 1916.

Charles Norie Stephen

ACTING BOMBARDIER STEPHEN, Home in Scotland. Served for more than nine years with the North of Scotland Town and County Bank. Joined the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Winnipeg, Manitoba branch, December 7, 1914, in the 19 th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery. Served also in the 2 nd Canadian Divisional Ammunition Column. Killed in action, January 8, 1917.

Alexander McLaren Stevenson

Private Stevenson, born at Glasgow, Scotland on February 11, 1898. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 27 th Battalion on January 29, 1917. Died November 13, 1918.

David Stanley Stewart

Private Stewart, born at Cypress River, Manitoba on May 19, 1897. Enlisted from the Union Bank Branch in Carman, Manitoba with the 222 nd Battalion on January 17, 1916. Later with the 44 th Battalion. Died of wounds on May 9, 1917.

James Stewart

Private Stewart, born at Dundee, Scotland on July 20, 1889. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan with the 28 th Battalion on October 23, 1914. Died on September 26, 1916.

James Gordon Stewart

Private Stewart, born at Stoney Mountain, Manitoba on August 18, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Neudorf, Saskatchewan with Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) on April 11, 1916. Killed in Action on March 30, 1918.

William Andrew Stewart

Lieutenant Stewart, born at Morden, Manitoba on May 8, 1889. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Carstairs, Alberta (where he was manager at the time) with the 187 th Battalion on June 16, 1916. Later with the 50 th Battalion. Died on September 17, 1918.

Charles Stuart-Bailey

LIEUTENANT STUART-BAILEY, born at New Jersey, U.S.A., September 15, 1892. Home at Ile d'Orléans, Quebec. Joined the Quebec Bank, November 9, 1914. Enlisted from Quebec, Quebec branch in the 57 th Battalion. Also served with the 41 st , 54 th and 44 th Battalions. Present at Ypres, the Somme, Vimy Ridge, Lens and Passchendaele. Died of wounds at No. 44 Casualty Clearing Station, Poperinghe, October 28, 1917.

Stanley Bliss Tallman

Lieutenant Tallman, born at Merrickville, Grenville County, Ontario on May 19, 1892. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Ogema, Saskatchewan with the 6 th Battalion (as Private) on September 24, 1914. Later 2 nd Lieutenant and then Lieutenant with the Royal Canadian Dragoons. Died of pneumonia on November 5, 1918.

Bertram Stewart Taylor

Private Taylor, born at Toronto, Ontario on January 15, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 44 th Battalion on July 19, 1915. Later with the 27 th Battalion. Died on October 3, 1916.

William Thomas Taylor

PRIVATE TAYLOR, formerly in the Quebec Bank. Enlisted from Toronto, Ontario branch, August 18, 1915, in the 13 th Battalion. Also served with the 92 nd Battalion. Died while a prisoner of war in Germany, October 23, 1916.

Robert Charles Teasdall

Cadet Teasdall, born at Toronto, Ontario on December 14, 1897. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Toronto with the Royal Flying Corps. Died on July 12, 1917 from head injuries sustained in an airplane accident.

Claude Castlemaine Temple

LIEUTENANT TEMPLE, born at Quebec, Quebec, December 30, 1881. Home in Toronto, Ontario. Formerly in Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Vancouver, British Columbia, Granville Street branch, in the Canadian Mounted Rifles, August 1914. Present at Ypres and other engagements. Killed in action at Hesser Trench, October 2, 1916.

Charles Gordon Thompson

LIEUTENANT THOMPSON, born at Forest Gate, Essex, England, April 1, 1887. Home in Bickley, Kent, England. Joined the Northern Crown Bank about 1905. Enlisted from Winnipeg, Manitoba branch in the Royal Field Artillery. Present at Ypres, the Somme, and other engagements. Wounded on October 30, 1916. After two years and three months of great suffering, died at the Empire Hospital for Officers in London, January 28, 1919.

Ernest Thornton

Major Thornton, born at Edgbaston, Warwickshire, England on December 1, 1872. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Wapella, Saskatchewan with the 5 th Battalion on September 21, 1914. Died of wounds on November 9, 1918.

Oskar Franklin Thorsteinson

PRIVATE THORSTEINSON, born at Gimli, Manitoba, November 14, 1893. Home in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Formerly in the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Swift Current, Saskatchewan branch, in the 10 th Battalion. Killed in action at Lens, March 13, 1918.

Hamilton Sylvester Taylor Tilley

PRIVATE TILLEY, born at Pedro, Jamaica, November 9, 1887. Home in North Bay, Ontario. Joined North Bay branch of the Traders Bank of Canada, November 10, 1908. Enlisted from Limon, Costa Rica, September 30, 1917, and served with the 54 th Battalion. Wounded on September 29, 1918, at Bourlon Wood. Died in the 53 rd General Hospital, Boulogne, October 8, 1918.

Albert Edward Tobin

Private Tobin, born at Glengarry, Ontario on April 6, 1891. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Winchester, Ontario with the 2 nd Battalion on March 8, 1917 later with the 21 st Battalion. Died on November 3, 1917.

Roy Ellsworth Tower

CORPORAL TOWER, born at West Sackville, New Brunswick, September 4, 1893. Joined Sackville branch, August 23, 1910. Enlisted from Saint John, New Brunswick, North End branch, February 15, 1915, in the 6 th Canadian Mounted Rifles. Transferred later to the 5 th Canadian Mounted Rifles. Present at the Third Battle of Ypres and several previous engagements. Killed by a bomb near Ypres, July 21, 1916.

Fenton James Trick

Private Trick, born at Morden, Manitoba on September 21, 1894. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Pincher Creek, Alberta with the 13 th Canadian Mounted Rifles on February 1, 1915. Later with the 10 th Battalion. Killed in Action on April 9, 1917.

Arthur James Trow

Corporal Trow, born at Milverton, Ontario on February 6, 1881. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Theodore, Saskatchewan with the 214 th Battalion on April 26, 1916. Later with the 5 th Battalion. Died on March 12, 1918.

David MacKeggie Tuach

PRIVATE TUACH, born at Beauly, Scotland, November 15, 1892. Home in Beauly, Scotland. Served for more than three years with the Bank of Scotland. Joined London, England branch, May 1, 1913. Enlisted from London branch, October 30, 1915, in the 1 st London Regiment (Royal Fusiliers). Present at Albert and Ypres. Mentioned in dispatches for volunteering to carry messages between his regiment and Headquarters under heavy fire. Killed in action near Ypres, August 16, 1917.

Bertram John Tucker

Driver Tucker, born at Devonshire, England on November 3, 1893. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Bounty, Saskatchewan with the 1 st Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery on August 8, 1914. Died of wounds sustained at Sanctuary Wood on June 13, 1916.

Norman John Tully

SAPPER TULLY, born at Toronto, Ontario, November 11, 1896. Home in Toronto. Joined Toronto, College and Bathurst branch, October 27, 1915, from which office he enlisted on February 15, 1916, in the 127 th York Rangers. Subsequently transferred to 2 nd Battalion Canadian Railway Troops. Died at No. 3 Canadian Stationary Hospital, Doullens, France, January 8, 1918.

Murray Lamont Tupper

CAPTAIN TUPPER, born at Kingston, Nova Scotia, April 2, 1895. Home in Kingston. Joined Middleton, Nova Scotia branch, July 8, 1912. Enlisted from Middleton branch, February 11, 1916, in the 112 th Battalion. Later served with the 25 th Battalion. Present at Arleux, Hill 70, Passchendaele, Neuvelle-Vitasse, Amiens and Arras. Killed in action at Sherisy, August 27, 1918.

George Archer Turnbull

SERGEANT TURNBULL, born at Arcadia, Nova Scotia, September 5, 1895. Home in Digby, Nova Scotia. Joined Digby branch, August 17, 1914. Enlisted from Digby branch, March 31, 1915, in the 40 th Battalion. Also served with the 5 th Canadian Mounted Rifles. Killed in action at Courcelette, September 15, 1916.

Walter James Turnbull

CAPTAIN TURNBULL, born at Winnipeg, Manitoba, October 31, 1891. Home in Winnipeg. Formerly in the service of the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Winnipeg branch in the 37 th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery. Won the Military Cross at the Battle of Regina Trench. Killed in action on the Somme, November 14, 1916.

George Whiteford Vankleek

PRIVATE VANKLEEK, born at Madoc, Ontario, October 9, 1898. Home in Melita, Manitoba. Joined the Northern Crown Bank, July 1914. Enlisted from Aneroid, Saskatchewan branch, April 1916, in the 209 th Battalion. Transferred to the 49 th Battalion in England. Killed in action at Passchendaele, October 30, 1917.

Charles Richmond Voelker

LIEUTENANT VOELKER, born at Hamilton, Ontario, May 20, 1891. Home in Fort William, Ontario. Joined the Traders Bank of Canada at Hamilton, November 1905. Enlisted from Blairmore, Alberta branch, March 4, 1916, in the 192 nd Battalion. Died of wounds at St. Catherines, France, in 1918.

Norman James Waddell

Private Waddell, born at Sunderland, Ontario on August 9, 1897. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Minto, Manitoba with the 79 th Battalion on February 8, 1916. Later with the 43 rd Battalion. Died on October 8, 1916.

Roy Stanislaus Walker

Private Walker, born at Orillia, Ontario on August 8, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank Branch in Orillia with the 58 th Battalion on August 18, 1915. Died on September 17, 1916.

Charles Walker Wallace

PRIVATE WALLACE, born at Edinburgh, Scotland, October 10, 1895. Home in Abbotsford, British Columbia. Joined Abbotsford branch, June 2, 1913. Enlisted from Abbotsford branch, September 10, 1916, in the 72 nd Battalion. Dangerously wounded, August 1, 1917. Killed in action at Cambrai, September 29, 1918.

Haliburton Wallace

PRIVATE WALLACE, born at Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia, September 27, 1895. Joined Shubenacadie branch, October 9, 1913. Enlisted from Shubenacadie branch, June 4, 1915, in the 40 th Battalion. Also served with the 43 rd Battalion. Present at the Third Battle of Ypres, where he was wounded was also on the Somme. Killed in action on the Somme, September 21, 1916.

Ivan Newell Wallis

TROOPER WALLIS, born at Greensville, Ontario, September 9, 1897. Home in Greensville. Joined Hamilton, Ontario branch, July 2, 1914. Enlisted from Ayton, Ontario branch, April 27, 1916, in the Canadian Mounted Rifles. Transferred later to the 173 rd and 116 th Battalions. Present at Lens, Passchendaele, Amiens and Arras. Killed in action at Arras, August 27, 1918.

Stanley William Ward

GUNNER WARD, born at Prescott, Ontario, March 5, 1898. Joined Prescott branch, November 23, 1915. Enlisted from Prescott branch, March 5, 1917, in the 72 nd Battalion. Contracted pneumonia on his way to England and was seriously ill for many months at the Shorncliffe Hospital, England. Returned home ill, and died in April 1919.

Geoffrey Brougham Warde

Corporal Warde, born at Knowsley, England on November 9, 1895. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 32 nd Battalion on December 24, 1914. Died on June 6, 1915.

Harold John Warin

Private Warin, born at Nottingham, England on February 19, 1893. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Kerrobert, Saskatchewan with the 3 rd University Company on July 22, 1915. Joined Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry in the field on December 6, 1915. Killed in Action at Hooge on April 12, 1916.

Forbes MacKay Warner

Lieutenant Warner, born at West Buckland, Somerset, England about 1889. Enlisted the Quebec Bank branch in Toronto, Ontario with the 4 th Royal Scots, attached to the Royal Canadian Mounted Infantry in Edinburgh, in June 1915. Died on August 1, 1917.

Gerald Edwin Wells

LIEUTENANT WELLS, born at Harriston, Ontario, October 3, 1892. Home in Kinley, Saskatchewan. Formerly in the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Kinley branch, May, 1916, in the 65 th Battalion. Also served with the 46 th Battalion. Present on the Somme. Killed in action near Albert, October 25, 1916.

Churchill Freeman West

PRIVATE WEST, born at Liverpool, Nova Scotia, April 1, 1899. Joined Liverpool branch, June 10, 1914. Enlisted from Liverpool branch, September 15, 1915, in the Royal Canadian Regiment. Also served with the 64 th Battalion. Killed in action at Cambrai, September 28, 1918.

George Haddon White

Private White, born at Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England on April 21, 1891. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 43 rd Battalion on June 18, 1915. Died of wounds on June 5, 1916.

Reginald Bayly White

SERGEANT WHITE, born at Fogo, Newfoundland, September 26, 1898. Joined St. John's, Newfoundland branch, December 2, 1915. Enlisted from St. John's branch, August 28, 1916, in the Royal Newfoundland Regiment, Died from meningitis in the Military Hospital at Etaples, France, January 9, 1918.

Ernest John Wilkinson

Driver Wilkinson, born at Treesbank, Manitoba on September 29, 1893. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 3 rd Divisional Artillery Column on January 24, 1916. Died on November 9, 1917.

Arthur Jennings Williams

PRIVATE WILLIAMS, born at Newtownards, Ireland, December 31, 1897. Home in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Formerly in the Northern Crown Bank. Enlisted from Saskatoon branch in the 65 th Battalion. Later transferred to the 46 th Battalion. Killed in action in the Ypres salient, August 23, 1916.

James Carl Williamson

LANCE-CORPORAL WILLIAMSON born at Thorold, Ontario, October 21, 1895. Joined Thorold branch, January 21, 1914. Enlisted from Thorold branch, May 20, 1915, in the 176 th Battalion. Also served in the 164 th and 116 th Battalions. Present at Amiens and Drocourt-Queant. Killed in action at Drocourt-Queant, August 28, 1918.

Alfred Wilson

Private Wilson, born at Maryport, Westmoreland, England on May 11, 1891. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba with the 34 th Fort Garry Horse in 1914. Transferred to Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) in 1914. Died on September 24, 1915.

George Thomas Wilson

CORPORAL WILSON, born at Bridlington, England, June 23, 1893. Home in Bridlington. Joined Scott, Saskatchewan branch, September 8, 1911. Enlisted from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan branch, May 7, 1915, in the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. Killed in action at the Third Battle of Ypres, June 2, 1916.

Ronald John Wishart

PRIVATE WISHART, born at Alloa, Scotland, February 27, 1890. Home in Aberdeen, Scotland. Joined Toronto, Ontario, Gerrard & Main branch, September 24, 1912. Enlisted from Vernon, British Columbia branch, January 3, 1917, in the 72 nd Battalion. Present at Passchendaele, where he was wounded, and at Bourlon Wood. Died on board No. 17 Ambulance Train, October 12, 1918.

Esdon Melville Wolfe

GUNNER WOLFE, born at Durham, Ontario, November 6, 1888. Home in Durham, Ontario. Joined the Traders Bank of Canada, Woodstock, Ontario branch, June 12, 1908. Enlisted from Toronto, Ontario branch, March 31, 1917, in the 67 th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery. Died at the Military Base Hospital, Toronto, of pneumonia.

Sherwood Marshall Wood

Private Wood, born at Smith&rsquos Falls, Ontario on July 21, 1891. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch New Dundee, Ontario with the 80 th Battalion on February 9, 1916. Taken on strength by the 75 th Battalion on June 25, 1916. Killed in Action during the Battle of the Somme on November 18, 1916.

Cecil George Wyatt

PRIVATE WYATT, born at Goderich, Ontario, March 29, 1897. Home in Stratford, Ontario. Joined Elmira, Ontario branch of the Traders Bank of Canada. Enlisted from Elmira branch, June 15, 1915, in the 16 th Battalion. Also served with the Canadian Army Medical Corps. Killed in action at Hill 70, August 15, 1917.

Charles Joshua Wyatt

Flight Lieutenant Wyatt, born in England about 1893. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Mount Brydges, Ontario with the Royal Naval Air Service. Died on August 21, 1917 when his plane crashed on landing, age 24.

Albert Edward Yuill

Private Yuill, born at Gretna, Manitoba on January 11, 1890. Enlisted from the Union Bank branch in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan with the 2 nd University Company on June 15, 1915. Joined with Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry in the field on September 1, 1915. Killed in Action on June 3, 1916 at Sanctuary Wood.


6. Cicero and Epicureanism

For the Epicurean philosophy Cicero had only disdain throughout most of his life, though his best friend Atticus was an Epicurean. This disdain leads him to seriously misrepresent its teachings as being based on the shameless pursuit of base pleasures, such as food, sex, and wine (the modern day equivalent being sex, drugs, and rock’n’roll). However, this is not what Epicurus, who founded the school, or his later followers actually taught. Epicurus did claim that nature teaches us that pleasure is the only human good, and that life should therefore be guided by the pursuit of pleasure. But he meant by pleasure the absence of pain, including the pain caused by desires for wealth, fame, or power. This did not mean living life as one long Bacchanalia. Instead it meant withdrawing from politics and public life and living quietly with friends, engaged in the study of philosophy, which provided the highest pleasure possible (think of a monastery without the Bible and the rigorous discipline). The notion that the life of philosophy is the most pleasant life, of course, also comes from Socrates. Epicureans were also publicly atheists. Their atheism was based on a theory of atomism, which they were the first to propose. Everything in the universe, they argued, was made up of atoms, including the heavenly bodies the gods did not exist. This knowledge was not a cause of despair but a cause of joy, they believed, since one of the greatest human pains is the pain caused by the fear of death and what lies beyond it. According to the Epicureans, death simply meant the end of sensation, as one’s atoms came apart. Thus there was no reason to fear it, because there was no divine judgment or afterlife. The best known Epicurean is Lucretius, a contemporary of Cicero’s at Rome who Cicero may have known personally. Lucretius’ On the Nature of Things, available online, sets out Epicurean teachings.

It is easy to see why Cicero, a man deeply involved in politics and the pursuit of glory, would find any doctrine that advocated the rejection of public life repulsive. It is also easy to see why someone concerned with the reform of character and conduct would reject public atheism, since fear of divine punishment often prevents people from acting immorally. During his forced exile from politics at the end of his life, however, some of his letters claim that he has gone over to Epicureanism, presumably for the reasons he hated it previously. No longer able to take part in public life, the best he could hope for was the cultivation of private life and the pleasures that it had to offer. Since Cicero abandoned this idea as soon as the opportunity to return to public life arose, there is no reason to take his professed conversion seriously – unless we wish to see in it an example of changing his beliefs to reflect changing circumstances, and thus an example of his commitment to the Academy.


Cicero Birth Life and Death 106 BC to 43 BC

Cicero is considered one of the greatest orators, politicians and philosophers in all of the history of the world. He was born in 106 B.C. and is known for his famous speeches which helped to shape the era of the late Roman Republic and the emerging empire. He appears on the Bible Timeline Chart with World History from 106 to 43 BC.

The Early Life of Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero was also a consul and lawyer. He was born to a wealthy family in Arpinum which was located outside of the southeast part of Rome. He father was a chickpea producer and this trade is what amassed the Cicero’s fortunes. His father also liked to study a lot since he was not able to participate in Roman politics because of his heritage.

These Articles are Written by the Publishers of The Amazing Bible Timeline
Quickly See 6000 Years of Bible and World History Together

Unique Circular Format – see more in less space.
Learn facts that you can’t learn just from reading the bible
Attractive design ideal for your home, office, church …

Cicero emulated his father’s love of learning and it helped him to become an outstanding student. He translated Greek philosophies into Latin for the Romans at an early age. He was such a good pupil that the aristocratic society all over Rome began to hear about him. He had a brief military experience during the Social War in 90 B.C. but he did not care for being a soldier. By 83 B.C., he began his career as a lawyer which was an important event in the early part of his life.

His First Public Appearance as an Orator and Politician

His first case was to defend a man who committed patricide against his father. When he took this case it put him into the position to be killed by Lucius Sulla who was dictator of Rome at the time. Sextus Roscius was accused of the crime, but Cicero accused Chrysogonus a military man who was a favorite of Sulla. Cicero managed to get Sextus Roscius acquitted, but he did so by challenging Sulla’s power. After winning the case, he immediately left to tour Greece, Asia Minor, and Rhodes to avoid Sulla.

While he was in Greece he developed his oratory style and skills and he started to gain fame for his work. He eventually returned to Rome around 75 B.C. but he chose to settle in Sicily instead of Rome. He became a public official who took on cases in the area. Eventually, his reputation began to grow as a great speaker and attorney. His skills as an orator became legendary during this period in his life. His skills as an orator assisted him greatly through various parts of the Roman government until finally he became consul around 63 B.C.

Cicero becomes Consul

Once he became consul he had to put down a conspiracy formed by Lucius Sergius Catilina who wanted to assassinate him and to destroy the Republic. He forced this senator, his family and his followers from Rome with four great speeches. He eventually had Catilina and his followers condemned without a trial. He lived in fear of being sent into exile or tried for this act against Roman citizens.

His fears eventually came to pass and he was exiled in 58 B.C. He had traveled to Greece during this dark time of his life. Julius Caesar and Pompey were two leading officials in Rome around 50 B.C. and Cicero knew both of them. Each of these men was pushing Rome into a civil war because Caesar wanted an empire, but Pompey desired to continue the Republic. Cicero sided with Pompey, but he had many political encounters with Caesar. He turned down a previous offer by Caesar to become a part of a triumvirate (alliance) since he thought it would undermine the Republic. After his exile, he unsuccessfully attacked some policies of Caesar and had to retreat out of the public eye when he realized that he had failed in this area.

Eventually, Caesar invaded Italy and tried to court Cicero to his side but Cicero had already fled Rome to Illyria where Pompey and his group were based. He went back to Rome and was pardoned by Caesar who was assassinated sometime after his return. Once Caesar was killed, Cicero became a popular political figure but Mark Antony became the next emperor. He did not agree with Mark Antony’s policies and was eventually sentenced to death by him. His past works were rediscovered and influenced the Renaissance and he had influenced Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke, Montesquieu and David Hume. He also lived during the last days of the Roman Republic.


Siege of Tolosa, 106 BC - History


Pompey the Great 106-48 BC

People affectionately called him Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Magnus meaning the great. The ones who didn't died fast.

In a nutshell, Pompey was born in Rome, very rich, and died in Egypt.

He was a successful military leader and a bit controversial at the time because he kept executing high ranking enemy soldiers after they had surrendered.


Pompey was a member of the First Triumvirate . He was not very fond of Marcus Licinius Crassus , but together with Crassus he was elected consul.

Pompey reorganized Asia Minor in 63 BC and this is the map:

Originally in alliance with Julius Caesar , Pompey and Caesar fought against each other in the Roman Civil War .

For Pompey, the decisive battle was the Battle of Pharsalus on August 9, 48 BC.

Pompey's father was Pompeius Strabo, a consul. Pompey had several wives, among them were the stepdaughter of General Lucius Sulla and Julius Caesar 's daughter Julia, who died in 54 BC.


Watch the video: Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa 1212 DOCUMENTARY (May 2022).