Sideview of Arado Ar 234
A side view of the Arado Ar 234
Photos courtesy of World Military Aircraft
Arado Ar 240
Nazi Germany (1938)
Multi-role Fighter – 12
Rear Quarter Drawing of the 240 [Luftnachrichtenhelferin] The Ar 240 was designed as a possible replacement of the Me 110. While initially it seemed to have great potential, problems with handling and mechanical breakdowns proved to be too much for this aircraft. As it would not be accepted for service, only a small number were actually built. While a few were used by the Luftwaffe, their operational usage was limited.
History of Arado
Werft Warnemünde, later known as Arado, was an aircraft manufacturer that was founded during the Great War, in 1917, as a subsidiary of Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen. In 1921, this company was purchased by an engineer, Heinrich Lübbe, who was more interested in designing and building ships. In 1924, it was once again engaged in development of aircraft designs, mainly intended for foreign markets. For the position of chief designer, Walter Rethel, who previously had worked for Fokker was chosen.
Werft Warnemünde would be renamed in 1925 to Arado Handelsgesellschaft and renamed again in March 1933 to Arado Flugzeugwerke GmbH. At this time, Walter Blume was appointed as the new chief designer. During his supervision, several projects that were later used by the Luftwaffe were built, including the Ar 66 trainer and the Ar 65 and Ar 68 fighter aircraft.
At the start of the Second World War, Arado was mostly engaged in licenced aircraft production for the Luftwaffe. But work on its own aircraft designs was not discarded. The most important of these upcoming designs were the Ar 96 trainer, Ar 196 reconnaissance plane and the Ar 234, which would become the first operational jet bomber in the world. While these proved a huge contribution to the German war efforts, the Ar 240 design proved to be a failure.
Development of the Ar 240
During 1938, the German Ministry of Aviation (Reichsluftfahrtministerium, RLM) was interested in the development of a new multi-purpose twin engine aircraft that would replace the Me 110. Besides Messerschmitt, which began development of the Me-210, the Arado company would also be involved. In early April 1939 or 1938, depending on the source, the Arado company received a contract for the construction of three prototypes of the new multi-purpose plane initially called E-240. The development of this new aircraft was carried out by an Arado team of designers and engineers led by Walther Blume and by Dipl.-Ing. Wilhelm van Nes.
Interestly, possibly for reasons such as good connections with the Nazi Party or Arado’s good reputation as an aircraft manufacturer, even before the completion of the first prototype, an order for 10 additional prototypes was given by the RLM. While these would be built, a number of problems were identified which would prove to be the downfall of the aircraft.
Front view of the Arado Ar 240 V3 prototype. [Luftwaffe Resource Center] Close up of the extended flap system [Luftnachrichtenhelferin] The Arado 240 was designed as a two seater, twin-engined, mid wing monoplane. The fuselage had a monocoque design and stressed-skin. The fuselage was oval-shaped, with the rear part being more round shaped. The rear tail of the Ar 240 consisted of two fins and rudders, but also had dive brakes installed.
The central parts of the wings were rectangular, while the outer part was trapezoidal in shape. The wings were constructed using a two-part spar structure. The Ar 240 used Fowler type flaps, which covered the entire trailing edge. What is interesting is that the Ar 240 flaps were integrated with the ailerons and that this configuration was previously tested on the Ar 198. Another innovation was the use of automatic leading edge slats, but this system was used only on the first few prototypes and abandoned later on. The wings also housed four fuel tanks on each side, which had a total fuel load of 2,300 liters (600 US gallons). The fuel tanks were built using a new self-sealing system that used thinner tank liners, which enabled the aircraft to have a much increased fuel load.
Ar 240 front view. This picture was taken during March 1944. [WarBirds Photos] The Ar 240’s cockpit interior. [WarBirds Photos] The cockpit was initially positioned directly over the place where the wing root. After the third prototype, the cockpit was moved forward. The cockpit used a back to back seat configuration, with the pilot positioned on the front seat and the radio operator, who was also acting as the rear gunner, being positioned in the rear seat. The Ar 240 cockpit was completely pressurized. The cockpit was directly connected to the fuselage, but was provided with a jettisonable canopy in case of emergency. The well designed glazed canopy provided the pilot and crewman with an excellent all-around view.
The Ar 240 used a conventional retractable landing gear which consisted of two front wheels and one smaller tail wheel. The two front wheels retracted outward into the engine nacelles, while the third wheel retracted into the rear tail fuselage section.
The Ar 240 was tested with a number of different engine types, as the designer had problems in finding an adequate one. The prototype series was powered by Daimler Benz DB 601A and DB 603 A. The later built A series would also be tested with a number of different engines, including the DB 601 A-1 and DB 603, BMW 801 TJ etc..
Different armaments were proposed for the AR 240, including a pair of remotely controlled defence turrets. The control of these turrets was hydraulic and they were equipped with periscope aiming sights. The bomb load would consist of around 1 to 1.8 tons, placed under the fuselage.
Development and Usage of the Ar 240 Prototype Series
Another view of the V3 prototype. [WarBirds Photos] Note: Due to differing information depending on the author, the following information was mostly taken from G. Lang. (1996), Arado Ar 240, A Schiffer Military History Book.
The first operational Ar 240 V1 prototype (markings DD+QL), powered by two 1,157 hp DB 601 engines, was completed in early 1940 and was flight tested on the 10th of May the same year. The next flight tests were made on 25th June and 17th July 1940. In May 1941, the engines were replaced with two DB 603 E. More tests were carried out until October 1941, when the prototype was removed from service for unknown reasons. According to M. Griehl, it was destroyed on the 18th April 1941. The test results of the Ar 240 V1 showed that this aircraft had huge problems with the controls and was difficult to fly, a trend which will be inherited on all Ar 240 planes.
The second prototype, V2, is somewhat shrouded in mystery, as the date of its first operational test flight is unknown. A possible date for the first test flight is 15th September 1940. While it is not clear, the V2 prototype probably received the DD+CE markings. Arado test pilots made several flight trials during September 1940. By the end of February 1941, the Ar 240 V2 prototype was relocated to Rechlin for future tests. By May 1941, the V2 prototype received new DB 603 engines. At the same time, it was also fitted with two 7.92 mm (0.311 in) MG 17 and two 20 mm (0.78 in) MG 151/20 cannons. In November 1941, this plane was modified to be used in dive bombing trials. An additional change was the installation of two DB 601 E engines. The final fate of the V2 prototype is not known precisely, but it was probably scrapped.
The Ar 240 V3 (KK+CD) prototype was first flight tested on 9th May 1941. In comparison to the earlier two prototypes, this model had the cockpit moved forward. The rear tail-positioned dive brakes were replaced with a cone and ventral fins. Numerous engines were tested on this aircraft, including two Jumo 203 and DB 601 E. In early 1942, a number of pressure cabin tests were conducted on the V3 prototype. This aircraft also served as a test bed for the new FA-9 remote controlled system developed in cooperation between Arado and the DVL (aviation research institute), but proved to be problematic. V3 would be used operationally as a reconnaissance aircraft over England. It was piloted by Oberst Siegfried Knemeyer, and while his plane was unarmed, thanks to its high speed, he managed to avoid any confrontation with British planes. The fate of this aircraft is not known, as (depending on the sources) it could have been lost in either April 1944 or May 1942.
Row of three Ar 240 prototypes. [Luftwaffe Resource Center] The V4 prototype was to be tested as a dive-bomber variant. The first test flight was made on 19th June 1941. It was powered by two 1,750 hp DB 603 A engines. It was modified with added dive brakes and was capable of carrying up to eight 50 kg (110 lb) bombs under the fuselage. Its fuselage was also elongated to 13.05 m (42 ft 9 ¾ inches). Many detailed tests with the V4 were carried out in France and in the Mediterranean. The V4 prototype was lost in August 1941 in an air accident.
The V5 (GL+QA or T5+MH) prototype made its maiden flight test in September 1941. What is interesting is that it was not built by Arado but by AGO Flugzeugwerken from Oschersleben. It was powered by two 1,175 hp DB 601 E engines and was provided with a tail cone. It was armed with two wing root MG 17 machine guns and two same caliber MG 81 machine guns placed into two (one above and under the fuselage) FA-13 type remotely controlled turrets. In late March 1942, this aircraft was given to the Aufklärungsgruppe Oberbefehlshaber der Luftwaffe (reconnaissance unit/group belonging to the Commander in Chief of the Luftwaffe). It was then, possibly in late 1942, allocated to Versuchsstelle für Höhenflüge VfH (research station for high-altitude flight).
Ar 240 with tow ropes attached in the Soviet Union during the winter of 1942/1943 [Luftnachrichtenhelferin] Ar 240 A-01 used around Kharkov in late 1942. [Luftnachrichtenhelferin] The V6 (GL+QA or T5+KH) prototype was also built by AGO, and while most parts were ready during November 1941, the aircraft was only completed in early 1942. It was flight tested in January 1942, but if this was its first test flight is not clear. It was given to the Luftwaffe in early March 1942 and moved to Oranienburg for future tests. It was similar in appearance and equipment with the previous V5 aircraft. While it was used mostly for testing, it saw front line service during the winter of 1942/43 around the Kharkov area. The plane is listed as destroyed but under which circumstances is not known.
The V7 (DM+ZU) prototype made its first test flight in October or December 1942. It was designed to be used as the basis for the Ar 240 B high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. It was to be provided with a pressurized cockpit and a heating system. V7 was powered by two 1,475 hp DB 605 A engines, which were specially designed to use a methanol-water injection in order to increase the engine overall performance and output. Armament consisted of two wing mounted MG 17s and a rear mounted remotely-controlled turret armed with the MG 151/20, and two 50 kg (110 lb) bombs. Operational range was 1,900 km (1,180 mi) and it a was capable of climbing to 6 km (19,685 ft) in 10 minutes and 6 seconds.
The V8 prototype was a direct copy of the V7 and possibly made its first test flight in December 1942 or March 1943 depending on the sources. The final fate of this and the previous aircraft is not known.
The V9 (BO+RC) prototype was designed as a Zerstörer (heavy fighter) aircraft. It was to be used as a test base for the planned Ar 240 C version. The V9 had redesigned longer wings and fuselage. It was powered by two DB 603 A engines which were also equipped with a methanol-water injection system. The main armament consisted of four forward and two rear MG 151/20. While this version had a great priority and was even considered for acceptance for production. This was never achieved, mostly due to a lack of necessary equipment and parts. The final fate of this aircraft is not clear, as it was possibly never even fully completed, but some sources also mention that it was lost in a landing accident.
The V10 prototype was designed as a night fighter aircraft, powered by two Jumo 213 engines. The first test flight was made in September of 1943, while more tests would be carried out up to late 1944. Arado reused this aircraft for the new improved version called Ar 440.
The V11 prototype was tested as a heavy fighter-bomber and was to be used as the base of the Ar 240 F aircraft. Due to many delays, it was actually never fully completed. It had the heaviest armament, which included a mix of MG 151 and 30 mm (1.18 inch) MK 103 cannons forward mounted, rear mounted MG 151 and 13 mm (0.5 inch) MG 131 and a bomb load of 1,800 kg (3,970 lbs). V12 was a direct copy of V11 and, as these two aircraft were never completed, both were scrapped. V13 was to be used as a test base of the Ar 240 D equipped with two 2,020 hp DB 614 engines, but none were built.
V14 was probably never fully constructed. It was to be used as a base for the Ar 240 E project and powered by two DB 627 engines. V15 was to be used in a reconnaissance role and equipped with the FuG 202 Lichtenstein radar. The V15 prototype was probably never built.
An Ar 240 during its short operational life in the Soviet Union during the winter of 1942/1943. [WarBirds Photos] There are two more Ar 240 aircraft only known by their serial numbers (240009 and 2400010). While the usage and fate of the first aircraft is generally unknown, the second was used by the Luftwaffe operationally in the Soviet Union during 1943. It was damaged during a landing in August the same year. Its final fate is unknown.
Development of the ‘A’ Version
An Ar 240 during a flight test. [WarBirds Photos] After a series of prototypes were built, work on the first Ar 240 A version was also undertaken by Arado. Initially, the Ar 240 A aircraft were to be powered by two 1.750 hp DB 603 A-1 engines equipped with four blade metal propellers. Armament chosen for this version consisted of two MG 151/20 (with 300 rounds of ammunition for each gun) placed in the fuselage floor and two more MG 151/20 (with same ammunition load) placed in the wings roots. There was an option for increasing the fire power by adding two more MG 151/20. For rear defence, two defense turrets equipped with MG 131 machine guns could be placed under and above the fuselage. The bomb load could have different configurations, like: One 1,000 kg (2,220 lbs) or 1,800 kg (3,930 lbs) bomb, two 500 kg (1,100 lbs) bombs, eight 50 kg (110 lbs) bombs or even 288 smaller 2.5 kg (5 lbs) incendiary and fragmentation bombs. As the Ar 240 was never accepted for service, only few of the A version aircraft were ever built.
Ar 240 A-01 (GL+QA possible marking) made its first test flight on 28th June 1942. The test flights were carried out until September 1942, when this aircraft was to be given to the Luftwaffe. After a series of further flight and weapon tests conducted at Rechlin and Tarnewitz, the Ar 240 A-01 was to be allocated to the front. It was used around Kharkov in late 1942. On 16th February 1943, Ar 240 A-01 was lost during a flight due to mechanical failure. Both crew members lost their lives during the fall.
The second Ar 240, A-02 (GL+QB), was completed by September 1942. On 13th September, the first test flight was made. The aircraft was damaged in a landing accident in late January 1943. The final fate of this aircraft is not known.
Many Ar 240 were lost in crash landings.[Luftnachrichtenhelferin] Ar 240 A-03 (DI+CY) was initially powered by two DB 601 engines, but these were replaced with BMW 801 TJ. This aircraft had a change in the cockpit configuration, with the radio operator/observer facing forward. This aircraft was stationed at Rechlin, where it was tested from May to June 1943. During testing, Ar 240 A-03 showed to have better stability and handling during flight in contrast to previous built aircrafts. From June to late July, it was tested at Brandenburg. After these tests were completed, the aircraft was allocated for operational front use. It was given to the Aufklärungsgruppe 122, a reconnaissance unit stationed in Italy at that time. This aircraft had the same fate as most previous Ar 240, as it was heavily damaged in a crash. As the damage was extensive, it was never repaired.
Ar 240 A-04 (DI+CG) was initially equipped with two DB 601 E engines, but these would be later replaced with DB 603. It made its first flight test in late September 1942. Ar 240 A-04 was allocated to the Aufklärungsgruppe 122 as a replacement for the previous aircraft. Ironically, it suffered the same fate, but it was repaired and sent back to Arado.
Ar 240 A-05 was powered by two 1880 hp BMW 801 TJ engines equipped with a Rateau type turbo supercharger. It was possibly allocated to Aufklärungsgruppe 10 stationed in the Soviet Union.
During the Ar 240’s development, the Arado officials proposed several different variants of this aircraft, but as the whole project was not going well beside a few experimental attempts, nothing came from most of them.
This was a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft version that was to be equipped with a pressurized cockpit and a heating system. Nothing came from this project.
On 10th March 1942, Arado officials proposed that the Ar 240 should be modified for the bomber role. For this reason, the wings were modified and its size increased. The tail design was also changed, with added tail dive brakes. As the attempt to increase the size of the internal fuel tanks proved a failure, external tanks were to be used instead. The armament consisted of two MG 151/20 and two rear mounted MG 81. It is not clear, but it is possible that at least one aircraft was built.
A proposed paper project version powered by two DB 614 engines.
A proposed version with reinforced fuselage, added bomb rack for two 500 kg (1,100 lbs) bombs and increased fuel load. Different engines were also proposed for this version, including DB 603 G, DB 627 or BMW 801 J.
A proposed heavy fighter/bomber version to be powered by two DB 603 G engines.
Ar 240 mit 7.5 cm Bordwaffen
During the war, Arado and Rheinmetall discussed the installation of a 7.5 cm gun in the Ar 240. In September 1944, it appears that one plane was actually equipped with this weapon, but was probably never operationally flight tested.
In 1942, Dr. Ing. Walther Blume proposed a heavy fighter and night-fighter version of the Ar 240. This version was designated as Ar 240 TL, which stands for Turbinen-Luftstrahltriebwerk (turbojet). This plane was to be powered by two jet engines placed in the fuselage. It remained only a paper project.
With the cancellation of the Ar 240 project, Arado tried to improve the Ar 240’s overall performance by building a new version, named Ar 440. The Ar 240 V10 prototype served as a base for this modification. Beside this prototype, three more were built using already existing Ar 240 components. After some time in testing, the Ar 440 was officially rejected in October 1943 by the RLM.
Overall Performance and Cancellation of the Ar 240 Project
The Ar 240 possessed several advanced characteristics like a pressurized cockpit, remote-controlled defensive turrets, traveling flaps which provided this aircraft with good low-speed overall lift performance and fuel tanks with a new self-sealing system that used thinner tank liners. But, almost from the start of first flight testing, things turned from bad to worse for this aircraft. Almost from the start, the Ar 240 was plagued with extremely bad handling on all three axes. There were also huge problems with the controls during landing, with most aircraft being lost due to this. As the aircraft proved to be dangerous to fly, it was never adopted and the initial orders for production of 40 aircraft were never materialized.
Allied Examination After the War
Strangely, despite being a rare aircraft, the Allies managed to capture at least one Ar 240 during their advance in the West in 1944/45. This aircraft was tested by Allied pilot Captain Eric Brown. He was Chief test pilot of the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough. He was involved in a British project of taking over of German war research installations and interrogating technical personnel after the war. After the war, he managed to find the single surviving Ar 240 and, after a flight on it, made a report on its performance. The source for this account is Wings Of The Luftwaffe Flying The Captured German Aircraft of World War II by Eric Brown. This aircraft would be given by the Allies to the French and its fate is unknown.
In his report, he stated. “When the Ar 240 was wheeled out of the hangar, I was struck by its angular appearance. The wings, fuselage, and tail unit all seemed to be straight-edged, with very few curves to be seen. The engines looked very large, the airscrew spinners being level with the nose of the cockpit and well ahead of the wing leading edge, while the nacelles protruded well aft of the trailing edge. I had the feeling that, if this aeroplane was as fast as it was reputed to be, then brute engine force must be the answer … The cockpit layout was neat and the instruments were quite logically arranged, while the view was good all around except downwards on either side, where the engines interfered. Take-off was quite long, even with using 20 degrees of flap, and the initial climb rate was just over 600 m/min (2,000 ft/min). Longitudinal stability was poor, lateral stability neutral, and directional stability positive. The rate of climb fell off very little as I climbed to 6,096 m (20,000 ft), where I levelled out and settled into the cruise at what I calculated was a true airspeed of 580 km/h (360 mph). In the cruise, the aeroplane could not be flown hands-off because it diverged quickly both longitudinally and laterally, and would be tiring to fly for a long time. An autopilot was fitted, although not serviceable in my case, but I believe it would have been essential for instrument flying in bad weather. On opening up to full power, I estimated that after three minutes I was hitting an impressive true airspeed of 628 km/h (390 mph), but it was obvious that the Ar 240 was a poor weapons platform. The harmony of control was terrible, with heavy ailerons, light elevators. and moderately light rudders. ….
My assessment of the Arado Ar 240 is that it was an aircraft of outstanding performance for its class and era, but it could not capitalise on this because of inferior, and indeed dangerous, handling characteristics. According to German information, it had a service ceiling of 10,500 m (34,450 ft) and a maximum range of 1,186 miles, so it had great potential as a reconnaissance intruder, and indeed it is claimed that it made such sorties over Great Britain in 1941 and 1944. Be that as it may, there can be little doubt that the Ar 240 was a failure ..”
While the Ar 240 production was initially to begin in 1941, due to many problems and delays, this was not possible. While there were attempts to start production, by the end of 1942, the RLM officially terminated the program.
How many aircraft were built depends on the source. According to author G. Lang, the problem with identification of the production numbers is complicated by the fact that some prototype aircraft were allegedly modified and used for the few A-series aircraft built. Another issue, according to Lang, is that the highest known serial number production was 240018 (starting from 240000), which suggests that at least 18 were built, but it is not completely clear. Authors Ferenc A. and P. Dancey mention that at least 15 were built by 1944. Eric Brown claims that 12 prototypes were built.
Main Production and Prototypes
- Ar 240 V1-V14 – Prototypes series used to test different equipment, armament and engines.
- Ar 240 A – Was to be main production version, but only few aircraft were actually built
- Ar 240 B – High-altitude reconnaissance version, possibly few built.
- Ar 240 C – A bomber version, unknown if any were built.
- Ar 240 D – Proposed version powered by two DB 614 engines.
- Ar 240 E – Proposed modified Ar 240 version.
- Ar 240 F – Proposed heavy fighter/bomber version to be powered by two DB 603 G engines.
- Ar 440 – An improved version of the Ar 240. Only a few were built. The project was cancelled in 1943.
- Ar 240 mit 7.5 cm Bordwaffen – A proposed version armed with a 7.5 cm gun, possibly one built, but its fate is unknown.
- Ar 240TL – A jet-powered paper project.
- Germany – Operated small numbers of these aircraft, mostly for testing and reconnaissance operations.
- France – Captured one, but the fate is not known.
While the Ar 240 was, on paper, an excellent design with many innovations and advanced technology, in reality it did not live up to expectations. The plane proved to be dangerous during flight and many were damaged during landing, with fatal outcomes. Because the Ar 240 proved to be difficult to control, the RLM simply decided to stop the project, as it was probably unwilling to waste more time and resources on it.
Arado Ar 240 A-0 Specifications
- Four 2 0mm (0.78 inch) MG 151/20
- Two 13 mm (0.5 inch) MG 131
- One 1,000 kg (2,220 lbs) or one 1,800 kg (3,930 lbs) bomb
- Or two 500 kg (1,000 lbs) bombs,
- Or eight 50 kg (110 lbs) bombs,
- Or 288 2.5 kg (5 lbs) incendiary and fragmentation bombs
Arado Ar 240A-2 Arado Ar 240C-2
The plane is extremely easy to fly, both in Realistic and Simulator battles. With payload attached, the speed must be monitored carefully, especially if you are taking off from a short runway. Dive bombing and low altitude bombing is not only possible, but also quite easy thanks to very good elevator control and rudder authority even at considerable speed. Landing is somewhat rather easy compared to other planes of same size and class thanks to very robust landing gear structure and good flaps characteristic.
|Characteristics||Max Speed |
(km/h at 6,000 m)
|Max altitude |
|Turn time |
|Rate of climb |
|Combat flaps||Take-off flaps||Landing flaps||Air brakes||Arrestor gear||Drogue chute|
|Wings (km/h)||Gear (km/h)||Flaps (km/h)||Max Static G|
Survivability and armour
Modifications and economy
Arado Ar 234 Survivors
(manufacturer's serial number) 140312, and was one of nine Ar 234s surrendered to British forces at Sola Airfield near Stavanger, Norway. The aircraft had been operating with 9. staffel III./Kampfgeschwader 76 (later reorganised as Einsatzstaffel) during the final weeks of the war, having operated previously with the 8th squadron. This aircraft and three others were collected by the famous "Watson's Whizzers" of the USAAF to be shipped back to the United States for flight testing. The aircraft was flown from Sola to Cherbourg, France on June 24, 1945 where it joined thirty-four other advanced German aircraft shipped back to the U.S. aboard the British aircraft carrier HMS Reaper. The Reaper departed Cherbourg on July 20, arriving at Newark, New Jersey eight days later. Upon arrival two of the Ar 234s were reassembled (including 140312) and flown by USAAF pilots to Freeman Field, Indiana for testing and evaluation. 140312 was assigned the foreign equipment number FE-1010. The fate of the second Ar 234 flown to Freeman Field remains a mystery. One of the remaining two was reassembled by the U.S. Navy for testing, but was found to be in unflyable condition and was scrapped.Template:Fact
After receiving new engines, radio and oxygen equipment 140312 was transferred to Wright Field near Dayton, Ohio and delivered to the Accelerated Service Test Maintenance Squadron (ASTMS) of the Flight Test Devision in July 1946. Flight testing was completed on October 16, 1946 though the aircraft remained at Wright Field until 1947. It was then transferred to Orchard Place Airport, Park Ridge, Illinois, and remained at Orchard Place Airport until May 1, 1949 when it, and several other aircraft stored at the airport were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution. During the early 1950s the Ar 234 was moved to the Smithsonian's Paul Garber Restoration Facility at Suitland, Maryland for storage, and eventual restoration.
The Smithsonian began restoration of Ar 234 B-2 140312 in 1984 and completed it in February, 1989. All paint had been stripped from the aircraft prior to the Smithsonian receiving it, so the aircraft was painted with the markings of an aircraft of 8./KG 76, the first operational unit to fly the "Blitz". The restored aircraft was first displayed at the Smithsonian's main museum building in downtown Washington D.C. in 1993 as part of a display titled "Wonder Weapon? The Arado Ar 234." In 2005 it became one of the first aircraft moved to the new Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Dulles International Airport. Today 140312 is displayed next to the last surviving Dornier Do 335, an aircraft that had accompanied it on its voyage across the Atlantic Ocean aboard the Reaper over sixty years earlier.
This aircraft is displayed with a pair of Hellmuth Walter designed, liquid-fueled RATO units mounted under its wings. These RATO units may be the only known surviving examples in existence.
Arado Ar TEW 16/43-19
Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 11/09/2017 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.
With development of the advanced twin-engine, jet-powered Ar 234 "Blitz" bomber coming along, the Arado firm turned its attention to a more advanced jet aircraft with a multi-role capability in mind. The TEW 16/43-19 would have been produced in five distinct versions, each serving a dedicated purpose but utilizing the same basic airframe to save on cost, and was composed of the "Schnellbomber" high-speed bomber, the "Zerstorer" destroyer, the "Nachtjager" night-fighter, the "Schlechtwetterjager" adverse weather fighter and the "Aufklarer" reconnaissance platform. Despite the promising nature of the TEW 16/43-19 study (at least on paper), the equally promising development and arrival of the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet-powered fighter and the Ar 234 bomber meant that the need for the multirole design was no longer there. As such, the TEW 16/43-19 was relegated to history as one of the many German "paper" aircraft on file.
Design of the TEW 16/43-19 was decidedly Arado, even borrowing much of its external look and layout from the Arado Ar 234 before it. The pressurized cockpit was situated at the extreme forward end of the slim cylindrical fuselage. There was a crew of two, seated back-to-back under a glazed canopy. Wings were mid-mounted monoplane assemblies with sweep back at greater angles along the leading edges. The trailing edges also featured sweep back but this to a much lesser degree. The wings carried with them a good deal of surface area and tapered somewhat sharply to clipped wing tips. Each wing was to mount a single 3,000lb thrust jet engine of unknown make and model in streamlined underwing nacelles. As a unit, the wings were situated just ahead of amidships, concentrating a good deal of weight for the aircraft in the forward portion of the design. The fuselage tapered off into a conical tip at the extreme aft of the layout and itself would have housed three large internal fuel tanks to feed the hungry jet engines. The empennage was conventional, sporting a rounded edge single vertical tail fin and two swept-back horizontal planes fitted at the base of the fin. Both the main wings and the tail wings featured some level of dihedral (upward angle) when viewed from the front or rear. The undercarriage was to be of a tricycle arrangement, making use of two large, single-wheeled main legs and a single-wheeled nose landing gear leg. All were completely retractable with the main legs folding forward into the wings and the nose leg folding rearwards under and beneath the cockpit floor.
Armament for the TEW 16/43-19 would have varied on the model type. The high-speed "Schnellbomber" was to be fitted with a pair of rear-firing, remotely-controlled MK 213 series cannons to protect the "six". Bomb load was to be 5,512lbs carried as external stores. In additional to conventional ordnance, the high-speed bomber version was also envisioned to carry the Fritz X series of wire-guided missiles.
The "Destroyer" (Zerstorer) model type was to sport a battery of three MK 103 series 30mm cannons along with a pair of MK 213 cannons, all in a ventral pack. This would have been augmented by another pair of MK 213 cannons in the fuselage sides. All implements would have been fixed to fire forward. Additionally, the Destroyer would have mounted a pair of MK 213 cannons in a rear-facing, remote-controlled emplacement in the tail. Bomb load would have been a reduced 2,205lbs of external stores as needed.
The night-fighting "Nachtjager" was to be fitted with a pair of forward-firing MK 108 30mm cannons as well as 3 x MK 213 cannons in a ventral pack. An additional 2 x MK 213 cannons would have been mounted along the fuselage sides while a battery of 2 x MK 108 30mm cannons would have been set to fire at an oblique angle in the upper fuselage. The rear would be protected by a pair of MK 213 cannons remotely-controlled. Because of its night operations nature, a third crewmember would accompany the crew, his position in the rear portion of the fuselage just aft of the three large internal fuel tanks. Radar would have been fitted into a specially-designed nose extension.
Dimensionally, the Arado Ar TEW 16/43-19 would have sported a wingspan up to 53 feet, 2inches with a surface area of 501.6 feet. The fuselage would have measured 59 feet, 1 inch in length. Height would have been approximately 9 feet, 10 inches. A maximum weight of 35,274lbs was envisioned for the craft.
Kagero | Monograph Series No 33: Arado Ar 234
The phenomenal 1/32 Ar 234 kit created by Radu Brinzan/MDC rightly took out honours for the 2008 LSP multimedia kit of the year. If you had planned to build this masterpiece and were prepared to hand over your hard-earned you might also want some good reference material to go along with your build. With that in mind I went hunting for new material.
Kagero released this book in 2007 but it has only recently found its way to Australia. Like most Kagero books this one starts off with the recounting of a mission involving the Ar 234. As usual, it’s an evocative story putting you squarely in the cockpit. When you begin to read on you’re already in the zone for understanding just how technologically advanced this aircraft was for its time. Even though only a few handful of Ar 234s ever saw service some of their combat sorties produced results every bit as amazing as the technology in the plane itself.
As you would expect the book proper begins with a chapter on the design and development of the Ar 234. It recounts the troubles German engineers were having with all early jet engine design but interestingly also some of the politicking involved in getting such a project up and running. There is quite a lot of detail regarding the V1 through to V7 prototypes, including first hand mission reports from the test pilots.
The following chapter focuses on the Ar 234B. Reports on the first prototypes of this series V9 through to V12 are included. The text describes clearly and concisely the differences between the Ar 234 B-1 and the Ar 234B-2. It does this not only through listing but also describing the impact of changes in the technical specifications. Following this the text begins to describe the pre-production variants of S1-S20. There is some good information for the modeler all through these chapters. Werknumbers are included along with fuselage codes. Rustsatz field modifications are listed along with the typical loadouts of the Ar 234 B-2 bomber variant.
The next few chapters are smaller. They include a small chapter on the Ar 234-C and another chapter on ‘other variants’ of the Ar234. The development of this type, personal sortie reports and great photos make both of these chapters easy but informative reading.
The last chapters are on the Ar 234’s operation service firstly in recon units and secondly in bomber units. Both chapters are easily read and have plenty of good photos for perusal. The main text book finishes with those two chapters.
Following those chapters are 24 pages of factory drawings, some colour walkaround photos and glorious port view only colour profiles. The factory drawings are kind of interesting but perhaps of limited research value. The 16 colour walkaround photos are from NASM’s Ar234 and should be invaluable for reference. The colour profiles are really very nice indeed. Having other texts on the Ar 234 as comparisons the Kagero book turns out trumps on this score.
Lastly the book contains some masks in what looks to be 1/48 scale. I could not find any labeling to tell either way or what kit they were for. It also contains a series of sepia tone 3-D reprinted drawings of various parts and cross sections of the plane. If framed they would look most attractive. They are quite detailed and much like the Modellers data file drawings.
Overall, I liked the Kagero book a lot. It was extremely well written. The English text style is very easy to digest and for once I just couldn’t find typos. The transitions between various marks and prototypes was easy to follow and made enjoyable by large good quality photos The colour profiles are excellently produced and are a cut above any of the other texts. In some ways the book is light on in detail. Some of that is simply due to the limited history of this plane but also the more entertaining way Kagero intertwine the facts in a good story. It has lots of great photos and with the whole package in mind I’d make this a definite first port of call for a build of Radu’s masterpiece.
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This review was published on Saturday, July 02 2011 Last modified on Wednesday, May 18 2016
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Arado Ar 234 Blitz (Lightning)
It was customary for Allied forces during the Second World War to give nicknames to aircraft for them to easily identify and refer to them during communications. Most nicknames were given just for the purpose of identifying planes easier. However, some nicknames given to planes were done so in respect to the enemy aircraft’s performance. Such is the case of the nickname “Lightning” given to the WW2 German aircraft known formally as the Arado Ar 234 Blitz.
The Ar 234 Blitz was a twin-engine designed plane and was considered as the first plane ever to be built that could change roles depending on the purpose intended. The Ar 234 was first intended to be a fast aircraft that can be used for reconnaissance missions, however, the Ar 234 was later modified to become a fast bomber aircraft that was almost impossible to intercept.
Multiple models and versions were made from the first design of the Ar 234 and this included a four-engined version that was later on produced to some extent. By the end of the war, over 200 aircrafts of different versions of this WW2 German aircraft were produced.
The base design of the Ar 234 was a twine-engine system with a high-monoplane design. The engines were installed away from the fuselage and the cockpit was located in the far front enabling a high amount of visibility. Aircraft take-offs utilized rocket-powered tricycles that are jettisoned immediately after takeoff. This WW2 aircraft used to land by skidding on grassy fields until a powered tricycle landing gear was installed to the later versions.
Armaments for the Ar 234 included two (2) 20mm rear-firing cannons which were operated using a periscope. The normal bomb-load for the Blitz consisted of two bombs that amounted to a total weight of 1,100 pounds. These bombs were suspended from the engines.
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I’m pleased to announced that we’ve just released Version 1.2 of our build guide, Building the Fly Arado Ar 234 in 1/32 Scale, by Kent Karlsen. This update is actually only very minor, featuring a few tiny layout tweaks and adjustments. That’s it!
Being a digital publication means this kind of update is very easy to do, and we will continue to update all our books in this fashion any time it becomes appropriate or necessary.
This new update is free to download for anyone who has already purchased this book. If you have an account with us, simply log in and download a new copy of the book from Downloads section of your account. Otherwise, the download link contained in your original purchase notification email should still be valid.
If neither of these scenarios applies to you, and you’d still like to download your updated copy, create a customer account here on the website, and then contact me so that I can associate your purchase with your new account. Once that is done, you can log in and download it from your purchase history.
And of course, if you haven’t purchased Building the Fly Arado Ar 234 in 1/32 Scale at all yet, you’re more than welcome to do so! And what’s more, we’ve temporarily discounted the purchase price from 15 Australian dollars to 12! This price will be valid for 7 days from today, before returning to its original price, so jump in for a bargain while you can!
The Arado Ar 234 Blitz was the world's first operational jet-powered bomber, built by the German Arado company in the closing stages of World War II.
The Arado Ar 68 was a German single-seat biplane fighter developed in the mid-1930s. It was among the first fighters produced when Germany abandoned the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles and began rearming.
The Arado Ar 240 was a German twin-engine, multi-role heavy fighter aircraft, developed for the Luftwaffe during World War II by Arado Flugzeugwerke. Its first flight was in 1940, but problems with the design hampered development, and it remained only marginally stable throughout the prototype phase. The project was eventually cancelled, with the existing airframes used for a variety of test purposes.
The Heinkel He㺳 was a German single-seat biplane which was produced in a number of different versions. It was initially developed as a fighter a seaplane variant and a ground-attack version were also developed. It was a development of the earlier He 49.
The Heinkel He 115 was a three-seat World War II Luftwaffe seaplane. It was used as a torpedo bomber and performed general seaplane duties, such as reconnaissance and minelaying. The aircraft was powered by two 960 PS BMW 132K nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engines. Some later models could seat four, had different engines or used different weapon arrangements.
Arado Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturer, originally established as the Warnemünde factory of the Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen firm, that produced land-based military aircraft and seaplanes during the First and Second World Wars.
The Arado Ar 232 Tausendfüßler, sometimes also called Tatzelwurm, was a cargo aircraft, designed and built in small numbers by the German firm Arado Flugzeugwerke during World War II. The design introduced, or brought together, almost all of the features now considered to be standard in modern cargo transport aircraft designs, including a box-like fuselage slung beneath a high wing a rear loading ramp a high-mounted twin tail for easy access to the hold and various features for operating from rough fields. Although the Luftwaffe was interested in replacing or supplementing its fleet of outdated Junkers Ju 52/3m transports, it had an abundance of types in production at the time, and did not purchase large numbers of the Ar 232.
The Heinkel He 114 was a sesquiwing reconnaissance seaplane produced for the Kriegsmarine in the 1930s for use from warships. It replaced the company's He 60, but did not remain in service long before being replaced in turn by the Arado Ar 196 as Germany's standard observation seaplane.
The Aichi E13A was a long-range reconnaissance seaplane used by the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) from 1941 to 1945. Numerically the most important floatplane of the IJN, it could carry a crew of three and a bombload of 250 kg (550 lb). The Navy designation was "Navy Type Zero Reconnaissance Seaplane" (零式水上偵察機).
The Arado Ar 65 was the single-seat biplane fighter successor to the Ar 64. Both looked very similar. The only major difference was the use of a 12-cylinder inline engine versus the Ar 64's radial. The wingspan was also increased.
The Arado Ar 66 was a German single-engined, two-seat training biplane, developed in 1933. It was also used for night ground-attack missions on the Eastern Front. It was engineer Walter Rethel's last design in collaboration with Arado, before Walter Blume, assigned as Arado Flugzeugwerke's chief design engineer in 1933, took over the bulk of the Arado firm's design duties.
The Fieseler Fi 167 was a 1930s German biplane torpedo and reconnaissance bomber designed for use from the Graf Zeppelin class aircraft carriers under construction from 1936 to 1942.
The Marinens Flyvebaatfabrikk M.F.11 was a three-seat, single-engined biplane used by the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service for maritime reconnaissance in the decade before the Second World War.
The Arado Ar 197 was a German World War II-era biplane, designed for naval operations for the never-completed German aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin . Only a few prototypes were built the project was abandoned in favour of the Messerschmitt Bf 109T and Me 155.
The Arado 95 was a single-engine reconnaissance and patrol biplane designed and built by the German firm Arado in the late 1930s. Ordered by Chile and Turkey, a number were taken over by the Kriegsmarine when World War II started.
The Arado Ar 76 was a German aircraft of the 1930s, designed as a light fighter with a secondary role as an advanced trainer in mind.
The Arado SSD I was a biplane fighter seaplane developed in Germany in 1930, intended to be launched from catapults on warships. This was an all-new design from Walter Rethel, sharing nothing with his other fighter designs for Arado of the late 1920s. It was a conventional unequal-span, staggered biplane, with the slightly gulled top wing attached to the upper fuselage. It was equipped with a single, large float under the fuselage and two outrigger floats near the wingtips. After evaluation at Travemünde, the floats were removed and a simple, wheeled undercarriage was fitted for competitive evaluation with the Heinkel HD 38 at Lipetsk. The Heinkel was selected, and the SSD I was relegated to trainer duties with the LVS in 1932.
The Focke-Wulf Fw 62 was a reconnaissance floatplane, designed and built by Focke-Wulf for use by Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine. Only four were built.
The Arado Ar 81 was a German prototype dive bomber. Because the Reich Air Ministry decided to purchase the competing Junkers Ju 87, only three prototypes of the Ar 81 were completed.
The Arado Ar 198 was a prototype reconnaissance aircraft, developed by Arado Flugzeugwerke, with backing from the Luftwaffe, who initially preferred it over the Blohm & Voss BV 141 and the Focke-Wulf Fw 189. However, when flight tests were carried out the aircraft performed poorly, and did not impress the Luftwaffe. One aircraft was completed in 1938.
Watch the video: Episode 244. Arado Ar 234 B-2. Part 4. Painting. (January 2022).